ACTS CHAPTER TWO

OBSERVATION STAGE

The purpose of the observation stage is to maintain focus on the text at hand within the normative rules of language, context and logic .which largely limits the observer to the content offered by the books of Luke and Acts. Other passages must have a relationship with the context at hand, such as a Scriptural quotation or reference in the passage at hand. This will serve to avoid going on unnecessary tangents elsewhere; and more importantly, it will provide the framework for a proper and objective comparison with passages located elsewhere in Scripture.

Remember that something elsewhere may be true, but in the text at hand it may not be in view.

I) [Acts 2:1-21]:

(Acts 2:1 NKJV) '''When the Day of Pentecost had fully come, they were all with one accord in one place.

(Acts 2:2 NKJV) And suddenly there came a sound from heaven, as of a rushing mighty wind, and it filled the whole house where they were sitting.

(Acts 2:3 NKJV) Then there appeared to them divided tongues, as of fire, and one sat upon each of them.

(Acts 2:4 NKJV) And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance.

(Acts 2:5 NKJV) And there were dwelling in Jerusalem Jews, devout men, from every nation under heaven.

(Acts 2:6 NASB) And when this sound occurred, the [multitude] came together, and were confused because each one was hearing them [the disciples] [speaking] in his own language.

(Acts 2:7 NKJV) Then they were all amazed and marveled, saying to one another, "Look, are not all these who speak Galileans?

(Acts 2:8 NKJV) And how is it that we hear, each in our own language in which we were born?

(Acts 2:9 NKJV) Parthians and Medes and Elamites, those dwelling in Mesopotamia, Judea and Cappadocia, Pontus and Asia,

(Acts 2:10 NKJV) Phrygia and Pamphylia, Egypt and the parts of Libya adjoining Cyrene, visitors from Rome, both Jews and proselytes,

(Acts 2:11 NKJV) Cretans and Arabs - we hear them speaking in our own tongues the wonderful works of God."

(Acts 2:12 NKJV) So they [all continued to be] amazed and perplexed, saying to one another, "Whatever could this mean?"

(Acts 2:13 NKJV) Others mocking said, "They are full of new wine."

(Acts 2:14 NKJV) But Peter, standing up with the eleven, raised his voice and [spoke out] to them, "Men of Judea and all who dwell in Jerusalem, let this be known to you, and heed my words.

(Acts 2:15 NKJV) For these are not drunk, as you suppose, since it is only the third hour of the day.

(Acts 2:16 NASB) But this is what was spoken through the prophet Joel:

(Acts 2:17 NKJV) 'And it shall come to pass in the last days,' says God, 'That I will pour out of My Spirit on all flesh; Your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, Your young men shall see visions, Your old men shall dream dreams.

(Acts 2:18 NKJV) And on My menservants and on My maidservants I will pour out My Spirit in those days; And they shall prophesy.

(Acts 2:19 YLT) and I will give wonders in the heaven above, and signs upon the earth beneath - blood, and fire, and vapor of smoke,

(Acts 2:20 NASB) The sun will be turned into darkness and the moon into blood, before the great and glorious day of the LORD shall [come].

(Acts 2:21 NASB) And it shall be that everyone who [called] on the name of the LORD will be saved.' [in the sense of saved from temporal death such that only the survivors will enter into the Eternal Kingdom of God which will have arrived - which implies that all the survivors will be believers, and hence have eternal life]" '''

A) (2:1-5) WHEN THE DAY OF PENTECOST HAD FULLY COME, THE APOSTLES AND ALL THE DISCIPLES WERE UNITED IN PURPOSE IN THE UPPER ROOM. SUDDENLY THERE CAME A SOUND FROM HEAVEN OF A RUSHING MIGHTY WIND, FILLING THE WHOLE HOUSE, EVIDENTLY ECHOING THROUGHOUT THE STREETS OF JERUSALEM. THEN DIVIDED TONGUES OF FIRE APPEARED OVER EACH DISCIPLE'S HEAD - THE WIND AND FIRE: SYMBOLS OF THE PRESENCE OF THE HOLY SPIRIT, PROOF OF THEIR BAPTISM IN THE HOLY SPIRIT. AND ALL THE DISCIPLES (120+) WERE FILLED / CONTROLLED BY THE INDWELLING HOLY SPIRIT AND BEGAN TO SPEAK IN HERETOFORE UNKNOWN FOREIGN LANGUAGES OF MANY PEOPLES, THE WORLD OVER, AS THE SPIRIT GAVE THEM UTTERANCE OVER EACH WORD

(Acts 2:1 NKJV) '''When the Day of Pentecost had fully come, they were all with one accord in one place. (Acts 2:2 NKJV) And suddenly there came a sound from heaven, as of a rushing mighty wind, and it filled the whole house where they were sitting. (Acts 2:3 NKJV) Then there appeared to them divided tongues, as of fire, and one sat upon each of them. (Acts 2:4 NKJV) And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance. (Acts 2:5 NKJV) And there were dwelling in Jerusalem Jews, devout men, from every nation under heaven.''' =

The phrase rendered "When the Day of Pentecost, had fully come" refers to the festival known in late Judaism as Pentecost from the Greek words "hE pentEkostE," (lit., 'the fiftieth'). According to Lev 23:15-22, it was to be celebrated on the 'day after the seventh Sabbath' and hence on the fiftieth day after Passover. It was originally the festival of the firstfruits of the grain harvest, called the Feast of Weeks - a period of seven weeks of harvesting which began with the offering of the first barley sheaf during the Passover celebration and ended with the wheat harvest. But by the time of the first century, Pentecost was also considered the anniversary of the giving of the Law at Mount Sinai - a time for the annual renewal of the Mosaic Covenant; hence one of the three great pilgrim festivals of Judaism along with Passover preceding it and Tabernacles about four months later. But this particular Pentecost would now be also known as the time of pouring out of the Holy Spirit upon all those who believed in Jesus Christ for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God - Jew and Gentile alike.

Although Mt 16:18 provides our LORD's statement of building the Church upon the foundation of Himself - Who He was, i.e., "The Christ, the Son of the living God;" and although the Day of Pentecost was the key day of the festival of firstfruits when the Jews brought to God the firstfruits of their harvest in thanksgiving, so that one might consider this particular Pentecost in Acts chapter two to be the day of the firstfruits of Christ's church, the beginning of the great harvest of individuals who would come to be known as Christ's church, the body of Christ; and although Scripture will later declare that the baptism of the Holy Spirit will permanently indwell the Spirit of God into every member of the church, the body of Christ; the passage in Acts chapter 1 neither stipulates nor implies that this was the beginning of the church.

Many of those who were believers in Christ unto eternal life in the eternal Kingdom of God had become disciples, i.e., followers of Jesus Christ - about 120 in number, including the Twelve Apostles. They were all with one accord in the sense of being united in purpose and in one place - most likely in the upper room in Jerusalem, (Acts 1:13-14). They were to remain in Jerusalem and await their baptism with the Holy Spirit - as the LORD had promised, (Acts 1:4). Whereupon they would commence their mission, as commissioned by the LORD to bring to the world, the message of the Kingdom of God and entrance into it; repentance unto faith in Christ unto eternal life in the restoration of the Kingdom of God to Israel being the key point of that message, (Acts 1:6-8; 2:38) (Acts 2:1).

****** EXCERPTS FROM ACTS CHAPTER ONE AND LUKE ******

Or skip to the next section in Acts chapter 2:

(Acts 1:1-11) AUTHOR LUKE SENT A SECOND WRITING TO HIS FRIEND, AND FELLOW BELIEVER THEOPHILUS. THE FIRST WRITING WAS HIS GOSPEL - THE LIFE AND TEACHINGS OF JESUS UNTIL HIS ASCENSION. THE SECOND WRITING BEGAN HISTORICALLY WITH THE LORD'S ASCENSION, HIS APPEARANCES TO THE APOSTLES AND OTHER BELIEVERS - PROOFS OF HIS RESURRECTION AND PURPOSE. AND IT CONTAINED EVENTS OF THE APOSTLES PERTAINING TO JESUS' TEACHINGS TO THEM RELATIVE TO THE KINGDOM OF GOD THROUGH THE WORK OF THE HOLY SPIRIT IN THEM - TO BEGIN WITH THEIR BAPTISM IN THE HOLY SPIRIT. THEIR COMMISSION WAS TO BRING TO THE WORLD, THE MESSAGE OF THE KINGDOM OF GOD AND ENTRANCE INTO IT; WHICH CONTENT WAS AT FIRST RELATIVE TO REPENTANCE UNTO FAITH IN CHRIST UNTO ETERNAL LIFE IN THE RESTORATION OF THE KINGDOM OF GOD TO ISRAEL

(Acts 1:1 NASB) '''The [former] account I [made], Theophilus, about all that Jesus began to do and teach, (Acts 1:2 YLT) till the day in which, having given command, through the Holy Spirit, to the apostles whom He [chose], He was taken up [in the sense of to heaven, (Acts 1:10)] (Acts 1:3 NKJV) to whom [referring to the apostles] He also presented Himself alive after His suffering by many infallible proofs, being seen by them during forty days and speaking of the things pertaining to the Kingdom of God. (Acts 1:4 NKJV) And being assembled together with them, He commanded them not to depart from Jerusalem, but to wait for the Promise of the Father, "which," He said "you ... heard from Me; (Acts 1:5 AV) For John indeed baptized with water; but [you] shall be baptized in the Holy Spirit not many days hence." (Acts 1:6 YLT) They, therefore, indeed, having come together, were questionning Him, saying, "LORD, at this time [are you restoring] the [Kingdom] to Israel? "(Acts 1:7 NKJV) And He said to them, "It is not for you to know times or seasons which the Father has put in His own authority; (Acts 1:8 NKJV) But you shall receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you; and you shall be witnesses to Me in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the end of the earth. (Acts 1:9 YLT) And these things having said - they beholding - He was [lifted] up, and a cloud [received] Him up from their sight; (Acts 1:10 NASB) And as they were gazing intently into the [heaven] while He was going, behold, two men in white clothing stood beside themstood beside them; (Acts 1:11 YLT) who also said, "Men, Galileans, why do [you] stand gazing into the heaven? This Jesus Who was lifted up from you into the heaven, shall so come in what manner [you] saw Him going [into] the heaven." =

Luke wrote this book to Theophilus as first recipient, as he did his gospel, (cf. Lk 1:1-4). It is evident that Theophilus, ('lover of God;' 'dear to God'), was a believer and a personal friend whom Luke could count on to have copies of his writings made and circulated, (Lk 1:1-4). Theophilus was perhaps one of authority, being referred to with the title of "Most excellent Theophilus" in Lk 1:3. In the first sentence of his second work, Luke referred to his "former account," in the sense of his previous and first written account of "all that Jesus began to do and teach until the day when He was taken up to heaven," (Acts 1:2), evidently referring to his gospel. Note that the word order of verse 2 places the phrase rendered, "the LORD's giving command through the Holy Spirit to the apostles whom He chose," in an emphatic position before the concluding phrase "He was taken up [in the sense of to heaven, (cf. Acts 1:10)]" to emphasize its importance; i.e., that Jesus emphasized to His apostles to continue His work to be witnesses of Him to the world. This implies that the work which His disciples were to continue would now be empowered by the Holy Spirit, Who was to be received within them following the LORD's ascension. The phrase rendered "apostles whom He chose," in Acts 1:2 implied the LORD's absolute sovereignty in the matter. Their commission was to bring to the world, the message of the Kingdom of God and entrance into it; which content was at first relative to repentance unto faith in Christ unto eternal life in the restoration of the Kingdom of God to Israel, (Acts 1:6).

[Compare Acts 1:4-8]:

(Acts 1:4 NKJV) '''And being assembled together with them, He commanded them not to depart from Jerusalem, but to wait for the Promise of the Father, "which," He said "you ... heard from Me;

(Acts 1:5 AV) For John indeed baptized with water; but [you] shall be baptized in the Holy Spirit not many days hence."

(Acts 1:6 YLT) They, therefore, indeed, having come together, were questionning Him, saying, "LORD, at this time [are you restoring] the [Kingdom] to Israel?"

(Acts 1:7 NKJV) And He said to them, "It is not for you to know times or seasons which the Father has put in His own authority;

(Acts 1:8 NKJV) But you shall receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you; and you shall be witnesses to Me in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the end of the earth." '''

In Luke chapter 24, verses 44-53 have a comparable viewpoint to this passage in Acts, including the LORD's Ascension to which Acts 1:2 refers:

[Compare Lk 24:44-53]:

(Lk 24:44 NKJV) '''Then He [Jesus, (Lk 24:36)] said to them [the disciples, (cf. Lk 24:33)], "These are the words which I spoke to you while I was still with you, that all things must be fulfilled which were written in the Law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms concerning Me."

(Lk 24:45 NKJV) And He opened their understanding, that they might comprehend the Scriptures.

(Lk 24:46 NKJV) Then He said to them, "Thus it is written, 'And thus it was necessary for the Christ to suffer and to rise from the dead the third day,

(Lk 24:47 NKJV) and that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in His name to all nations, beginning at Jerusalem.'

(Lk 24:48 NKJV) And you are witnesses of these things.

(Lk 24:49 NKJV) Behold, I send the Promise of My Father upon you; but tarry in the city of Jerusalem until you are endued with power from on high."

(Lk 24:50 NKJV) And He led them out as far as Bethany, and He lifted up His hands and blessed them.

(Lk 24:51 NKJV) Now it came to pass, while He blessed them, that He was parted from them and carried up into heaven.

(Lk 24:52 NKJV) And they worshiped Him, and returned to Jerusalem with great joy,

(Lk 24:53) and were continually in the temple praising and blessing God. Amen. '''

Note that the LORD ascended from Bethany, which was located on the eastern slope of the Mount of Olives, (Lk 24:50, Acts 1:12). Jesus' message to the apostles to continue to preach after He ascended was the same as He had been giving from the beginning when he was baptized by John. And it was the message of John the Baptist before Him: "Repent for the Kingdom of God is at hand." And when an individual believed in the message of Jesus and John the Baptist, he expressed a moment of faith alone in the Messiah / Savior alone, resulting in forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Kingdom of God; whereupon each believer was water baptized to symbolize his identification with that result. And the message was given that if all Israel would repent, the LORD would commence His eternal Kingdom at that time. This is so far the message that the apostles were to continue to give . The doctrines unique to the church have not yet been in view.

****** END OF EXCERPTS FROM ACTS CHAPTER ONE AND LUKE ******

(A cont.) (2:1-5 cont.) WHEN THE DAY OF PENTECOST HAD FULLY COME, THE APOSTLES AND ALL THE DISCIPLES WERE UNITED IN PURPOSE IN THE UPPER ROOM. SUDDENLY THERE CAME A SOUND FROM HEAVEN OF A RUSHING MIGHTY WIND, FILLING THE WHOLE HOUSE, EVIDENTLY ECHOING THROUGHOUT THE STREETS OF JERUSALEM. THEN DIVIDED TONGUES OF FIRE APPEARED OVER EACH DISCIPLE'S HEAD - THE WIND AND FIRE: SYMBOLS OF THE PRESENCE OF THE HOLY SPIRIT, PROOF OF THEIR BAPTISM IN THE HOLY SPIRIT. AND ALL THE DISCIPLES (120+) WERE FILLED / CONTROLLED BY THE INDWELLING HOLY SPIRIT AND BEGAN TO SPEAK IN HERETOFORE UNKNOWN FOREIGN LANGUAGES OF MANY PEOPLES, THE WORLD OVER, AS THE SPIRIT GAVE THEM UTTERANCE OVER EACH WORD, (cont.)]:

(Acts 2:1 NKJV) '''When the Day of Pentecost had fully come, they were all with one accord in one place. (Acts 2:2 NKJV) And suddenly there came a sound from heaven, as of a rushing mighty wind, and it filled the whole house where they were sitting. (Acts 2:3 NKJV) Then there appeared to them divided tongues, as of fire, and one sat upon each of them. (Acts 2:4 NKJV) And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance. (Acts 2:5 NKJV) And there were dwelling in Jerusalem Jews, devout men, from every nation under heaven," (cont.) =

So on the Day of Pentecost, the disciples were gathered together "in one place." Due to the lack of words specifically stipulating that an area within the Temple was in view and to the phrases in verses 1 & 2 rendered "in one place" and "the whole house," respectively; and to the implication of a location that afforded some privacy while the disciples were awaiting the baptism of the Holy Spirit - the location in view in verses 1-3 must be the upper room "where they were [customarily] abiding," (Acts 1:13); and not the Temple in Jerusalem, as some contend.

1) [Compare Acts 1:13-14]:

(Acts 1:13 YLT) "And when they came in [to the city],.they went up to the upper room, where they were abiding both Peter and James; and John, and Andrew, Philip, and Thomas, Bartholomew, and Matthew, James [son] of Alphaeus, and Simon the [Zealot], and Judas [son] of James.

(Acts 1:14 YLT) These all were [steadfastly] continuing with one accord in prayer and supplication, with women, and Mary the mother of Jesus, and with His [brothers]."

"And suddenly there came a sound from heaven, as of a rushing mighty wind, and it filled the whole house where they [the disciples] were sitting." There is no indication in the text that this was an actual wind. For a wind which had the magnitude of the sound which verse 2 conveyed would have caused devastating damage - which damage was not addressed by author Luke. Nevertheless, the implication of the phrase, "a sound of heaven, as of a rushing mighty wind, and it filled the whole house" was that the sound was so loud that it could be heard by the multitudes gathered for Pentecost in the city who came together to investigate it, (cf. Acts 2:6). The Greek word "pneuma" can mean wind and / or spirit, conveying both meanings in this passage. Hence the sound of the rushing mighty wind filling the whole house was a powerful sign which indicated the presence of God the Holy Spirit throughout the house, indwelling all the believers present. And thereafter, there was a sudden appearance of a mass of flames which then broke up, such that a single tongue of fire settled upon the head of every disciple in the room. The appearance of the tongues of fire was also a symbol of the presence of God, which corroborated the occurrence within the believers of the Baptism of the Holy Spirit, [cf. the presence of God: (1) in the burning bush, (Exod 3:2-5); (2) in the pillar of fire that guided Israel by night through the wilderness, (Exod 13:21-22); (3) in the consuming fire on Mt Sinai, (Exod 19:18; 24:17); (4) and in the fire that hovered over the wilderness tabernacle, (Exod 40:38)]. Note that John the Baptist earlier stipulated that the Messiah would baptize with the Holy Spirit and with fire, (Lk 3:16), (Acts 2:2-3).

The signs of the sound of the rushing mighty wind and the appearance of the tongues of fire which accompanied the believers' baptism of the Holy Spirit were unique, and evidently marked this event as unique. It did not occur at any other time. Hence it cannot be asserted that these signs must occur whenever there is a baptism / filling of the Spirit upon a believer, as some contend.

Upon the sound of the rushing mighty wind, and the appearance of the tongues of fire, all of the disciples became filled with, in the sense of controlled by, the Holy Spirit. Hence all of them began to speak "with other tongues," i.e., speak in many foreign languages heretofore unknown to them - as the Spirit gave them utterance, in the sense of giving them the capacity to choose to speak out each word as the Spirit provided it for them to speak. The three signs of the sound of a rushing mighty wind, the tongues of fire and the speaking with other tongues which the latter evidenced the filling of the Holy Spirit, clearly indicated that the baptism of the Holy Spirit had occurred, (Acts 1:4-5; cf. Acts 10:43-46).

The Greek word "glOssais" rendered "tongues" is the normal Greek word for known languages. The word does not refer to ecstatic utterances in this passage, as some contend; for verses 9-11 indicate that the many foreign languages of fifteen regions throughout the world were an example of the many languages the disciples were speaking to people in the Pentecost crowd - people whose native languages were being spoken. So all 120 disciples, not just the twelve - largely local men from Galilee, spoke, as the Spirit gave them utterance. Note that throughout this period of transition from Christ's Ascension to the establishment of the church, there were many more disciples who were given the gift of speaking in tongues by the Holy Spirit in order to declare "the wonderful works of God," until the books of the New Testament were written and circulated .

They spoke in the many foreign languages of those who were descendant from Jews who were taken into captivity to foreign lands, or in the languages of the lands in which they were born - who were now dwelling permanently or for the holy days in Jerusalem, (v. 2:8). Many of the Jews who were dwelling in Jerusalem had been born in foreign lands and had returned from captivity. And there were many Jews and proselytes from foreign lands who were on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem to celebrate Pentecost and the other holy days. So many Jews in Jerusalem on that day were multi-lingual - familiar with a number of foreign languages, especially the universal koine / common Greek language in which the Apostle Peter was to address them.

The phrase rendered "As the Spirit gave them utterance," implies that each disciple was given the capacity to choose to speak out each word in a foreign language which they did not heretofore know as the Holy Spirit provided it for them to speak - evidently as a message of "the wonderful works of God," (Acts 2:11). The key message was most likely God's most wonderful work of the gospel of faith alone in the risen and ascended Messiah / Savior Jesus Christ alone unto eternal life in the Kingdom of God - Whom the disciples had just seen in His Resurrection Body - and about Whom Peter's message was given to the crowd shortly after the outbreak of the disciples' speaking supernaturally in the languages of the world. Peter's message focused on Who Jesus was. Peter declared that He was both LORD and Christ, that He was crucified, resurrected and ascended to the Father in heaven - destined to sit forever on the throne of David to rule the world, (Acts 2:22-36). Since the upper room was already occupied with more than 120 disciples; it stands to reason that the multitude's encounter with the disciples was outside of the upper room.

Note that the Greek manuscript titled "Aleph," omits the word rendered "Jews" in verse 5. But there is overwhelming manuscript and contextual evidence for the the phrase rendered "Jews, devout men" as opposed to devout Gentiles, (Acts 2:4-5).

B) (Acts 2:6-13) AT THAT TIME, JEWS FROM EVERY NATION UNDER HEAVEN, DWELLING IN JERUSALEM PURSUED THE SOURCE OF THE SOUND OF THE RUSHING MIGHTY WIND AND CAME TOGETHER AT A LOCATION WHERE EACH ONE HEARD THE DISCIPLES SPEAKING IN THE LANGUAGE OF HIS BIRTH OF THE WONDERFUL WORKS OF GOD - INCLUDING THE RISEN MESSIAH / SAVIOR JESUS CHRIST, THAT THROUGH FAITH IN HIM IS ETERNAL LIFE IN THE KINGDOM OF GOD. THE JEWS' REACTION TO THE LOCAL GALILEAN DISCIPLES SPEAKING IN SO MANY FOREIGN LANGUAGES - IN THE LANGUAGES OF THEIR BIRTH - WAS AMAZEMENT. AUTHOR LUKE GAVE 15 EXAMPLES OF REGIONS OF THE WORLD FROM ALL POINTS OF THE COMPASS FROM WHICH CAME THE JEWS AND PROSELYTES WHO DWELT IN OR VISITED JERUSALEM AT THAT PENTECOST. THE AMAZEMENT AND PERPLEXITY OF THE JEWS CONTINUED. A NUMBER TURNED TO MOCKERY, ACCUSING THE DISCIPLES OF DRUNKENESS

(Acts 2:6 NASB) '''And when this sound occurred, the [multitude] came together, and were confused because each one was hearing them [the disciples] [speaking] in his own language. (Acts 2:7 NKJV) Then they were all amazed and marveled, saying to one another, "Look, are not all these who speak Galileans? (Acts 2:8 NKJV) And how is it that we hear, each in our own language in which we were born? (Acts 2:9 NKJV) Parthians and Medes and Elamites, those dwelling in Mesopotamia, Judea and Cappadocia, Pontus and Asia, (Acts 2:10 NKJV) Phrygia and Pamphylia, Egypt and the parts of Libya adjoining Cyrene, visitors from Rome, both Jews and proselytes, (Acts 2:11 NKJV) Cretans and Arabs - we hear them speaking in our own tongues the wonderful works of God." (Acts 2:12 NKJV) So they [all continued to be] amazed and perplexed, saying to one another, "Whatever could this mean?" (Acts 2:13 NKJV) Others mocking said, "They are full of new wine." ''' =

And when the crowd heard the sound - referring back to the Greek phrase in verse 2 rendered "a sound from heaven as of a rushing mighty wind [which] filled the whole house where they [the disciples] were sitting;" many in the crowd came together in search of the source of that sound. And they came upon the disciples who began speaking to them in their individual native languages. The Greek phrase rendered "was hearing them [the disciples] [speaking] in his own language," is in the imperfect tense implying a continual hearing over a period of time. For there was much to speak of, and many to speak to. The Greek phrase "tE idia dialektO" rendered "in his own language" in verse 6 is emphatic and hence emphasizes that this is the language that each had learned as a child in the land he was born in. And many of the multitude "came together" because of their concern and confusion about the actions of the disciples - largely men from Galilee - who were speaking to them in the native languages of the Jews in the crowd who were from foreign countries. Their declaration that the disciples were from Galilee - perhaps discerning this from their local mannerisms and clothing, implied that Galileans wouldn't normally know such languages. This implied that the languages they were speaking were not speaking merely a variety of Galilean or Aramaic dialects, as some contend; but wholly different languages from other nations. Although most individuals in that day could speak Greek in that part of the world, and even other local languages and dialects; it was astonishing and incomprehensible to hear the local men of Galilee speak the languages of foreign countries from afar. Their actions were viewed as miraculous - a sign from God, (Acts 2:6-8).

Author Luke provided examples of peoples from nations from all points of the compass that were there in Jerusalem, corroborating his phrase in verse 5, "And there were dwelling in Jerusalem Jews, devout men, from every nation under heaven." Each region which author Luke named had a considerable Jewish population within its borders: Parthia was east of the Roman Empire, between the Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf, in the southern part of Persia. Media and Elam and Mesopotamia, contained a large Jewish population from the days of the Babylonian Captivity to the east, mostly outside of the Roman Empire. Author Luke's inclusion of Judea, being near to Jerusalem, is not out of place here as some contend; for it had a large Jewish population which spoke Hebrew and a number of foreign languages different from those spoken in Jerusalem. And there were many there in Jerusalem visiting to celebrate Pentecost. Cappadicia was a large Roman province in northern Asia Minor on the Black Sea. Pontus was located in the region on the southern coast of the Black Sea. Asia was the Roman province comprising the western third of Asia Minor. Phrygia was an ethnic district of part of the province of Asia and part of Galatia. Pamphylia was a Roman province on the south coast of Asia Minor, Egypt to the south had a large Jewish population of about a million. The phrase rendered, "The parts of Libya adjoining Cyrene" comprised a district west of Egypt on the Mediterranean coast. And Luke was sure to indicate that there were present visitors from Rome, both Jews and proselytes (Gentile converts to Judaism). Finally, author Luke mentioned others from the island of Crete and from Arabia, the districts east and southeast of Palestine. So all of the people from around the civilized world kept hearing and exclaiming, "We hear them speaking in our own tongues the wonderful works of God," (Acts 2:9-11).

They evidently concluded that this was indeed a supernatural sign from God. The message must have especially included the grandest and most wonderful work of the LORD: His Son's atoning sacrifice for the remission of the sins of the whole world through faith in Him, as testified to by His resurrection appearances and His ascension - the last and lasting impression which the disciples were given by the LORD. And this was what the LORD commanded His disciples to convey to Jerusalem and to the world, (cf. Acts 1:8). For Peter's message to the crowd just shortly after the outbreak of the disciples' speaking supernaturally in the languages of the world focused on Jesus, Whom he declared was both LORD - referring to His Diety as the Son of God; and Christ in the sense of having fulfilled the requirement in His Humanity of being an atoning sacrifice for the sins of the whole world which declaration was evidenced by God's having raised Him from the dead and ascended Him into glory at His right hand in heaven. So Peter indicated that Jesus Christ had been crucified, resurrected and ascended to the Father in heaven, Who Peter declared was destined to sit forever on the throne of David to rule the world, (cf. Acts 2:22-36).

Many in the crowd in Jerusalem continued to be amazed and perplexed as the disciples were speaking to them of the wonderful works of God in their own native languages. They repeatedly said to one another, "Whatever could this mean?" They evidently had gained some understanding of the disciples' message; but could not fathom the purpose behind that message. Since they were unwilling to take seriously and trust in what the disciples were saying, they too became skeptical. Others in the crowd, mocked the disciples, saying "They are full of new wine [Greek "gleukous" lit., wine from sweet grapes]," implying that they were drunk and were speaking drunken gibberish. A number of these objectors might not have understood any of the languages that were being spoken; and others were just skeptical - unwilling to accept the evidence of their Messiah having come. So to them the message had no discernible meaning. Hence they mocked the disciples as if they were drunk on new wine, which characteristically had a higher alcoholic content, (Acts 2:12-13).

C) (Acts 2:14-21) PETER, AGAIN TOOK THE ROLE OF LEADER. HE SPOKE OUT IN DEFENSE OF THE DISCIPLES. HE DECLARED THAT THE DISCIPLES' SPEAKING IN THE LANGUAGES OF THE WORLD OF THE WONDERFUL WORKS OF GOD WAS TO BE THE BEGINNING OF THE FULFILLMENT OF PROPHECY OF THE RESTORATION OF THE KINGDOM OF HEAVEN ON EARTH

(Acts 2:14 NKJV) '''But Peter, standing up with the eleven, raised his voice and [spoke out] to them, "Men of Judea and all who dwell in Jerusalem, let this be known to you, and heed my words. (Acts 2:15 NKJV) For these are not drunk, as you suppose, since it is only the third hour of the day. (Acts 2:16 NASB) But this is what was spoken through the prophet Joel: (Acts 2:17 NKJV) 'And it shall come to pass in the last days,' says God, 'That I will pour out of My Spirit on all flesh; Your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, Your young men shall see visions, Your old men shall dream dreams. (Acts 2:18 NKJV) And on My menservants and on My maidservants I will pour out My Spirit in those days; And they shall prophesy. (Acts 2:19 YLT) and I will give wonders in the heaven above, and signs upon the earth beneath - blood, and fire, and vapor of smoke, (Acts 2:20 NASB) The sun will be turned into darkness and the moon into blood, before the great and glorious day of the LORD shall [come]. (Acts 2:21 NASB) And it shall be that everyone who [called] on the name of the LORD will be saved.' [in the sense of saved from temporal death such that only the survivors will enter into the Eternal Kingdom of God which will have arrived - which implies that all the survivors will be believers, and hence have eternal life]''' =

At this time, Peter stood up with the eleven Apostles (including Matthias), raised his voice and spoke out to the multitude, once again taking the role of leader. Note that this does not exclude the other Apostles from having their turn to preach to the crowd. Peter began by addressing Jews and the inhabitants of Jerusalem. It is implied here that all of the disciples including the eleven stopped speaking in tongues to individuals in the crowd to allow Peter to take the lead and deliver his message - that Jesus is the Messiah and LORD (v. 36) - beginning with: "Men of Judea and all who dwell in Jerusalem, let this be known to you, and heed my words." Later he addressed his audience as, "Men of Israel, (v. 22) and "Brethren," (v. 29). Note that Peter expected to communicate effectively despite the fact that the people in the crowd had many different, native languages. For in view of his baptism and filling of the Holy Spirit, he evidently understood that it would be the Holy Spirit Who would make his message understandable and effective to so many people of different linguistic backgrounds. On the other hand, since most people in that part of the world were multi-lingual, Peter most likely spoke to them in the universal koine / common Greek language, which Author Luke reports it in his writing without giving further specifics. So Peter continued his message with, '''For these [referring to all 120+ disciples' speaking in other tongues] are not drunk, as you suppose, since it is only the third hour of the day, [9 A.M.]." Note that Peter immediately addressed those in the crowd who mocked the disciples' actions as evidencing drunken behavior, implying that the crowd had largely turned to this point of view. Despite the fact that many previously had some kind of understanding of what the disciples were saying, even to the point of stating that the disciples were conveying information about the wonderful works of God, (v. 11); nevertheless, skepticism prevailed. The accusation that the disciples were drunk on new wine was unfounded and absurd because one would have to drink huge amounts of even new (sweet) wine. And there was neither evidence produced to affirm that any alcoholic beverages had been consummed, nor evidence that the behavior of the disciples was consistent with being drunk, (Acts 2:14-15).

