JOHN CHAPTER ONE

OBSERVATION STAGE

The purpose of the observation stage is to maintain focus on the text at hand in accordance with the framework in which it was written: a framework which is defined by the normative rules of language, context and logic. Rules which do not impose undue, unintended meanings to the text , and which largely limit the observer to the content offered by the Gospel of John. In order for any passage from elsewhere to be considered, it must have a relationship with the context at hand, such as a Scriptural quotation or a specific cross reference in the passage at hand by the author. This will serve to avoid going on unnecessary tangents elsewhere; and more importantly, it will provide the framework for a proper and objective comparison with passages located elsewhere in Scripture.

Remember that something elsewhere may be true, but in the text at hand it may not be in view.

Manuscript evidence for the inscription (title)

WH NU Sinaiticus, B have "According to John"

Manuscripts p66, p75, A, C, D, L, W(s), Theta, f(1) 33, Maj have "Gospel according to John"

TR, (28) have "Holy Gospel according to John" or "Gospel according to Saint John"

Some biblical authors usually did not title their works, scribes added titles to the manuscripts later. The very title "Gospel according to John" speaks volumes because this tells us that all the scribes considered the author to be John - and very likely the apostle John. The two earliest manuscripts, p66 (containing John only) and p75 (containing Luke and John) read "Gospel according to John," as do several other early manuscripts. The WH NU reading reflects the second stage in titling the Gospels, a stage when all four gospels were placed together in one codex and were title under one head: The Gospel - According to Matthew, According to Mark, According to Luke, According to John. This titling in the WH NU texts was mostly influenced by Codex Vaticanus, which has "kata mattaion," "kata markon," kata loukan," "kata iOannen" written for both the inscription and subscription in each gospel. Codex Sinaiticus has the same titling for the inscription, but in the subscription for Mark, Luke, and John the word "euaggelion" ("Gospel") comes first... In later manuscripts the titles were further expanded, as in TR, where "agion (="holy" or "saint) could modify "euaggelion" or the writer "IOannes" ("John"). Many English translations reflect the pattern set by p66 and p75; that is, they designate each gospel separately. But NIV, TNIV, NLT, NET reflect the format used by the scribes of Vaticanus and Sinaiticus; that is, each gospel is titled as a part of the one, fourfold gospel collection.

I) [Jn 1:1-3]:

(Jn 1:1 YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

(Jn 1:2 YLT) He [lit., This One] was in [the] beginning with God;

(Jn 1:3 NAS) All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being."

A) (Jn 1:1-3) "IN [THE] BEGINNING" REFERS TO THE BEGINNING OF ALL TIME AND ALL CREATION WHEN ALL THINGS CAME INTO BEING

(Jn 1:1 YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. (Jn 1:2 YLT) He [lit., This One] was in [the] beginning with God; (Jn 1:3 NAS) All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being." =

"In [the] beginning" =

"en .........archE"

Since the phrase "en archE," lit., "in beginning" does not have the definite article in the original text and since it is placed first in the gospel of John for emphasis, and in the absence of the indefinite pronoun "tis" rendered "a certain one";

and since original creation of time and matter is in view in verse 3 as the substance of this beginning;

then the phrase "in [the] beginning" refers to the beginning of time and the creation of. all things."

Since there is the absence of the article or the indefinite pronoun ('a certain one,' Greek 'tis') to accompany the Greek word "archE" rendered beginning; then the first phrase in Jn 1:1a cannot be translated as indefinite, i.e., "In a beginning;" (nor can Jn 1:1c be translated "and the Word was a god"). For the context in Jn 1:1a demands a certain beginning with emphasis since the words "En archE" appear first. Note that if the article is not present, an object may or may not be regarded as definite, depending upon the context. Frequently, a noun without a definite article (i.e., anarthrous) is emphasizing character or quality, but not in the context of Jn 1:1a: Since the context demands a particular beginning, as corroborated by the fact that all translations include the definite article; then the omission simply makes the beginning in view an emphatic one pointing to the great beginning of Creation which is confirmed in verse 3 - causing all English translations to include "the" in the phrase!

B) (Jn 1:1-3) "IN [THE] BEGINNING" CANNOT REFER TO THE TIME OF THE WORD BEING CREATED, AS SOME MAINTAIN, BECAUSE THE PHRASE "IN [THE] BEGINNING WAS THE WORD" STATES THAT THE WORD ALREADY "WAS" IN [THE] BEGINNING, I.E., HE IS ETERNAL, UNCREATED, PREEXISTENT AND GOD

(Jn 1:1a YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word" =

If creation of the Word is being conveyed in the phrase "in [the] beginning," i.e., if the time when the creation of the Word began is being conveyed as some maintain in Jn 1:1a, then the Greek verb ginomai = to come into existence, to be created, exist by creation needs to be present in the aorist tense form, "egeneto," which means 'came into being', (cf. Jn 1:3 ). But such is not the case. The Greek verb form "en" rendered "was" in the YLT of Jn 1:1a is in the imperfect tense conveying indefinite and linear action. Since the Word is stipulated as already "was" at the time declared as "in [the] beginning" of time and creation, then "en" portrays the continual existence of the Word before the beginning of time and creation. Hence an uncreated, preexistent, eternal existence of "the Word" is in view. So the phrase "In [the] beginning in Jn 1:1a cannot be referring to the time when the Word was created because He is uncreated, preexistent and eternal. This establishes Him as God, Who exclusively is eternal, uncreated, preexistent and Who continually existed before time and matter was created. This is corroborated in Jn 1:1b-3:

1) [Compare Jn 1:1-3]:

(Jn 1:1 YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

(Jn 1:2 YLT) He [lit., This One] was in [the] beginning with God:

(Jn 1:3 NAS) All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being."

Notice that the Word is declared once more in verse 2 as being "with God in [the] beginning." He is then referred to in verse 3 as "Him" through Whom "all things were made," without Whom "nothing was made that has been made." It is emphatically declared here that all that was created was created through the Word following the declaration that the Word was with God "in [the] beginning." This narrows down the beginning to the beginning of time and creation when time and all things that were created were created. This rules out the Word being created, because He is Creator of all things. He couldn't have created Himself! The Word, therefore must be one Who is uncreated, preexistent, eternal and God.

C) (Jn 1:1-3) THE GREEK "HO LOGOS" RENDERED "THE WORD" PORTRAYS A PERSON

(Jn 1:1 YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. (Jn 1:2 YLT) He [lit., This One] was in [the] beginning with God" =

In the ancient koine Greek language, "Ho Logos" rendered "the Word" may refer to a person Who could be seen and touched as well as heard as is portrayed in Jn 1:11, 14-18, 26-34. Hence the Greek word "Logos" in the context of Jn 1:1-2 appears with a definite article and is personified as such to mean a Person Who was already present at the beginning of time and creation hence uncreated, preexistent eternal and equal with God. As chapter one progresses, the verses continue to corroborate that author John is using the Greek words rendered "the Word" as well as "God," "the Life (temporal and eternal)" and "the Light" to portray a Person

1) [Compare Jn 1:1-11]:

(Jn 1:1 YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

(Jn 1:2 YLT) He [lit., This One] was in [the] beginning with God;

(Jn 1:3 NAS) All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being.

(Jn 1:4 NAS) In Him was life, and the Life was the Light of men.

(Jn 1:5 NKJV) And the Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it.

(Jn 1:6 YLT) There came [into being, (cf. NASB)] a man - having been sent from God - whose name is John.

(Jn 1:7 NKJV) This man came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all through Him [the Light of men, the Life, the Word, (Jn 1:1-4)] might believe,

(Jn 1:8 YLT) that one was not the Light, but - that he might testify about the Light.

(Jn 1:9 NIV) The true Light that gives light to every man was coming into the world;

(Jn 1:10 YLT) in the world He was, and the world through Him was made, and the world did not know Him:

(Jn 1:11 NKJV) He came to His own [neuter, plural, i.e., He came to all things of His own, being Creator = all things of the world, both inanimate and animate, including mankind], and His own [mascline, plural = those animate objects who have the capacity to receive (i.e., believe in) Him, i.e., His own particular people, specifically the people of Israel] did not receive Him."

D) (Jn 1:1-3) SINCE THE WORD IS ETERNAL, THE WORD IS GOD

(Jn 1:1a YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word" =

Since the Word "was" at the beginning of all time and all creation, then the Word already was there. Hence He has always been in existence, i.e., He is uncreated, preexistent and eternal as only God is. Hence the Word is God.