Peter went on to say, '''But this is what was spoken through the prophet Joel: " 'And it shall come to pass in the last days,' says God,

[The phrase "the last days" referring to the last days just before God ends the age and establishes His Eternal Kingdom of God on the earth.]

'That I will pour out of My Spirit on all flesh;

[Heretofore, the pouring out of the Spirit was limited a selected number of Jews. Now it was to occur upon all mankind!]

Your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, Your young men shall see visions, Your old men shall dream dreams. And on My menservants and on My maidservants I will pour out My Spirit in those days; And they shall prophesy.

[Heretofore, such supernatural revelations were infrequent. Now they will be the norm!]

And I will give wonders in the heaven above, and signs upon the earth beneath - blood, and fire, and vapor of smoke. The sun will be turned into darkness and the moon into blood, before the great and glorious day of the LORD shall come. And it shall be that everyone who called on the name of the LORD will be saved,' " in the sense of saved from temporal death such that only the survivors will enter into the Eternal Kingdom of God which will have arrived. This implies that all the survivors will be believers, and hence have eternal life. So temporal and eternal salvation was to be received by calling on the name of the LORD in the sense of trusting in His capacity and willingness to provide forgiveness of sins unto temporal deliverance from harm from the wrath of God and unto eternal salvation in the Eternal Kingdom of God, which at the time of Joel's address to the people of Israel in his time, and Peter's address to the Jews in his time was imminent had all of Israel believed, (cf. Acts 3:19-23).

Note that the phrase in Old Testament Hebrew rendered, "The name," with the definite article, always referred to the name of God. And as Peter continued his address to the crowd in Jerusalem, he further described Who the LORD was: Jesus Whom Peter declared was both LORD, meaning God; and Christ - the anointed One, meaning the One Who in His Perfect Humanity had come to provide forgiveness of sins for the whole world through His atoning sacrifice - as proved by His Resurrection from the dead and His Ascension to heaven to sit at the right hand of God, the Father, (Acts 2:22-37).

Note that Acts 2:17 substitutes it shall come to pass in the last days for it will come to pass afterward in the Masoretic text in Joel 2:28. This is because author Luke used the Greek translation of the OT, the Septuagint, which has this phrase. There is no significant difference in meaning, as some contend. Both phrases point to the next event after Joel's statement in the previous context of the temporal and eternal salvation of the people of the LORD and how they will be blessed. Peter's reference to Joel chapter 2, "But this is what was spoken through the prophet Joel," indicated that the pouring out of the Spirit upon the disciples as evidenced by them speaking in heretofore unknown foreign languages to the crowd was the beginning of the fulfillment of the prophecy of the restoration of the Eternal Kingdom of God to Israel, which would continue as detailed in Joel chapter 2, Peter indicated as he spoke to them, if all Israel accepted her Messiah / Savior Jesus Christ:

1) [Compare Acts 2:33-38]:

(Acts 2:33 NKJV) ''' "[Peter said that Jesus was, (v. 32)] Therefore being exalted to the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise [to the apostles] of the Holy Spirit, [cf. Acts 1:4-8] He poured out this which you now see and hear."

(Acts 2:33 NKJV) "[Peter speaking about Jesus, (v. 32)]: Therefore [having been] exalted to the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise [to the apostles and disciples] of the Holy Spirit, He poured out this which you now see and hear [in the sense of the pouring out into each individual disciple the power to speak in known languages to communicate the words of the LORD to them in their native languages - the marvelous works of God, especially of Jesus Christ and Him crucified - the work of the Holy Spirit]

(Acts 2:34 NKJV) For David did not ascend into the heavens, but he says himself: 'The LORD said to my LORD, 'Sit at My right hand,

(Acts 2:35 NASB) Until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet.'

(Acts 2:36 NKJV) Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly that God has made this Jesus, Whom you crucified, both LORD and Christ [in the sense of Messiah]."

(Acts 2:37 YLT) And having heard, they were pricked to the heart; they say also to Peter, and to the rest of the apostles, "What shall we do, men, brethren?"

(Acts 2:38 HOLMAN) And Peter said to them, "Repent (and [let each one of you] be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins. And you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit" '''

And had all Israel repented and believed in their Messiah / Savior Jesus Christ for salvation unto eternal life in the eternal Kingdom of God, the events of Joel chapter two would begin as detailed in Joel unto the restoration of the Eternal Kingdom of God upon the earth with Israel as ruling nation, (Acts 2:16-21).

D) (Acts 2:14-21 cont.) IN THE DAY OF THE LORD, FOR THE FIRST TIME IN HISTORY AND FOREVER, THE HOLY SPIRIT WILL BE POURED OUT UPON ALL MANKIND RIGHT AFTER THE LORD'S TEMPORAL JUDGMENT UPON THE EARTH. THE PEOPLE OF THE LORD WILL RECEIVE REVELATION FROM GOD - THEY WILL PROPHESY, DREAM DREAMS, SEE VISIONS - SERVING AS ORACLES OF GOD AS THEY RULE OVER THE PEOPLE OF THE EARTH. AND BEFORE THE GREAT AND AWESOME DAY OF THE LORD, THERE WILL BE WONDERS IN THE HEAVENS AND THE EARTH. BLOOD AND FIRE, COLUMNS OF SMOKE. THE SUN WILL BE TURNED INTO DARKNESS, THE MOON TO BLOOD RED RED. AND IT SHALL COME TO PASS THAT WHOEVER CALLS UPON THE NAME OF THE LORD, I.E., REPENT UNTO FAITH ALONE IN THE LORD ALONE TO DELIVER ONE UNTO TEMPORAL AND ETERNAL SALVATION IN THE ETERNAL KINGDOM OF GOD WILL BE SAVED. BUT ONLY THE REMNANT CHOSEN BY THE LORD WILL CHOOSE TO BELIEVE AND BE SAVED - THE PEOPLE OF THE LORD BEING PRIMARILY IN VIEW THROUGHOUT THIS PASSAGE

(Acts 2:14 NKJV) '''But Peter, standing up with the eleven, raised his voice and [spoke out] to them, "Men of Judea and all who dwell in Jerusalem, let this be known to you, and heed my words. (Acts 2:15 NKJV) For these are not drunk, as you suppose, since it is only the third hour of the day. (Acts 2:16 NASB) But this is what was spoken through the prophet Joel: (Acts 2:17 NKJV) " 'And it shall come to pass in the last days,' says God, 'That I will pour out of My Spirit on all flesh; Your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, Your young men shall see visions, Your old men shall dream dreams. (Acts 2:18 NKJV) And on My menservants and on My maidservants I will pour out My Spirit in those days; And they shall prophesy. (Acts 2:19 YLT) and I will give wonders in the heaven above, and signs upon the earth beneath - blood, and fire, and vapor of smoke, (Acts 2:20 NASB) The sun will be turned into darkness and the moon into blood, before the great and glorious day of the LORD shall [come]. (Acts 2:21 NASB) And it shall be that everyone who [called] on the name of the LORD will be saved.' [in the sense of saved from temporal death such that only the survivors will enter into the Eternal Kingdom of God which will have arrived - which implies that all the survivors will be believers, and hence have eternal life]" ''' =

Note that Joel 2:28-32, which Peter quoted to the crowd in Jerusalem, (Acts 2:17-21), described the horrors of God's judgment upon the world for its wickedness when the judgment part of the Day of the LORD commences - which was imminent had all of a generation of Israel repented and believed in the Messiah / Savior Jesus Christ in Peter's time for forgiveness of sins. Thereafter, the passage in Joel chapter two indicated some of the blessings which the LORD would bestow upon His chosen people, Israel and upon the whole world - upon those who believed in His name. Peter then ended his quotation of the passage in Joel in Acts 2:21 with what the prophet Joel told the people of Israel in his day, (and Peter in his day): "And it shall be that everyone who [called] on the name of the LORD will be saved." And that salvation was to be received by calling on the name of the LORD in the sense of trusting in His capacity and willingness to provide forgiveness of sins unto temporal deliverance from harm from the wrath of God and unto eternal salvation in the Eternal Kingdom of God, which at the time of Joel's address to the people of Israel in his time, and at the time of Peter's address to the Jews in his time was imminent had all of Israel believed. Note that the phrase in Old Testament Hebrew rendered, "The name," with the definite article, always referred to the name of God. In Peter's address to the crowd in Jerusalem, he declared that Jesus Whom they crucified was both LORD, meaning God; and Christ - the anointed One, meaning the One Who in His Perfect Humanity had come to provide forgiveness of sins for the whole world through His atoning sacrifice - as proved by His Resurrection from the dead and His Ascension to heaven to sit at the right hand of God, the Father, (Acts 2:22-37).

Contrary to the contention of some, the events described in Joel chapter two have not yet occurred, (Joel 2:28-32; Acts 2:16-21):

****** EXCERPT FROM JOEL CHAPTER 2 ******

........................Or skip to the next section in Acts chapter 2:

(Joel 2:28-32) IN THE DAY OF THE LORD, FOR THE FIRST TIME IN HISTORY AND FOREVER, THE HOLY SPIRIT WILL BE POURED OUT UPON ALL MANKIND RIGHT AFTER THE LORD'S TEMPORAL JUDGMENT UPON THE EARTH. THE PEOPLE OF THE LORD WILL RECEIVE REVELATION FROM GOD - THEY WILL PROPHESY, DREAM DREAMS, SEE VISIONS - SERVING AS ORACLES OF GOD AS THEY RULE OVER THE PEOPLE OF THE EARTH. AND BEFORE THE GREAT AND AWESOME DAY OF THE LORD, THERE WILL BE WONDERS IN THE HEAVENS AND THE EARTH. BLOOD AND FIRE, COLUMNS OF SMOKE. THE SUN WILL BE TURNED INTO DARKNESS, THE MOON TO BLOOD RED RED. AND IT SHALL COME TO PASS THAT WHOEVER CALLS UPON THE NAME OF THE LORD, I.E., REPENT UNTO FAITH ALONE IN THE LORD ALONE TO DELIVER ONE UNTO TEMPORAL AND ETERNAL SALVATION IN THE ETERNAL KINGDOM OF GOD WILL BE SAVED. BUT ONLY THE REMNANT CHOSEN BY THE LORD WILL CHOOSE TO BELIEVE AND BE SAVED - THE PEOPLE OF THE LORD BEING PRIMARILY IN VIEW THROUGHOUT THIS PASSAGE

(Joel 2:12 NKJV) ''' "Now, therefore," says the LORD, "Turn to Me with all your heart, With fasting, with weeping, and with mourning." (Joel 2:13 NKJV) So rend [tear] your heart, and not your garments; Return to the LORD your God, For He is gracious and merciful, Slow to anger, and of great kindness; And He relents from doing harm. (Joel 2:14 NKJV) Who knows if He will turn and relent, And leave a blessing behind Him - A grain offering and a drink offering For the LORD your God? (Joel 2:15 NKJV) Blow the trumpet in Zion, Consecrate a fast, Call a sacred assembly; (Joel 2:16 NKJV) Gather the people, Sanctify the congregation, Assemble the elders, Gather the children and nursing babes; Let the bridegroom go out from his chamber, And the bride from her dressing room. (Joel 2:17 NKJV) Let the priests, who minister to the LORD, Weep between the porch and the altar; Let them say, "Spare [Have pity upon] Your people, O LORD, And do not give Your heritage to reproach [disgrace], That the nations should rule over them. Why should they say among the peoples, 'Where is their God?' " (Joel 2:18 NKJV) Then the LORD will be zealous for His land, And pity [i.e, have compassion for] His people. (Joel 2:19 NKJV) The LORD will answer and say to His people, "Behold, I will send you grain and new wine [lit., grape juice] and [fresh olive] oil, And you will be satisfied by them; I will no longer make you a reproach [disgrace] among the nations. (Joel 2:20 NKJV) But I will remove far from you the northern army, And will drive [it] away into a barren and desolate land, With [its] face toward the eastern sea And [its] back toward the western sea; His stench will come up, And his foul odor will rise, Because he has done monstrous things." (Joel 2:21 NKJV) Fear not, O land; Be glad and rejoice, For the LORD has done marvelous things! (Joel 2:22 NASB) Do not fear, beasts of the field, For the pastures of the wilderness have turned green, For the tree has borne its fruit, The fig tree and the vine have yielded in full. (Joel 2:23 NKJV) Be glad then, you children of Zion, And rejoice in the LORD your God; For He has given you the former rain faithfully [lit. "for righteousness" in the sense of 'because He is righteous and faithful'], And He will cause the rain to come down for you - The former ['Spring'] rain, And the latter ['Autumn'] rain in the first month. (Joel 2:24 NKJV) The threshing floors shall be full of wheat, And the vats shall overflow with new wine [grape juice] and [fresh olive] oil. (Joel 2:25 HOLMAN) "[And] I will [have repaid] you for the years that the swarming locust ate, the young locust, the destroying locust, and the devouring locust - My great army that I [will have] sent against you. (Joel 2:26 NKJV) You shall eat in plenty and be satisfied, And praise the name of the LORD your God, Who has dealt wondrously with you; And My people shall never be put to shame. (Joel 2:26 CBL) And [you will have eaten] abundantly, eating and being satisfied and [you will have praised] the name of Yahweh your God, because of what [wonderful works] He has done with you. And My people will not ever again be put to shame. (Joel 2:27 NKJV) And you will [have known] that I am in the midst of Israel: I am the LORD your God And there is no other. My people shall never be put to shame. (Joel 2:28 NKJV) And it shall [have] come to pass afterward That I will pour out My Spirit on all flesh [all mankind - implying that all mankind are believers]; Your sons and your daughters will [have] prophesied, your old men will dream dreams, Your young men shall see visions. (Joel 2:29 NKJV) And also on My menservants and on My maidservants I will pour out My Spirit in those days. (Joel 2:30 NKJV) And I will show wonders in the heavens and in the earth: Blood and fire and pillars of smoke. (Joel 2:30 YLT) And I will [have given] wonders in the heavens, and in the earth, Blood and fire, and columns of smoke. (Joel 2:31 NKJV) The sun shall be turned into darkness, And the moon into blood, Before the coming of the great and awesome Day of the LORD. (Joel 2:32 NKJV) And it shall come to pass That whoever calls on the name of the LORD Shall be saved [in the sense of saved from temporal death such that only the survivors will enter into the Eternal Kingdom of God which will have arrived - which implies that all the survivors will be believers, and hence have eternal life]. For in Mount Zion and in Jerusalem there shall be deliverance, As the LORD has said, Among the remnant whom the LORD calls." ''' =

Verses 28-32 bring an astounding close to chapter two. For the first time in history and forever, the Holy Spirit will be poured out upon all mankind evidently right after the LORD's temporal judgment upon the earth, (cf. "afterward," Joel 2:28). These verses portray a series of unique events which so far in history have not taken place to the degree, chrononlogy and simultaneity stipulated in the Book of Joel. Note that centuries later, the Apostle Peter referred to the imminent fulfillment of Joel chapter two in his time as a result of the disciples' speaking in tongues. He indicated to the multitude of people who were around him that what was about to occur in his time was the fulfillment of what was prophesied in the Book of Joel, which included the pouring out of the Holy Spirit upon all mankind, which evidently began with the disciples. The commencement of that Day, Peter indicated, was predicated upon all Israel's acceptance of her Messiah / Savior Jesus Christ, which did not occur. Hence the Day of the LORD did not commence at that time either, ; nor has anything taken place relative to the Day of the LORD to the degree, chrononlogy and simultaneity stipulated in the Book of Joel, as some contend.

According to the context of the Book of Joel, the pouring out of the Spirit upon all mankind implied that all of mankind who survive the judgment part of the Day of the LORD will have repented unto a moment of faith alone in the LORD's provision of temporal deliverance from harm and eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. This universal outpouring of the Holy Spirit upon Jews and Gentiles alike will evidently occur during the blessing part of the Day of the LORD - at the commencement of the Eternal Kingdom of God. So all of those individuals whose lives the LORD preserved during His judgment period of the Day of the LORD will receive the indwelling Holy Spirit. Even the manservants and maid servants of the LORD who will serve the people of Israel will receive the indwelling Spirit. And the sons and daughters of Israel will also receive other spiritual gifts: the old men of Israel will dream dreams of revelation from the LORD, the young men of Israel will see visions of revelation from the LORD. This will evidently occur in order to enable Israel to be the ruling nation of the eternal Kingdom of God. For each Israelite will become an oracle of God to one another and to the Gentiles, (Joel 2:28-29).

Verses 30-32 return to the time of the first portion of the Day of the LORD - the judgment / destructive part. What was portrayed in these verses will go far beyond what locusts can do. Furthermore, what was portrayed in these verses has not accompanied any judgment of the LORD upon Judah - including the locust plagues, as some contend, especially to the creationwide scope, degree of severity, or spontaneity stipulated. Nor for that matter, have the events described in Joel 2:30-32 accompanied any event in history up to the present time: "And I will [have given] wonders in the heavens, and in the earth, Blood and fire, and columns of smoke. The sun shall be turned into darkness, And the moon into blood, Before the coming of the great and awesome Day of the LORD." The implications of this likely point to extensive worldwide warfare where the smoke of war will often cover the sun and make the moon appear blood red. On the other hand, natural disasters would do the same to an even greater extent: multiple and simultaneous earthquakes and volcanoes throughout the world - causing great columns of smoke to block out the sun and moon worldwide, etc.; adding to the bloody human destruction of vast armies of the world at war with one another and the LORD.

[Compare Joel 2:10-11]:

(Joel 2:10 NKJV) "The earth quakes before them, The heavens tremble; The sun and moon will [have grown] dark [lit., black], And the stars will diminish [lit., be gathered up] their brightness.

(Joel 2:11 NKJV) The LORD [has given] voice before His army, For His camp is very great; For strong is the One who executes His word. For the Day of the LORD is great and very terrible; Who can endure it?" ...............................[(Joel 2:30-31)].

All of humanity will be confronted by the LORD in the destructive / judgment part of the Day of the LORD with such ferocity that no one will be able to endure it - unless one called upon the name of the LORD to be saved - in the sense of trusting in His capacity and willingness to provide that salvation from temporal destruction unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God . The phrase rendered, "For in Mount Zion and in Jerusalem there will be deliverance," refers to the key focus of the LORD during the Day of the LORD: His chosen people, Israel - the people associated with Mount Zion and Jerusalem. Nevertheless, only a remnant called by the LORD from the people of the LORD and all of humanity will choose to believe in Him to save them and be delivered from His temporal destruction and enter into the eternal Kingdom of God: "And it shall come to pass That whoever calls on the name of the LORD Shall be saved [in the sense of saved from temporal death such that only the survivors will enter into the Eternal Kingdom of God which will have arrived - which implies that all the survivors will be believers, and hence have eternal life]. For in Mount Zion and in Jerusalem there shall be deliverance, As the LORD has said, Among the remnant whom the LORD calls," (Joel 2:32).

****** END OF EXCERPT FROM JOEL CHAPTER 2 ******

II) [Acts 2:22-37]:

(Acts 2:22 YLT) ''' "Men, Israelites! Hear these words, Jesus the Nazarene, a Man approved of God among you by mighty works, and wonders, and signs, that God did through Him in the midst of you, according as also [you] yourselves have known;

(Acts 2:23 YLT) this One, by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God, [having been] given [up], having [been] taken by lawless hands, having [been] crucified - [you] did [put to death];

(Acts 2:24 YLT) Whom God did raise up, having loosed the pains of ... death, because it was not possible for Him to be held by it,

(Acts 2:25 NKJV) For David says concerning Him: 'I [was foreseeing] the LORD always before [me], For He is at my right hand, that I may not be shaken.

(Acts 2:26 YLT) Because of this was my heart [rejoiced], and my tongue [rejoiced], and yet - my flesh also shall rest on hope,

(Acts 2:27 NKJV) For You will not leave my [David's] soul in Hades, Nor will you allow Your Holy One to see corruption.

(Acts 2:28 NKJV) You have made known to me the ways of life; You will make me full of joy in Your presence.'

(Acts 2:29 NKJV) Men and brethren, let me speak freely to you of the patriarch David, that he is both dead and buried, and his tomb is with us to this day.

(Acts 2:30 NKJV) Therefore, [David] being a prophet, and [having known] that God had sworn with an oath to him that of the fruit of his [loins], according to the flesh, He would raise up the Christ to sit on his [David's] throne,

(Acts 2:31 NKJV) [having forseen this], he spoke concerning the resurrection of the Christ, that His soul was not left in Hades, nor did His flesh see corruption.

(Acts 2:32 NKJV) This Jesus God has raised up, of which we are all witnesses

(Acts 2:33 NKJV) Therefore [having been] exalted to the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, He poured out this which you now see and hear [in the sense of the pouring out into each individual disciple the power to speak in known languages to communicate the words of the LORD to them in their native languages the marvelous works of God, especially of Jesus Christ and Him crucified - the work of the Holy Spirit]

(Acts 2:34 NKJV) For David did not ascend into the heavens, but he says himself: 'The LORD said to my LORD, 'Sit at My right hand,

(Acts 2:35 NASB) Until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet.'

(Acts 2:36 NKJV) Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly that God has made this Jesus, Whom you crucified, both LORD and Christ [in the sense of Messiah]."

(Acts 2:37 YLT) And having heard, they were pricked to the heart; they say also to Peter, and to the rest of the apostles, "What shall we do, men, brethren?" '''

A) (Acts 2:22-24) AFTER DECLARING TO THE CROWD OF ISRAELITES IN JERUSALEM THE IMMINENT ARRIVAL OF THE ETERNAL KINGDOM OF GOD SHOULD EVERYONE IN ISRAEL CALL ON THE NAME OF THE LORD FOR TEMPORAL AND ETERNAL SALVATION; PETER ADDRESSED THE REASON WHY ONE COULD CALL ON THE NAME OF THE LORD TO BE SAVED: JESUS THE NAZARENE, A MAN DESIGNATED AS APPROVED BY GOD TO BE THE MESSIAH OF ISRAEL AND OF THE WHOLE WORLD AS EVIDENCED BY THE MIRACLES THAT GOD DID THROUGH HIM. AND BY THE DETERMINATE COUNSEL AND FOREKNOWLEDGE OF GOD, JESUS WAS TAKEN BY LAWLESS HANDS AND CRUCIFIED AND THEN RESURRECTED BY GOD. WHEREBY HE BECAME THE ATONING SACRIFICE FOR THE SINS OF THE WORLD - THE ONE TO TRUST IN FOR SALVATION UNTO ETERNAL LIFE IN THE ETERNAL KINGDOM OF GOD FOR HIS PEOPLE ISRAEL AND FOR THE WHOLE WORLD!

(Acts 2:22 YLT) ''' "Men, Israelites! Hear these words, Jesus the Nazarene, a Man approved of God among you by mighty works, and wonders, and signs, that God did through Him in the midst of you, according as also [you] yourselves have known; (Acts 2:23 YLT) this One, by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God, [having been] given [up], having [been] taken by lawless hands, having [been] crucified - [you] did [put to death]; (Acts 2:24 YLT) Whom God did raise up, having loosed the pains of ... death, because it was not possible for Him to be held by it," ''' =

After declaring to the crowd of Israelites in Jerusalem the imminent arrival of the Eternal Kingdom of God should everyone in Israel call on the name of the LORD for temporal and eternal salvation, (Acts 2:15-21; cf. Joel 2:28-32); Peter addressed the reasons why one could call on the name of the LORD to be saved. Peter provided five proofs of Who Jesus Christ was - the LORD upon Whom all might call for salvation - and what He had accomplished: (1) God's performance of mighty works, and wonders, and signs through Jesus Christ - a testimony to man of God's approval of His Son - that He was the One to come, (v 22); and then Peter provided proofs of His Resurrection and Ascension: (2) The prophecy of Psalm 16, (vv. 25-31); (3) The eye witnesses of Christ's Resurrection and Ascension, (v. 32); (4) The supernatural events which occurred at that particular Pentecost - especially the disciples' speaking in the languages of the world to those in Jerusalem who were all over the world; (5) The Ascension of the LORD - David's greater Son as evidenced in Psalm 110, and witnessed by the Apostles, (vv. 34-35).

So Peter began his testimony about Jesus Christ with, "Men, Israelites! Hear these words, Jesus the Nazarene, a Man approved of God among you by mighty works, and wonders, and signs, [in the sense of having performed powerful miracles] that God did through Him in the midst of you, according as also [you] yourselves have known; this One, by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God, [having been] given [up], having [been] taken by lawless hands, having [been] crucified - [you] did [put to death]; Whom God did raise up, having loosed the pains of ... death, because it was not possible for Him to be held by it." What Peter said in these three verses was astounding - especially for the largely Jewish crowd: their Messiah had come. And clearly by His mighty works, wonders and signs, God provided His approval of Him, whereby Jesus proved Himself to be the Messiah of the Jews and of the whole world. And then having been put to death, and having risen from the grave to complete the promises of the LORD in Scripture of Him becoming an atoning sacrifice for the sins of the world; He proved out to be the One to trust in for salvation unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God for His people Israel and for the world!

Peter's message to fellow Israelites, (cf. Acts 2:22, 29), in response to the crowd's uproarious reaction to the disciples' miraculous speaking in foreign languages in Jerusalem, was not about the outpouring of the Holy Spirit - the cause of the disciples' supernatural behavior. But his message was summed up as follows: "Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly that God has made this Jesus, Whom you crucified, both LORD [in the sense of God] and Christ [in the sense of the Messiah / Savior Who, in His Humanity, provided the atoning sacrifice for the sins of the world]." The Greek verb "epoiEsen" rendered "has made" does not signify that God fabricated Jesus into being LORD and Christ at that moment in time. Rather, it is saying that Jesus was declared by God to be both LORD - referring to His Eternal Diety as the Son of God; and Christ - God's Anointed One in the sense of having fulfilled the requirement in His Humanity of being an atoning sacrifice for the sins of the whole world; which declaration was evidenced by God's having raised Him from the dead and ascended Him into glory at His right hand in heaven, (Acts 2:36).

Peter began his message by drawing attention to the fact that Jesus was a "Nazarene" - a native of the city of Nazareth .- hence one of their own, an Israelite. The Hebrew word "netser" rendered "Nazarene," is derived from the word for branch - a word used to identify the Messiah in other passages as the righteous Branch, a new Shoot that will rise from the stump of what was left of David's line and bring in the coming Kingdom, (Isa 11:1-4; Jer 23:5; 33:15; Zech 3:8; 6:12).

Peter then declared that Jesus was a Man approved by God among "you" - referring to the people of Israel. The evidence that Jesus was approved by God was His performing mighty works, and wonders and signs "in the midst of [the people]." And He did this evidently so that the people of Israel would have the opportunity to recognize and trust in Him as their Messiah. For Peter declared that the people were in full knowledge of the mighty, miraculous works of God done through Jesus, (Acts 2:22).

Furthermore, Peter declared, "This One, [Jesus] by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God, [having been] given [up], having [been] taken by lawless hands, having [been] crucified - [you] did [put to death]." Notice that the destiny of Jesus was determined by the LORD's determinate counsel and foreknowledge, i.e., by His decrees which, because of His absolute sovereignty, establish His infallible foreknowledge - His knowledge beforehand . On the other hand, Jesus was "taken by lawless hands" and "crucified." So God's "determinate counsel and foreknowledge" which define His purpose and decrees to carry out that purpose, unfailingly reflect His absolute sovereignty. Hence it is implied that nothing man does of his own free will is outside of the "determinate counsel and foreknowledge, i.e., outside of the decrees and sovereignty of God. Hence Peter laid the blame for the death of Christ directly upon those "lawless hands" who took Him, i.e., the Gentile rulers of Palestine; and yet Peter declared that Jesus was crucified by "you" referring to the Jews - hence all mankind. But Peter declared that it was Jesus "Whom God did raise up, having loosed the pains of ... death, because it was not possible for Him to be held by it," i.e., Jesus' resurrection was attributed solely and directly to God - His Absolute Sovereignty in all matters. So Peter was saying that it was not possible for Jesus in His Humanity to be held by death, because by God's Absolute Sovereignty and determinate counsel, He decreed that Jesus (in His Humanity) should be raised from the dead. Consider that Jesus is both God and Man, (Acts 2:23-24).

B) (Acts 2:25-31) PETER PROVIDED SCRIPTURAL CORROBORATION FROM PSALM 16 TO THE CROWD OF JEWS IN JERUSALEM THAT JESUS WAS THEIR MESSIAH / SAVIOR. SINCE DAVID RESTED ON THE SURE HOPE OF GOD'S DELIVERANCE FROM TEMPORAL DIFFICULTIES AND UNTO ETERNAL LIFE THROUGH THE MESSIAH / SAVIOR - THE HOLY ONE OF GOD; SO GOD WOULD NOT ALLOW HIS HOLY ONE TO SEE PHYSICAL CORRUPTION IN THE GRAVE, BUT HE WOULD BE RESURRECTED FROM THE DEAD AND WOULD RULE ON THE THRONE OF DAVID FOREVER

(Acts 2:25 NKJV) '''[Peter declared] "For David says concerning Him: 'I [was foreseeing] the LORD always before [me], For He is at my right hand, that I may not be shaken. (Acts 2:26 YLT) Because of this was my heart [rejoiced], and my tongue [rejoiced], and yet - my flesh also shall rest on hope, (Acts 2:27 NKJV) For You will not leave my [David's] soul in Hades, Nor will you allow Your Holy One to see corruption. (Acts 2:28 NKJV) You have made known to me the ways of life; You will make me full of joy in Your presence.' (Acts 2:29 NKJV) Men and brethren, let me speak freely to you of the patriarch David, that he is both dead and buried, and his tomb is with us to this day. (Acts 2:30 NKJV) Therefore, [David] being a prophet, and [having known] that God had sworn with an oath to him that of the fruit of his [loins], according to the flesh, He would raise up the Christ to sit on his [David's] throne, (Acts 2:31 NKJV) [having forseen this], he spoke concerning the resurrection of the Christ, that His soul was not left in Hades, nor did His flesh see corruption." ''' =

Peter provided Scriptural corroboration to the crowd of Jews in Jerusalem of what he was saying about Jesus being the Messiah / Savior Who was resurrected from the dead by God by quoting and interpreting Psalm 16:8-11. He quoted from the Septuagint - the Greek translation of the Old Testament. In view was David's reflection of an ongoing relationship he had with the LORD. In Ps 16:8-9 as quoted in Acts 2:25-26, David was foreseeing, (imperfect tense = ongoing action) that the LORD would always be before him - at his right hand - as LORD, constant Protector, Comforter, Savior, etc. So David stated that he would not be shaken from his intimate relationship with the LORD by what life brought him. And because of this, David's heart and his tongue rejoiced; and he declared that his "flesh," in the sense of his body, rested on the sure hope of the LORD's deliverance of him from temporal difficulties and unto eternal life. Note that the Greek word "elpidi" means a sure hope . .Psalm 16:10 as it is quoted in Acts 2:27 went on to quote David as saying, "For You will not leave my soul in Hades," in the sense of his soul after death not being left in the underworld of departed spirits . David had the sure hope of being resurrected to eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. David went on to say, "Nor will You allow Your Holy One to see corruption," in the sense of the dead physical human body of the Holy One not experiencing physical decay in the grave. Since David's body was buried and remains in a tomb and was not resurrected, hence his physical body did experience physical decay; then the Holy One in this passage cannot be referring to David. David was evidently referring to the Messiah, Jesus Christ, the unique Holy One of Israel, the Messiah, Whose physical body, God's Word promised in Ps 16:10 would not experience physical decay; but once it was placed in the tomb, and sealed up, it was raised from the dead without seeing decay. This was as it was interpreted by the Apostles Peter in Acts 2:29-35, and Paul in Acts 13:35-37; (Acts 2:25-27).