E) (Jn 1:1-3) THE WORD WAS ALREADY THERE "IN [THE] BEGINNING" OF ALL TIME AND ALL CREATION AND AT THAT BEGINNING THE WORD WAS "WITH," IN THE SENSE OF DIRECTED / ORIENTED TOWARDS GOD ON AN EQUAL LEVEL, FURTHER CORROBORATING AN ETERNAL PERSON EQUAL TO GOD - NOT SIMPLY WORDS FROM GOD AS SOME MAINTAIN BECAUSE WORDS EMANATED FROM A PERSON CANNOT BE EQUAL TO THAT PERSON

(Jn 1:1a & b YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word and the Word was with God" =

"Kai .ho .Logos En ..pros ton Theon"

"And the Word was .with .......God"

The words "pros ton Theon" rendered "with God" completes the phrase, "And the word was with God." The words are in the accusative case portraying a face to face of the Word with God as directed/oriented toward one another on an equal level, separate and each in His own right. If author John had chosen to use the dative case - the typical usage, this would have conveyed that the Word was "with God" in the sense of being "at God's place," as in the French 'chez moi.' The preposition "pros" can also mean "related to" in the sense of talking / thinking / having a discussion about / concerning / related to something where the something would be the object of "pros." But this is ruled out because of the absence of anything in the context to indicate what this something would be.

So since John used the accusative case, it must portray the Word was directed / oriented towards God on a common level, i.e., with equal reciprocity with God.

So the Word was already there "in [the] beginning" of all time and all creation and at that beginning the Word was with - in the sense of directed / oriented towards God on an equal level, indicating an eternal Person equal to God - not simply words from God as some maintain because words emanated from a person cannot be equal to that person. One cannot logically say that one is with ones own words in the sense of being face to face with them on an equal status. No person's words which come from him can ever be thought of as equivalent in all attributes and capacities to the whole person uttering them. So the word "Word" in John chapter one is utilized by author John as a personification of an individual Being Who is on an equal level with God. The word "Word" therefore portrays God, a Personality of God. Just as an individual can have an employee personality, i.e., a mode of expression which is appropriate for when one is at work; and a family personality such as a father or a mother; and a friend personality, etc. - all of which are part of that individual and to be exercised when appropriate; so it is with God.

[Dr Leon Morris states, ('The Gospel According to John, Wiliam B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, Mi, 1971, p. 75-76)]:

''' "The Word was with God" is probably as good a translation as we can manage for a difficult Greek expression.....

...The preposition ["pros" = "with"] implies not merely existence alongside of but personal intercourse. It means more than' meta' = 'with' or 'para' = 'with,' 'by,' 'near,' 'among,' and is regularly employed in expressing the presence of one person with another." ...According to A. T. Robertson, "the literal idea comes out well, 'face to face with God...[it]...expresses nearness combined with the sense of movement towards God, and so indicates an active relationship," [with a sense of intimacy]'''

So "pros" is used in this context in the accusative case to establish the idea of communion on an equal level with God.

F) (Jn 1:1-3) THE PERSONS OF GOD THE FATHER AND GOD THE SON, THE WORD, ARE IN VIEW IN THE PHRASE "AND THE WORD WAS WITH GOD"

(Jn 1:1b YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God," .......................... (Jn 1:14 NKJV) And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the [One and only from] the Father, full of grace and truth." =

The word "person" relative to the context of John chapter best describes what is in view and is best defined as a mode of expression of a being. Up to this point, (vv. 1-14) in John chapter one beginning with verse one are two Persons of God which are inherent in the phrase "and the Word was with God." The expression "the Word" has a Person in view Who is with God, meaning face to face with God on a coequal level. Hence two Persons or modes of expressions of God are in view: the Word and God the Father.

1) [Compare Jn 1:14 NKJV]:

(Jn 1:14 NKJV) "And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the [One and only from] the Father, full of grace and truth."

With Jn 1:1 and 1:14 in mind, we can determine that the Persons of God the Father, "God," and God the Son, "the Word," are in view in John chapter one beginning with the first verse.

G) (Jn 1:1-3) AND GOD - THE NATURE, ALL THE QUALITIES AND ESSENCE OF GOD WAS THE WORD WHO ALREADY WAS IN [THE] BEGINNING OF TIME AND CREATION. HENCE THE WORD IS A MODE OF EXPRESSION OF GOD, THE SON OF GOD, JUST AS GOD THE FATHER IS. IN VIEW ARE TWO PERSONS OF GOD

(Jn 1:1 YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God" =

"Kai Theos en ...o ...Logos"

"And God ..was the Word"

Notice the position of "Theos" = "God" at the beginning of the third phrase which makes it an emphatic one. Furthermore it is without the definite article which serves as a predicate nominative with the verb "was" to describe the Word as having the essence of God:

Since there is no article in front of "Theos" = "God," the noun is said to be anarthrous, i.e., without an article. The verb "was" = "en," (to be), is a copulative and intransitive verb, i.e., it joins two subjects together in meaning in this context and takes no object. There can be no direct object following "was" because intransitive copulative verbs take no objects but take instead predicate nominatives which refer back in meaning to the subject of the clause. Hence, Jn 1:1c joins the two subjects = "Theos" and = "Logos" in meaning where the former being without an article and in view of the previous phrases describes the quality of the latter. Hence "Logos," the Word is described by everything that "Theos," God is.