David went on in Ps 16:11 as quoted in Acts 2:28 to say to the LORD, "You have made known to me the ways of life," in the sense of how he was to conduct his mortal life - that he was to worship the LORD and conduct his life in a faithful manner so that "You will make me full of joy in Your presence," implying experiencing the resurrected eternal life in the presence of the LORD in the Eternal Kingdom of God. According to this passage it is clear that the resurrection of the uncorrupted "Holy One" of God in Acts 2:27b, is the Messiah, Jesus Christ; and that He was absolutely essential to David's reception of eternal life. Peter pointed this out to the crowd of Jews in Jerusalam in his interpretation of the passage in Psalms:

''' "Men and brethren, [fellow Israelites, (cf. 2:22)] let me speak freely to you of the patriarch David, that he is both dead and buried, and his tomb is with us to this day," in the sense that David's decayed remains were still in a tomb where his body was placed. "Therefore, [David] being a prophet, and [having known] that God had sworn with an oath to him that of the fruit of his [loins], according to the flesh, He would raise up the Christ to sit on his [David's] throne," in the sense that Jesus Christ in His Humanity was a descendant from David and will be the everlasting Ruler of the Eternal Kingdom of Israel and the world, sitting on the throne that David sat upon, centuries earlier. Hence, "[Having forseen this], he [David] spoke concerning the resurrection of the Christ, that His soul was not left in Hades, nor did His flesh see corruption," (Acts 2:28-31).

1) [Compare Psalm 16:1-11 Masoretic Text translation vs Peter's quotation of the Septuagint in Acts 2:25-28]:

(Ps 16:1 NKJV-MT) "Preserve me, O God, for in You I put my trust.

(Ps 16:2 NKJV-MT) O my soul, you have said to the LORD,

My goodness is nothing apart from You.'

(Ps 16:3 NKJV-MT) As for the saints who are on the earth,

They are the excellent ones, in whom is all my [David's] delight.

(Ps 16:4 NKJV-MT) Their sorrows shall be multiplied who hasten after another god;

Their drink offerings of blood I will not offer,

Nor take up their names on my lips.

(Ps 16:5 NKJV-MT) O LORD, You are the portion of my inheritance and my cup;

You maintain my lot.

(Ps 16:6 NKJV-MT) The lines have fallen to me in pleasant places;

Yes, I have a good inheritance.

(Ps 16:7 NKJV-MT) I will bless the LORD Who had given me counsel;

My heart also [has instructed] me in the [nights].

(Ps 16:8 NKJV-MT) I have set the LORD always before me;

Because He is at my right hand I shall not be moved.

(Acts 2:25 NKJV-Sept) [For David says concerning Him - Jesus] 'I [was foreseeing] the LORD always before [me],

For He is at my right hand, that I may not be shaken.

(Ps 16:9 NKJV-MT) Therefore my heart is glad, and my glory rejoices: My flesh also will rest in hope.

(Acts 2:26 YLT-Sept) Because of this was my heart [rejoiced], and my tongue [rejoiced], and yet - my flesh also shall rest on hope,

(Ps 16:10 NKJV-MT) For You will not leave my soul in Sheol,

Nor will You allow Your Holy One to see corruption.

(Acts 2:27 NKJV-Sept) For You will not leave my [David's] soul in Hades,

Nor will you allow Your Holy One to see corruption.

(Ps 16:11 NKJV-MT) You will show me the path of life;

In Your presence is fullness of joy;

At your right hand are pleasures forevermore."

(Acts 2:28 NKJV-Sept) You have made known to me the ways of life;

You will make me full of joy in Your presence.'

a) David Prayed And Trusted In God for Temporal And Eternal Salvation, Declaring That There Was Nothing In Life That Was Good Apart From The LORD. He Delighted In Fellowship With Fellow Saints; And Rejected Those Who Hastened After Other gods. The LORD Was His Inheritance, Hence He was Incomparably And Pleasantly Blessed! Hence David Blessed The LORD Who Gave Him Counsel Day and Night

(Ps 16:1 NKJV-MT) "Preserve me, O God, for in You I put my trust. (Ps 16:2 NKJV-MT) O my soul, you have said to the LORD, My goodness is nothing apart from You.' (Ps 16:3 NKJV-MT) As for the saints who are on the earth, They are the excellent ones, in whom is all my [David's] delight. (Ps 16:4 NKJV-MT) Their sorrows shall be multiplied who hasten after another god; Their drink offerings of blood I will not offer, Nor take up their names on my lips. (Ps 16:5 NKJV-MT) O LORD, You are the portion of my inheritance and my cup; You maintain my lot. (Ps 16:6 NKJV-MT) The lines have fallen to me in pleasant places; Yes, I have a good inheritance. (Ps 16:7 NKJV-MT) I will bless the LORD Who had given me counsel; My heart also [has instructed] me in the [nights]... (Ps 16:11 NKJV-MT) You will show me the path of life; In Your presence is fullness of joy; At your right hand are pleasures forevermore." =

David was evidently in harm's way which motivated him to trust in the LORD for protection. So he prayed to God to preserve him, in the sense of saving him from harm in his mortal life. And this evidently included trusting in the LORD for eternal life, (cf. Ps 16:11). He declared that he had put his trust in the LORD to that end - for temporal and eternal salvation, (Ps 16:1).

In the next verse, David elaborated upon that trust: "O my soul [referring to himself speaking out to the LORD in prayer] "My goodness is nothing apart from You," indicating David's understanding that everything that is good comes from the LORD; and that anything that David does apart from the LORD is nothing, (Ps 16:2).

Furthermore, David declared that "As for the saints who are on earth," referring to fellow believers in Christ - those like David who trusted alone in the LORD for temporal and eternal salvation: "They are the excellent ones, in whom is my delight," in the sense that these were the ones whom God had set apart as His own - of excellent or noble quality as persons relative to godliness, in whom David declared that he was delighted in having fellowship with. Note that the Hebrew word, "qAdhsh," rendered "saints" in the NKJV, literally means "holy ones" which implies being set apart for the LORD relative to being His possession and having a relationship of an intimate fellowship with them, both temporal and eternal, (Ps 16:3).

On the other hand, David addressed the destiny of those who hastened after other gods: "Their sorrows shall be multiplied" evidently in their temporal and eternal lives. David indicated that he would not do as they did, such as offering drink offerings of blood - in the sense of celebrating the shedding of human blood in some manner. Nor would he even speak the names of the other gods with his lips, (Ps 16:4).

Rather, David had decided to trust exclusively in the LORD: "O LORD, You are the portion of my inheritance and my cup; You maintain my lot," i.e., everything that his life afforded him David trusted to be exclusively of and from the LORD. And David reported that as a result of trusting exclusively in the LORD, "The lines," in the sense of the boundary lines of his life, "have fallen to me in pleasant places. Yes, I have a good inheritance." David compared God's blessings which he received to the best inheritance a person could receive - the Person and Presence of the LORD Himself! (Ps 16:5-6).

So David responded to the LORD because of the blessedness he received in his life from the LORD, saying: "I will bless the LORD," in the sense of praising the LORD as a grateful acknowledgment of His blessings received, "Who had given me counsel; My heart also [has instructed] me in the [nights]," in the sense that the LORD counseled David in the nights as well as in the days - guiding him to lead a godly life. The LORD did this, David said, through his heart, i.e., through his mind., .(Ps 16:7).

b) David Declared That He Had Set The LORD Always Before Him And Because The LORD Would Always Be At His Right Hand, David Would Not Be Moved From His Godly Walk. Therefore David's Heart Was Glad, The Glory Of His Godly Personal Honor Rejoiced, His Tongue Rejoiced In The LORD, And His Body Rested In The Sure Hope Of Temporal and Eternal Salvation. David Declared That The LORD Would Never Leave His Disembodied Soul In Sheol; Nor Would He Allow His Holy One - The Messiah - To See Corruption In The Grave Implying Resurrection. Finally, David Declared That The LORD Would Show Him The Path Of Life, And In The LORD's Presence There Would Be Fullness Of Joy And Pleasures Forevermore, Implying Eternal Life In The Eternal Kingdom Of God

(Ps 16:8 NKJV-MT) "I have set the LORD always before me; Because He is at my right hand I shall not be moved. (Acts 2:25 NKJV-Sept) [For David says concerning Him - Jesus] 'I [was foreseeing] the LORD always before [me], For He is at my right hand, that I may not be shaken. (Ps 16:9 NKJV-MT) Therefore my heart is glad, and my glory rejoices: My flesh also will rest in hope. (Acts 2:26 YLT-Sept) Because of this was my heart [rejoiced], and my tongue [rejoiced], and yet - my flesh also shall rest on hope, (Ps 16:10 NKJV-MT) For You will not leave my soul in Sheol, Nor will You allow Your Holy One to see corruption. (Acts 2:27 NKJV-Sept) For You will not leave my [David's] soul in Hades, Nor will you allow Your Holy One to see corruption. (Ps 16:11 NKJV-MT) You will show me the path of life; In Your presence is fullness of joy; At your right hand are pleasures forevermore." (Acts 2:28 NKJV-Sept) You have made known to me the ways of life; You will make me full of joy in Your presence.' " =

David declared that he had set the LORD "always" before him. And because the LORD was always at David's right hand in the sense of being so close that He was in the best position to be David's Protector, Comforter and Savior. Hence David declared that he would neither be moved in the sense of being distanced from the LORD; nor shaken by what life would bring; nor diverted from his walk of godly integrity - hence not separated from the blessings of the LORD, (Ps 16:8).

As a consequence, the psalmist declared that his heart was glad and that his glory, in the sense of his personal honor, rejoiced at the closeness that he had with the LORD, as evidenced by His temporal salvation from harm, protection and blessings which David received as a result of David's faith in Him. For David rejoiced in his heart (mind) and with his tongue. Furthermore, relative to his flesh - his body - David declared that he would rest in the hope, (literally the sure hope), of temporal and eternal salvation in the LORD. Hence David was implying that he would forever have an intimate relationship with the LORD in his mortal life and then in the eternal Kingdom of God, (Ps 16:9).

David declared, "For You will not leave my soul in Sheol [the place of the conscious afterlife of the soul.] - in the sense of his soul after death not being left in the realm of the dead, outside of the fellowship of the LORD. So although David's body would decay in the tomb in which his dead physical body was placed, David's disembodied soul would continue in intimate fellowship with the LORD. For David had the sure hope of being resurrected to eternal life in the eternal Kingdom of God. David went on to say in Ps 16:10b, "Nor will You allow Your Holy One to see corruption," Hebrew "lir,t sahat," literally "see the pit," in the sense of the dead physical human body of the Holy One not experiencing physical decay or corruption in the grave. It does not refer to eternal condemnation as some contend, especially in the light of the interpretations of Peter and Paul, (Acts 13:35-37), and the Septuagint translation which the LORD and both Apostles quoted from. Although David did imply that he was one of the "qodsm," in Ps 16:3, rendered "saints" in the NKJV implying one who is set apart in a temporal and eternal relationship with the LORD; since David's body was buried and was not resurrected, hence his physical body did experience physical decay; then the unique Holy One in verse 10 cannot be referring to David. It evidently refers to Another - the unique Holy One of Israel, the Messiah, Whose physical body, God's Word promised in Ps 16:10 would not experience physical decay; but once it was placed in the tomb, and sealed up, it was evidently immediately raised from the dead. Note that this passage neither stipulated nor implied that eternal life must be received through ones faithful works, as some contend, (Ps 16:10).

David went on to say to the LORD in Ps 16:11, "You will show me the path of life," in the sense that the LORD would show David how he was to conduct his mortal life - the path of life that he was to take; and, "In Your presence is fullness of joy; At your right hand are pleasures forevermore," implying that that path was to be in the presence of the LORD, and that David would experience the resurrected eternal life in the presence of the LORD in the Eternal Kingdom of God. According to this passage it is clear that the resurrection of the uncorrupted "Holy One" of God, is the Messiah, Jesus Christ in Ps 16:10b; and that He was absolutely essential to David's reception of eternal life. Peter pointed this out to the crowd of Jews in Jerusalem in his interpretation of the passage when he addressed the crowd in Jerusalem on Pentecost, (Acts 2:28-31), (Ps 16:11).

C) (Acts 2:32-33) PETER CONTINUED TO ADDRESS THE CROWD AND DECLARED, "THIS JESUS GOD HAS RAISED UP OF WHICH WE ARE ALL WITNESSES." PETER DECLARED THAT HE WAS EXALTED AT THE RIGHT HAND OF GOD THE FATHER. AND AS PROMISED BY THE FATHER, JESUS RECEIVED THE HOLY SPIRIT WHOM PETER DECLARED JESUS HAD "POURED OUT [THE SPIRIT] AND WHOSE WORK YOU NOW SEE AND HEAR IN THE DISCIPLES' SPEAKING IN THE TONGUES OF THE WORLD OF THE MARVELOUS WORKS OF GOD TO ALL THE JEWS PRESENT FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD - ESPECIALLY OF JESUS CHRIST AND HIM CRUCIFIED, RESURRECTED AND ASCENDED TO THE RIGHT HAND OF THE FATHER

(Acts 2:32 NKJV) ''' [Peter continued to address the crowd] "This Jesus God has raised up, of which we are all witnesses (Acts 2:33 NKJV) Therefore [having been] exalted to the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, He poured out this which you now see and hear [in the sense of the pouring out into each individual disciple the power to speak in known languages to communicate the words of the LORD to them in their native languages - the marvelous works of God, especially of Jesus Christ and Him crucified - the work of the Holy Spirit] " ''' =

Peter made a remarkable declaration to the crowd of Jews in order to bring home to them the message of the risen Christ in a personal way - emphasizing that God was the One Who raised up Jesus from the dead: "This Jesus God has raised up, of which we are all witnesses," [Having corroborated the resurrection of Jesus with Scripture, Peter declared that he and the 120 disciples from the upper room who had accompanied him were eyewitnesses that God raised Jesus up from the dead, (Acts 2:25-31; cf. Acts 2:32; 3:15; 5:32; 10:39-41; 13:30-31)]. Peter went on to say, "Therefore [having been] exalted to the right hand of God," [in the sense of exalting Him to the supreme position of glory, power and authority in the universe - evidently a declaration and demonstration of His victory over sin and death for all mankind. Whereupon Peter declared, "and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, [Acts 1:4-5, 8; Lk 24:49], He [Jesus, in His exalted position of glory, power and authority] poured out this [the Holy Spirit] which you now see and hear," in the sense of the pouring out into each individual disciple the Holy Spirit as evidenced by the power to speak in known languages to communicate the words of the LORD to them in their native languages. And the disciples spoke to the crowd of the marvelous works of God, especially of Jesus Christ and Him crucified as an atoning sacrifice for the sins of the whole world, resurrected and ascended to the Right Hand of the Father, (cf. Acts 2:6-11). The outpouring of the Spirit was further evidence of Jesus' resurrection and exaltation to the right hand of the Father. For John the Baptist and Jesus after him had declared Jesus' promise to accomplish this pouring out of the Spirit, (cf. Lk 3:16; 11:13; Acts 1:5, 8). Note that the baptism / pouring out of the Holy Spirit upon the disciples was the Promise of the Father; and the Giver of the Spirit, Jesus, was the Baptizer - the One Who poured the Spirit forth, baptizing the disciples. This was a clear distinction of the Persons of the Trinity, (Acts 2:32-33).

D) (Acts 2:34-37) THEN PETER PROVIDED MORE EVIDENCE FROM SCRIPTURE BY READING AND INTERPRETING PSALMS 110:1:' ''FOR DAVID DID NOT ASCEND INTO THE HEAVENS, BUT HE SAYS HIMSELF: "THE LORD SAID TO MY LORD, 'SIT AT MY RIGHT HAND, UNTIL I MAKE YOUR ENEMIES A FOOTSTOOL FOR YOUR FEET.' " ''' PETER DECLARED THAT IT WAS NOT DAVID WHO ASCENDED INTO THE HEAVENS, BUT IT WAS THIS JESUS WHOM THEY CRUCIFIED WHO WAS BOTH LORD - MEANING GOD - AND CHRIST MEANING THEIR MESSIAH / SAVIOR. AND THE JEWS WERE "PRICKED TO THE HEART." THEY EVIDENTLY RECOGNIZED THAT JESUS WAS THEIR MESSIAH WHOM THEY HAD CRUCIFIED, BUT THERE IS NO STIPULATION  THAT ALL OF THEM HAD REPENTED / BELIEVED IN HIM FOR FORGIVENESS OF SINS. THEY SAID TO PETER AND THE REST OF THE APOSTLES, "WHAT SHALL WE DO, MEN, BRETHREN?" NOTE THAT THE WORD BRETHREN REFERRED TO BEING FELLOW JEWS, NOT FELLOW BELIEVERS IN CHRIST

(Acts 2:34 NKJV) ''' "[Peter continued to say] For David did not ascend into the heavens, but he says himself: 'The LORD said to my LORD, 'Sit at My right hand, (Acts 2:35 NASB) Until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet.' (Acts 2:36 NKJV) Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly that God has made this Jesus, Whom you crucified, both LORD and Christ [in the sense of Messiah]." (Acts 2:37 YLT) And having heard, they were pricked to the heart; they say also to Peter, and to the rest of the apostles, "What shall we do, men, brethren?" ''' =

Whereupon, Peter provided more evidence from Scripture of Christ's Ascension to heaven to the right hand of the Father and His complete victory over sin and death and His enemies: '''For David did not ascend into the heavens, but he says himself: "The LORD said to my LORD, 'Sit at My right hand, Until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet.' " '''

1) [Compare Ps 110:1]:

(Ps 110:1 NKJV) "The LORD said to my LORD, 'Sit at My right hand, Till I make Your enemies Your footstool' "

Note that the first word in Psalm 110:1 renderd "LORD" is from the Hebrew, "yehAwh" meaning LORD. It specifically refers to God the Father. The second word rendered "LORD" in the verse is from the Hebrew, "la'dOn," also meaning "LORD." It specifically refers to the LORD and Messiah - the Christ, Who is God, God the Son, (cf. Pr 30:4).

David indicated in Ps 110:1 and Peter indicated in Acts 2:34 quoting from the Septuagint version of Ps 110:1 that it was not David who ascended into the heavens, but the resurrected LORD Jesus Christ. Peter quoted David who said, on this issue, in Ps 110:1, "The LORD," (Greek, "ho kurios" literally meaning "the LORD," and specifically referring to God the Father in this verse), "said to my LORD," Greek, "tO kuriO mou" meaning "to my LORD" ((same word)), specifically referring to God the Son, the Ascended LORD Jesus Christ, Who is sitting at the right hand of the Father - the place of authority and power: " 'Sit at My Right Hand Till I make your enemies Your footstool,' " - in the sense of a complete and total victory. David was conveying that God the Father will put [future tense, hence prophetic] the enemies - both earthly and heavenly - of His Son under the subjugation of the Son, (Acts 2:34-35).

Having presented his case so convincingly to the crowd of Jews in Jerusalem for Jesus being the Christ - the Messiah, and corroborating it with Scripture - David's testimony in Psalms 16 & 110 in Acts 2:25-31 - the Apostle Peter concluded, "Therefore let all the house of Israel," (notice once more that Peter was addressing Jews) "know assuredly that God has made this Jesus, Whom you [Jews] crucified, both LORD [Greek, "kurion" in the sense of being God] and Christ [Greek, "Christon" in the sense of the Messiah, God's Annointed One from Israel Who was to rule over the Eternal Kingdom of God. These two titles refer to the Deity and Humanity, respectively of the Son of God, Jesus Christ], (Isa 7:14; 9:6-7 ). The Greek verb "epoiEsen" rendered "has made" does not signify that God fabricated Jesus into being LORD and Christ at that moment in time. Rather, it is saying that Jesus was declared by God to be both LORD - referring to His Diety as the Eternal Son of God; and Christ in the sense of having fulfilled the requirement in His Humanity of being an atoning sacrifice for the sins of the whole world; which declaration was evidenced by God's having raised Him from the dead and ascended Him into glory at His right hand in heaven. Notice that convincing and convicting fellow Jews in the sense of getting them to change their minds and believe that "Jesus Whom you crucified, [was] both LORD and Christ" unto forgiveness of sins and eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God was Peter's message. For Peter was declaring the imminent fulfillment of the prophecy in Joel 2:28-32, (Acts 2:16-21), in the sense of the commencement of the Eternal Kingdom of God upon the earth should all of that generation of Israel call upon the name of the LORD to be saved in the sense of repenting unto trusting in Jesus as LORD and Christ for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, (cf. 1 Jn 5:1), whereupon being water baptized in the name of Jesus symbolizing their forgiveness unto eternal life through Christ they would receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.

Not in view was an exhortation to behave better or feel remorse or commit to a holy lifestyle, as some contend. For attempts at good behavior will never be sufficient to pay for all the sins one has committed. Forgiveness of sins only comes by the grace of God through a moment of faith alone in Christ alone - His atonement for their sins. For attempts at good behavior will never be sufficient to pay for all the sins one has committed. Forgiveness of sins only comes by the grace of God through a moment of faith alone in Christ alone - His atonement for their sins. Note that the Greek word "Christon" rendered "Christ" in the NKJV is the Greek word which means "Messiah," referring to the Messiah of the Jews and the world as detailed in the books of the Old Testament, (cf. Isa 7:14; 9:6-7 ); (Acts 2:36).

The Jews having heard what Peter so convincingly had to say to this point, "were pricked to the heart," in the sense that they felt remorse. The Greek phrase "katenugEsan tE kardia," rendered "they were pricked to the heart" in the YLT was descriptive of their feelings. It connoted a sharp pain associated with great anxiety and devastating remorse. The implication is that many of the Jews present to hear Peter's sermon had painfully realized that their Messiah - the One promised to sit on the throne of David to commence and rule the Eternal Kingdom of God had been crucified by them - evidently, in their minds, destroying their chance to enter into the Kingdom, corroborating that they had not been up to this point brothers in the faith in Jesus Christ. Whereupon they said to Peter and the rest of the apostles, 'What shall we do, men, brethren?' implying that a number of them had just begun to believe that Jesus was both LORD and Christ - a belief that is tantamount to becoming born of God, (1 Jn 5:1), having forgiveness of sins unto eternal life. On the other hand there is no stipulation that everyone in the crowd had repented / believed in Him for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, nor was there an indication in verse 37 that everyone in the crowd was assured that they were forgiven of all of their sins including the one of crucifying Jesus. Whereupon Peter's answer in verse 38 stipulates  that the result of repentance unto faith in Christ resulted in forgiveness of sins unto eternal life. Whether or not some or all of them had repented / believed is not stipulated, but Peter's answer assured those who did believe that they were forgiven unto eternal life.

Note that Peter had previously addressed the crowd as brethren in the sense of being fellow Israelites as opposed to fellow believers in Christ: "Men of Judea and Jerusalem, (v. 14); "Men, Israelites," (v. 22); "Brethren" in connection with their "Patriarch David," (v. 29); hence they were brethren Israelites who had not yet become "brethren" in the sense of fellow believers in Christ, as some contend, (Acts 2:22-37). Whereupon those Jews of this transition period, those who were guilty of crucifying Christ - Peter's audience - who repented / became believers in Jesus as Lord and Christ unto forgiveness of sins unto eternal life, (cf. 1 Jn 5:1), were to be water baptized symbolic of their sins being forgiven unto eternal life - especially in view being the sin of crucifying Christ. This water baptism preceded the reception of the gift of the Holy Spirit in the Jews who crucified Christ and then repented / believed unto forgiveness of sins unto eternal life; but it was not causative of either result .

III) [Acts 2:38]:

(Acts 2:38 HOLMAN) '''And Peter said to them, "Repent (and [let each one of you] be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins. And you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit." '''

A) (Acts 2:38) REPENTANCE RELATIVE TO FORGIVENESS OF SINS UNTO ETERNAL LIFE IN THE ETERNAL KINGDOM OF GOD MEANS TO CHANGE THE MIND - TO TURN FROM A BELIEF SYSTEM WHICH IS NOT SOLELY IN CHRIST ALONE TO ONE WHICH IS. REPENTANT BEHAVIOR RATHER THAN A REPENTANCE = CHANGE OF MIND FROM NOT BELIEVING TO BELIEVING IS NEVER STIPULATED IN SCRIPTURE AS RESULTING IN SINS BEING FORGIVEN UNTO ETERNAL LIFE

1) (Acts 2:38) The Greek Words Metaneo (Verb) And Metanoia (Noun) Rendered "To Repent" And "Repentance" Mean A Change Of The Mind. They Do Not Include Other Spheres Of Activity Outside Of The Mind, Such As A Change Of Behavior, Without Other Words Present In The Text At Hand To Designate This

(Acts 2:38 HOLMAN) '''And Peter said to them, "Repent (and [let each one of you] be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins. And you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit" '''  =

The Greek words metanoeo (verb) and metanoia (noun) rendered to repent and repentance come from the combination of the Greek words meta meaning 'after', implying change and the Greek word noeo meaning the mind. They literally mean an 'after thought,' in the sense of a rethinking. The implication here is a change of mind - a change in the direction of thought - from one thing to another which things are mutually exclusive from one another. Furthermore, the sphere of this word is limited to within the mind. Other spheres of activity such as a change of behavior are not in view relative to the word repent, as some contend are in view. These other activities require other words to be present in the text at hand which designate changes outside of the sphere of the mind.

a) [Compare 2 Tim 2:24-25]:

(2 Tim 2:24 NKJV) "And a servant of the LORD must not quarrel but be gentle to all, able to teach, patient,

(2 Tim 2:25 NKJV) in humility correcting those who are in opposition, if God perhaps will grant them repentance, so that they may know the truth."

Notice that author Paul indicates that a servant of the Lord, a pastor/teacher is to gently instruct in the Word of God, (v. 4:2), those who oppose him in the hope that God will grant them repentance, i.e., a change of mind which leads to a knowledge, i.e., an acceptance, belief in the truth of God's Word being taught. So repentance = metanoian here is not a feeling of regret, or an action of some kind, but simply a change of mind from opposing, i.e., rejecting or disbelieving truths from God's Word to a knowledge and acceptance of them, i.e., belief in them. From disbelief to belief. When one believes in a statement which is taught in Scripture, one turns from doubt or unbelief to faith in that statement.

In order to repent, i.e., turn to Christ alone for forgiveness of sins which means that you believe that He alone can and will forgive you, you must turn from your rejection of Him - from the belief that you must commit to change your behavior to godly works; or from the belief that your sins are something you yourself can and will deal with in your own way and not in God's way. So instead of rejecting faith alone in Christ alone you turn to faith placed in Him alone as Savior to completely and forever forgive you of all of your sins. That is God's way of dealing with your sins. That is what the Bible defines as 'repentance for the forgiveness of sins' which is unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. Repentant behavior rather than a repentance = change of mind from not believing to believing is never stipulated in Scripture as resulting in sins being blotted out, i.e., forgiven unto eternal life.

Note that the word rendered "repent" in Acts 2:38 cannot mean to turn from committing sin; because neither temporal nor eternal forgiveness can be given to an individual by God if the individual agrees to repent and stop committing further sins - if that were possible, and it is not. For the justice of God would not be satisified until those sins he did commit were personally forgiven through a moment of faith alone in God's Son alone Who paid the penalty for them. Justification unto eternal life can only come when one is justified by a moment of faith alone in God's Son alone . Thereafter, temporal forgiveness can be given by God as the individual who has already been justified by faith alone; not by repentance, but by confessing his daily sins . So since those in view in Acts 2:1-38 are Jews who crucified Jesus, hence who do not believe in Him, and all Gentiles who don't believe in Him, for that matter as well, (v. 39), the word rendered "repent" in Acts 2:38 must mean to change the mind and believe in Jesus being Lord and Christ unto eternal forgiveness of sins and entrance into the Eternal Kingdom of God.

*****

2) The Old Testament Prophets, John The Baptist And His Disciples, And The LORD Jesus Christ And His Disciples Before His Ascension Preached To Israel, "Repent For The Kingdom Of God Is At Hand" - In The Sense Of Believing In The Coming Messiah / Savior In Order For Them To Receive Forgiveness Of Sins Unto Eternal Life In The Eternal Kingdom Of God, Which Would Commence Should All Israel Believe. The Context Of This Repentance Unto Forgiveness Of Sins Did Not Include Producing Fruit, I.E., Doing Godly Works, Such As Water Baptism; Nor Did It Include A Committment To Do Godly Works, As Some Contend

Note that it was the forerunner of Jesus, John the Baptist who would "prepare the way for the Lord [making] straight paths for Him," (Mt 3:3; Isa 40:3). By commanding all Israel to "Repent for the Kingdom of God is at hand," (Mt 3:2), John was stating that in his time the coming of the Christ - the Messiah - to bring His Eternal Kingdom into the world was imminent should all of Israel repent / believe in Him for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in that Kingdom. And thereafter and in the same manner preached Jesus and His disciples before His Ascension, (Mt 4:12, 17; Mk 1:14-15). It was John the Baptist who declared Who Jesus was: "Behold the Lamb of God Who takes away the sins of the world," (Jn 1:29) - as testified to in Old Testament Scripture, (Isa 53:4-5; cf. Acts 10:43). And it was John the Baptist who preached that "one must believe in Jesus," (Acts 19:4). Hence the word rendered "repent" when preached by the Old Testament prophets, John the Baptist and his disciples, and Jesus and His disciples before His Ascension signified that one must believe in Christ as Messiah "for the forgiveness of sins," (Joel 2:15 ; Isa 9:6; 53:1-17; Acts 10:43; Acts 19:4; Mk 1:4; 14-15; Mt 4:12, 17) in order to gain eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God.

a) [Compare Mk 1:14-15]:

(Mk 1:14 NKJV) "Now after John was put in prison, Jesus came to Galilee, preaching the gospel of the Kingdom of God,

(Mk 1:15 NKJV) and saying, 'The time is fulfilled, and the Kingdom of God is at hand. Repent, and believe in the gospel.'

Furthermore, John the Baptist and his disciples, and Jesus and His disciples before His Ascension commanded those who believed in Jesus to demonstrate this change to faith in Him by a "baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins" - a water baptism symbolic of their having expressed a moment of faith alone in Jesus Christ, their Messiah / Savior alone unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, (Acts 2:38; 3:19; 19:4; Mk 1:4).

b) [Compare Mt 3:1-8]:

In Mt 3:1-8, John the Baptist indicated that repentance was not the same as producing fruit. They are two separate things. The words rendered "repentance" and "repent" relative to the eternal forgiveness of sins have in view a moment of faith alone in Christ alone - a mental acceptance of our LORD's provision for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. So when John the Baptist spoke to many of the Pharisees and Sadducees saying, "Who warned you to flee from the wrath to come? Therefore bear fruits worthy of repentance" in Mt 3:7-8, he was declaring to individuals who should have already expressed repentance / faith in Christ to secure the gift of eternal life, to produce fruit, i.e., godly behavior in keeping with that repentance:

(Mt 3:1 NKJV) '''In those days John the Baptist came preaching in the wilderness of Judea,

(Mt 3:2 NKJV) and saying, "Repent, for the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand!"

[The Greek conjunction "gar" which is rendered "for" in the phrase "Repent, for the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand" is a causal particle which introduces the reason why all of Israel must repent / believe in Jesus as LORD and Christ / Messiah Who is to come to provide an atoning sacrifice for the sins of the whole world, (cf. Mt 3:3; Isa 40:3-5), unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of Heaven. And that reason is so that the LORD would commence His Eternal Kingdom of heaven upon the earth, i.e., the Eternal Kingdom of God - with all of a generation of His chosen people Israel having trusted in Him to be the Kingdom's ruling nation on the earth. However the Jews at the time of John the Baptist did not all repent / believe. So the Eternal Kingdom did not then commence]

(Mt 3:3 YLT) for this is he who was spoken of by Isaiah the prophet, saying, "A voice of one crying [out] in the wilderness, 'Prepare... the way of the LORD, straight make... His paths.' " (cf. Isa 40:3 )

(Mt 3:4 NKJV) Now John himself was clothed in camel's hair, with a leather belt around his waist; and his food was locusts and wild honey.

(Mt 3:5 NKJV) Then Jerusalem, all Judea, and all the region around the Jordan went out to him

(Mt 3:6 NKJV) and were baptized by him in the Jordan, confessing their sins.