So contrary to the objections of some, the anarthrous "Theos" rendered "God" in Jn 1:1c is in the predicate nominative case which refers back in meaning to the subject, "Ho Logos" rendered "The Word." The rule of grammar is that where there is an intransitive verb, such as "En" rendered "was," it is the noun which is anarthrous which is the predicate nominative; and the subject which is articular, i.e, which has a definite article. On the other hand, if both of the nouns in a phrase with an intransitive verb have the article, or if both lack the article, the two nouns become interchangeable. For example, if there had been an article in front of "Theos," then John would have been telling us that "(the) God was the Word" as well as "the Word was (the) God." But there is no article in front of "Theos" so author John is not teaching that the Word, (Jesus Christ, vv. 16-17), and God [the Father] were the same Person. Hence we avoid the heresy of modalism and a contradiction since the Word cannot be with God if both are one and the same.

Therefore, in view of the emphatic position of "Theos" (God) at the beginning of Jn 1:1c and the lack of a definite article in Jn 1:1c pointing to it as the predicate nominative which describes the subject,"Ho Logos," (the Word); we conclude that the qualities of God, i.e., His divine essence which only God can possess, are indicated as qualities which are inherent in "Logos" = "the Word." So "Theos" in this phrase means that the Word has the nature, qualities and essence of the One and only God, i.e., God is the Word. Hence the Word is a mode of expression of God, the Person of the Son of God.

H) (Jn 1:1-3) THE 'WORD' CANNOT BE A GOD OR BE QUALIFIED BY AN ADJECTIVE RENDERED "DIVINE" IN THE SENSE OF BEING THE DIVINE WORD, AS SOME MAINTAIN. THE WORD "WORD" IN JN 1:1C MUST REFER TO GOD

(Jn 1:1 YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God." (cont.) =

1) "THEOS" = GOD IN THE 3RD CLAUSE OF JN 1:1 IS THE PREDICATE NOMINATIVE CASE OF THE INTRANSITIVE, COPULATIVE VERB "WAS" WHICH IT PRECEDES. SINCE THERE IS NO DEFINITE ARTICLE WITH IT, THEN "THEOS" DEFINES THE CHARACTERISTICS OF "LOGOS." AND SINCE THERE IS NO WORDING TO IMPLY 'A' GOD, NOR WORDING TO IMPLY "THE DIVINE WORD OF GOD", THEN "THEOS" DOES NOT REFER TO 'A' GOD NOR THE DIVINE WORD OF GOD

"En archE .......En ..ho .logos ..kai .ho ..logos En ..pros ton theon kai Theos en ...o ...Logos"

"In .beginning was .the Word, and the Word was with .......God .and God ..was the Word"=

"Theos" is a predicate nominative of "was" in the emphatic position at the beginning of the third clause without the definite article. The absence of the definite article, however, does not demand that "Theos" be interpreted "a god" with the indefinite article as some suggest.

First of all, New Testament Greek does not possess an indefinite article ('a/an'), but it does have an indefinite pronoun ('a certain one,' Greek 'tis') the very word that a Greek reader would expect here if the point was that Christ was somehow a god, but not really 'God.'

Secondly, since there is no article in front of "Theos" = "God," the noun is said to be anarthrous, i.e., without an article. The verb "was" = "en," (to be), is a copulative and intransitive verb, i.e., it joins two subjects together in meaning in this context and takes no object. There can be no direct object following "was" because intransitive copulative verbs do not take an object but take a predicate nominative which refers back in meaning to the subject of the clause. Hence, Jn 1:1c joins the two subjects = "Theos" and = "Logos" in meaning where the former being without an article describes the quality of the latter. Hence "Logos," the Word is described by everything that "Theos," God is.

So contrary to the objections of some, the anarthrous "Theos" rendered "God" in Jn 1:1c is in the predicate nominative case which refers back in meaning to the subject, "Ho Logos" rendered "The Word." The rule of grammar is that where there is an intransitive verb, such as "En" rendered "was," it is the noun which is anarthrous, i.e., without the article which is the predicate nominative; and the subject which is articular, i.e, which has a definite article. On the other hand, if both of the nouns in a phrase with an intransitive verb have the article, or if both lack the article, the two nouns become interchangeable. For example, if there had been an article in front of "Theos," then John would have been telling us that "God was the Word" as well as "the Word was God." But there is no article in front of "Theos" so author John is not teaching that the Word, (i.e., Jesus Christ, vv. 16-17), and God [the Father] were the same Person. Hence we avoid the heresy of modalism and a contradiction since the Word cannot be with God if both are one and the same.