[So as each Israelite trusted in Christ as Messiah/Savior unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of Heaven, the Kingdom of God was declared at hand should all Israel believe. All of this was in conjunction with the Messiah's arrival as the Lamb of God Who takes away the sins of the world, (Jn 1:29). Whereupon the Israelite believer was to confess his sins - not to receive eternal forgiveness, for he was already forgiven unto eternal life - but in order to receive temporal forgiveness to restore his temporal fellowship with God, so that the individual would be prepared spiritually before being water baptized, (Ps 32:1-5; Pr 28:13; cf. 1 Jn 1:9) . Whereupon he was water baptized by John in the Jordan River. This water baptism was declared as a baptism of repentance, symbolic of one having changed ones mind from not believing to a moment of faith alone in Christ alone as Messiah/Savior unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, (Acts 19:4). This baptism was also symbolic of the Israelite believer's identification with national Israel and our Lord and His Eternal Kingdom which was to have been ushered in, had all Israel accepted Him as Messiah. In view of the fact that the Kingdom did not commence in John's time, John's declaration, "The Kingdom of God is at hand" was nevertheless not in error because it was Israel which had failed once more to respond to the LORD's command for national repentance - leaving the door open for a future generation of Israel who will all respond by a moment of faith alone in Christ alone as Messiah / Savior unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, (cf. Zech 12:10-14). Hence the time of the commencement of the Eternal Kingdom of God remained imminent / ready to immediately begin. But Peter later, after his message in Acts chapter 2,  announced that the Kingdom of God would not come "until the time of the restoration of all things," at which time all of a generation of Israel would chose to believe, (cf. Acts 3:21)].

(Mt 3:7 NKJV) But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming to his baptism, he said to them, "Brood of vipers! Who warned you to flee from the wrath to come?

[Notice that the arrival of the Eternal Kingdom of Heaven will begin with God's wrath upon unbelievers - those presently alive who have chosen not to repent / believe.]

(Mt 3:8 NKJV) Therefore bear fruits worthy of repentance."

So the point is clearly made that producing fruit, i.e., godly works and repentance unto forgiveness of sins unto eternal life are two different things. One repents, i.e., changes ones mind and believes in the coming Messiah, Jesus Christ for forgiveness of sins so as to gain an eternally secure entrance into the Eternal Kingdom of Heaven by a moment of faith alone in Christ alone. And after that has been done, one is commanded to choose daily in ones temporal life to bear fruit, i.e., godly behavior, out of duty and gratitude for being saved unto eternal life solely by the grace of God . So the command in verse 8 is to produce fruit, i.e., to change the behavior in keeping with the change of mind - the repentance from unbelief to belief in the Messiah / Savior. Evidently the many Pharisees and Sadducees that John was addressing had neither produced godly fruit nor repented / believed in Christ.

c) [Compare Acts 19:4]:

(Acts 19:4 NKJV) "Then Paul said, 'John [the Baptist] indeed baptized with a baptism of repentance, saying to the people [Israel] that they should believe on Him Who would come after him, that is, on Christ Jesus."

Notice that Paul indicated that John's baptism of repentance signified that one had expressed a moment of faith alone in Christ Jesus for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. Absent in this passage was any stipulation of committment to godly behavior required for receiving eternal life. Furthermore, Paul indicated that John the Baptist largely addressed the people of Israel, (cf. Acts 19:4).

d) [Compare Mk 1:4, 14-15]:

(Mk 1:4 NKJV) "John came baptizing in the wilderness and preaching a baptism of repentance for remission [forgiveness] of sins."

(Mk 1:14 NKJV) "Now after John was put in prison, Jesus came to Galilee, preaching the gospel of the Kingdom of God,

(Mk 1:15 NKJV) and saying, 'The time is fulfilled, and the Kingdom of God is at hand. Repent, and believe in the gospel.' "

Notice that the phrase rendered "Repent, and believe in the gospel" is the key message for receiving forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God; and absent is the command to be water baptized toward that end. The word repent here conveys the sense of changing the mind and believing in Jesus Christ for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God.

e) [Compare Mt 4:12, 17]:

(Mt 4:12 YLT) "And Jesus having heard that John was delivered up [in the sense of arrested and put in prison], He withdrew to Galilee."

(Mt 4:17 NKJV) "From that time Jesus began to preach and to say, 'Repent, for the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand.' "

Notice that just as John the Baptist came baptizing in the wilderness and preaching a baptism of repentance for remission [forgiveness] of sins, (Mk 1:4, 14-15), so after John was put in prison, Jesus came to Galilee, preaching the same gospel of the Kingdom of God, (Mk 1:14-15; Mt 4:12). For Jesus was saying, "The time is fulfilled [in the sense of whatever was required to take place had taken place], and the Kingdom of God is at hand, [in the sense that its commencement was imminent]. Repent and believe in the gospel,' " (Mk 1:15; Mt 4:17). Notice once again that any reference to water baptism is absent in the phrase "Repent and believe in the gospel, with the word repent referring to change the mind "and believe." In other words, had all of those to whom Jesus and John the Baptist were speaking - to all of a generation of Israel - repented in the sense of changing their minds to believe in Jesus Christ for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, then the Eternal Kingdom of God would have commenced then and there!

But thereafter - after Christ's Ascension and after Peter's address to the Jews in Acts chapter 2 - heaven would receive the LORD "until the times of restoration of all things;" i.e., until a future time when the Eternal Kingdom of God would commence upon all of a future generation of Israel repenting / believing in Christ, (Acts 3:19-21).

3) In The Case Of The Message Of The Gospel After Christ's Ascension, Beginning With The Apostle Peter, The Greek Word "Metanoeo" ("Metanoesate") Rendered "Repent" Continued To Signify A Change From Not Believing To Believing Alone In Jesus Christ (Now Having Been Revealed In His Resurrected Humanity To The World) As LORD And Christ / The Messiah For Forgiveness Of Sins Unto Eternal Life In The Eternal Kingdom Of God; Which Kingdom Would Commence Should All Of That Generation Of Israel Believe. Plus In This Time There Was Begun The Reception Of The Gift Of The Indwelling Holy Spirit In All Who Believed - Jew And Gentile Alike. But Sometime After His Address To The Jews In Acts Chapter 2, Peter Indicated That Heaven Must Receive Jesus Christ, The Holy One, Until The Times Of Restoration Of All Things, I.E., Until A Future Time When The Eternal Kingdom Of God Would Commence Upon All Of A Future Generation Of Israel Repenting / Believing In Christ

a) [Compare Acts 2:36-38]:

(Acts 2:36 NKJV) '''[Peter declared] "Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly that God has made this Jesus, Whom you crucified, both LORD and Christ [in the sense of the promised Messiah / Savior]." (Acts 2:37 YLT) And having heard, they were pricked to the heart; they say also to Peter, and to the rest of the apostles, "What shall we do, men, brethren? (Acts 2:38 HOLMAN) And Peter said to them, "Repent (and [let each one of you] be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins. And you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit." ''' =

Peter's answer to the Jews' question of what they should do relative to Jesus Christ being their Lord and Christ, their Messiah / Savior, was to repent in the sense of changing their minds to believe in Him for forgiveness of sin sunto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God; which Kingdom would commence should all of that generation of Israel believe. This included being water baptized in the name of Jesus Christ - but to symbolize and not to be part of repentance as some contend. Nor was water baptism to be causative of being forgiven of ones sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God; thereafter one would receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. Absent is an exhortation to be have better or feel remorse or commit to a holy lifestyle.

Having presented his case so convincingly to the crowd of Jews in Jerusalem for Jesus being the Christ - the Messiah, and corroborating it with Scripture - David's testimony in Psalms 16 & 110 - the Apostle Peter concluded, "Therefore let all the house of Israel," (notice once more that Peter was addressing Jews) "know assuredly that God has made this Jesus, Whom you [Jews] crucified, both LORD [Greek, "kurion" in the sense of being God] and Christ [Greek, "Christon" in the sense of the Messiah, God's Annointed One from Israel Who was to rule over the Eternal Kingdom of God. These two titles refer to the Deity and Humanity, respectively of the Son of God, Jesus Christ], (Isa 7:14; 9:6-7 ). The Greek verb "epoiEsen" rendered "has made" does not signify that God fabricated Jesus into being LORD and Christ at that moment in time. Rather, it is saying that Jesus was declared by God to be both LORD - referring to His Diety as the Eternal Son of God; and Christ in the sense of having fulfilled the requirement in His Humanity of being an atoning sacrifice for the sins of the whole world; which declaration was evidenced by God's having raised Him from the dead and ascended Him into glory at His right hand in heaven. Notice that convincing and convicting fellow Jews in the sense of getting them to change their minds and believe that "Jesus Whom you crucified, [was] both LORD and Christ" unto forgiveness of sins and eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, (cf. 1 Jn 5-1), was Peter's message. For Peter was declaring the imminent fulfillment of the prophecy in Joel 2:28-32, (Acts 2:16-21), in the sense of the commencement of the Eternal Kingdom of God upon the earth should all of that generation of Israel call upon the name of the LORD to be saved in the sense of repenting unto trusting in Jesus as LORD and Christ for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, (cf. 1 Jn 5:1), and the gift of the Holy Spirit.

Not in view was an exhortation to behave better or feel remorse or commit to a holy lifestyle, as some contend. For attempts at good behavior will never be sufficient to pay for all the sins one has committed. Forgiveness of sins only comes by the grace of God through a moment of faith alone in Christ alone - His atonement for their sins. Note that the Greek word "Christon" rendered "Christ" in the NKJV is the Greek word which means "Messiah," referring to the Messiah of the Jews and the world as detailed in the books of the Old Testament, (cf. Isa 7:14; 9:6-7 ); (Acts 2:36).

So the Jews having heard what Peter so convincingly had to say to this point, "were pricked to the heart," in the sense that they felt remorse. The Greek phrase "katenugEsan tE kardia," rendered "they were pricked to the heart" in the YLT was descriptive of their feelings. It connoted a sharp pain associated with great anxiety and devastating remorse. The implication is that many of the Jews present to hear Peter's sermon had painfully realized that their Messiah - the One promised to sit on the throne of David to commence and rule the Eternal Kingdom of God had been crucified by them - evidently, in their minds, destroying their chance to enter into the Kingdom, corroborating that they had not been up to this point brothers in the faith in Jesus Christ.

Whereupon they said to Peter and the rest of the apostles, 'What shall we do, men, brethren?' implying that a number of them had just begun to believe that Jesus was both LORD and Christ - a belief that is tantamount to becoming born of God, (1 Jn 5:1), having forgiveness of sins unto eternal life. On the other hand there is no stipulation that everyone in the crowd had repented / believed in Him for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, nor was there an indication in verse 37 that everyone in the crowd was assured that they were forgiven of all of their sins including the one of crucifying Jesus.

Whereupon Peter's answer in verse 38 stipulates  that the result of repentance unto faith in Christ resulted in forgiveness of sins unto eternal life. Whether or not some or all of them had repented / believed is not stipulated, but Peter's answer was assurance that those who did believe were forgiven unto eternal life at whatever moment that they did believe.

Peter then said to them in Acts 2:38, "And Peter said to them, "Repent (and [let each one of you] be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins. And you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit." The message of those who preceded Peter when he gave his message in Acts chapter 2, namely the prophets of the Old Testament, (cf. Acts 3:21; 10:43 ), John the Baptist and his disciples followed by Jesus and His disciples before His Ascension - one of whom was Peter - was "Repent for the Kingdom of God is at hand," implying repentance / a moment of faith alone in the Messiah alone unto eternal life in the eternal Kingdom of God. Peter's message in Acts chapter 2 was essentially the same relative to the reception of eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God - including the imminency of the commencement of the Eternal Kingdom of God should all Israel repent / believe. For Peter's referral to Joel's account of the arrival of the Day of the LORD in Joel 2:12-32 - the time when the LORD would come to establish His Eternal Kingdom of God - set the tone of imminency of that commencement to the time when Peter began to address the Jews in Jerusalem, just as Joel had done, in his time, centuries earlier. Note that the water baptism was now declared to be "in the name of Jesus Christ" - His Humanity having now been revealed to the world; and His atoning sacrifice for the sins of the whole world now completed as promised. Hence the phrase "in the name of Jesus Christ" signified that one had called upon the name of Jesus Christ - the LORD - to be saved in the sense of having trusted in Him for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, (Acts 2:21; Joel 2:32).

Furthermore, there was the addition of the gift - the baptism of the indwelling Holy Spirit within each believer. For Jews during the transition period from the age of the Law to the age of the Church this gift was to be after repenting to faith in Jesus Christ following  water baptism. Gentile believers would receive the Holy Spirit upon the moment of repentance / belief, (cf. Acts 10:43-48 ); Samaritan believers via the laying on of hands by one of the Apostles, (Acts 8:12-17 ); Jews who expressed a moment of repentance unto faith in Jesus Christ as Messiah / Savior and were water baptized under the preaching of John the Baptist and Jesus after John via a second water baptism in the name of the Lord Jesus + the laying on of hands of the Apostle Paul, (Acts 19:1-6 ). Thereafter, when the transition period was over, and the Age of the Church established all who repented / believed in Jesus Christ for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life were to receive the Spirit at that moment of faith alone, (Eph 1:13-14  ).

Note that Peter's message as recorded in Acts chapter 2 included Gentiles in verse 39, albeit with some variation such as the reception of the Holy Spirit upon repentance and a variation in the role of water baptism. His inclusion of Gentiles in his message of the gospel to the Jews was nothing new, (Isa 49:6, 56:7, 57:19; Joel 2:28; Mal 1:11; cf. Acts 2:39, 10:24-48, 22:21). Although the prophets of the Old Testament largely addressed Israel, the promise of eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God always included Gentiles, (Isa 49:6, 56:7, 57:19; Joel 2:28; Mal 1:11). And although accounts of John the Baptist were limited to his ministry to Israel, there is no indication that he excluded Gentiles, (cf. Acts 19:1-4). Furthermore, Acts 1:8 speaks of the disciples of Jesus carrying the gospel to the end of the earth which implies the inclusion of all mankind. And finally, although our LORD began sending His disciples to the "lost sheep of the house of Israel," He expanded His ministry, instructing the disciples to carry His message to Gentiles - which included Peter, (Mt 10:5-18; Lk 7:1-10).

Although the imminency of the commencement of the Eternal Kingdom of God should all of a generation of Israel repent / believe was in view in Acts chapter 2. It was no longer in view at the time of Peter's address in Acts chapter 3. For Peter then stipulated that heaven would receive the LORD "until the times of restoration of all things," (Acts 3:21) .

The Greek word "metanoEsate," from the root word "metanoeo," is rendered "repent" in Acts 2:38. It comes from the combination of the Greek words meta meaning 'after,' implying change; and the Greek word noeo meaning the mind, the understanding = literally, an 'after thought.' Hence it is a rethinking or a change of mind. The sphere of this word in the context of Acts chapter 2 is therefore limited to a change within the mind. Other kinds and spheres of activity, such as a change of lifestyle, are not in view in Acts 2:38, . These other activities require other words which are not present in the text at hand which designate changes outside of the sphere of the mind. For Peter's sermon was all about Who Jesus was. It wasn't about the Jews taking some kind of action, such as behaving in a godly manner, or feeling remorse, or making a committment to behave better. For Peter did not indicate that the Jews were to "produce fruit" in order to receive forgiveness of sins unto eternal life and the gift of the Holy Spirit - they were only commanded to repent / believe. Even when John the Baptist commanded many pharisees and sadducees to "Bear fruits worthy of repentance," he implied that this was to be done after forgiveness of sins unto eternal life had been eternally secured via a moment of repentance unto faith alone in Christ alone, (Mt 3:8 ). So the Greek word "metanoEsate," second person plural imperative / command form of the Greek word "metanoeo," appears in Acts 2:38, conveying a command to the people of Israel - as well as Gentiles, (Acts 2:39, 10:24-48, 22:21) - to change their minds from not believing to believing alone in the Messiah, Jesus Christ alone for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God; whereupon each one was to be water baptized to symbolize that forgiveness through Christ's atonement for them.

b) [Compare Acts 2:41-44]:

(Acts 2:41 NASB) "So then, those who had received his[Peter's] word [i.e., believed in Christ as Messiah/Savior, see v. 44 below] were baptized; and that day there were added [to the number of those being saved unto eternal life] about three thousand souls.

(Acts 2:42 YLT) And they were continuing steadfastly in the teaching of the apostles, and the fellowship, and the breaking of the bread, and the prayers.

(Acts 2:43 NKJV) Then fear came upon every soul, and many wonders and signs were done through the apostles.

[This was a demonstration of the work of the Holy Spirit within the disciples and through them, authenticating their testimony about believing in Jesus Christ for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God]

(Acts 2:44 NKJV) Now all who believed were together, and had all things in common."

Notice that Acts 2:41-44 confirm that the word rendered "repent" in Acts 2:38 means believing in Jesus Christ for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. The words do not say, 'Now all those who turned from their sins... or confessed their sins,' they say "Now all those who believed were together," i.e., those who exercised a moment of faith alone in Christ alone for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. Notice also that those who have had their sins blotted out - who have received forgiveness of sins - are defined as those who have believed.

Furthermore, it is significant that water baptism is mentioned in verse 41 as occurring after having received Peter's word in the sense of believing in Christ for forgiveness of sins. And in verse 44, it's absence indicates that the essential and sole point is having believed in order to receive forgiveness of sins. This is corroborated when Peter once again addressed a Jewish audience on this matter:

c) [Compare Acts 3:11-21]:

Note that from the time of Peter's message in Acts chapter 3, Peter indicated that heaven must receive Jesus Christ the Holy One until the times of restoration of all things, i.e., until a future time when the Eternal Kingdom of God would commence upon all of a future generation of Israel repenting / believing in Christ:

(Acts 3:11 NKJV) "Now as the lame man who was healed held on to Peter and John, all the people ran together to them in the porch which is called Solomon's, greatly amazed.

(Acts 3:12 NKJV) [And Peter having seen the peoples' being greatly amazed, (v. 11)] So when Peter saw it, he responded to the people: 'Men of Israel, why do you marvel at this? Or why look so intently at us, as though by our own power or godliness we had made this man walk?

(Acts 3:13 NKJV) The God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, the God of our fathers, glorified His Servant Jesus, Whom you delivered up and denied in the presence of Pilate, when he was determined to let Him go.

(Acts 3:14 NKJV) But you denied the Holy One and the Just, and asked for a murderer to be granted to you,

(Acts 3:15 NKJV) and killed the Prince of life, Whom God raised from the dead, of which we are witnesses.

(Acts 3:16 NKJV) And His [Jesus'] name, through faith in His name, has made this man strong, whom you see and know. Yes, the faith which comes through Him has given him [the healed, formerly lame man] this perfect soundness in the presence of you all.

(Acts 3:17 NKJV) Yet now, brethren, [Peter is referring here to fellow Jews] I know that you did it in ignorance, as did also your rulers.

(Acts 3:18 NKJV) But those things which God foretold by the mouth of all His prophets

(Acts 3:19 HOLMAN) Therefore repent and turn ...[to Christ in faith, (v. 16)], so that your sins may be blotted out, that seasons of refreshing may come from the presence of the LORD,

[In Acts 3:19a, Peter is offering to Israel and to Gentiles, i.e., all mankind, (Acts 2:39, 10:24-48, 22:21), the opportunity to "Repent and turn... [from ignorance of Who Jesus was, (v. 17), to faith in Him as Lord and  Christ] so that [their] sins may be blotted out," in the sense of forgiven unto eternal life. The Apostle is saying for the Jews who crucified Jesus as in Acts 2:38, to change their minds from not trusting in Jesus Christ as ones Messiah/Savior to believing in His name, i.e., His capacity to provide one with eternal forgiveness of sins. The phrase rendered "so that your sins may be blotted out," signifies to be forgiven of ones sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, (cf. Acts 2:38; 10:43). On the other hand, Peter preached in Acts 3:19b that "seasons of refreshing may come from the presence of the LORD," i.e., that one believes in Jesus Christ for forgiveness so that one will enter that Eternal Kingdom of God when it commences and everything is restored.

Notice that there is no stipulation such as "and be baptized" present in order to have their sins blotted out! So evidently water baptism is symbolic. Furthermore there is nothing stipulated in this passage about receiving the gift of the Holy Spirit. In view of Acts 2:38's stipulation of repentance and baptism followed by forgiveness of sins and Holy Spirit reception, we may conclude that the water baptism is not required for forgiveness of sins. But once one is baptized, there follows the reception of the Holy Spirit in the group of Jews who are in view in chapters 2 and 3 of Acts - those Jews responsible for the death of Christ at the beginning / the transition period of the Church Age who have repented / believed.

On the other hand, the timeframe for the commencement had changed, for Peter declared in the next two verses, (Acts 3:20-21), that heaven must receive Jesus Christ until the times of restoration of all things. Hence the commencement of the Eternal Kingdom of God was not imminent at the time of Peter's message. But when that time comes, God will send His Son, Jesus Christ to rule His Eternal Kingdom forever]:

(Acts 3:20 NKJV) and that He [God the Father] may send Jesus Christ, Who was preached to you before,

(Acts 3:21 NKJV) Whom heaven must receive until the times of restoration of all things, which God has spoken by the mouth of all His holy prophets since the world began."

So Peter indicated to his audience of Jews that God, (the Father, v. 18), will send His Son Jesus Christ to the earth; Who, Peter reminded, was repeatedly preached to the Jews and to all mankind since the world began. But for the present time, Peter declared in verse 21, heaven must receive Him "until the times of restoration of all things, which God has spoken by the mouth of all His holy prophets since the world began."

So our Lord Jesus Christ will come to earth to commence His Eternal Kingdom rule when it is time. And at the moment of His Second Coming all of a generation of Israel will recognize and trust in her Messiah as a result of God's enablement and Israel's subsequent response of faith, (cf. Zech 12:10-14). The phrases "that seasons of refreshing may come from the presence of the LORD," in verse 19; and "until the times of restoration of all things," in verse 21 refer to the commencement of the Eternal Kingdom of God.

d) [Compare Acts 5:30-32]:

(Acts 5:30 NKJV) [Peter said, v. 29)] "The God of our fathers raised up Jesus Whom you [Jewish rulers, (vv. 22-28)] murdered by hanging on a tree.

(Acts 5:31 NKJV) Him God has exalted to His right hand to be Prince and Savior, to give repentance to Israel and forgiveness of sins.

(Acts 5:32 NKJV) And we are His witnesses to these things, and so also is the Holy Spirit Whom God has given to those who obey Him."

Notice that Peter declared that repentance was given to Israel in the sense of all Israelites being given the opportunity to repent / believe unto forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the eternal Kingdom of God. Furthermore, Peter adds that the Holy Spirit was also given to those who obeyed God. Since water baptism is not stipulated in this passage, then it is not essential for forgiveness of sins - only the repentance unto faith is stipulated which evidently does not include water baptism. On the other hand, water baptism is something for the believers to obey which according to Acts 2:38 is followed by the reception of the Holy Spirit for those Jews who crucified Jesus who are in view in chapters 2, 3 and 5.
*****

e) [Compare Acts 10:34-48]:

In Acts chapter 10, Peter addresses the Gentiles with the same message he has been preaching relative to forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, albeit the reception of the gift of the Holy Spirit comes at the moment of faith alone, before water baptism:

(Acts 10:34 NKJV) "Then Peter opened his mouth and said: 'In truth I perceive that God shows no partiality [relative to whom the forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God applies, i.e., it applies to everyone - Jew and Gentile alike].

(Acts 10:35 NKJV) But in every nation whoever fears Him and works righteousness is accepted by Him.

[The phrase rendered "But in every nation, i.e., Jew and Gentile alike, whoever fears Him and works righteousness is accepted by Him," in the sense of whoever of every nation of mankind believes in Jesus Christ for forgiveness of sins, (Acts 10:43), unto the reception of the Righteousness of Christ, is accepted by God in the sense of having eternal life and entering the Eternal Kingdom of God]

(Acts 10:36 NKJV) The word which God sent to the children of Israel, preaching peace through Jesus Christ - He is Lord of all -

(Acts 10:37 NKJV) that word you know, which was proclaimed throughout all Judea, and began from Galilee after the baptism which John preached:

(Acts 10:38 NKJV) how God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Spirit and with power, who went about doing good and healing all who were oppressed by the devil, for God was with Him.

(Acts 10:39 NKJV) And we are witnesses of all things which He did both in the land of the Jews and in Jerusalem, whom they killed by hanging on a tree.

(Acts 10:40 NKJV) Him God raised up on the third day, and showed Him openly,

(Acts 10:41 NKJV) not to all the people, but to witnesses chosen before by God, even to us who ate and drank with Him after He arose from the dead.

(Acts 10:42 NKJV) And He commanded us to preach to the people, and to testify that it is He [Jesus Christ] Who was ordained by God to be Judge of the living and the dead.

(Acts 10:43 NKJV) To Him [Jesus Christ] all the prophets witness that, through His name, whoever believes in Him will receive remission of sins.'

[Notice that the Old Testament prophets indicated that with a moment of faith alone in the Christ / the Messiah / Savior alone, one will receive remission, i.e., forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God ]

(Acts 10:44 NKJV) While Peter was still speaking these words, the Holy Spirit fell upon all those who heard the word.

[This implies that those that heard Peter's words evidently believed in Jesus Christ for forgiveness of sins in the Eternal Kingdom of God - Gentiles included, (cf. Acts 2:39, 10:24-48, 22:21), whereupon they received the gift of the Holy Spirit]

(Acts 10:45 NKJV) And those of the circumcision [Jews] who believed were astonished, as many as came with Peter, because the gift of the Holy Spirit had been poured out on the Gentiles also.

[Note that the phrases rendered "the Holy Spirit fell upon," (v. 10:44), and "the gift of the Holy Spirit had been poured out on," (v. 10:45), are saying the same thing - that they had been baptized by the Holy Spirit. Notice that this occurred when the Gentiles believed  before they were water baptized]:

(Acts 10:46 NKJV) For they heard them speak with tongues and magnify God. Then Peter answered,

(Acts 10:47 NKJV) 'Can anyone forbid water, that these should not be baptized who have received the Holy Spirit just as we have?'

(Acts 10:48 NASB) And he ordered them to be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ. Then they asked him to stay on for a few days.' "

Notice that Gentiles in this timeframe, i.e., after the LORD's Ascension, received the gift of the Holy Spirit as well as forgiveness of sins unto eternal life when they believed, i.e., when they repented in the sense of changing their minds from not believing to believing in Christ providing forgiveness of sins through His atoning sacrifice - no water baptism, no change of behavior - simply a moment of faith alone in Christ alone. Thereafter, as verses 46-48 indicate, water baptism was to be administered, evidently to symbolize ones forgiveness through a moment of faith alone in Christ alone. For at the moment of faith alone in Christ alone for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life, and before the Gentiles were water baptized, those that exercised a moment of faith immediately exemplified having been baptized with the Holy Spirit with speaking in tongues and magnifiying God; corroborating their water baptism was symbolic and not contributory toward their reception of forgiveness of sins or the gift of the Holy Spirit. Hence the result of forgiveness of sins unto eternal life and the reception of the indwelling of the gift of the Holy Spirit both came when the Gentiles believed; and not when they were water baptized. And at this time forward, the Apostle Peter had indicated, (Acts 3:19-21), that heaven must receive [aorist middle voice] Jesus Christ, the Holy One until the times of restoration of all things, i.e., God set apart the commencement of the restoration of all things - the Eternal Kingdom of God - to commence at a future time.

All of this is further corroborated by the Apostle Paul in Acts chapter 13:

f) [Compare Acts 13:13-39]:

(Acts 13:13 NKJV) '''Now when Paul and his party set sail from Paphos, they came to Perga in Pamphylia; and John, [John Mark] departing from them, returned to Jerusalem.

(Acts 13:14 NKJV) But when they departed from Perga, they came to Antioch in Pisidia, and went into the synagogue on the Sabbath day and sat down.

(Acts 13:15 NKJV) And after the reading of the Law and the Prophets, the rulers of the synagogue sent to them, saying, "Men and brethren, if you have any word of exhortation for the people, say on."

(Acts 13:16 NKJV) Then Paul stood up, and motioning with his hand said, 'Men of Israel, and you who fear God, listen:

[Note that Paul addressed the people at a meeting in the synagogue at Antioch. They consisted primarily of Jews whom he stipulated as "Men of Israel." Furthermore, he included in his opening address those that "fear God" - evidently Gentiles who were also there at the Synagogue service. Paul's address began with a short history of how "the God of this people Israel chose our fathers, and exalted the people when they dwelt as strangers in the land of Egypt." From Egypt, Paul recounted the 40 years of the people of Israel in the wilderness, and the battle for the land of Canaan, and the 150 years of the rule of the Judges until Samuel the prophet; and thereafter Saul, the first King of Israel. And then Paul continued with King David, a man after God's own heart. And finally, the arrival of Jesus, the Savior of Israel through the seed of David, (vv. 16-23)]

(Acts 13:17 NKJV) The God of this people Israel chose our fathers, and exalted the people when they dwelt as strangers in the land of Egypt, and with an uplifted arm He brought them out of it.

(Acts 13:18 NKJV) Now for a time of about forty years He put up with their ways in the wilderness.

(Acts 13:19 NKJV) And when He had destroyed seven nations in the land of Canaan, He distributed their land to them by allotment.

(Acts 13:20 NKJV) After that He gave them judges for about four hundred and fifty years, until Samuel the prophet.

(Acts 13:21 NKJV) And afterward they asked for a king; so God gave them Saul the son of Kish, a man of the tribe of Benjamin, for forty years.

(Acts 13:22 NKJV) And when He had removed him, He raised up for them David as king, to whom also He gave testimony and said, 'I have found David the son of Jesse, a man after My own heart, who will do all My will.'

(Acts 13:23 NKJV) From this man's [David's, (v. 22)] seed, according to the promise, God raised up for Israel a Savior - Jesus -

(Acts 13:24 NKJV) after John had first preached, before His coming, the baptism of repentance to all the people of Israel.

[Paul declared that, before the coming of Jesus Christ in His Humanity to fulfill His mission to be the atoning sacrifice for the sins of the whole world, (cf. Acts 13:26-39), John the Baptist preached a baptism of repentance to all the people of Israel. He preached to Israel of national repentance for forgiveness of sins through a moment of faith alone in the Christ / the Messiah alone unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, (cf. Acts 13:39) - whereupon each Israelite believer was to be water baptized by John, symbolizing the Israelite believer's identification with and appropriation of Christ's provision of forgiveness of sins; whereupon the Eternal Kingdom of God would commence should all the people of Israel repent / believe ]

(Acts 13:25 NKJV) And as John was finishing his course, he said, 'Who do you think I am? I am not He, but behold, there comes One after me, the sandals of whose feet I am not worthy to loose.'

(Acts 13:26 NKJV) Men and brethren, sons of the family of Abraham, and those among you who fear God, to you the word of this salvation has been sent.

(Acts 13:27 NKJV) For those who dwell in Jerusalem, and their rulers, because they did not know Him, nor even the voices of the Prophets which are read every Sabbath, have fulfilled them in condemning Him.

(Acts 13:28 NKJV) And though they found no cause for death in Him, they asked Pilate that He should be put to death.

(Acts 13:29 NKJV) Now when they had fulfilled all that was written concerning Him, they took Him down from the tree and laid Him in a tomb.

(Acts 13:30 NKJV) But God raised Him from the dead.

(Acts 13:31 NKJV) He was seen for many days by those who came up with Him from Galilee to Jerusalem, who are His witnesses to the people.

(Acts 13:32 NKJV) And we declare to you [good news - the gospel] - that promise which was made to the fathers.

[The good news, Paul declared, was "that promise which was made to the fathers," of the people of Israel of a Messiah / Savior which Paul stipulated was fulfilled in Jesus of forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God through faith in His atoning sacrifice, (v. 39)]

(Acts 13:33 NKJV) God has fulfilled this for us their children, in that He has raised up Jesus. As it is also written in the second Psalm: 'You are My Son, Today I have begotten You.'

[The phrase "You are My son" in Ps 2:7, comes from the Davidic Covenant (2 Sam 7:14). It is appropriated in Psalm 2 to show the legitimate God ordained right of the king to rule. The phrase 'Today I have begotten You' refers to the day of one being Anointed / Chosen by God to be king of Israel, i.e., the day of the coronation of the king, and his adoption as a son of God into the family of God in an eternal life familial relationship with God. It is implied that the Anointed king of Israel, being declared to be a son of God, has the reception of eternal life and will receive an eternal kingdom inheritance to rule the nations to the ends of the earth in the future eternal kingdom, (Ps 2:8). This also implies that the rebellion of the nations of the world toward the LORD and His Anointed, will finally be put down.

In view of the lack of complete fulfillment of the prophecies in verses 1 through 9, through king David or any king after him so far, the context must jump out of the time of David to a future King of Israel, "the Anointed One, "the Christ," from the Greek, "ho Christos," Who will inherit the nations of the world, and the ends of the earth, evidently as an eternal inheritance and possession, (Ps 2:8). So the Future Anointed of God, "the Christ," will meet the enraged nations, peoples, kings and rulers of the world in conflict and "break them with a rod of iron" and "dash them to pieces like a potter's vessel," despite the warning of the LORD through the Psalmist in verses 10-12, "Now therefore, be wise, O kings; Be instructed, you judges of the earth. Serve the LORD with fear, And rejoice with trembling. Kiss the Son, lest He be angry, And you perish in the way, When His wrath is kindled but a little. Blessed are all those who put their trust in Him." Notice that individual's throughout the world are blessed when they put their trust in the Anointed One of the LORD = "the Christ." This Anointed One is far more than a temporal king of Israel; for throughout the world one may trust in Him to be blessed. No temporal king can say or do that. Nor can the wrath of a king over all the nations of the earth be so powerful unless He is God Himself. ]

(Acts 13:34 NKJV) And that He raised Him from the dead, no more to return to corruption, He has spoken thus: 'I will give you the sure mercies of David.'

(Acts 13:35 NKJV) Therefore He also says in another Psalm: 'You will not allow Your Holy One to see corruption.'

(Acts 13:36 NKJV) For David, after he had served his own generation by the will of God, fell asleep, was buried with his fathers, and saw corruption;

(Acts 13:37 NKJV) but He Whom God raised up saw no corruption.

[In the same way - with the same interpretation - that Peter in Acts chapter 2 referred to this phrase in Psalms 16, . so does the Apostle Paul. The message of Psalm 16 as conveyed by Paul is that the Holy One of Israel, Jesus Christ Himself, did not experience corruption of His physical Human body in death; but once it was placed in the tomb, and sealed up, it was evidently immediately raised from the dead]

(Acts 13:38 NKJV) Therefore let it be known to you, brethren, that through this Man is preached to you the forgiveness of sins;

(Acts 13:39 NKJV) and by Him everyone who believes is justified from all things from which you could not be justified by the Law of Moses."

[The phrase rendered "everyone who believes [in Him, (Jesus Christ)] is justified" means that one "is declared absolutely righteous in God's sight" without Whom no one can be righteous . This implies being forgiven of ones sins through a moment of faith alone in Christ alone without having to be water baptized. So the meaning of the phrase rendered "a baptism of repentance" in Acts 13:24 is clearly a water baptism symbolizing having expressed a moment of faith alone in Christ alone to be justified unto forgiveness of ones sins for eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. This is the good news / the gospel that Paul was speaking about in verse 32. Notice that in view is a moment of faith alone in Christ alone apart from any human doing in the last phrase of verse 39, "from which you could not be justified by the Law of Moses." For if keeping the Law of Moses is of no effect toward justification, then no amount or any kind of works such as water baptism - before, during or after receiving forgiveness of sins unto eternal life through a moment of faith alone in Christ alone - could ever be contributory to gaining eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. The absence of the stipulation of water baptism in verse 39 leading to justification confirms this by what the Apostle Paul said as recorded in Acts chapter 19, wherein water baptism was symbolic, not essential for forgiveness of sins]:

*****

g) [Compare Acts 19:1-6]:

(Acts 19:1 NASB) '''It happened that while Apollos was at Corinth, Paul passed through the upper country and came to Ephesus, and found some disciples.

(Acts 19:2 NASB) He said to them, "Did you receive the Holy Spirit when you believed?" And they said to him, "No, we have not even heard whether there is a Holy Spirit."

(Acts 19:3 NASB) And he said, "Into what then were you baptized?" And they said, "Into John's baptism."

(Acts 19:4 NKJV) Then Paul said, "John [the Baptist] indeed baptized with a baptism of repentance, saying to the people [Israel] that they should believe on Him Who would come after him, that is, on Christ Jesus."

[Notice that Paul indicated that John's baptism of repentance signified that one had expressed a moment of faith alone in Christ Jesus for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. Absent in this passage was any stipulation of committment to godly behavior required for receiving eternal life. Furthermore, Paul indicated that John the Baptist largely addressed the people of Israel]

(Acts 19:5 NASB) When they heard this, they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus.

(Acts 19:6 NASB) And when Paul had laid his hands upon them, the Holy Spirit came on them, and they began speaking with tongues and prophesying."

Acts 19:1-6 describes Paul's meeting with a number of believers who had undergone John's water baptism. Paul notices that there is something incomplete with them with respect to their being church age believers - members of the body of Christ. Paul notices that these people have not transitioned over from the Old Testament era to the New Testament church era. Paul says, 'Didn't you receive God the Holy Spirit when you were baptized?' And they said, 'No.' Then Paul says, 'What baptism have you had then.' They say, 'The baptism of John,' which symbolized that these men had trusted in the Messiah for their eternal life Who would bring in the kingdom. Thus they were identified with the Messianic Kingdom Age as part of Israel and not as part of the body of Christ, the church. So Paul proceeded to have them water baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus and then laid hands on them and they received the Holy Spirit. Note that this was a unique circumstance at the time - not to be done later on in the church age when there were no longer any Jewish age believers to be transitioned over into the Church age as members of the body of Christ.

h) [Compare Acts 26:12-18]:

(Acts 26:12 NKJV) "While thus occupied, as I [Paul] journeyed to Damascus with authority and commission from the chief priests,

(Acts 26:13 NKJV) at midday, O king, [Agrippe: Paul was recounting his encounter with the risen Jesus Christ on the road to Damascus], along the road I saw a light from heaven, brighter than the sun shinning around me and those who journeyed with me.

(Acts 26:14 NKJV) And when we all had fallen to the ground, I heard a voice speaking to me and saying in the Hebrew language, 'Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting Me? It is hard for you to kick against the goads.'

(Acts 26:15 NKJV) So I said, 'Who are You, LORD? And He said, 'I am Jesus, Whom you are persecuting.

(Acts 26:16 NKJV) But rise and stand on your feet; for I have appeared to you for this purpose, to make you a minister and a witness both of the things which you have seen and of the things which I will yet reveal to you.

(Acts 26:17 NKJV) I will deliver you [Paul, (v. 14)] from the Jewish people, as well as from the Gentiles, to whom I now send you,

(Acts 26:18 NKJV) to open their eyes, in order to turn them from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan to God, [i.e., repent] that they may receive forgiveness of sins and an inheritance among those who are sanctified by faith in Me [Jesus Christ, (v. 15)].' "

Notice that forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God was via a moment of repentance unto faith alone in Christ alone, and not dependent upon being water baptized.

******

B) (Acts 2:38) PETER'S ANSWER TO THE JEWS' QUESTION OF WHAT THEY SHOULD DO RELATIVE TO JESUS CHRIST BEING THEIR LORD AND CHRIST, THEIR MESSIAH / SAVIOR, INCLUDED BEING WATER BAPTIZED IN THE NAME OF JESUS CHRIST - BUT TO SYMBOLIZE AND NOT TO BE PART OF REPENTANCE AS SOME CONTEND. NOR WAS WATER BAPTISM TO BE CAUSATIVE OF BEING FORGIVEN OF ONES SINS UNTO ETERNAL LIFE IN THE ETERNAL KINGDOM OF GOD; THEREAFTER ONE WOULD RECEIVE THE GIFT OF THE HOLY SPIRIT

Peter's answer to the Jews' question of what they should do relative to Jesus Christ being their Lord and Christ, their Messiah / Savior, was to repent in the sense of changing their minds to believe in Him for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God; which Kingdom would commence should all of that generation of Israel believe. This included being water baptized in the name of Jesus Christ - but to symbolize and not to be part of repentance as some contend. Nor was water baptism to be causative of being forgiven of ones sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God; thereafter one would receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. Absent is an exhortation to be have better or feel remorse or commit to a holy lifestyle.

(Acts 2:36 NKJV) '''[Peter declared] "Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly that God has made this Jesus, Whom you crucified, both LORD and Christ [in the sense of the promised Messiah / Savior]." (Acts 2:37 YLT) And having heard, they were pricked to the heart; they say also to Peter, and to the rest of the apostles, "What shall we do, men, brethren? (Acts 2:38 HOLMAN) And Peter said to them, "Repent (and [let each one of you] be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins. And you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit." ''' =

When Peter answered the question posed by the Jews who crucified Jesus in Acts 2:37, "What shall we do?" His answer was "Repent and be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ, for the forgiveness of your sins. And you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit," (Acts 2:38). As with all passages in Scripture, especially those which are crucial to the understanding of the gospel, one must examine them in accordance with the normative rules of language, context and logic in order to establish their meaning .

The water baptism in view cannot be concluded as having to be part of the repentance unto forgiveness of sins, as some contend. For the responses, "repent," and "let each one of you be baptized," albeit plural and singular respectively, are stipulated as two separate actions to be taken - the water baptism evidently not being part of the repentance. Although the verb repent and the pronouns rendered "you" are plural, the singular verb "and let each one [singular] of you [plural] is not significant or parenthetical, as some contend; and the water baptism is not part of what is causative of something in the verse just because the verb is singular. The singular verb is simply an emphatic way to convey the message that each one of you [plural] in the crowd that Peter was speaking to who repents / believes in Jesus is to then be water baptized - separating the crowd into those that didn't believe and those that did - each one of the latter group to be water baptized, whereupon each would receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. So the repentance / the changing of the mind to believe in Jesus as LORD and Christ causes forgiveness of sins unto eternal life, (cf. 1 Jn 5:1), and is to be followed in time by the water baptism - a symbolic act demonstrating that forgiveness with the Jews who crucified Him having now expressed a moment of repentant belief in Him instead; whereupon each one received the reception of the gift of the Holy Spirit after being water baptized.

Acts 2:38 is to be understood as a statement of two things to do, one [repent] which is stipulated first as preeminent in order to provide the preeminent condition of forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God; the other [let each one be baptized] which necessarily follows in order to symbolize that forgiveness; and after this symbolic act of immersion in water those Jews who crucified Jesus -  of that transition period of the Church Age who repented and believed in Christ for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God would receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.

Secondly, since the context in Acts chapter 2 is all about Who Jesus is and not about turning from sins, then the repentance is limited by the context to a change of mind from not believing to a moment of faith alone in Jesus as LORD and Christ alone for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, (cf. 1 Jn 5:1), - strictly a mental activity, hence apart from any other kind of human doing; thus excluding water baptism.

Acts 2:38 is not an incomprehensible sentence, as some contend. In Acts chapter 2, Peter's sermon is directed to the Jews who had just crucified Jesus, not recognizing Him as LORD and Christ - no other groups of people are in view in this verse from verses 1-38. Neither later generations of Jews are in view, nor other groups of people, nor other Jews who were not guilty of His death - only that group of Jews that crucified Christ. So in verse 38, the forgiveness problem for that group of Jews who crucified Christ at the transition into the Church Age must be taken care of first by their repenting unto faith in Jesus as LORD and Christ for forgiveness of sins, with the sin of their having crucified Christ unto faith in Him especially in view as having repented of having denied Christ's Lordship and being the Christ and having crucified Him unto accepting Him as LORD and Christ for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life, (cf. 1 Jn 5:1). Then what is to follow is water baptism: the symbolic demonstration of that forgiveness, with their repentance / change of mind of their being guilty for having crucified Christ especially in view. Whereupon after the water baptism of that particular group of Jews who crucified Christ would come the reception of the gift of the Holy Spirit.

(For Gentiles in that same transition period into the Church Age would receive the Holy Spirit upon the moment of repentance / belief, (cf. Acts 10:43-48 ); Samaritan believers in that transition period via the laying on of hands by one of the Apostles, (Acts 8:12-17 ); Jewish believers under the preaching of John the Baptist and Jesus after John from the previous age of the Law via a second water baptism in the name of Jesus Christ followed by the laying on of hands by the Apostle Paul or other apostles, ( Acts 19:1-6 ). Thereafter, when the transition period was over, and the Age of the Church established, all who repented / believed in Jesus Christ for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life were to receive the Spirit at the moment of faith in Christ alone, (Eph 1:13-14  ).

Since the context of Peter's sermon is about Who Jesus is and not about the Jews turning from their sins - especially turning from the sin of crucifying Christ which cannot be undone, then the repentance is limited by context to a change of mind from not believing in Who Jesus is to a moment of faith alone in Jesus as LORD and Christ alone for forgiveness of sins, (cf. 1 Jn 5:1) - strictly a mental activity, hence apart from any other kind of human doing; thus excluding water baptism in order to receive forgiveness of sins - temporal or eternal.

1) [Prior To Peter's Message In Acts 2: Water Baptisms Were Always Symbolic Of Something Depending Upon The Context]

Baptisms and ceremonial washings from Old Testament times were symbolic of something - not actual, (Ex 30:17-21; Dt 21:1-9; Heb 9:9-10). For example, one kind of water baptism was a ritual symbolizing conversion to Judaism. Pagans who became proselytes to Judaism would, through self-baptism, make a public demonstration to symbolize their decision to convert to Judaism and identify themselves with the people of God - the people of Israel.

a) [Compare Ex 30:17-21]:

(Ex 30:17 NKJV) "Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,

(Ex 30:18 NKJV) 'You shall also make a laver of bronze, with its base also of bronze, for washing. You shall put it between the tabernacle of meeting and the altar. And you shall put water in it,

(Ex 30:19 NKJV) for Aaron and his sons shall wash their hands and their feet in water from it.

(Ex 30:20 NKJV) When they go into the tabernacle of meeting, or when they come near the altar to minister, to burn an offering made by fire to the LORD, they shall wash with water, lest they die.

(Ex 30:21 NKJV) So they shall wash their hands and their feet, lest they die. And it shall be a statute forever to them - to him and his descendants throughout their generations.' "

b) [Compare Dt 21:1-9]:

(Dt 21:1 NKJV) "If anyone is found slain, lying in the field in the land which the LORD your God is giving you to possess, and it is not known who killed him,

(Dt 21:2 NKJV) then your elders and your judges shall to out and measure the distance from the slain man to the surrounding cities.

(Dt 21:3 NKJV) And it shall be that the elders of the city nearest to the slain man will take a heifer which has not been worked and which has not pulled with a yoke.

(Dt 21:4 NKJV) The elders of that city shall bring the heifer down to a valley with flowing water, which is neither plowed nor sown, and they shall break the heifer's neck there in the valley.

(Dt 21:5 NKJV) Then the priests, the sons of Levi, shall come near, for the LORD your God has chosen them to minister to Him and to bless in the name of the LORD; by their word every controversy and every assault shall be settled.

(Dt 21:6 NKJV) And all the elders of that city nearest to the slain man shall wash their hands over the heifer whose neck was broken in the valley.

(Dt 21:7 NKJV) Then they shall answer and say, 'Our hands have not shed this blood, nor have our eyes seen it.

(Dt 21:8 NKJV) Provide atonement, O LORD, for Your people Israel, whom You have redeemed, and do not lay innocent blood to the charge of Your people Israel.' And atonement shall be provided on their behalf for the blood.

(Dt 21:9 NKJV) So You shall put away the guilt of innocent blood from among you when you do what is right in the sight of the LORD."

c) [Compare Heb 9:9-10]:

(Heb 9:9 NKJV) "It was symbolic for the present time in which both gifts and sacrifices are offered which cannot make him who performed the service perfect in regard to the conscience -

(Heb 9:10 NKJV) concerned only with foods and drinks, various washings [Greek, "baptismois" = baptisms], and fleshly ordinances imposed until the time of reformation."

The Greek plural noun, "baptismois" rendered "washings," in the NKJV comes from the root word "baptisma" from which we get the English word "baptism." It is used in Heb 9:10 to describe ceremonial washings - an item is to be immersed in water, and the water is shaken off to signify a ritual purification.

d) [Compare Jn 1:29-31]:

(Jn 1:29 NKJV) '''[On] the next day John [the Baptist] [sees] Jesus coming toward him and [says], "[Behold], the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world!

(Jn 1:30 NKJV) This is He of Whom I said, 'After me comes a Man Who is preferred before me, for He was before me.'

[John the Baptist made an astounding announcement about Jesus. He indicated that although Jesus came after him in the sense that Jesus added to Himself His Humanity and was born after John himself was born; nevertheless John stated, "After me comes a Man Who is preferred before me, for He was before me," in the sense that Jesus was Pre-eminent to John because He "was before him" in the sense of His Eternal Pre-eminent Pre-existence as Diety - the Son of God]

(Jn 1:31 NKJV) I did not know Him; but that He should be revealed to Israel, therefore I came baptizing with water."

Note that John baptized with water those of Israel who repented / believed in the coming Messiah for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God to symbolically identify themselves with Christ, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world and His atoning sacrifice for their sins. Furthermore, John the Baptist's baptisms were part of his mission as forerunner to the coming Messiah Jesus Christ. He announced His arrival and revealed Him to the people of Israel. This is especially significant to those of Israel who chose to believe in their Messiah for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. For their baptism symbolized their faith in and identification with their Messiah / Savior and their entrance into His Eternal Kingdom. That Kingdom was to have commenced had all of that generation of Israel expressed a moment of faith in Him, (Mt 1:4; Zech 12:10-14).

So in the same way, when an Israelite underwent the water baptism of repentance of John the Baptist and his disciples; and Jesus and His disciples before His Ascension; and after our LORD's Ascension, when Jews and Gentiles underwent the water baptism in the name of Jesus Christ administered by Peter and the rest of the disciples of Jesus, it was always a symbolic water baptism / immersion to symbolize ones having repented / believed in the name of Christ for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. Furthermore, beforethe Apostle Peter's sermon in Acts chapter 3, when the message was preached to Israel to repent for the Eternal Kingdom of God was at hand, the water baptisms which were administered were also symbolic of all Israel entering into the Eternal Kingdom of God. And had all of national Israel believed in her Messiah, that Kingdom would have then commenced.

2) (Acts 2:38) On The Other Hand According To  Peter's Sermon In Acts Chapter 2, Water Baptism In The Name Of Jesus Was Given Specifically To Those Jews Who Crucified Jesus In The Transition Period From The Law To The Church Age As A Symbol Of And Not To Be Part Of Repentance Unto Faith In Christ Unto Eternal Life. Nor Was This Baptism  Causative Of Being Forgiven Of Ones Sins. But After Being Water Baptized Each Jewish Believer Of This Transition Period Received The Gift Of The Holy Spirit

(Acts 2:38 HOLMAN) And Peter said to them, "Repent (and [let each one of you] be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins. And you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit." ''' =

On the other hand, according to Peter's sermon in Acts chapter 2, water baptism in the name of Jesus Christ was given specifically to those Jews who crucified Jesus in the transition period from the Law to the Church Age as a symbol of and not to be part of repentance unto faith in Christ unto eternal life. Nor was this baptism causative of being forgiven of ones sins. But after being water baptized each Jewish believer of this transition period received the gift of the Holy Spirit.

(Gentiles in that same transition period into the Church Age would receive the Holy Spirit upon the moment of repentance / belief, (cf. Acts 10:43-48 ); Samaritan believers in that transition period via the laying on of hands by one of the Apostles, (Acts 8:12-17 ; Jewish believers under the preaching of John the Baptist and Jesus after John from the previous age of the Law via a second water baptism in the name of Jesus Christ followed by the laying on of hands by the Apostle Paul or other apostles, (Acts 19:1-6 ). Thereafter, when the transition period was over, the Age of the Church established, all who repented / believed in Jesus Christ for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life were to receive the Spirit at the moment of faith in Christ alone, (Eph 1:13-14  ).

The message given sometime after the Apostle Peter's sermon in Acts chapter 2, did not include the Kingdom of God being at hand; rather the Apostle Peter stipulated that heaven would receive the LORD until a future time of restoration, (Acts 3:21). The Kingdom of God was no longer at hand, the church age had been fully established.

Since it is evident that Peter, as a disciple of Jesus and most likely of John the Baptist before Him, (Jn 1:35-42), was carrying forth the message of Jesus and John the Baptist; then Peter's statement of the gospel in Acts 2:38 relative to the reception of forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God must be essentially the same message as his predecessors and Jesus Himself relative to the forgiveness of sins, i.e., repent unto faith in the coming Lord and Christ for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life, (cf. 1 Jn 5:1). Yet as promised by the LORD after His Ascension and foretold by John the Baptist, (Lk 3:16; Acts 1:4-5),  there would be the addition of the reception of the gift of the Holy Spirit within each one who repent / believes. Andduring the transition period from the Law to the Church Age, each Jew of that group of Jews who had crucified Jesus and who repented unto faith in Jesus as Lord and Christ for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life, (1 Jn 5:1), and after each was water baptized symbolizing this, they would receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.

Hence just as an individual who believed in the message of Jesus and John the Baptist - "Repent for the Kingdom of God is at hand," (Mt 3:2; 4:7); i.e., he expressed a moment of faith alone in the Messiah / Savior alone, resulting in forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God; whereupon each believer was water baptized to symbolize his identification with that result; so it was with the message of Peter in Acts 2:38. But on this occasion , after the crucifixion of Christ, after a Jew of that group who was guilty of His death repented / believed in Him as Lord and Christ for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, (cf. 1 Jn 5:1), each one was water baptized symbolizing this. And after that each repentant Jewish believer of that transtion period  would receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. This is confirmed by Acts 2:41-44:

3) [Compare Acts 2:41-44]:

(Acts 2:41 NASB) "So then, those who had received his [Peter's] word [i.e., believed in Christ as Messiah/Savior, see v. 44 below] were baptized; and that day there were added [to the number of those being saved unto eternal life] about three thousand souls.

(Acts 2:42 YLT) And they were continuing steadfastly in the teaching of the apostles, and the fellowship, and the breaking of the bread, and the prayers.

(Acts 2:43 NKJV) Then fear came upon every soul, and many wonders and signs were done through the apostles.

[This was a demonstration of the work of the Holy Spirit within the disciples and through them, authenticating their testimony about believing in Jesus Christ for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God]

(Acts 2:44 NKJV) Now all who believed were together, and had all things in common."

Notice that Acts 2:41-44 confirm that the word rendered "repent" in Acts 2:38 means believing in Jesus Christ for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. The words do not say, 'Now all those who turned from their sins... or confessed their sins,' they say "Now all those who believed were together," i.e., those who exercised a moment of faith alone in Christ alone for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. Notice also that those who have had their sins blotted out - who have received forgiveness of sins - are defined as those who have believed.

Furthermore, it is significant that water baptism is mentioned in verse 41 as occurring after having received Peter's word in the sense of believing in Christ for forgiveness of sins. And in verse 44, it's absence indicates that the essential and sole point is having believed in order to receive forgiveness of sins. But then after the baptism, there was evidence of having received the gift of the Holy Spirit. This is corroborated when Peter once again addressed a Jewish audience on this matter:

4) [Compare Acts 3:11-21]:

Note that from the time of Peter's message in Acts chapter 3, Peter indicated that heaven must receive Jesus Christ the Holy One until the times of restoration of all things, i.e., until a future time when the Eternal Kingdom of God would commence upon all of a future generation of Israel repenting / believing in Christ:

(Acts 3:11 NKJV) "Now as the lame man who was healed held on to Peter and John, all the people ran together to them in the porch which is called Solomon's, greatly amazed.

(Acts 3:12 NKJV) [And Peter having seen the peoples' being greatly amazed, (v. 11)] So when Peter saw it, he responded to the people: 'Men of Israel, why do you marvel at this? Or why look so intently at us, as though by our own power or godliness we had made this man walk?

(Acts 3:13 NKJV) The God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, the God of our fathers, glorified His Servant Jesus, Whom you delivered up and denied in the presence of Pilate, when he was determined to let Him go.

(Acts 3:14 NKJV) But you denied the Holy One and the Just, and asked for a murderer to be granted to you,

(Acts 3:15 NKJV) and killed the Prince of life, Whom God raised from the dead, of which we are witnesses.

(Acts 3:16 NKJV) And His [Jesus'] name, through faith in His name, has made this man strong, whom you see and know. Yes, the faith which comes through Him has given him [the healed, formerly lame man] this perfect soundness in the presence of you all.

(Acts 3:17 NKJV) Yet now, brethren, [Peter is referring here to fellow Jews] I know that you did it in ignorance, as did also your rulers.

(Acts 3:18 NKJV) But those things which God foretold by the mouth of all His prophets

(Acts 3:19 HOLMAN) Therefore repent and turn ...[to Christ in faith, (v. 16)], so that your sins may be blotted out, that seasons of refreshing may come from the presence of the LORD,

[In Acts 3:19a, Peter is offering to Israel and to Gentiles, i.e., all mankind, (Acts 2:39, 10:24-48, 22:21), the opportunity to "Repent and turn... [from ignorance of Who Jesus was, (v. 17), to faith in Him as Lord and Christ] so that [their] sins may be blotted out," in the sense of forgiven unto eternal life. The Apostle is saying for the Jews who crucified Jesus as in Acts 2:38, to change their minds from not trusting in Jesus Christ as ones Messiah/Savior to believing in His name, i.e., His capacity to provide one with eternal forgiveness of sins. The phrase rendered "so that your sins may be blotted out," signifies to be forgiven of ones sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, (cf. Acts 2:38; 10:43). On the other hand, Peter preached in Acts 3:19b that "seasons of refreshing may come from the presence of the LORD," i.e., that one believes in Jesus Christ for forgiveness so that one will enter that Eternal Kingdom of God when it commences and everything is restored.

Notice that there is no stipulation such as "and be baptized" present in order to have their sins blotted out! So evidently water baptism is symbolic. Furthermore there is nothing stipulated in this passage about receiving the gift of the Holy Spirit. In view of Acts 2:38's stipulation of repentance and baptism followed by forgiveness of sins and Holy Spirit reception, we may conclude that the water baptism is not required for forgiveness of sins. But once one is baptized, there follows the reception of the Holy Spirit in the group of Jews who are in view in chapters 2 and 3 of Acts - those Jews responsible for the death of Christ at the beginning / the transition period of the Church Age who have repented / believed.

On the other hand, the timeframe for the commencement had changed, for Peter declared in the next two verses, (Acts 3:20-21), that heaven must receive Jesus Christ until the times of restoration of all things. Hence the commencement of the Eternal Kingdom of God was not imminent at the time of Peter's message. But when that time comes, God will send His Son, Jesus Christ to rule His Eternal Kingdom forever]:

(Acts 3:20 NKJV) and that He [God the Father] may send Jesus Christ, Who was preached to you before,

(Acts 3:21 NKJV) Whom heaven must receive until the times of restoration of all things, which God has spoken by the mouth of all His holy prophets since the world began."

So Peter indicated to his audience of Jews that God, (the Father, v. 18), will send His Son Jesus Christ to the earth; Who, Peter reminded, was repeatedly preached to the Jews and to all mankind since the world began. But for the present time, Peter declared in verse 21, heaven must receive Him "until the times of restoration of all things, which God has spoken by the mouth of all His holy prophets since the world began."

So our Lord Jesus Christ will come to earth to commence His Eternal Kingdom rule when it is time. And at the moment of His Second Coming all of a generation of Israel will recognize and trust in her Messiah as a result of God's enablement and Israel's subsequent response of faith, (cf. Zech 12:10-14). The phrases "that seasons of refreshing may come from the presence of the LORD," in verse 19; and "until the times of restoration of all things," in verse 21 refer to the commencement of the Eternal Kingdom of God.

5) [Compare Acts 5:30-32]:

(Acts 5:30 NKJV) [Peter said, v. 29)] "The God of our fathers raised up Jesus Whom you [Jewish rulers, (vv. 22-28)] murdered by hanging on a tree.

(Acts 5:31 NKJV) Him God has exalted to His right hand to be Prince and Savior, to give repentance to Israel and forgiveness of sins.

(Acts 5:32 NKJV) And we are His witnesses to these things, and so also is the Holy Spirit Whom God has given to those who obey Him."

Notice that Peter declared that repentance was given to Israel in the sense of all Israelites being given the opportunity to repent / believe unto forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the eternal Kingdom of God. Furthermore, Peter adds that the Holy Spirit was also given to those who obeyed God. Since water baptism is not stipulated in this passage, then it is not essential for forgiveness of sins - only the repentance unto faith is stipulated. On the other hand, water baptism is something for the believers to obey which according to Acts 2:38 is followed by the reception of the Holy Spirit for those Jews who crucified Jesus who are in view in chapters 2, 3 and 5.

6) [Compare Acts 10:34-48]:

In Acts chapter 10, Peter addresses the Gentiles with the same message he has been preaching relative to forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, albeit the reception of the gift of the Holy Spirit comes at the moment of faith alone, before water baptism:

(Acts 10:34 NKJV) "Then Peter opened his mouth and said: 'In truth I perceive that God shows no partiality [relative to whom the forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God applies, i.e., it applies to everyone - Jew and Gentile alike].

(Acts 10:35 NKJV) But in every nation whoever fears Him and works righteousness is accepted by Him.

[The phrase rendered "But in every nation, i.e., Jew and Gentile alike, whoever fears Him and works righteousness is accepted by Him," in the sense of whoever of every nation of mankind believes in Jesus Christ for forgiveness of sins, (Acts 10:43), unto the reception of the Righteousness of Christ, is accepted by God in the sense of having eternal life and entering the Eternal Kingdom of God]

(Acts 10:36 NKJV) The word which God sent to the children of Israel, preaching peace through Jesus Christ - He is Lord of all -

(Acts 10:37 NKJV) that word you know, which was proclaimed throughout all Judea, and began from Galilee after the baptism which John preached:

(Acts 10:38 NKJV) how God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Spirit and with power, who went about doing good and healing all who were oppressed by the devil, for God was with Him.

(Acts 10:39 NKJV) And we are witnesses of all things which He did both in the land of the Jews and in Jerusalem, whom they killed by hanging on a tree.

(Acts 10:40 NKJV) Him God raised up on the third day, and showed Him openly,

(Acts 10:41 NKJV) not to all the people, but to witnesses chosen before by God, even to us who ate and drank with Him after He arose from the dead.

(Acts 10:42 NKJV) And He commanded us to preach to the people, and to testify that it is He [Jesus Christ] Who was ordained by God to be Judge of the living and the dead.

(Acts 10:43 NKJV) To Him [Jesus Christ] all the prophets witness that, through His name, whoever believes in Him will receive remission of sins.'

[Notice that the Old Testament prophets indicated that with a moment of faith alone in the Christ / the Messiah / Savior alone, one will receive remission, i.e., forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God ]

(Acts 10:44 NKJV) While Peter was still speaking these words, the Holy Spirit fell upon all those who heard the word.

[This implies that those that heard Peter's words evidently believed in Jesus Christ for forgiveness of sins in the Eternal Kingdom of God - Gentiles included, (cf. Acts 2:39, 10:24-48, 22:21), whereupon they received the gift of the Holy Spirit]

(Acts 10:45 NKJV) And those of the circumcision [Jews] who believed were astonished, as many as came with Peter, because the gift of the Holy Spirit had been poured out on the Gentiles also.

[Note that the phrases rendered "the Holy Spirit fell upon," (v. 10:44), and "the gift of the Holy Spirit had been poured out on," (v. 10:45), are saying the same thing - that they had been baptized by the Holy Spirit. Notice that this occurred when they believed - on Gentiles - before they were water baptized]:

(Acts 10:46 NKJV) For they heard them speak with tongues and magnify God. Then Peter answered,

(Acts 10:47 NKJV) 'Can anyone forbid water, that these should not be baptized who have received the Holy Spirit just as we have?' "

Notice that Gentiles in this timeframe, i.e., after the LORD's Ascension, received the gift of the Holy Spirit as well as forgiveness of sins unto eternal life when they believed, i.e., when they repented in the sense of changing their minds from not believing to believing in Christ providing forgiveness of sins through His atoning sacrifice - no water baptism, no change of behavior - simply a moment of faith alone in Christ alone. Thereafter, as verses 46-47 indicate, water baptism was to be administered, evidently to symbolize ones forgiveness through a moment of faith alone in Christ alone. For at the moment of faith alone in Christ alone for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life, and before the Gentiles were water baptized, those that exercised a moment of faith immediately exemplified having been baptized with the Holy Spirit with speaking in tongues and magnifiying God; corroborating their water baptism was symbolic and not contributory toward their reception of forgiveness of sins or the gift of the Holy Spirit. Hence the result of forgiveness of sins unto eternal life and the reception of the indwelling of the gift of the Holy Spirit both came when the Gentiles believed; and not when they were water baptized as was with the generation of Jews at this transition period. And at this time forward, the Apostle Peter had indicated, (Acts 3:19-21), that heaven must receive Jesus Christ, the Holy One until the times of restoration of all things, i.e., God set apart the commencement of the restoration of all things - the Eternal Kingdom of God - to commence at a future time.