Therefore, in view of the emphatic position of "Theos" (God) at the beginning of Jn 1:1c and the lack of a definite article in Jn 1:1c pointing to it as the predicate nominative which describes the subject,"Ho Logos," (the Word); we conclude that the qualities of God, i.e., His divine essence which only God can possess, are indicated as qualities which are inherent in "Logos" = "the Word." So "Theos" in this phrase means that the Word has the nature, qualities and essence of the One and only God, i.e., God is the Word.

So to translate "theos," in Jn 1:1c as 'a god' as some individuals do is both incorrect Greek grammar and totally out of context. If the word were properly conveyed as "a certain God," using the Greek pronoun, "tis", and it is not, then this would contradict other passages which indicate that there is only one Jehovah God and no other Gods besides that One God, (cf. Isa 43:10-11, 45:5).

Furthermore, to translate the Greek noun "theos" in Jn 1:1c to force it to be an adjective rendered "divine," as others contend is also incorrect Greek. For the Greek "theios," rendered "divine," an adjective, nor any of the other words like it that can be rendered "divine" are present in Jn 1:1c, (cp Acts 17:29; 2 Pet 1:3). If this were the case, then the divine word would be portrayed as equal with God in Jn 1:1a, b; 1:2-3 - an illogical impossibility. For the divine word of God cannot logically be equal to God nor Creator of all things. Since only God is Creator, and since the Word is Creator, then God is the Word. The Word, then, can be no one else except God.

Thirdly, earlier in the verse, the apostle John used the definite article with the Greek word Theon to refer to God the Father, (cf. Jn 1:14). So to use the definite article again to refer to the Word would contradict Jn 1:1b where the Word is stipulated as "with God," i.e., face to face with Him as directed/oriented toward one another on an equal level, separate and each in His own right. This would make it seem as if 'the Word' was identical to God the Father,' one of the very points that John is disproving here.

There are only three ways to write this third phrase in koine Greek in Jn 1:1:

1) Utilize the definite article with "Theos" so the Word would be conveyed as 'the God.' This would mean that there was no distinction between God the Father and the Word. John did not use this construction.

2) Utilize the Greek word "tis" meaning "a certain" with "Theos" to convey the Word as 'a certain god.' This would mean that the Word was a lesser sort of divinity, not God on the level of the Father. John did not use this construction either.

3) Write "Theos" without the definite article to be rendered "God was the Word" to convey that the Word had the characteristics of God. This is what John actually did write, thus fully and unambiguously attributing the essence of God to the Word.

2) THE TWO FORMS OF THE WORD GOD, THEON (2ND CLAUSE) AND THEOS (3RD CLAUSE) DO NOT REFER TO DIFFERENT GODS AS SOME MAINTAIN, BUT REFER TO THE ONE AND ONLY ALMIGHTY GOD. THEY DIFFER BECAUSE OF GRAMMAR NOT DEFINITION. NEITHER REFERS TO 'A GOD'

"En archE .......En ..ho .logos ..kai .ho ..logos En ..pros ton theon"

"In .beginning was .the Word, and the Word was with .......God" =

"God" in the 2nd clause is in the accusative case with the definite article and is thus spelled "Theon." It refers to the One and only Almighty God. "God" in the 3rd clause is in the predicate nominative case without an article and is thus spelled "Theos." Its position at the beginning of the clause refers to the qualities of the One and only Almighty God. The spelling differences are due to the grammatical rules of the koine Greek language, and not to a difference in meaning.

I) (Jn 1:1-3) VERSE 2 REITERATES THE MESSAGE OF VERSE ONE FOR EMPHASIS AND LEAVES NO DOUBT THAT THE WORD IS A PERSON. "THE WORD" IS NOT A COMMUNICATION FROM GOD AS SOME MAINTAIN. HE IS A PERSON WHO ALREADY WAS AT THE BEGINNING OF TIME AND CREATION, HENCE HE HIMSELF IS UNCREATED, PREEXISTENT, ETERNAL AND GOD

(Jn 1:1 YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God (Jn 1:2 YLT) He [lit., This One] was in [the] beginning with God;" =

Verse two reiterates the m essage of verse one for emphasis and leaves no doubt that the Word is a Person Who was at the beginning of time and creation Who Himself is uncreated, preexistent, eternal and God. Notice that the Greek word "ohutos" rendered "He," literally 'this One,' is singular and refers in the context of John chapter one to a Person.