All of this is further corroborated by the Apostle Paul in Acts chapter 13:

7) [Compare Acts 13:13-39]:

(Acts 13:13 NKJV) '''Now when Paul and his party set sail from Paphos, they came to Perga in Pamphylia; and John, [John Mark] departing from them, returned to Jerusalem.

(Acts 13:14 NKJV) But when they departed from Perga, they came to Antioch in Pisidia, and went into the synagogue on the Sabbath day and sat down.

(Acts 13:15 NKJV) And after the reading of the Law and the Prophets, the rulers of the synagogue sent to them, saying, "Men and brethren, if you have any word of exhortation for the people, say on."

(Acts 13:16 NKJV) Then Paul stood up, and motioning with his hand said, 'Men of Israel, and you who fear God, listen:

[Note that Paul addressed the people at a meeting in the synagogue at Antioch. They consisted primarily of Jews whom he stipulated as "Men of Israel." Furthermore, he included in his opening address those that "fear God" - evidently Gentiles who were also there at the Synagogue service. Paul's address began with a short history of how "the God of this people Israel chose our fathers, and exalted the people when they dwelt as strangers in the land of Egypt." From Egypt, Paul recounted the 40 years of the people of Israel in the wilderness, and the battle for the land of Canaan, and the 150 years of the rule of the Judges until Samuel the prophet; and thereafter Saul, the first King of Israel. And then Paul continued with King David, a man after God's own heart. And finally, the arrival of Jesus, the Savior of Israel through the seed of David, (vv. 16-23)]

(Acts 13:17 NKJV) The God of this people Israel chose our fathers, and exalted the people when they dwelt as strangers in the land of Egypt, and with an uplifted arm He brought them out of it.

(Acts 13:18 NKJV) Now for a time of about forty years He put up with their ways in the wilderness.

(Acts 13:19 NKJV) And when He had destroyed seven nations in the land of Canaan, He distributed their land to them by allotment.

(Acts 13:20 NKJV) After that He gave them judges for about four hundred and fifty years, until Samuel the prophet.

(Acts 13:21 NKJV) And afterward they asked for a king; so God gave them Saul the son of Kish, a man of the tribe of Benjamin, for forty years.

(Acts 13:22 NKJV) And when He had removed him, He raised up for them David as king, to whom also He gave testimony and said, 'I have found David the son of Jesse, a man after My own heart, who will do all My will.'

(Acts 13:23 NKJV) From this man's [David's, (v. 22)] seed, according to the promise, God raised up for Israel a Savior - Jesus -

(Acts 13:24 NKJV) after John had first preached, before His coming, the baptism of repentance to all the people of Israel.

[Paul declared that, before the coming of Jesus Christ in His Humanity to fulfill His mission to be the atoning sacrifice for the sins of the whole world, (cf. Acts 13:26-39), John the Baptist preached a baptism of repentance to all the people of Israel. He preached to Israel of national repentance for forgiveness of sins through a moment of faith alone in the Christ / the Messiah alone unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, (cf. Acts 13:39) - whereupon each Israelite believer was to be water baptized by John, symbolizing the Israelite believer's identification with and appropriation of Christ's provision of forgiveness of sins; whereupon the Eternal Kingdom of God would commence should all the people of Israel repent / believe ]

(Acts 13:25 NKJV) And as John was finishing his course, he said, 'Who do you think I am? I am not He, but behold, there comes One after me, the sandals of whose feet I am not worthy to loose.'

(Acts 13:26 NKJV) Men and brethren, sons of the family of Abraham, and those among you who fear God, to you the word of this salvation has been sent.

(Acts 13:27 NKJV) For those who dwell in Jerusalem, and their rulers, because they did not know Him, nor even the voices of the Prophets which are read every Sabbath, have fulfilled them in condemning Him.

(Acts 13:28 NKJV) And though they found no cause for death in Him, they asked Pilate that He should be put to death.

(Acts 13:29 NKJV) Now when they had fulfilled all that was written concerning Him, they took Him down from the tree and laid Him in a tomb.

(Acts 13:30 NKJV) But God raised Him from the dead.

(Acts 13:31 NKJV) He was seen for many days by those who came up with Him from Galilee to Jerusalem, who are His witnesses to the people.

(Acts 13:32 NKJV) And we declare to you [good news - the gospel] - that promise which was made to the fathers.

[The good news, Paul declared, was "that promise which was made to the fathers," of the people of Israel of a Messiah / Savior which Paul stipulated was fulfilled in Jesus of forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God through faith in His atoning sacrifice, (v. 39)]

(Acts 13:33 NKJV) God has fulfilled this for us their children, in that He has raised up Jesus. As it is also written in the second Psalm: 'You are My Son, Today I have begotten You.'

[The phrase "You are My son" in Ps 2:7, comes from the Davidic Covenant (2 Sam 7:14). It is appropriated in Psalm 2 to show the legitimate God ordained right of the king to rule. The phrase 'Today I have begotten You' refers to the day of one being Anointed / Chosen by God to be king of Israel, i.e., the day of the coronation of the king, and his adoption as a son of God into the family of God in an eternal life familial relationship with God. It is implied that the Anointed king of Israel, being declared to be a son of God, has the reception of eternal life and will receive an eternal kingdom inheritance to rule the nations to the ends of the earth in the future eternal kingdom, (Ps 2:8). This also implies that the rebellion of the nations of the world toward the LORD and His Anointed, will finally be put down.

In view of the lack of complete fulfillment of the prophecies in verses 1 through 9, through king David or any king after him so far, the context must jump out of the time of David to a future King of Israel, "the Anointed One, "the Christ," from the Greek, "ho Christos," Who will inherit the nations of the world, and the ends of the earth, evidently as an eternal inheritance and possession, (Ps 2:8). So the Future Anointed of God, "the Christ," will meet the enraged nations, peoples, kings and rulers of the world in conflict and "break them with a rod of iron" and "dash them to pieces like a potter's vessel," despite the warning of the LORD through the Psalmist in verses 10-12, "Now therefore, be wise, O kings; Be instructed, you judges of the earth. Serve the LORD with fear, And rejoice with trembling. Kiss the Son, lest He be angry, And you perish in the way, When His wrath is kindled but a little. Blessed are all those who put their trust in Him." Notice that individual's throughout the world are blessed when they put their trust in the Anointed One of the LORD = "the Christ." This Anointed One is far more than a temporal king of Israel; for throughout the world one may trust in Him to be blessed. No temporal king can say or do that. Nor can the wrath of a king over all the nations of the earth be so powerful unless He is God Himself. ]

(Acts 13:34 NKJV) And that He raised Him from the dead, no more to return to corruption, He has spoken thus: 'I will give you the sure mercies of David.'

(Acts 13:35 NKJV) Therefore He also says in another Psalm: 'You will not allow Your Holy One to see corruption.'

(Acts 13:36 NKJV) For David, after he had served his own generation by the will of God, fell asleep, was buried with his fathers, and saw corruption;

(Acts 13:37 NKJV) but He Whom God raised up saw no corruption.

[In the same way - with the same interpretation - that Peter in Acts chapter 2 referred to this phrase in Psalms 16, . so does the Apostle Paul. The message of Psalm 16 as conveyed by Paul is that the Holy One of Israel, Jesus Christ Himself, did not experience corruption of His physical Human body in death; but once it was placed in the tomb, and sealed up, it was evidently immediately raised from the dead]

(Acts 13:38 NKJV) Therefore let it be known to you, brethren, that through this Man is preached to you the forgiveness of sins;

(Acts 13:39 NKJV ) and by Him everyone who believes is justified from all things from which you could not be justified by the Law of Moses."

[The phrase rendered "everyone who believes [in Him, (Jesus Christ)] is justified" means that one "is declared absolutely righteous in God's sight" without Whom no one can be righteous . This implies being forgiven of ones sins through a moment of faith alone in Christ alone without having to be water baptized. So the meaning of the phrase rendered "a baptism of repentance" in Acts 13:24 is clearly a water baptism symbolizing having expressed a moment of faith alone in Christ alone to be justified unto forgiveness of ones sins for eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. This is the good news / the gospel that Paul was speaking about in verse 32. Notice that in view is a moment of faith alone in Christ alone apart from any human doing in the last phrase of verse 39, "from which you could not be justified by the Law of Moses." For if keeping the Law of Moses is of no effect toward justification, then no amount or any kind of works such as water baptism - before, during or after receiving forgiveness of sins unto eternal life through a moment of faith alone in Christ alone - could ever be contributory to gaining eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. The absence of the stipulation of water baptism in verse 39 leading to justification confirms this by what the Apostle Paul said as recorded in Acts chapter 19, wherein water baptism was symbolic, not essential for forgiveness of sins]:

8) [Compare Acts 19:1-6]:

(Acts 19:1 NASB) '''It happened that while Apollos was at Corinth, Paul passed through the upper country and came to Ephesus, and found some disciples.

(Acts 19:2 NASB) He said to them, "Did you receive the Holy Spirit when you believed?" And they said to him, "No, we have not even heard whether there is a Holy Spirit."

(Acts 19:3 NASB) And he said, "Into what then were you baptized?" And they said, "Into John's baptism."

(Acts 19:4 NKJV) Then Paul said, "John [the Baptist] indeed baptized with a baptism of repentance, saying to the people [Israel] that they should believe on Him Who would come after him, that is, on Christ Jesus."

[Notice that Paul indicated that John's baptism of repentance signified that one had expressed a moment of faith alone in Christ Jesus for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. Absent in this passage was any stipulation of committment to godly behavior required for receiving eternal life. Furthermore, Paul indicated that John the Baptist largely addressed the people of Israel]

(Acts 19:5 NASB) When they heard this, they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus.

(Acts 19:6 NASB) And when Paul had laid his hands upon them, the Holy Spirit came on them, and they began speaking with tongues and prophesying

Acts 19:1-6 describes Paul's meeting with a number of believers who had undergone John's water baptism. Paul notices that there is something incomplete with them with respect to their being church age believers - members of the body of Christ. Paul notices that these people have not transitioned over from the Old Testament era to the New Testament church era. Paul says, 'Didn't you receive God the Holy Spirit when you were baptized?' And they said, 'No.' Then Paul says, 'What baptism have you had then.' They say, 'The baptism of John,' which symbolized that these men had trusted in the Messiah for their eternal life Who would bring in the kingdom. Thus they were identified with the Messianic Kingdom Age as part of Israel and not as part of the body of Christ, the church. So Paul proceeded to have them water baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus and then laid hands on them and they received the Holy Spirit. Note that this was a unique circumstance at the time - not to be done later on in the church age when there were no longer any Jewish age believers to be transitioned over into the Church age as members of the body of Christ.

9) [Compare Acts 26:12-18]:

(Acts 26:12 NKJV) "While thus occupied, as I [Paul] journeyed to Damascus with authority and commission from the chief priests,

(Acts 26:13 NKJV) at midday, O king, [Agrippe: Paul was recounting his encounter with the risen Jesus Christ on the road to Damascus], along the road I saw a light from heaven, brighter than the sun shinning around me and those who journeyed with me.

(Acts 26:14 NKJV) And when we all had fallen to the ground, I heard a voice speaking to me and saying in the Hebrew language, 'Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting Me? It is hard for you to kick against the goads.'

(Acts 26:15 NKJV) So I said, 'Who are You, LORD? And He said, 'I am Jesus, Whom you are persecuting.

(Acts 26:16 NKJV) But rise and stand on your feet; for I have appeared to you for this purpose, to make you a minister and a witness both of the things which you have seen and of the things which I will yet reveal to you.

(Acts 26:17 NKJV) I will deliver you [Paul, (v. 14)] from the Jewish people, as well as from the Gentiles, to whom I now send you,

(Acts 26:18 NKJV) to open their eyes, in order to turn them from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan to God, [i.e., repent] that they may receive forgiveness of sins and an inheritance among those who are sanctified by faith in Me [Jesus Christ, (v. 15)].' "

Notice that forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God was via a moment of repentance unto faith alone in Christ alone, and not dependent upon being water baptized.

C) (Acts 2:38-39) THE FORGIVENESS OF SINS UNTO ETERNAL LIFE IN THE ETERNAL KINGDOM OF GOD AS A RESULT OF REPENTANCE UNTO FAITH IN JESUS AS LORD AND CHRIST BY THOSE JEWS WHO CRUCIFIED CHRIST DURING THE TRANSITION PERIOD AND ALL PEOPLES OF ALL AGES IS IN VIEW IN ACTS 2:1-39

(Acts 2:38 HOLMAN) '''And Peter said to them, "Repent (and [let each one of you] be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins. And you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.
(Acts 2:39 NKJV ) For the promise is to you and to your children, and to all who are afar off [i.e., Gentiles, (cf. Isa 49:6, 56:7, 57:19; Joel 2:28; Mal 1:11; cf. Acts 2:39, 10:24-48, 22:21)], as many as the Lord our God will call." =

Note that the word rendered "repent" in Acts 2:38 cannot mean to turn from committing sin; because neither temporal nor eternal forgiveness can be given to an individual by God if the individual agrees to repent and stop committing further sins - if that were possible, and it is not. For the justice of God would not be satisified until those sins he did commit were personally forgiven through a moment of faith alone in God's Son alone Who paid the penalty for them. Justification unto eternal life can only come when one is justified by a moment of faith alone in God's Son alone . Thereafter, temporal forgiveness can be given by God as the individual who has already been justified by faith alone; not by repentance, but by confessing his daily sins . So since those in view in Acts 2:1-38 are Jews who crucified Jesus, hence who do not believe in Him, and all Gentiles who don't believe in Him, for that matter as well, (v. 39), the word rendered "repent" in Acts 2:38 must mean to change the mind and believe in Jesus being Lord and Christ unto eternal forgiveness of sins and entrance into the Eternal Kingdom of God.

And in Acts 2:39, since Gentiles are included in Peter's message of "repent and be baptized for forgiveness of sins and the gift of the Holy Spirit," of Acts 2:38, albeit with some variation such as the reception of the Holy Spirit upon repentance and a variation in the role of water baptism; then forgiveness unto eternal life is further corroborated as being in view, not forgiveness for crucifying Christ or any other sins for temporal forgiveness, as some contend. For Gentiles are not guilty of crucifying Christ, and thus such temporal forgiveness for that sin would not be part of Peter's message to the Jews in chapter 2.

Finally, although temporal forgiveness from confession, (ref. 1 Jn 1:9; Ps 32:1-5), can be described as a repentance / turning from not confessing to confessing ones sins to God; it is not in view in Acts 2:38 because the subject of Peter's sermon was not about the sins that were being committed by the Jews he was addressing. The subject was Who Jesus Christ was Whom they crucified - He was Lord and Christ - their Savior. So Peter was not telling the Jews who crucified Him to repent of that sin because one cannot repent of the sin of crucifying Him by not doing it anymore. Christ was murdered one time and it cannot be undone so that the Jews who crucified Him could refrain from doing it again. Nor can it mean to confess that one sin, because the phrase rendered "forgiveness of sins," in Acts 2:38 is plural - all of their sins are to be forgiven upon the Jews' repentance / changing of their minds to believing that God has made Jesus both Lord and Christ - this Jesus Whom they crucified.88888

Peter's sermon in Acts chapter 2 was essentially the same as the message of John the Baptist and Jesus Himself after John was imprisoned, i.e., "Repent for the Kingdom of God is at hand," wherein forgiveness of sins is unto eternal life in the eternal Kingdom of God:

1) The Old Testament Prophets, John The Baptist And His Disciples, And The LORD Jesus Christ And His Disciples Before His Ascension Preached To Israel, "Repent For The Kingdom Of God Is At Hand" - In The Sense Of Believing In The Coming Messiah / Savior In Order For Them To Receive Forgiveness Of Sins Unto Eternal Life In The Eternal Kingdom Of God, Which Would Commence Should All Israel Believe. The Context Of This Repentance Unto Forgiveness Of Sins Did Not Include Producing Fruit, I.E., Doing Godly Works, Such As Water Baptism; Nor Did It Include A Committment To Do Godly Works, As Some Contend

Note that it was the forerunner of Jesus, John the Baptist who would "prepare the way for the Lord [making] straight paths for Him," (Mt 3:3; Isa 40:3). By commanding all Israel to "Repent for the Kingdom of God is at hand," (Mt 3:2), John was stating that in his time the coming of the Christ - the Messiah - to bring His Eternal Kingdom into the world was imminent should all of Israel repent / believe in Him for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in that Kingdom. And thereafter and in the same manner preached Jesus and His disciples before His Ascension, (Mt 4:12, 17; Mk 1:14-15). It was John the Baptist who declared Who Jesus was: "Behold the Lamb of God Who takes away the sins of the world," (Jn 1:29) - as testified to in Old Testament Scripture, (Isa 53:4-5; cf. Acts 10:43). And it was John the Baptist who preached that "one must believe in Jesus," (Acts 19:4). Hence the word rendered "repent" when preached by the Old Testament prophets, John the Baptist and his disciples, and Jesus and His disciples before His Ascension signified that one must believe in Christ as Messiah "for the forgiveness of sins," (Joel 2:15 ; Isa 9:6; 53:1-17; Acts 10:43; Acts 19:4; Mk 1:4; 14-15; Mt 4:12, 17) in order to gain eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God.

a) [Compare Mk 1:14-15]:

(Mk 1:14 NKJV) "Now after John was put in prison, Jesus came to Galilee, preaching the gospel of the Kingdom of God,

(Mk 1:15 NKJV) and saying, 'The time is fulfilled, and the Kingdom of God is at hand. Repent, and believe in the gospel.'

Furthermore, John the Baptist and his disciples, and Jesus and His disciples before His Ascension commanded those who believed in Jesus to demonstrate this change to faith in Him by a "baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins" - a water baptism symbolic of their having expressed a moment of faith alone in Jesus Christ, their Messiah / Savior alone unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, (Acts 2:38; 3:19; 19:4; Mk 1:4).

b) [Compare Mt 3:1-8]:

In Mt 3:1-8, John the Baptist indicated that repentance was not the same as producing fruit. They are two separate things. The words rendered "repentance" and "repent" relative to the eternal forgiveness of sins have in view a moment of faith alone in Christ alone - a mental acceptance of our LORD's provision for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. So when John the Baptist spoke to many of the Pharisees and Sadducees saying, "Who warned you to flee from the wrath to come? Therefore bear fruits worthy of repentance" in Mt 3:7-8, he was declaring to individuals who should have already expressed repentance / faith in Christ to secure the gift of eternal life, to produce fruit, i.e., godly behavior in keeping with that repentance:

(Mt 3:1 NKJV) '''In those days John the Baptist came preaching in the wilderness of Judea,

(Mt 3:2 NKJV) and saying, "Repent, for the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand!"

[The Greek conjunction "gar" which is rendered "for" in the phrase "Repent, for the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand" is a causal particle which introduces the reason why all of Israel must repent / believe in Jesus as LORD and Christ / Messiah Who is to come to provide an atoning sacrifice for the sins of the whole world, (cf. Mt 3:3; Isa 40:3-5), unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of Heaven. And that reason is so that the LORD would commence His Eternal Kingdom of heaven upon the earth, i.e., the Eternal Kingdom of God - with all of a generation of His chosen people Israel having trusted in Him to be the Kingdom's ruling nation on the earth. However the Jews at the time of John the Baptist did not all repent / believe. So the Eternal Kingdom did not then commence]

(Mt 3:3 YLT) for this is he who was spoken of by Isaiah the prophet, saying, "A voice of one crying [out] in the wilderness, 'Prepare... the way of the LORD, straight make... His paths.' " (cf. Isa 40:3 )

(Mt 3:4 NKJV) Now John himself was clothed in camel's hair, with a leather belt around his waist; and his food was locusts and wild honey.

(Mt 3:5 NKJV) Then Jerusalem, all Judea, and all the region around the Jordan went out to him

(Mt 3:6 NKJV) and were baptized by him in the Jordan, confessing their sins.

[So as each Israelite trusted in Christ as Messiah/Savior unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of Heaven, the Kingdom of God was declared at hand should all Israel believe. All of this was in conjunction with the Messiah's arrival as the Lamb of God Who takes away the sins of the world, (Jn 1:29). Whereupon the Israelite believer was to confess his sins - not to receive eternal forgiveness, for he was already forgiven unto eternal life - but in order to receive temporal forgiveness to restore his temporal fellowship with God, so that the individual would be prepared spiritually before being water baptized, (Ps 32:1-5; Pr 28:13; cf. 1 Jn 1:9) . Whereupon he was water baptized by John in the Jordan River. This water baptism was declared as a baptism of repentance, symbolic of one having changed ones mind from not believing to a moment of faith alone in Christ alone as Messiah/Savior unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, (Acts 19:4). This baptism was also symbolic of the Israelite believer's identification with national Israel and our Lord and His Eternal Kingdom which was to have been ushered in, had all Israel accepted Him as Messiah. In view of the fact that the Kingdom did not commence in John's time, John's declaration, "The Kingdom of God is at hand" was nevertheless not in error because it was Israel which had failed once more to respond to the LORD's command for national repentance - leaving the door open for a future generation of Israel who will all respond by a moment of faith alone in Christ alone as Messiah / Savior unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, (cf. Zech 12:10-14). Hence the time of the commencement of the Eternal Kingdom of God remained imminent / ready to immediately begin. But Peter later, after his message in Acts chapter 2,  announced that the Kingdom of God would not come "until the time of the restoration of all things," at which time all of a generation of Israel would chose to believe, (cf. Acts 3:21)].

(Mt 3:7 NKJV) But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming to his baptism, he said to them, "Brood of vipers! Who warned you to flee from the wrath to come?

[Notice that the arrival of the Eternal Kingdom of Heaven will begin with God's wrath upon unbelievers - those presently alive who have chosen not to repent / believe.]

(Mt 3:8 NKJV) Therefore bear fruits worthy of repentance."

So the point is clearly made that producing fruit, i.e., godly works and repentance unto forgiveness of sins unto eternal life are two different things. One repents, i.e., changes ones mind and believes in the coming Messiah, Jesus Christ for forgiveness of sins so as to gain an eternally secure entrance into the Eternal Kingdom of Heaven by a moment of faith alone in Christ alone. And after that has been done, one is commanded to choose daily in ones temporal life to bear fruit, i.e., godly behavior, out of duty and gratitude for being saved unto eternal life solely by the grace of God . So the command in verse 8 is to produce fruit, i.e., to change the behavior in keeping with the change of mind - the repentance from unbelief to belief in the Messiah / Savior. Evidently the many Pharisees and Sadducees that John was addressing had neither produced godly fruit nor repented / believed in Christ.

c) [Compare Acts 19:4]:

(Acts 19:4 NKJV) "Then Paul said, 'John [the Baptist] indeed baptized with a baptism of repentance, saying to the people [Israel] that they should believe on Him Who would come after him, that is, on Christ Jesus."

Notice that Paul indicated that John's baptism of repentance signified that one had expressed a moment of faith alone in Christ Jesus for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. Absent in this passage was any stipulation of committment to godly behavior required for receiving eternal life. Furthermore, Paul indicated that John the Baptist largely addressed the people of Israel, (cf. Acts 19:4).

d) [Compare Mk 1:4, 14-15]:

(Mk 1:4 NKJV) "John came baptizing in the wilderness and preaching a baptism of repentance for remission [forgiveness] of sins."

(Mk 1:14 NKJV) "Now after John was put in prison, Jesus came to Galilee, preaching the gospel of the Kingdom of God,

(Mk 1:15 NKJV) and saying, 'The time is fulfilled, and the Kingdom of God is at hand. Repent, and believe in the gospel.' "

Notice that the phrase rendered "Repent, and believe in the gospel" is the key message for receiving forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God; and absent is the command to be water baptized toward that end. The word repent here conveys the sense of changing the mind and believing in Jesus Christ for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God.

e) [Compare Mt 4:12, 17]:

(Mt 4:12 YLT) "And Jesus having heard that John was delivered up [in the sense of arrested and put in prison], He withdrew to Galilee."

(Mt 4:17 NKJV) "From that time Jesus began to preach and to say, 'Repent, for the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand.' "

Notice that just as John the Baptist came baptizing in the wilderness and preaching a baptism of repentance for remission [forgiveness] of sins, (Mk 1:4, 14-15), so after John was put in prison, Jesus came to Galilee, preaching the same gospel of the Kingdom of God, (Mk 1:14-15; Mt 4:12). For Jesus was saying, "The time is fulfilled [in the sense of whatever was required to take place had taken place], and the Kingdom of God is at hand, [in the sense that its commencement was imminent]. Repent and believe in the gospel,' " (Mk 1:15; Mt 4:17). Notice once again that any reference to water baptism is absent in the phrase "Repent and believe in the gospel, with the word repent referring to change the mind "and believe." In other words, had all of those to whom Jesus and John the Baptist were speaking - to all of a generation of Israel - repented in the sense of changing their minds to believe in Jesus Christ for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, then the Eternal Kingdom of God would have commenced then and there!

But thereafter - after Christ's Ascension and after Peter's address to the Jews in Acts chapter 2 - heaven would receive the LORD "until the times of restoration of all things;" i.e., until a future time when the Eternal Kingdom of God would commence upon all of a future generation of Israel repenting / believing in Christ, (Acts 3:19-21).

2) In The Case Of The Message Of The Gospel After Christ's Ascension, Beginning With The Apostle Peter, The Greek Word "Metanoeo" ("Metanoesate") Rendered "Repent" Continued To Signify A Change From Not Believing To Believing Alone In Jesus Christ (Now Having Been Revealed In His Resurrected Humanity To The World) As LORD And Christ / The Messiah For Forgiveness Of Sins Unto Eternal Life In The Eternal Kingdom Of God; Which Kingdom Would Commence Should All Of That Generation Of Israel Believe. Plus In This Time There Was Begun The Reception Of The Gift Of The Indwelling Holy Spirit In All Who Believed - Jew And Gentile Alike. But Sometime After His Address To The Jews In Acts Chapter 2, Peter Indicated That Heaven Must Receive Jesus Christ, The Holy One, Until The Times Of Restoration Of All Things, I.E., Until A Future Time When The Eternal Kingdom Of God Would Commence Upon All Of A Future Generation Of Israel Repenting / Believing In Christ

a) [Compare Acts 2:36-38]:

(Acts 2:36 NKJV) '''[Peter declared] "Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly that God has made this Jesus, Whom you crucified, both LORD and Christ [in the sense of the promised Messiah / Savior]." (Acts 2:37 YLT) And having heard, they were pricked to the heart; they say also to Peter, and to the rest of the apostles, "What shall we do, men, brethren? (Acts 2:38 HOLMAN) And Peter said to them, "Repent (and [let each one of you] be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins. And you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit." ''' =

Peter's answer to the Jews' question of what they should do relative to Jesus Christ being their Lord and Christ, their Messiah / Savior, was to repent in the sense of changing their minds to believe in Him for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God; which Kingdom would commence should all of that generation of Israel believe. This included being water baptized in the name of Jesus Christ - but to symbolize and not to be part of repentance as some contend. Nor was water baptism to be causative of being forgiven of ones sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God; thereafter one would receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. Absent is an exhortation to be have better or feel remorse or commit to a holy lifestyle.

(Acts 2:36 NKJV) '''[Peter declared] "Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly that God has made this Jesus, Whom you crucified, both LORD and Christ [in the sense of the promised Messiah / Savior]." (Acts 2:37 YLT) And having heard, they were pricked to the heart; they say also to Peter, and to the rest of the apostles, "What shall we do, men, brethren? (Acts 2:38 HOLMAN) And Peter said to them, "Repent (and [let each one of you] be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins. And you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit." ''' =

Having presented his case so convincingly to the crowd of Jews in Jerusalem for Jesus being the Christ - the Messiah, and corroborating it with Scripture - David's testimony in Psalms 16 & 110 5678 - the Apostle Peter concluded, "Therefore let all the house of Israel," (notice once more that Peter was addressing Jews) "know assuredly that God has made this Jesus, Whom you [Jews] crucified, both LORD [Greek, "kurion" in the sense of being God] and Christ [Greek, "Christon" in the sense of the Messiah, God's Annointed One from Israel Who was to rule over the Eternal Kingdom of God. These two titles refer to the Deity and Humanity, respectively of the Son of God, Jesus Christ], (Isa 7:14; 9:6-7 ). The Greek verb "epoiEsen" rendered "has made" does not signify that God fabricated Jesus into being LORD and Christ at that moment in time. Rather, it is saying that Jesus was declared by God to be both LORD - referring to His Diety as the Eternal Son of God; and Christ in the sense of having fulfilled the requirement in His Humanity of being an atoning sacrifice for the sins of the whole world; which declaration was evidenced by God's having raised Him from the dead and ascended Him into glory at His right hand in heaven. Notice that convincing and convicting fellow Jews in the sense of getting them to change their minds and believe that "Jesus Whom you crucified, [was] both LORD and Christ" unto forgiveness of sins and eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, (cf. 1 Jn 5-1), was Peter's message. For Peter was declaring the imminent fulfillment of the prophecy in Joel 2:28-32, (Acts 2:16-21), in the sense of the commencement of the Eternal Kingdom of God upon the earth should all of that generation of Israel call upon the name of the LORD to be saved in the sense of repenting unto trusting in Jesus as LORD and Christ for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, (cf. 1 Jn 5:1), and the gift of the Holy Spirit.

Not in view was an exhortation to behave better or feel remorse or commit to a holy lifestyle, as some contend. For attempts at good behavior will never be sufficient to pay for all the sins one has committed. Forgiveness of sins only comes by the grace of God through a moment of faith alone in Christ alone - His atonement for their sins. Note that the Greek word "Christon" rendered "Christ" in the NKJV is the Greek word which means "Messiah," referring to the Messiah of the Jews and the world as detailed in the books of the Old Testament, (cf. Isa 7:14; 9:6-7 ); (Acts 2:36).

So the Jews having heard what Peter so convincingly had to say to this point, "were pricked to the heart," in the sense that they felt remorse. The Greek phrase "katenugEsan tE kardia," rendered "they were pricked to the heart" in the YLT was descriptive of their feelings. It connoted a sharp pain associated with great anxiety and devastating remorse. The implication is that many of the Jews present to hear Peter's sermon had painfully realized that their Messiah - the One promised to sit on the throne of David to commence and rule the Eternal Kingdom of God had been crucified by them - evidently, in their minds, destroying their chance to enter into the Kingdom, corroborating that they had not been up to this point brothers in the faith in Jesus Christ. Whereupon they said to Peter and the rest of the apostles, 'What shall we do, men, brethren?' implying that a number of them had just begun to believe that Jesus was both LORD and Christ - a belief that is tantamount to becoming born of God, (1 Jn 5:1), having forgiveness of sins unto eternal life. On the other hand there is no stipulation that everyone in the crowd had repented / believed in Him for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, nor was there an indication in verse 37 that everyone in the crowd was assured that they were forgiven of all of their sins including the one of crucifying Jesus. Peter's answer in verse 38 confirms that the result of repentance unto faith in Christ resulted in forgiveness of sins unto eternal life rather than conveys the message of whether some of all of them had repented / believed or not or were assured of being forgiven unto eternal life. Note that Peter had previously addressed the crowd as brethren in the sense of being fellow Israelites as opposed to fellow believers in Jesus Christ: "Men of Judea and Jerusalem, (v. 14); "Men, Israelites," (v. 22); "Brethren" in connection with their "Patriarch David," (v. 29); hence they were brethren Israelites who had not yet become "brethren" in the sense of fellow believers in Christ, as some contend, (Acts 2:22-37). Whereupon those Jews of this transition period, those who were guilty of crucifying Christ - Peter's audience - who repented / became believers in Jesus as Lord and Christ unto forgiveness of sins unto eternal life, (cf. 1 Jn 5:1), were to be water baptized symbolic of their sins being forgiven unto eternal life - especially in view being the sin of crucifying Christ. This water baptism preceded the reception of the gift of the Holy Spirit in the Jews who crucified Christ and then repented / believed unto forgiveness of sins unto eternal life; but it was not causative of either result .

Peter then said to them in Acts 2:38, "And Peter said to them, "Repent (and [let each one of you] be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins. And you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit." The message of those who preceded Peter when he gave his message in Acts chapter 2, namely the prophets of the Old Testament, (cf. Acts 3:21; 10:43 ), John the Baptist and his disciples followed by Jesus and His disciples before His Ascension - one of whom was Peter - was "Repent for the Kingdom of God is at hand," implying repentance / a moment of faith alone in the Messiah alone unto eternal life in the eternal Kingdom of God. Peter's message in Acts chapter 2 was essentially the same relative to the reception of eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God - including the imminency of the commencement of the Eternal Kingdom of God should all Israel repent / believe. For Peter's referral to Joel's account of the arrival of the Day of the LORD in Joel 2:12-32 - the time when the LORD would come to establish His Eternal Kingdom of God - set the tone of imminency of that commencement to the time when Peter began to address the Jews in Jerusalem, just as Joel had done, in his time, centuries earlier. Note that the water baptism was now declared to be "in the name of Jesus Christ" - His Humanity having now been revealed to the world; and His atoning sacrifice for the sins of the whole world now completed as promised. Hence the phrase "in the name of Jesus Christ" signified that one had called upon the name of Jesus Christ - the LORD - to be saved in the sense of having trusted in Him for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, (Acts 2:21; Joel 2:32).

Furthermore, there was the addition of the gift - the baptism of the indwelling Holy Spirit within each believer. For Jews during the transition period from the age of the Law to the age of the Church this gift was to be after repenting to faith in Jesus Christ following  water baptism. Gentile believers would receive the Holy Spirit upon the moment of repentance / belief, (cf. Acts 10:43-48 ); Samaritan believers via the laying on of hands by one of the Apostles, (Acts 8:12-17 ); Jews who expressed a moment of repentance unto faith in Jesus Christ as Messiah / Savior and were water baptized under the preaching of John the Baptist and Jesus after John via a second water baptism in the name of the Lord Jesus + the laying on of hands of the Apostle Paul, (Acts 19:1-6 ). Thereafter, when the transition period was over, and the Age of the Church established all who repented / believed in Jesus Christ for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life were to receive the Spirit at that moment of faith alone, (Eph 1:13-14  ).

Note that Peter's message as recorded in Acts chapter 2 included Gentiles in verse 39, albeit with some variation such as the reception of the Holy Spirit upon repentance and a variation in the role of water baptism. His inclusion of Gentiles in his message of the gospel to the Jews was nothing new, (Isa 49:6, 56:7, 57:19; Joel 2:28; Mal 1:11; cf. Acts 2:39, 10:24-48, 22:21). Although the prophets of the Old Testament largely addressed Israel, the promise of eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God always included Gentiles, (Isa 49:6, 56:7, 57:19; Joel 2:28; Mal 1:11). And although accounts of John the Baptist were limited to his ministry to Israel, there is no indication that he excluded Gentiles, (cf. Acts 19:1-4). Furthermore, Acts 1:8 speaks of the disciples of Jesus carrying the gospel to the end of the earth which implies the inclusion of all mankind. And finally, although our LORD began sending His disciples to the "lost sheep of the house of Israel," He expanded His ministry, instructing the disciples to carry His message to Gentiles - which included Peter, (Mt 10:5-18; Lk 7:1-10).

Although the imminency of the commencement of the Eternal Kingdom of God should all of a generation of Israel repent / believe was in view in Acts chapter 2. It was no longer in view at the time of Peter's address in Acts chapter 3. For Peter then stipulated that heaven would receive the LORD "until the times of restoration of all things," (Acts 3:21) .

The Greek word "metanoEsate," from the root word "metanoeo," is rendered "repent" in Acts 2:38. It comes from the combination of the Greek words meta meaning 'after,' implying change; and the Greek word noeo meaning the mind, the understanding = literally, an 'after thought.' Hence it is a rethinking or a change of mind. The sphere of this word in the context of Acts chapter 2 is therefore limited to a change within the mind. Other kinds and spheres of activity, such as a change of lifestyle, are not in view in Acts 2:38, . These other activities require other words which are not present in the text at hand which designate changes outside of the sphere of the mind. For Peter's sermon was all about Who Jesus was. It wasn't about the Jews taking some kind of action, such as behaving in a godly manner, or feeling remorse, or making a committment to behave better. For Peter did not indicate that the Jews were to "produce fruit" in order to receive forgiveness of sins unto eternal life and the gift of the Holy Spirit - they were only commanded to repent / believe. Even when John the Baptist commanded many pharisees and sadducees to "Bear fruits worthy of repentance," he implied that this was to be done after forgiveness of sins unto eternal life had been eternally secured via a moment of repentance unto faith alone in Christ alone, (Mt 3:8 ). So the Greek word "metanoEsate," second person plural imperative / command form of the Greek word "metanoeo," appears in Acts 2:38, conveying a command to the people of Israel - as well as Gentiles, (Acts 2:39, 10:24-48, 22:21) - to change their minds from not believing to believing alone in the Messiah, Jesus Christ alone for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God; whereupon each one was to be water baptized to symbolize that forgiveness through Christ's atonement for them.

b) [Compare Acts 2:41-44]:

(Acts 2:41 NASB) "So then, those who had received his[Peter's] word [i.e., believed in Christ as Messiah/Savior, see v. 44 below] were baptized; and that day there were added [to the number of those being saved unto eternal life] about three thousand souls.

(Acts 2:42 YLT) And they were continuing steadfastly in the teaching of the apostles, and the fellowship, and the breaking of the bread, and the prayers.

(Acts 2:43 NKJV) Then fear came upon every soul, and many wonders and signs were done through the apostles.

[This was a demonstration of the work of the Holy Spirit within the disciples and through them, authenticating their testimony about believing in Jesus Christ for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God]

(Acts 2:44 NKJV) Now all who believed were together, and had all things in common."

Notice that Acts 2:41-44 confirm that the word rendered "repent" in Acts 2:38 means believing in Jesus Christ for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. The words do not say, 'Now all those who turned from their sins... or confessed their sins,' they say "Now all those who believed were together," i.e., those who exercised a moment of faith alone in Christ alone for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. Notice also that those who have had their sins blotted out - who have received forgiveness of sins - are defined as those who have believed.

Furthermore, it is significant that water baptism is mentioned in verse 41 as occurring after having received Peter's word in the sense of believing in Christ for forgiveness of sins. And in verse 44, it's absence indicates that the essential and sole point is having believed in order to receive forgiveness of sins. This is corroborated when Peter once again addressed a Jewish audience on this matter:

c) [Compare Acts 3:11-21]:

Note that from the time of Peter's message in Acts chapter 3, Peter indicated that heaven must receive Jesus Christ the Holy One until the times of restoration of all things, i.e., until a future time when the Eternal Kingdom of God would commence upon all of a future generation of Israel repenting / believing in Christ:

(Acts 3:11 NKJV) "Now as the lame man who was healed held on to Peter and John, all the people ran together to them in the porch which is called Solomon's, greatly amazed.

(Acts 3:12 NKJV) [And Peter having seen the peoples' being greatly amazed, (v. 11)] So when Peter saw it, he responded to the people: 'Men of Israel, why do you marvel at this? Or why look so intently at us, as though by our own power or godliness we had made this man walk?

(Acts 3:13 NKJV) The God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, the God of our fathers, glorified His Servant Jesus, Whom you delivered up and denied in the presence of Pilate, when he was determined to let Him go.

(Acts 3:14 NKJV) But you denied the Holy One and the Just, and asked for a murderer to be granted to you,

(Acts 3:15 NKJV) and killed the Prince of life, Whom God raised from the dead, of which we are witnesses.

(Acts 3:16 NKJV) And His [Jesus'] name, through faith in His name, has made this man strong, whom you see and know. Yes, the faith which comes through Him has given him [the healed, formerly lame man] this perfect soundness in the presence of you all.

(Acts 3:17 NKJV) Yet now, brethren, [Peter is referring here to fellow Jews] I know that you did it in ignorance, as did also your rulers.

(Acts 3:18 NKJV) But those things which God foretold by the mouth of all His prophets

(Acts 3:19 HOLMAN) Therefore repent and turn ...[to Christ in faith, (v. 16)], so that your sins may be blotted out, that seasons of refreshing may come from the presence of the LORD,

[In Acts 3:19a, Peter is offering to Israel and to Gentiles, i.e., all mankind, (Acts 2:39, 10:24-48, 22:21), the opportunity to "Repent and turn... [from ignorance of Who Jesus was, (v. 17), to faith in Him as Lord and Christ] so that [their] sins may be blotted out," in the sense of forgiven unto eternal life. The Apostle is saying for the Jews who crucified Jesus as in chapter 2, to change their minds from not trusting in Jesus Christ as ones Messiah/Savior to believing in His name, i.e., His capacity to provide one with eternal forgiveness of sins. The phrase rendered "so that your sins may be blotted out," signifies to be forgiven of ones sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, (cf. Acts 2:38; 10:43). On the other hand, Peter preached in Acts 3:19b that "seasons of refreshing may come from the presence of the LORD," i.e., that one believes in Jesus Christ for forgiveness so that one will enter that Eternal Kingdom of God when it commences and everything is restored.

Notice that there is no stipulation such as "and be baptized" present in order to have their sins blotted out! So evidently water baptism is symbolic. Furthermore there is nothing stipulated in this passage about receiving the gift of the Holy Spirit. In view of Acts 2:38's stipulation of repentance and baptism followed by forgiveness of sins and Holy Spirit reception, we may conclude that the water baptism is not required for forgiveness of sins. But once one is baptized, there follows the reception of the Holy Spirit in the group of Jews who are in view in chapters 2 and 3 of Acts - those Jews responsible for the death of Christ at the beginning / the transition period of the Church Age who have repented / believed.

On the other hand, the timeframe for the commencement had changed, for Peter declared in the next two verses, (Acts 3:20-21), that heaven must receive Jesus Christ until the times of restoration of all things. Hence the commencement of the Eternal Kingdom of God was not imminent at the time of Peter's message. But when that time comes, God will send His Son, Jesus Christ to rule His Eternal Kingdom forever]:

(Acts 3:20 NKJV) and that He [God the Father] may send Jesus Christ, Who was preached to you before,

(Acts 3:21 NKJV) Whom heaven must receive until the times of restoration of all things, which God has spoken by the mouth of all His holy prophets since the world began."

So Peter indicated to his audience of Jews that God, (the Father, v. 18), will send His Son Jesus Christ to the earth; Who, Peter reminded, was repeatedly preached to the Jews and to all mankind since the world began. But for the present time, Peter declared in verse 21, heaven must receive Him "until the times of restoration of all things, which God has spoken by the mouth of all His holy prophets since the world began."

So our Lord Jesus Christ will come to earth to commence His Eternal Kingdom rule when it is time. And at the moment of His Second Coming all of a generation of Israel will recognize and trust in her Messiah as a result of God's enablement and Israel's subsequent response of faith, (cf. Zech 12:10-14). The phrases "that seasons of refreshing may come from the presence of the LORD," in verse 19; and "until the times of restoration of all things," in verse 21 refer to the commencement of the Eternal Kingdom of God.

d) [Compare Acts 5:30-32]:

(Acts 5:30 NKJV) [Peter said, v. 29)] "The God of our fathers raised up Jesus Whom you [Jewish rulers, (vv. 22-28)] murdered by hanging on a tree.

(Acts 5:31 NKJV) Him God has exalted to His right hand to be Prince and Savior, to give repentance to Israel and forgiveness of sins.

(Acts 5:32 NKJV) And we are His witnesses to these things, and so also is the Holy Spirit Whom God has given to those who obey Him."

Notice that Peter declared that repentance was given to Israel in the sense of all Israelites being given the opportunity to repent / believe unto forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the eternal Kingdom of God. Furthermore, Peter adds that the Holy Spirit was also given to those who obeyed God. Since water baptism is not stipulated in this passage, then it is not essential for forgiveness of sins - only the repentance unto faith is stipulated which evidently does not include water baptism. On the other hand, water baptism is something for the believers to obey which according to Acts 2:38 is followed by the reception of the Holy Spirit for those Jews who crucified Jesus who are in view in chapters 2, 3 and 5.
*****

e) [Compare Acts 10:34-48]:

In Acts chapter 10, Peter addresses the Gentiles with the same message he has been preaching relative to forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, albeit the reception of the gift of the Holy Spirit comes at the moment of faith alone, before water baptism:

(Acts 10:34 NKJV) "Then Peter opened his mouth and said: 'In truth I perceive that God shows no partiality [relative to whom the forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God applies, i.e., it applies to everyone - Jew and Gentile alike].

(Acts 10:35 NKJV) But in every nation whoever fears Him and works righteousness is accepted by Him.

[The phrase rendered "But in every nation, i.e., Jew and Gentile alike, whoever fears Him and works righteousness is accepted by Him," in the sense of whoever of every nation of mankind believes in Jesus Christ for forgiveness of sins, (Acts 10:43), unto the reception of the Righteousness of Christ, is accepted by God in the sense of having eternal life and entering the Eternal Kingdom of God]

(Acts 10:36 NKJV) The word which God sent to the children of Israel, preaching peace through Jesus Christ - He is Lord of all -

(Acts 10:37 NKJV) that word you know, which was proclaimed throughout all Judea, and began from Galilee after the baptism which John preached:

(Acts 10:38 NKJV) how God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Spirit and with power, who went about doing good and healing all who were oppressed by the devil, for God was with Him.

(Acts 10:39 NKJV) And we are witnesses of all things which He did both in the land of the Jews and in Jerusalem, whom they killed by hanging on a tree.

(Acts 10:40 NKJV) Him God raised up on the third day, and showed Him openly,

(Acts 10:41 NKJV) not to all the people, but to witnesses chosen before by God, even to us who ate and drank with Him after He arose from the dead.

(Acts 10:42 NKJV) And He commanded us to preach to the people, and to testify that it is He [Jesus Christ] Who was ordained by God to be Judge of the living and the dead.

(Acts 10:43 NKJV) To Him [Jesus Christ] all the prophets witness that, through His name, whoever believes in Him will receive remission of sins.'

[Notice that the Old Testament prophets indicated that with a moment of faith alone in the Christ / the Messiah / Savior alone, one will receive remission, i.e., forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God ]

(Acts 10:44 NKJV) While Peter was still speaking these words, the Holy Spirit fell upon all those who heard the word.

[This implies that those that heard Peter's words evidently believed in Jesus Christ for forgiveness of sins in the Eternal Kingdom of God - Gentiles included, (cf. Acts 2:39, 10:24-48, 22:21), whereupon they received the gift of the Holy Spirit]

(Acts 10:45 NKJV) And those of the circumcision [Jews] who believed were astonished, as many as came with Peter, because the gift of the Holy Spirit had been poured out on the Gentiles also.

[Note that the phrases rendered "the Holy Spirit fell upon," (v. 10:44), and "the gift of the Holy Spirit had been poured out on," (v. 10:45), are saying the same thing - that they had been baptized by the Holy Spirit. Notice that this occurred when the Gentiles believed  before they were water baptized]:

(Acts 10:46 NKJV) For they heard them speak with tongues and magnify God. Then Peter answered,

(Acts 10:47 NKJV) 'Can anyone forbid water, that these should not be baptized who have received the Holy Spirit just as we have?'

(Acts 10:48 NASB) And he ordered them to be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ. Then they asked him to stay on for a few days.' "

Notice that Gentiles in this timeframe, i.e., after the LORD's Ascension, received the gift of the Holy Spirit as well as forgiveness of sins unto eternal life when they believed, i.e., when they repented in the sense of changing their minds from not believing to believing in Christ providing forgiveness of sins through His atoning sacrifice - no water baptism, no change of behavior - simply a moment of faith alone in Christ alone. Thereafter, as verses 46-48 indicate, water baptism was to be administered, evidently to symbolize ones forgiveness through a moment of faith alone in Christ alone. For at the moment of faith alone in Christ alone for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life, and before the Gentiles were water baptized, those that exercised a moment of faith immediately exemplified having been baptized with the Holy Spirit with speaking in tongues and magnifiying God; corroborating their water baptism was symbolic and not contributory toward their reception of forgiveness of sins or the gift of the Holy Spirit. Hence the result of forgiveness of sins unto eternal life and the reception of the indwelling of the gift of the Holy Spirit both came when the Gentiles believed; and not when they were water baptized. And at this time forward, the Apostle Peter had indicated, (Acts 3:19-21), that heaven must receive [aorist middle voice] Jesus Christ, the Holy One until the times of restoration of all things, i.e., God set apart the commencement of the restoration of all things - the Eternal Kingdom of God - to commence at a future time.

All of this is further corroborated by the Apostle Paul in Acts chapter 13:

f) [Compare Acts 13:13-39]:

(Acts 13:13 NKJV) '''Now when Paul and his party set sail from Paphos, they came to Perga in Pamphylia; and John, [John Mark] departing from them, returned to Jerusalem.

(Acts 13:14 NKJV) But when they departed from Perga, they came to Antioch in Pisidia, and went into the synagogue on the Sabbath day and sat down.

(Acts 13:15 NKJV) And after the reading of the Law and the Prophets, the rulers of the synagogue sent to them, saying, "Men and brethren, if you have any word of exhortation for the people, say on."

(Acts 13:16 NKJV) Then Paul stood up, and motioning with his hand said, 'Men of Israel, and you who fear God, listen:

[Note that Paul addressed the people at a meeting in the synagogue at Antioch. They consisted primarily of Jews whom he stipulated as "Men of Israel." Furthermore, he included in his opening address those that "fear God" - evidently Gentiles who were also there at the Synagogue service. Paul's address began with a short history of how "the God of this people Israel chose our fathers, and exalted the people when they dwelt as strangers in the land of Egypt." From Egypt, Paul recounted the 40 years of the people of Israel in the wilderness, and the battle for the land of Canaan, and the 150 years of the rule of the Judges until Samuel the prophet; and thereafter Saul, the first King of Israel. And then Paul continued with King David, a man after God's own heart. And finally, the arrival of Jesus, the Savior of Israel through the seed of David, (vv. 16-23)]

(Acts 13:17 NKJV) The God of this people Israel chose our fathers, and exalted the people when they dwelt as strangers in the land of Egypt, and with an uplifted arm He brought them out of it.

(Acts 13:18 NKJV) Now for a time of about forty years He put up with their ways in the wilderness.

(Acts 13:19 NKJV) And when He had destroyed seven nations in the land of Canaan, He distributed their land to them by allotment.

(Acts 13:20 NKJV) After that He gave them judges for about four hundred and fifty years, until Samuel the prophet.

(Acts 13:21 NKJV) And afterward they asked for a king; so God gave them Saul the son of Kish, a man of the tribe of Benjamin, for forty years.

(Acts 13:22 NKJV) And when He had removed him, He raised up for them David as king, to whom also He gave testimony and said, 'I have found David the son of Jesse, a man after My own heart, who will do all My will.'

(Acts 13:23 NKJV) From this man's [David's, (v. 22)] seed, according to the promise, God raised up for Israel a Savior - Jesus -

(Acts 13:24 NKJV) after John had first preached, before His coming, the baptism of repentance to all the people of Israel.

[Paul declared that, before the coming of Jesus Christ in His Humanity to fulfill His mission to be the atoning sacrifice for the sins of the whole world, (cf. Acts 13:26-39), John the Baptist preached a baptism of repentance to all the people of Israel. He preached to Israel of national repentance for forgiveness of sins through a moment of faith alone in the Christ / the Messiah alone unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, (cf. Acts 13:39) - whereupon each Israelite believer was to be water baptized by John, symbolizing the Israelite believer's identification with and appropriation of Christ's provision of forgiveness of sins; whereupon the Eternal Kingdom of God would commence on earth should all the people of Israel repent / believe ]

(Acts 13:25 NKJV) And as John was finishing his course, he said, 'Who do you think I am? I am not He, but behold, there comes One after me, the sandals of whose feet I am not worthy to loose.'

(Acts 13:26 NKJV) Men and brethren, sons of the family of Abraham, and those among you who fear God, to you the word of this salvation has been sent.

(Acts 13:27 NKJV) For those who dwell in Jerusalem, and their rulers, because they did not know Him, nor even the voices of the Prophets which are read every Sabbath, have fulfilled them in condemning Him.

(Acts 13:28 NKJV) And though they found no cause for death in Him, they asked Pilate that He should be put to death.

(Acts 13:29 NKJV) Now when they had fulfilled all that was written concerning Him, they took Him down from the tree and laid Him in a tomb.

(Acts 13:30 NKJV) But God raised Him from the dead.

(Acts 13:31 NKJV) He was seen for many days by those who came up with Him from Galilee to Jerusalem, who are His witnesses to the people.

(Acts 13:32 NKJV) And we declare to you [good news - the gospel] - that promise which was made to the fathers.

[The good news, Paul declared, was "that promise which was made to the fathers," of the people of Israel of a Messiah / Savior which Paul stipulated was fulfilled in Jesus of forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God through faith in His atoning sacrifice, (v. 39)]

(Acts 13:33 NKJV) God has fulfilled this for us their children, in that He has raised up Jesus. As it is also written in the second Psalm: 'You are My Son, Today I have begotten You.'

[The phrase "You are My son" in Ps 2:7, comes from the Davidic Covenant (2 Sam 7:14). It is appropriated in Psalm 2 to show the legitimate God ordained right of the king to rule. The phrase 'Today I have begotten You' refers to the day of one being Anointed / Chosen by God to be king of Israel, i.e., the day of the coronation of the king, and his adoption as a son of God into the family of God in an eternal life familial relationship with God. It is implied that the Anointed king of Israel, being declared to be a son of God, has the reception of eternal life and will receive an eternal kingdom inheritance to rule the nations to the ends of the earth in the future eternal kingdom, (Ps 2:8). This also implies that the rebellion of the nations of the world toward the LORD and His Anointed, will finally be put down.

In view of the lack of complete fulfillment of the prophecies in verses 1 through 9, through king David or any king after him so far, the context must jump out of the time of David to a future King of Israel, "the Anointed One, "the Christ," from the Greek, "ho Christos," Who will inherit the nations of the world, and the ends of the earth, evidently as an eternal inheritance and possession, (Ps 2:8). So the Future Anointed of God, "the Christ," will meet the enraged nations, peoples, kings and rulers of the world in conflict and "break them with a rod of iron" and "dash them to pieces like a potter's vessel," despite the warning of the LORD through the Psalmist in verses 10-12, "Now therefore, be wise, O kings; Be instructed, you judges of the earth. Serve the LORD with fear, And rejoice with trembling. Kiss the Son, lest He be angry, And you perish in the way, When His wrath is kindled but a little. Blessed are all those who put their trust in Him." Notice that individual's throughout the world are blessed when they put their trust in the Anointed One of the LORD = "the Christ." This Anointed One is far more than a temporal king of Israel; for throughout the world one may trust in Him to be blessed. No temporal king can say or do that. Nor can the wrath of a king over all the nations of the earth be so powerful unless He is God Himself. ]

(Acts 13:34 NKJV) And that He raised Him from the dead, no more to return to corruption, He has spoken thus: 'I will give you the sure mercies of David.'

(Acts 13:35 NKJV) Therefore He also says in another Psalm: 'You will not allow Your Holy One to see corruption.'

(Acts 13:36 NKJV) For David, after he had served his own generation by the will of God, fell asleep, was buried with his fathers, and saw corruption;

(Acts 13:37 NKJV) but He Whom God raised up saw no corruption.

[In the same way - with the same interpretation - that Peter in Acts chapter 2 referred to this phrase in Psalms 16, . so does the Apostle Paul. The message of Psalm 16 as conveyed by Paul is that the Holy One of Israel, Jesus Christ Himself, did not experience corruption of His physical Human body in death; but once it was placed in the tomb, and sealed up, it was evidently immediately raised from the dead]

(Acts 13:38 NKJV) Therefore let it be known to you, brethren, that through this Man is preached to you the forgiveness of sins;

(Acts 13:39 NKJV) and by Him everyone who believes is justified from all things from which you could not be justified by the Law of Moses."

[The phrase rendered "everyone who believes [in Him, (Jesus Christ)] is justified" means that one "is declared absolutely righteous in God's sight" without Whom no one can be righteous . This implies being forgiven of ones sins through a moment of faith alone in Christ alone without having to be water baptized. So the meaning of the phrase rendered "a baptism of repentance" in Acts 13:24 is clearly a water baptism symbolizing having expressed a moment of faith alone in Christ alone to be justified unto forgiveness of ones sins for eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. This is the good news / the gospel that Paul was speaking about in verse 32. Notice that in view is a moment of faith alone in Christ alone apart from any human doing in the last phrase of verse 39, "from which you could not be justified by the Law of Moses." For if keeping the Law of Moses is of no effect toward justification, then no amount or any kind of works such as water baptism - before, during or after receiving forgiveness of sins unto eternal life through a moment of faith alone in Christ alone - could ever be contributory to gaining eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. The absence of the stipulation of water baptism in verse 39 leading to justification confirms this by what the Apostle Paul said as recorded in Acts chapter 19, wherein water baptism was symbolic, not essential for forgiveness of sins]:

*****

g) [Compare Acts 19:1-6]:

(Acts 19:1 NASB) '''It happened that while Apollos was at Corinth, Paul passed through the upper country and came to Ephesus, and found some disciples.

(Acts 19:2 NASB) He said to them, "Did you receive the Holy Spirit when you believed?" And they said to him, "No, we have not even heard whether there is a Holy Spirit."

(Acts 19:3 NASB) And he said, "Into what then were you baptized?" And they said, "Into John's baptism."

(Acts 19:4 NKJV) Then Paul said, "John [the Baptist] indeed baptized with a baptism of repentance, saying to the people [Israel] that they should believe on Him Who would come after him, that is, on Christ Jesus."

[Notice that Paul indicated that John's baptism of repentance signified that one had expressed a moment of faith alone in Christ Jesus for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. Absent in this passage was any stipulation of committment to godly behavior required for receiving eternal life. Furthermore, Paul indicated that John the Baptist largely addressed the people of Israel]

(Acts 19:5 NASB) When they heard this, they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus.

(Acts 19:6 NASB) And when Paul had laid his hands upon them, the Holy Spirit came on them, and they began speaking with tongues and prophesying."

Acts 19:1-6 describes Paul's meeting with a number of believers who had undergone John's water baptism. Paul notices that there is something incomplete with them with respect to their being church age believers - members of the body of Christ. Paul notices that these people have not transitioned over from the Old Testament era to the New Testament church era. Paul says, 'Didn't you receive God the Holy Spirit when you were baptized?' And they said, 'No.' Then Paul says, 'What baptism have you had then.' They say, 'The baptism of John,' which symbolized that these men had trusted in the Messiah for their eternal life Who would bring in the kingdom. Thus they were identified with the Messianic Kingdom Age as part of Israel and not as part of the body of Christ, the church. So Paul proceeded to have them water baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus and then laid hands on them and they received the Holy Spirit. Note that this was a unique circumstance at the time - not to be done later on in the church age when there were no longer any Jewish age believers to be transitioned over into the Church age as members of the body of Christ.

h) [Compare Acts 26:12-18]:

(Acts 26:12 NKJV) "While thus occupied, as I [Paul] journeyed to Damascus with authority and commission from the chief priests,

(Acts 26:13 NKJV) at midday, O king, [Agrippe: Paul was recounting his encounter with the risen Jesus Christ on the road to Damascus], along the road I saw a light from heaven, brighter than the sun shinning around me and those who journeyed with me.

(Acts 26:14 NKJV) And when we all had fallen to the ground, I heard a voice speaking to me and saying in the Hebrew language, 'Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting Me? It is hard for you to kick against the goads.'

(Acts 26:15 NKJV) So I said, 'Who are You, LORD? And He said, 'I am Jesus, Whom you are persecuting.

(Acts 26:16 NKJV) But rise and stand on your feet; for I have appeared to you for this purpose, to make you a minister and a witness both of the things which you have seen and of the things which I will yet reveal to you.

(Acts 26:17 NKJV) I will deliver you [Paul, (v. 14)] from the Jewish people, as well as from the Gentiles, to whom I now send you,

(Acts 26:18 NKJV) to open their eyes, in order to turn them from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan to God, [i.e., repent] that they may receive forgiveness of sins and an inheritance among those who are sanctified by faith in Me [Jesus Christ, (v. 15)].' "

Notice that forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God was via a moment of repentance unto faith alone in Christ alone, and not dependent upon being water baptized.

D) (Acts 2:38) THE RECEPTION OF THE GIFT / THE BAPTISM - THE PERMANENT INDWELLING - OF THE HOLY SPIRIT WAS TO EMPOWER THE DISCIPLES AND ALL BELIEVERS TO BE WITNESSESS TO JESUS CHRIST TO THE ENDS OF THE EARTH - TO BE WITNESSES OF HIS PROVISION THROUGH A MOMENT OF FAITH ALONE IN HIM ALONE FOR ETERNAL LIFE IN THE ETERNAL KINGDOM OF GOD. THIS GIFT OF HOLY SPIRIT BAPTISM CAME TO JEWS IN THE TRANSITION PERIOD TO THE CHURCH AGE WHO HAD CRUCIFIED JESUS AND HAD REPENTED OF THEIR DISBELIEF AND BELIEVED IN HIM. THE HOLY SPIRIT CAME UPON THEM AFTER THEIR WATER BAPTISM SYMBOLIZING THEIR SALVATION. THEREAFTER, THE HOLY SPIRIT WOULD COME TO ALL BELIEVERS AT THE POINT OF REPENTANCE UNTO FAITH IN CHRIST

(Acts 2:36 NKJV) '''[Peter declared] "Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly that God has made this Jesus, Whom you crucified, both LORD and Christ [in the sense of the promised Messiah / Savior]." (Acts 2:37 YLT) And having heard, they were pricked to the heart; they say also to Peter, and to the rest of the apostles, "What shall we do, men, brethren? (Acts 2:38 HOLMAN) And Peter said to them, "Repent (and [let each one of you] be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins. And you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit." =

Luke 24:44-49 and Acts 1:5-8 indicated that the disciples of Jesus would receive the gift / the baptism - the permanent indwelling - of the Holy Spirit to empower them to be witnesses to Jesus Christ to the ends of the earth - to be witnesses of His provision through a moment of faith alone in Him alone for eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God:

****** EXCERPT FROM ACTS CHAPTER ONE RELATIVE TO THE BAPTISM OF THE HOLY SPIRIT ******

Or skip to the next section in Acts chapter 2:

(Acts 1:1-11) AUTHOR LUKE SENT A SECOND WRITING TO HIS FRIEND, AND FELLOW BELIEVER THEOPHILUS. THE FIRST WRITING WAS HIS GOSPEL - THE LIFE AND TEACHINGS OF JESUS UNTIL HIS ASCENSION. THE SECOND WRITING - EVENTUALLY ENTITLED THE BOOK OF ACTS - BEGAN HISTORICALLY WITH THE LORD'S ASCENSION, HIS APPEARANCES TO THE APOSTLES AND OTHER BELIEVERS - PROOFS OF HIS RESURRECTION AND PURPOSE. AND IT CONTAINED EVENTS OF THE APOSTLES PERTAINING TO JESUS' TEACHINGS TO THEM RELATIVE TO THE ETERNAL KINGDOM OF GOD THROUGH THE WORK OF THE HOLY SPIRIT IN THEM - TO BEGIN WITH THEIR BAPTISM IN THE HOLY SPIRIT. THEIR COMMISSION WAS TO BRING TO THE WORLD THE MESSAGE OF THE ETERNAL KINGDOM OF GOD AND ENTRANCE INTO IT; WHICH CONTENT WAS AT FIRST RELATIVE TO REPENTANCE UNTO FAITH IN CHRIST UNTO ETERNAL LIFE IN THE RESTORATION OF THE ETERNAL KINGDOM OF GOD TO ISRAEL. THE DOCTRINES UNIQUE TO THE CHURCH HAVE NOT YET BEEN IN VIEW

(Acts 1:1 NASB) '''The [former] account I [made], Theophilus, about all that Jesus began to do and teach, (Acts 1:2 YLT) till the day in which, having given command, through the Holy Spirit, to the apostles whom He [chose], He was taken up [in the sense of to heaven, (Acts 1:10)] (Acts 1:3 NKJV) to whom [referring to the apostles] He also presented Himself alive after His suffering by many infallible proofs, being seen by them during forty days and speaking of the things pertaining to the Kingdom of God. (Acts 1:4 NKJV) And being assembled together with them, He commanded them not to depart from Jerusalem, but to wait for the Promise of the Father, "which," He said "you ... heard from Me; (Acts 1:5 AV) For John indeed baptized with water; but [you] shall be baptized in the Holy Spirit not many days hence." (Acts 1:6 YLT) They, therefore, indeed, having come together, were questionning Him, saying, "LORD, at this time [are you restoring] the [Kingdom] to Israel? "(Acts 1:7 NKJV) And He said to them, "It is not for you to know times or seasons which the Father has put in His own authority; (Acts 1:8 NKJV) But you shall receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you; and you shall be witnesses to Me in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the end of the earth. (Acts 1:9 YLT) And these things having said - they beholding - He was [lifted] up, and a cloud [received] Him up from their sight; (Acts 1:10 NASB) And as they were gazing intently into the [heaven] while He was going, behold, two men in white clothing stood beside themstood beside them; (Acts 1:11 YLT) who also said, "Men, Galileans, why do [you] stand gazing into the heaven? This Jesus Who was lifted up from you into the heaven, shall so come in what manner [you] saw Him going [into] the heaven." =

... The LORD commanded the disciples when they were assembled together in Jerusalem, not to depart from the city; but to wait for the "Promise of the Father" of the baptism of the Holy Spirit, (cf. Lk 24:49). Note that author Luke quotes Jesus as saying, "For John indeed baptized with water; but [you] shall be baptized in the Holy Spirit not many days hence." ... In view of the disciples' mandate to carry on the ministry of Jesus, it is evident that the indwelling Holy Spirit would be the key factor in enabling their witness... (Acts 1:4-5).