The phrase 'He was with God in [the] beginning' eliminates the possibility that the Word is simply a communication from God. No communication from God would be described as 'He was with God in [the] beginning!' The phrase 'in [the] beginning' points all the more to the beginning of time and creation at which beginning 'He,' the Word already was with = face to face with God on an equal / reciprocal basis with God.

J) (Jn 1:1-3) THE WORD IS PERSONIFIED BY THE PRONOUN, 'HIM,' THE AGENT OF ALL CREATION, HIMSELF UNCREATED, PREEXISTENT, ETERNAL AND GOD

(Jn 1:1 YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God (Jn 1:3 NAS) All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being." =

(Jn 1:3a Greek) "Panta .....di' .........autou ..................egeneto"

.........................."All things through Him [the Word] came into being"

"The phrases "through Him" and "without Him" mark "Him," the Word in Jn 1:3, as the Agent of creation. In this verse the context of the term "Word" is as the Agent of creation, a Person, and not just a commanding word from God to create. So through the Word, a Person, all things were created. He Himself was not created because verses 1-3 stipulate so: (Jn 1:1 YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. (Jn 1:2 YLT) He [lit., This One] was in [the] beginning with God; (Jn 1:3 NAS) All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being."

The Word did not create Himself, He is the Creator of all things, Who by virtue of this is Himself uncreated, preexistant, eternal and God.

K) (Jn 1:1-3) SINCE ALL THINGS THROUGH HIM (THE WORD) CAME INTO BEING AND APART FROM HIM NOTHING CAME INTO BEING THAT HAS COME INTO BEING; THEN IF HE HIMSELF IS A CREATED BEING - A GOD, AS SOME CONTEND, COULD HE BE A CREATED GOD BY CREATING HIMSELF? THIS IS A CONTRADICTION THAT DOES NOT HARMONIZE WITH GOD'S WORD WHEN READ IN THE PROPER MANNER AS TAUGHT IN GRAMMAR SCHOOL AND THEREAFTER

(Jn 1:1 YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God (Jn 1:3 NAS) All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being." =

Since all things through Him (the Word) came into being; and if He Himself is a created being - a god, as some contend, could He be a created god by creating Himself? This is a contradiction that does not harmonize with God's Word when read in the proper manner as taught in grammar school and thereafter.

II) [Jn 1:4]:

(Jn 1:4 NAS) "In Him was life, and the Life was the Light of men."

A) (Jn 1:4) MANUSCRIPT EVIDENCE OF JOHN 1:3-4a

TR, Sinaiticus-corr, Theta, Psi, 050, f1.13, 33 Maj have "All things came into being through Him, and without Him not one thing came into being that has come into being. (v. 4) In Him was life."

WH NU p75c, C, D, L Ws, 050 have "All things came into being through Him, and without him not one thing came into being. What has come into being (v. 4) in Him was life." W(s) has this as well but omits the word rendered "was" in the phrase rendered "in Him was life")

Manuscript and p66 has "All things came into being through Him, and without Him not one thing came into being. What has come into being (v. 4) by Him was life."

The last phrase of Jn 1:3 "that which has come into being," has been connected with 1:3 or with 1:4 by various ancient scribes and modern translators by means of punctuation. The earliest manuscripst (p66, p75, Sinaiticus-corr, A, B) do not have any punctuation in these verses. If they are connected as follows: "What has come into being (v. 4) in Him was life," it might suggest that the Word did not create inanimate things which contradicts verse 3 in which He is Creator of all things, inanimate and animate. The passage could also then be taken to mean that all created things were "life" by virtue of being in Him. The statement is intended to affirm that the Word not only created the universe, He presently sustains it - all things are alive with his life (see Col 1:17; Heb 1:2-3). This idea is rendered quite well in the NLT: "He gives life to everything He created." The next phrase in the prologue, "and the life was the Light of men," would then be understood to mean that the Word enlightened people - even prior to his Incarnation.

However, the expression "what has come into being in Him was life" could also be understood to mean that life had "come into being" in the Word (i.e., "that which came into being in Him was life" or "life is that which came into being in Him" - as in W(s). This is a more difficult concept than the first interpretation discussed above. Certain fourth-century Arians took this to mean that the Son had undergone change and therefore was not truly equal with the Father .... Thereafter, many church fathers supported the reading as it is in the first variant (TR). This reading emphasizes the Word's impartation of life to men concurrent with the giving of light to men. In short, it speaks of Jesus' ministry on earth as the life-giver and light-giver.