... Whereupon the LORD, with His last words before His ascension, commissioned the apostles with their assignment and spoke of their empowerment to complete that assignment: "But you shall receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you; and you shall be witnesses to Me in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the end of the earth." Hence the apostles would be equipped with the power of God the Holy Spirit to be witnesses to the risen Jesus Christ and His message "of the things pertaining to the Kingdom of God," and repentance unto remission of sins as He had instructed them, (Acts 1:3; cf Lk 24:44-49); beginning "in Jerusalem and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the end of the earth, (Acts 1:8)...

[Compare Lk 24:44-49]:

(Lk 24:44 NKJV) '''Then He [Jesus, (Lk 24:36)] said to them [the disciples, (cf. Lk 24:33)], "These are the words which I spoke to you while I was still with you, that all things must be fulfilled which were written in the Law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms concerning Me."

(Lk 24:45 NKJV) And He opened their understanding, that they might comprehend the Scriptures.

(Lk 24:46 NKJV) Then He said to them, "Thus it is written, 'And thus it was necessary for the Christ to suffer and to rise from the dead the third day,

(Lk 24:47 NKJV) and that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in His name to all nations, beginning at Jerusalem.'

(Lk 24:48 NKJV) And you are witnesses of these things.

(Lk 24:49 NKJV) Behold, I send the Promise of My Father upon you; but tarry in the city of Jerusalem until you are endued with power from on high."

****** END OF EXCERPT FROM ACTS CHAPTER ONE ******

******

In addition to the disciples receiving the baptism of the Holy Spirit, (Acts 2:1-5), ..so too, according to Acts 2:38-39, will all believers - as many as the LORD our God will call - each in accordance with how God had decreed as reflected in Scripture:

1) [Compare Acts 2:38-39]:

(Acts 2:38 HOLMAN) "And Peter said to them, "Repent (and [let each one of you] be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins. And you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit."

(Acts 2:39 NKJV ) For the promise is to you and to your children, and to all who are afar off [i.e., Gentiles, (cf. Isa 49:6, 56:7, 57:19; Joel 2:28; Mal 1:11; cf. Acts 2:39, 10:24-48, 22:21)], as many as the Lord our God will call."

According to Peter's sermon in Acts chapter 2, water baptism in the name of Jesus Christ was given specifically to those Jews who crucified Jesus in the transition period from the Law to the Church Age as a symbol of and not to be part of repentance unto faith in Christ as Lord and Christ unto eternal life, (cf 1 Jn 5:1). Nor was this baptism causative of being forgiven of ones sins. So their water baptism was a symbolic demonstration of their forgiveness, with their repentance / change of mind of their being guilty for having crucified Christ especially in view. Whereupon after the water baptism of that particular group of Jews who crucified Christ would come the reception of the gift of the Holy Spirit.

Gentiles in that same transition period into the Church Age would receive the Holy Spirit upon the moment of repentance / belief, (cf. Acts 10:43-48 ); Samaritan believers in that transition period via the laying on of hands by one of the Apostles, (Acts 8:12-17 ; Jewish believers under the preaching of John the Baptist and Jesus after John from the previous age of the Law via a second water baptism in the name of Jesus Christ followed by the laying on of hands by the Apostle Paul or other apostles, (Acts 19:1-6 ). Thereafter, when the transition period was over, the Age of the Church established, all who repented / believed in Jesus Christ for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life were to receive the Spirit at the moment of faith in Christ alone, (Eph 1:13-14  ).

2) [Compare Acts 10:43-48]:

(Acts 10:43 NKJV) to Him [Jesus Christ] all the prophets witness that, through His name, whoever believes in Him will receive remission of sins.

[Notice that the Old Testament prophets indicated that with a moment of faith alone in the Christ / the Messiah / Savior alone, one will receive remission, i.e., forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God ].

(Acts 10:44 NKJV) While Peter was still speaking these words, the Holy Spirit fell upon all those who heard the word.

[This implies that those that heard Peter's words evidently believed in Jesus Christ for forgiveness of sins in the Eternal Kingdom of God - Gentiles included, (cf. Acts 2:39, 10:24-48, 22:21), whereupon they received the gift of the Holy Spirit]

(Acts 10:45 NKJV) And those of the circumcision [Jews] who believed were astonished, as many as came with Peter, because the gift of the Holy Spirit had been poured out on the Gentiles also.

[Note that the phrases rendered "the Holy Spirit fell upon," (v. 10:44), and "the gift of the Holy Spirit had been poured out on," (v. 10:45), are saying the same thing - that they had been baptized by the Holy Spirit. Notice that this occurred when the Gentiles believed  before they were water baptized]:

(Acts 10:46 NKJV) For they heard them speak with tongues and magnify God. Then Peter answered,

(Acts 10:47 NKJV) 'Can anyone forbid water, that these should not be baptized who have received the Holy Spirit just as we have?' "

[Notice that Gentiles in this transitional timeframe after the LORD's Ascension from the Law economy to the Church age received the gift of the Holy Spirit as well as forgiveness of sins unto eternal life when they believed, i.e., when they repented in the sense of changing their minds from not believing to believing in Christ providing forgiveness of sins through His atoning sacrifice - no water baptism, no change of behavior - simply a moment of faith alone in Christ alone. Thereafter, as verses 46-47 indicate, water baptism was to be administered, evidently to symbolize ones forgiveness through a moment of faith alone in Christ alone. For at the moment of faith alone in Christ alone for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life, and before they were water baptized, those Gentiles that exercised a moment of faith immediately exemplified having been baptized with the Holy Spirit with speaking in tongues and magnifiying God; corroborating their water baptism was symbolic and not contributory toward their reception of forgiveness of sins or the gift of the Holy Spirit. Hence the result of forgiveness of sins unto eternal life and the reception of the indwelling of the gift of the Holy Spirit both came when they believed; and not after they were water baptized. And at this time forward, the Apostle Peter had indicated, (Acts 3:19-21), that heaven must receive [aorist tense, middle voice] Jesus Christ, the Holy One until the times of restoration of all things, i.e., God set apart the commencement of the restoration of all things - the Eternal Kingdom of God - to commence at a future time] 

So in the transition from the period of the Law to the economy of Jew and Gentile joined together in Christ - the Church Age, each of the first Jews to be part of the new dispensation of the church was to repent / change his mind to believing in Jesus as LORD and Christ unto forgiveness of sins unto eternal life, (1 Jn 5:1); whereupon each one of those Jewish believers in the beginning of this transition period was to be water baptized to symbolize his forgiveness of sins unto eternal life and following that water baptism, he would receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.

E) ACTS 2:38 DOES NOT COMMAND JEWS WHO, IT IS MAINTAINED, WERE ALREADY SAVED "BRETHREN," TO REPENT AND BE BAPTIZED IN ORDER TO ADDRESS THEIR COMPLICITY AS A NATION IN CRUCIFYING JESUS CHRIST AS SOME CONTEND

(Acts 2:36 NKJV) ''' "Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly that God has made this Jesus, Whom you crucified, both LORD and Christ [in the sense of Messiah]. (Acts 2:37 YLT) And having heard, they were pricked to the heart; they say also to Peter, and to the rest of the apostles, "What shall we do, men, brethren?" (Acts 2:38 HOLMAN) And Peter said to them, "Repent (and [let each one of you] be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins. And you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit." ''' =

It is maintained by some that, because of the word rendered "brethren" in the phrase "What should we do, men, brethren?" in Acts 2:37, the Jews had already come to saving faith; and were reacting with remorse in realizing their guilt of crucifying their Messiah - that the word rendered "brethren" indicated that the Jews had become brethren in the sense of brothers in the faith in Jesus Christ for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. So they concluded that they were being commanded by Peter in verse 38 to address their unique guilt as a nation of causing the crucifixion of Christ through repentance - a change of lifestyle beginning with water baptism. Those who support this view maintain that if national Israel did not repent of its complicity at Calvary, then God would judge her severely. And they further maintain that since national Israel did not repent, the destruction of Jerusalem and further scattering of Israel in AD 70 was the result. So the command to repent and be baptized in Acts 2:38 they maintain was to repent of that sin and perform water baptism as an act of a contrition for the sin of crucifying Christ, whereupon they would be forgiven of that sin and all would receive the indwelling Holy Spirit, and not suffer further temporal discipline as a nation at the hand of the LORD.

On the other hand, Peter had previously addressed the crowd as brethren in the sense of being fellow Israelites as opposed to fellow believers in Christ: "Men of Judea and Jerusalem, (v. 14); "Men, Israelites," (v. 22); "Brethren" in connection with their "Patriarch David," (v. 29); hence they were brethren Israelites who had not yet become "brethren" in the sense of fellow believers in Christ, (Acts 2:14-37).

So the Jews having heard what Peter so convincingly had to say to this point up through verse 37, "were pricked to the heart," in the sense that they felt remorse. They felt a sharp pain associated with great anxiety and devastating remorse. The implication is that many, if not all, of the Jews present to hear Peter's sermon had painfully realized that their Messiah - the One promised to sit on the throne of David to commence and rule the Eternal Kingdom of God had been crucified by them - evidently, in their minds, destroying their chance to enter into the Kingdom, corroborating that they had not been up to this point brothers in the faith in Jesus Christ. Whereupon they said to Peter and the rest of the apostles, 'What shall we do, men, brethren [fellow Jews]?' implying that a number of them had just begun to believe that Jesus was both LORD and Christ - a belief that is tantamount to becoming born of God, having forgiveness of sins unto eternal life.

1) [Compare 1 Jn 5:1]:

(1 Jn 5:1 NASB) "Whoever believes [lit., whoever.is the believing one] that Jesus is the Christ [has been born] of God, and whoever loves [lit., whoever is the one who is loving] the Father [lit., the One Who gave birth to him] loves the child [having been born] of Him."

There is no stipulation in Acts chapter 2 that everyone in the crowd had repented / believed in Him for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, nor was there an indication in verse 37 that everyone in the crowd was assured that they were forgiven of all of their sins including the one of crucifying Jesus. Whereupon Peter's answer in verse 38 stipulates  that the result of repentance unto faith in Christ resulted in forgiveness of sins unto eternal life. Whether or not some or all of them had repented / believed is not stipulated, but Peter's answer was assurance that those who did believe were forgiven unto eternal life at whatever moment that they did believe.

Whereupon those Jews of this transition period, those who were guilty of crucifying Christ - Peter's audience - who repented / became believers in Jesus as Lord and Christ unto forgiveness of sins unto eternal life, (cf. 1 Jn 5:1), were to be water baptized symbolic of their sins being forgiven unto eternal life - especially in view being the sin of crucifying Christ. This water baptism preceded the reception of the gift of the Holy Spirit in the Jews who crucified Christ and then repented / believed unto forgiveness of sins unto eternal life; but it was not causative of either result .

Furthermore, since repentance in the sense of changing ones mind and thereby turning from committing a particular sin or multiple sins is neither perfectly achievable by mortal man, (ref. 1 Jn 1:8, 10), nor is it ever stipulated in Scripture as resulting in forgiveness of sins; then repentance unto the ceasing of committing sin cannot logically be a means of forgiveness of ones sins that one has already committed. Someone has to pay for ones sins committed in order to satisify the justice and holiness of God in forgiving one of sin. Nor can the sin of crucifying Christ be repented of because Christ's crucifixion cannot be undone in history; nor is it a requirement for all of a generation of Israelites to repent and be baptized to be specifically forgiven of the sin of rejecting Christ. This is not supported anywhere in Scripture to corroborate what some contend is the message of Acts 2:38 - especially since many Jews were not present in the Jerusalem area at the time leading up to and including Christ's rejection and crucifixion. :p>

Although temporal forgiveness as a result of confession of sins, (ref. 1 Jn 1:9; Ps 32:1-5), can be described as a repentance / turning from not confessing to confessing ones sins to God; it is not in view in Acts 2:38 because the subject of Peter's sermon was not about the sins that were being committed by the Jews he was addressing. The subject was Who Jesus Christ was Whom they crucified - He was Lord and Christ - their Savior. So Peter was not telling the Jews who crucified Him to repent of that sin because one cannot repent of the sin of crucifying Him by not doing it anymore. Christ was murdered one time and it cannot be undone so that the Jews who crucified Him could refrain from doing it again. Nor can it mean to confess that one sin, because the phrase rendered "forgiveness of sins," in Acts 2:38 is plural - all of their sins are to be forgiven upon the Jews' repentance / changing of their minds to believing that God has made Jesus both Lord and Christ - this Jesus Whom they crucified.

So the Jews who crucified Jesus were not being commanded by Peter in verse 38 to address their unique guilt as a nation of causing the crucifixion of Christ through repentance - a change of lifestyle beginning with water baptism. Water baptism is an act to symbolize something, not a repentant act of contrition . Nor can a repentant act result in forgiveness of any sin, especially that of national Israel being forgiven collectively for crucifying Jesus Christ. A single or a group of mortal, flawed individuals cannot maintain such a consistent repentant / contrite lifestyle as to effect God's forgiveness anyway. Forgiveness from God must always be by His grace when an individual confesses his sins - on an individual level . On the other hand, Israel's destruction and dispersion in AD 70 was God's discipline of her for continuing to not accept His Son as her Messiah / Savior, Jesus Christ unto forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. If all Israel had repented unto faith in her Messiah as John the Baptist followed by our Lord and Peter the Apostle preached , that would usher in the Eternal Kingdom of God - as it will sometime in the future, (Zech 12:10-14).

Finally verse 39 indicates that the promise of forgiveness unto eternal life and the gift of the Holy Spirit applies to both Jews to whom Peter was addressing as "brethren" (Jews), and Gentiles to whom verse 39 refers to as "for all who are far off (Acts 10:34-35; cf. Eph 2:13, 17, 19), upon expressing a moment of repentance/belief in Jesus "as both Lord and Christ" for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, (cf 1 Jn 5:1).

2) [Compare Acts 2:39 cf. Acts 10:34-48 ]:

(Acts 2:39 NKJV) "For the promise is to you and to your children, and to all who are afar off, [= Gentiles, cf. Acts 10:34-35] as many as the Lord our God will call."

So a special forgiveness for Israel relative to involvement in the crucifixion of Christ is not in view.

IV) [Acts 2:39-47]:

(Acts 2:39 NKJV) "For the promise is to you and to your children, and to all who are afar off, [= Gentiles, cf. Isa 49:6, 56:7, 57:19; Joel 2:28; Mal 1:11; cf. Acts 2:39, 10:24-48, 22:21] as many as the Lord our God will call.

(Acts 2:40 NASB) And with many other words he solemnly testified and kept on exhorting them, saying, "Be saved from this perverse generation!"

(Acts 2:41 NKJV) Then those who gladly received his word were baptized; and that day about three thousand souls were added to them.

(Acts 2:42 NKJV) And they continued steadfastly in the apostles' doctrine and fellowship, in the breaking of bread, and in prayers.

(Acts 2:43 NKJV) Then fear came upon every soul, [in the sense of awe] and many wonders and signs were done through the apostles.

(Acts 2:44 NKJV) Now all who believed were together, and had all things in common,

(Acts 2:45 YLT and the possessions and the goods they were selling, and were parting them to all, according as any one had need.

(Acts 2:46 NKJV) So continuing [steadfastly] daily with one accord in the temple, and breaking bread from house to house, they ate their food with gladness and simplicity of heart,

(Acts 2:47 YLT) praising God, and having favour with all the people, and the Lord was adding those being saved every day to the assembly."

A) (Acts 2:39-47) PETER DECLARED THAT THE PROMISE OF FORGIVENESS OF SINS UNTO ETERNAL LIFE IN THE ETERNAL KINGDOM OF GOD WAS TO JEW AND GENTILE ALIKE - AS MANY AS THE LORD WILL CALL TO BELIEVE IN JESUS CHRIST. PETER EXHORTED THOSE TO WHOM HE PREACHED TO BE SAVED "FROM THIS PERVERSE GENERATION." THREE THOUSAND SOULS WERE ADDED TO THE BODY OF BELIEVERS THAT DAY; AND THEY CONTINUED STEADFASTLY TO BE TAUGHT BY THE APOSTLES, REMAINING IN FELLOWSHIP WITH ONE ANOTHER AND IN PRAYER. THERE WERE MANY SIGNS AND WONDERS DONE THROUGH THE APOSTLES. AND THE BELIEVERS REMAINED TOGETHER, SELLING AND SHARING POSSESSIONS ACCORDING TO THEIR NEEDS. DAILY, MORE WERE ADDED TO THEIR NUMBERS

(Acts 2:38 HOLMAN) ''And Peter said to them, "Repent (and [let each one of you] be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins. And you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. (Acts 2:39 NKJV) For the promise is to you and to your children, and to all who are afar off, [= Gentiles, cf. Acts 10:34-35] as many as the Lord our God will call." (Acts 2:40 NASB) And with many other words he solemnly testified and kept on exhorting them, saying, "Be saved from this perverse generation!" (Acts 2:41 NKJV) Then those who gladly received his word were baptized; and that day about three thousand souls were added to them. (Acts 2:42 NKJV) And they continued steadfastly in the apostles' doctrine and fellowship, in the breaking of bread, and in prayers. (Acts 2:43 NKJV) Then fear came upon every soul, [in the sense of awe] and many wonders and signs were done through the apostles. (Acts 2:44 NKJV) Now all who believed were together, and had all things in common, (Acts 2:45 YLT and the possessions and the goods they were selling, and were parting them to all, according as any one had need. (Acts 2:46 NKJV) So continuing [steadfastly] daily with one accord in the temple, and breaking bread from house to house, they ate their food with gladness and simplicity of heart, (Acts 2:47 YLT) praising God, and having favour with all the people, and the Lord was adding those being saved every day to the assembly.''' =

The phrase rendered "and to all who are afar off," in Acts 2:39 NKJV refers to all peoples, i.e., Gentiles, (cf. Acts 22:21); it is not limited to the remnant or all Jews who dwelt in far off lands, as some contend, (cf. Acts 10:24-48, 22:21). So the announcement was made by the Apostle Peter in Acts 2:39 that the promise of eternal life through a moment of faith alone in Christ alone for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, (Acts 2:38), was made to Jews and their children and to Gentiles alike - all those who would be called by the LORD unto repentance unto faith in Christ for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. This implies that forgiveness of sins is available to all mankind; but only those who have been called by the LORD in the sense of being chosen by Him to repent unto a moment of faith alone in His Son/ the Christ / the Messiah alone will actually choose to believe. The balance of humanity will not so choose, and hence not be provided with God's forgiveness of sins, despite its availability . Note that the word rendered "promise" in verse 39 refers to the promise of forgiveness of sins unto eternal life for those who repent / believe in Jesus Christ as per the context of the immediately preceding verse. It is not limited to the promise of receiving the gift of the Holy Spirit of Acts 1:4, as some contend.

Although the prophets of the Old Testament largely addressed Israel, the promise of eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God always included Gentiles, (Isa 49:6, 56:7, 57:19; Joel 2:28; Mal 1:11). And although accounts of John the Baptist were limited to his ministry to Israel, there is no indication that he excluded Gentiles, (cf. Acts 19:4). Furthermore, Acts 1:8 speaks of the disciples of Jesus carrying the gospel to the end of the earth which implies the inclusion of all mankind. And finally, although our LORD began sending His disciples to the "lost sheep of the house of Israel," He expanded His ministry, instructing the disciples to carry His message to Gentiles - which included Peter, (Mt 10:5-18; Lk 7:1-10).

1) [Compare Acts 10:34-35]:

(Acts 10:34 NKJV) "Then Peter opened his mouth and said: 'In truth I perceive that God shows no partiality [relative to whom the forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God applies, i.e., it applies to everyone - Jew and Gentile alike].

(Acts 10:35 NKJV) But in every nation whoever fears Him and works righteousness is accepted by Him."

Author Luke stipulated that Peter testified and exhorted the people "with many more words, saying 'Be saved from this perverse generation!' [Acts 2:40]" So Luke did not record the many more words that Peter testified to and exhorted the people with, evidently for lack of time and space. But the essence of Peter's exhortation was quoted by Luke which was that they should "Be saved from this perverse generation," in the sense of trusting in Christ for temporal and eternal forgiveness of sins - hence being delivered from the contamination and harm of the perverse, i.e., crooked generation of Peter's time, who characteristically rejected Jesus Christ and behaved in a perverse manner, (cf. Lk 9:41; 11:29; 17:25). And Luke noted that about three thousand individuals in one day believed and were baptized in the name of Jesus Christ as a result. It is implied with so many water baptisms being administered in one day that more than a few believers were participating in such administrations. The phrase rendered "in the name of" refers to Christ's capacity, willingness and trustworthiness through His atoning sacrifice for sins to provide eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God for one who believes in His name. Jesus' Resurrection, His appearances to many in His Resurrection Body, His Ascension in the presence of the Apostles, the precise prediction of all of this in Scripture all work together to provide a trustworthy testimony that Jesus Christ accomplished His mission to provide an atoning sacrifice for the sins of all mankind throughout the ages, such that He can be determined to be trustworthy for all mankind to trust in Him alone for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, (Acts 2:39-41).

The believers were continuing steadfastly in the teaching of the apostles; and in fellowship, breaking of bread and prayers with fellow believers. The Greek verb "proskarterountes" rendered "were continuing steadfastly" implied an ongoing, focused and disciplined effort amongst all the believers to learn the doctrines of the faith, and to grow in fellowship with one another as they shared meals and prayed together. Notice that the Apostles were set about doing the work of the LORD in training up all the believers to become witnesses of Jesus Christ to the ends of the earth, as the LORD commanded them, (Lk 24:44-49; Acts 1:5-8). Whereupon, a fear of the LORD pervaded the believers - in the sense of a reverential acknowledgment of the supernatural presence of the LORD made manifest through the words and actions of the Apostles and fellow believers. Many wonders and signs were being done through the Apostles, further enhancing that reverential fear of the LORD; and corroborating that the teaching of the Apostles was from the LORD - with this proof of the work of the Holy Spirit within them. Luke reported that all who believed "were together," in the sense of remaining together physically and being of one accord mentally relative to the pursuit of the doctrines of their new faith for the purpose of being witnesses to the world of the gospel. And they had all things in common to the extent that they sold and shared their possessions to provide for one another. They met daily in the Temple, and shared meals with one another from house to house - a fellowship which exemplified gladness and simplicity of heart, which praised God for all the blessings and teaching they received. The favorite meeting place of the early believers was in the Temple at the eastern edge of the outer court called Solomon's Colonnade, (Acts 3:11; 5:12). Their meetings were consistent with the Jewish behavior of the time - attending at the regular times for worship as they did before. They regarded the temple as their sanctuary and the Mosaic Law as their Law - one to live by as a daily rule of life but not as a means to gain eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. The temple to them was a place where they could share their faith in Jesus Christ and the doctrines of the faith that the Apostles were teaching them with fellow believers; and even with those who had not yet believed. For they were of the remnant of Jews which Scripture points to throughout the generations of Jewish history who were God's chosen people and the light of the gospel to their brethren Jews - and to the world. On the other hand, the doctrines of the faith that they were being instructed in by the Apostles and attempting to live by departed from the typical practices and beliefs of Jewish non-believers who tended to have a dependence upon their idea of keeping the Law for gaining entrance into the Eternal Kingdom of God. Note that this cannot be defined as communism or communal living, as some contend. It was voluntary and according to need, hence it was not part of a governmental type living system which regulated that goods were to be evenly distributed. The context indicates that it was simply sharing in an agape / godly loving - self-sacrificial manner for the benefit of brothers and sisters in the faith - "as every man had need." And it was characterized as joyful, with frequent praising of the LORD for His grace salvation. Later in the book of Acts, Peter made it clear that no one was under any compulsion to sell anything or give anything, (Acts 5:1-4). And the LORD was adding to their number daily. Note that there was evidently no persecution of the new believers reported at this time, (Acts 2:42-47).

V) IT IS NOT CONCLUSIVE AS TO WHETHER OR NOT THE TIMEFRAME OF ACTS CHAPTERS 1 & 2 HAVE IN VIEW THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE CHURCH

Although Mt 16:18 provides our LORD's statement of building the Church upon the foundation of Himself - Who He was, i.e., "The Christ, the Son of the living God," which implies that soon after He has finished His Atoning Work on the cross for the sins of the whole world and Ascended into heaven, the possibility of the commencement of the Church being imminent is in view ......

A) [Compare Mt 16:13-18]:

(Mt 16:13 NKJV) "When Jesus came into the region of Caesarea Philippi, He asked His disciples, saying, 'Who do men say that I, the Son of Man, am?'

(Mt 16:14 NKJV) So they said, 'Some say John the Baptist, some Elijah, and others Jeremiah or one of the prophets.'

(Mt 16:15 NKJV) He said to them, 'But who do you say that I am?'

(Mt 16:16 NKJV) Simon Peter answered and said, 'You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.'

(Mt 16:17 NKJV) Jesus answered and said to him, 'Blessed are you, Simon Bar-Jonah, for flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but My Father who is in heaven.

(Mt 16:18 NKJV) And I also say to you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build My church, and the gates of Hades shall not prevail against it.' "

And although the Day of Pentecost was the key day of the festival of firstfruits when the Jews brought to God the firstfruits of their harvest in thanksgiving; hence one might consider the particular Pentecost in Acts chapter two to be the day of the firstfruits of Christ's church, the beginning of the great harvest of individuals who would come to be known as Christ's church, the body of Christ......

And although Peter indicated in Acts 2:38 that all who repent unto faith in Christ for forgiveness of sins will also receive - as promised and as something new - the gift of the baptism of the Holy Spirit; and although Scripture stipulates elsewhere that the baptism of the Holy Spirit will permanently indwell the Spirit of God into every member of the church, the body of Christ, (Eph 1:13-14; 1 Cor 12:12-13; Gal 3:2b) ......

And although shortly after Peter's sermon in Acts chapter 2, Peter declared that heaven must receive Jesus Christ, the Holy One until the times of restoration of all things, i.e., until a future time when the Eternal Kingdom of God would commence upon all of a generation of Israel repenting / believing in Christ for forgiveness of sins - leaving time for the church to commence and grow, (Acts 3:19-21)......

B) [Compare Acts 3:19-21]:

(Acts 3:19 HOLMAN) Therefore repent and turn ...[to Christ in faith, (v. 16)], so that your sins may be blotted out, that seasons of refreshing may come from the presence of the LORD,

[In Acts 3:19a, Peter is offering to Israel and to Gentiles, i.e., all mankind, (Acts 2:39, 10:24-48, 22:21), the opportunity to "Repent and turn... [from ignorance of Who Jesus was, (v. 17), to faith in Him as Lord and Christ] so that [their] sins may be blotted out," in the sense of forgiven unto eternal life. The Apostle is saying for the Jews who crucified Jesus as in Acts 2:38, to change their minds from not trusting in Jesus Christ as ones Messiah/Savior to believing in His name, i.e., His capacity to provide one with eternal forgiveness of sins. The phrase rendered "so that your sins may be blotted out," signifies to be forgiven of ones sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, (cf. Acts 2:38; 10:43). On the other hand, Peter preached in Acts 3:19b that "seasons of refreshing may come from the presence of the LORD," i.e., that one believes in Jesus Christ for forgiveness so that one will enter that Eternal Kingdom of God when it commences and everything is restored.

On the other hand, the timeframe for the commencement had changed, for Peter declared in the next two verses, (Acts 3:20-21), that heaven must receive Jesus Christ until the times of restoration of all things. Hence the commencement of the Eternal Kingdom of God was not imminent at the time of Peter's message. But when that time comes, God will send His Son, Jesus Christ to rule His Eternal Kingdom forever]:

(Acts 3:20 NKJV) and that He [God the Father] may send Jesus Christ, Who was preached to you before,

(Acts 3:21 NKJV) Whom heaven must receive until the times of restoration of all things, which God has spoken by the mouth of all His holy prophets since the world began."

So Peter indicated to his audience of Jews that God, (the Father, v. 18), will send His Son Jesus Christ to the earth to commence the Eternal Kingdom of God - a message which, Peter declared, was repeatedly preached to the Jews and to all mankind since the world began, (Isa 49:6, 56:7, 57:19; Joel 2:28; Mal 1:11). But for the present time, Peter declared in verse 21, heaven must receive Him "until the times of restoration of all things, which God has spoken by the mouth of all His holy prophets since the world began."

...... Nevertheless, one must consider that in Acts chapter 2, Peter continued to proclaim the message of Jesus and John the Baptist before Him of "Repent for the Kingdom of God is at hand" largely to Jews with a view to the imminent commencement of the eternal Kingdom of God should all Israel repent and believe in Jesus Christ for eternal life, (cf. Acts 2:22-38 ) .

...... And although the Holy Spirit was given in this early period after Christ's Ascension; nevertheless, the Holy Spirit had also been given to individuals in a number of ways throughout history - leading to the provision of information leading to the gospel of eternal life to mankind.

...... Nevertheless, Acts chapters one and two portrayed Jewish individuals who carried on their Jewish traditions with the addition of a moment of faith alone in Christ alone, their Messiah for forgiveness of sins. And they continued to meet in the Temple to worship the LORD, and continued to follow the Mosaic Law as a daily rule of life. Hence there was no clear evidence that they considered themselves set apart from other Jews except for their faith in Christ as their Messiah - evidently as part of the remnant of believers in the Messiah throughout the ages. Furthermore, Peter himself was not given instruction in the doctrines which are unique to the church age until Paul was first instructed by the LORD Himself, beginning with Paul's encounter with the LORD on the road to Damascus in Acts chapter 9 and his instruction by the LORD in the desert for three years, (cf. Gal 1:13-18).

Finally, the passage in Acts chapters 1 & 2, neither stipulates nor implies that this was the beginning of the church.

Hence it cannot conclusively be declared that the timeframe of Acts chapters 2 & 3 included the commencement of the church.

On the other hand, could the Pentecost of Acts chapter 2 actually be the commencement of the church, which began in such a manner that God in His grace allowed time for adjustment by the Jews who comprised a large majority of the early church to come to the realization that Gentiles as well as Jews were part of the unique body of Christ together - apart from God's chosen people Israel, and under a different rule of life - the grace way of life - apart from the Mosaic Law rule of life?

Acts chapter 3