One of the difficulties of the WH NU reading pertains to the function of the word rendered "was" in "what has come into being in Him was life." For it is difficult to understand how creation came to be life in Him (especially when "in Him" is read as a locative). It appears that the scribe of p66 confronted this problem and dealt with it by omitting the preposition as it appears in the TR. Of course, it could be argued that the omission of "was" was accidental, due to homoeoteleution. ("Ho gegonen" at end of verse 3 without "en" at the end.) However, since this was left uncorrected, it is just as likely that it was a purposeful omission intended to rectify this exegetical problem. With "En" gone, the phrase is clearly dative, which therefore points to agency: "What has come into being by Him was life (or, was made life), and the life was the light of men."

It should also be noted that several witnesses (sinaiticus, D, it, MSS(origen), read "Estin" rendered "is" in the expression, "in Him is life" against the testimony of p66, p75, A, B, C, L, which read "En" rendered "was." The variant with the present tense, although a true statement and one that John himself would espouse (see 1:25; 14:6), appears to be the work of scribes wanting to affirm the "presentness" of life in the Word and thereby obviate any thought that life was no longer in Him. Or perhaps scribes made the change to the present tense in an attempt to clarify the difficult statement, 'that which was created in him as life.' But John chose to use the imperfect "En" throughout the first four verses of the prologue to indicate the past and continual presence of the Word.

In the final analysis, we need to see that John's prologue is poetry, which allows for polyvalence. As such, John may have wanted the phrase to connect with both 1:3 and 1:4, showing that the Word is life-giver in all creation, as well as life-giver in regeneration."

B) (Jn 1:4) IN HIM WAS AND WILL ALWAYS BE LIFE, FROM THE BEGINNING OF TIME AND CREATION. HE WAS AND WILL ALWAYS BE THE SOURCE AND SUSTAINER OF THE LIFE (TEMPORAL AND ETERNAL) OF ALL THINGS, AND THE SOURCE OF ETERNAL LIFE. HE WAS AND WILL ALWAYS BE CREATOR, ETERNAL AND GOD

(Jn 1:1 YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. (Jn 1:3 NAS) All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being. (Jn 1:4 NAS) In Him was life, and the Life (temporal and eternal) was the Light of men." =

The verb rendered "was" in verses 1 & 2 and in the phrase "In Him [the Word] was life" from verse 4 is in the durative past tense. Hence the Word "was" and will always be "life" from the beginning of time and creation, i.e., He was and is the eternal source now and forever of all life: physical, spiritual, eternal as Creator and eternal God. Furthermore the phrase in v. 3, "Through Him all things were made; without Him nothing was made that has been made" immediately precedes "In Him was life" in v. 4. Hence, the phrase "In Him was life" includes every sense and source of life from creating all things, at the beginning of time and creation to sustaining the life of all things, to being the source of eternal life in which anything that was created exists in Him and is sustained by Him. The Word is Creator, Eternal and God.

C) (Jn 1:4) IN HIM WAS AND WILL ALWAYS BE LIFE FROM THE BEGINNING OF TIME AND CREATION. HE WAS AND WILL ALWAYS BE THE SOURCE AND SUSTAINER OF THE LIFE OF ALL THINGS, AND THE SOURCE OF ETERNAL LIFE. HE WAS AND WILL ALWAYS BE CREATOR, ETERNAL AND GOD; AND HE - THE LIFE - WAS AND WILL ALWAYS BE THE LIGHT OF MEN - THE ILLUMINATION TO MEN OF HIMSELF AS CREATOR, ETERNAL AND GOD AND OF TRUTH ABOUT GOD

(Jn 1:1 YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. (Jn 1:2 YLT) He [lit., This One] was in [the] beginning with God; (Jn 1:3 NAS) All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being. (Jn 1:4 NAS) In Him was life, and the Life (temporal and eternal) was the Light of men." =

(Jn 1:4 Greek) en autO zOE En ...kai ..hE zOE En ..to ...phOs .tOn ...anthrOpOn"

..........................In Him ..life ..was, and the .Life was the .Light .of the men" =

The phrase rendered "and the Life was the Light of men" in verse 4 of the NAS calls "the Word," the eternal source of all life: physical, spiritual, eternal as Creator, Eternal and God, (cf. vv. 1-3), "the Life." The original Greek text has "hE zOE" rendered "the Life" and not 'that life," as some maintain.

Furthermore, in verse 5, the Word, the Life is referred to as "the Light of men," a Person and not just light of some kind figuratively emanating from a person. So John uses the term "the Light of men" in the sense of light being the Personification of that which illuminates the truth; and more specifically in the sense that the Word, the Life (temporal and eternal), from the beginning of time and creation was and will always be the Light of men, a Person Who is the illuminating revelation of all men of Himself: the Word, the Life (temporal and eternal), Creator of all things, eternal and all of what is true pertaining to God. The fact that the term "the Light of men" refers to a Person is corroborated by Jn 1:9-14 which portrays the Light of men as a Person, a Man and recognizable as such to other men:

1) [Compare Jn 1:9-14]:

(Jn 1:9 NIV) "The true Light that gives light to every man was coming into the world;

(Jn 1:10 YLT) in the world He was, and the world through Him was made, and the world did not know Him:

(Jn 1:11 NKJV) He came to His own [neuter, plural, i.e., He came to all things of His own, being Creator = all things of the world, both inanimate and animate, including mankind], and His own [mascline, plural = those animate objects who have the capacity to receive (i.e., believe in) Him, i.e., His own particular people, specifically the people of Israel] did not receive Him.

(Jn 1:12 YLT) But as many [of His own, (Jn 1:11a; i.e., as many of the rest of mankind)] as did receive Him to them He gave authority to become sons [lit., children] of God - to those believing in His name:

(Jn 1:13 YLT) who - not of blood nor of a will of flesh, nor of a will of man but - of God were begotten [born].

(Jn 1:14 NKJV) And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the [One and only from] the Father, full of grace and truth."

Note for it to be true that the Word, the Life (temporal and eternal), from the beginning of time and creation was and will always be the Light of men; men must have been created at the beginning of creation as opposed to evolving later. So the Word, the Life was and will always be the Light of men since the beginning of creation when men were created. Note that this points from the beginning of time and Creation to our Lord's preMessianic existence being discernible in some manner throughout history to men such that men could perceive Who He was and understand truths about God through Him.

2) [Compare Jn 1:1, 4-5, 12-18]:

(Jn 1:1 YLT) '''In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. (Jn 1:4 NAS) In Him was life, and the Life was the Light of men. (Jn 1:5 NKJV) And the Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it. (Jn 1:12 YLT) But as many [individuals of His own creation, (Jn 1:11a)] as did receive Him to them He gave authority to become sons [lit., children] of God - to those believing in His name: (Jn 1:13 YLT) who - not of blood [lit., bloods] nor of a will of flesh, nor of a will of man but - of God were begotten [born]. (Jn 1:14 NKJV) And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the [One and only from] the Father, full of grace and truth. (Jn 1:15 YLT) John [lit., witnesses] concerning Him, and [lit., cried out], saying, "This was He of Whom I said, 'He Who after me is coming, has come before me, for He was before me' (Jn 1:16 YLT) and out of His fullness did we all receive, [even] grace [in place of] grace: (Jn 1:17) For [because] the Law was given through Moses; grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. (Jn 1:18 NAS) No one has seen God at any time; [but] the [lit., One and only] God Who is in the bosom of the Father, He has [lit., declared] Him.''' =

Although God Almighty is not completely knowable by finite man in His infiniteness; verses 4 & 18 indicate that the Word, declared in vv. 10-18 to be the One and only God Who from the Father has provided since the beginning of time and creation illuminating understanding about Himself and about Who God is, declaring to mankind in His Perfect Humanity, Who God is.

No finite human being has seen God at any time, (Jn 1:18a); but the One and only God, (Jn 1:18b), the Word, Who has always been face to face with God - able to see and intimately know God, (Jn 1:1-2), Who is in the bosom of the Father - in the closest personal intimate relationship with Him, (Jn 1:18b) - has become flesh, (Jn 1:14). And in His Perfect Humanity, the One and only God, has come into the world, (Jn 1:14), to declare through Himself in His Perfect Humanity Who God is to mankind, (Jn 1:18). Mankind can now behold the glory as of the One and only from the Father, full of the grace and truth of God, (Jn 1:14). The Word become flesh has made God knowable and known to mankind, so that men can choose to know God and trust in the Word unto an eternal life familial relationship with God, (Jn 1:12-13).

III) [Jn 1:5]:

(Jn 1:5 NKJV) "And the Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it."

A) (Jn 1:5) IN HIM WAS AND WILL ALWAYS BE LIFE FROM THE BEGINNING OF TIME AND CREATION. HE WAS AND WILL ALWAYS BE THE SOURCE AND SUSTAINER OF THE LIFE OF ALL THINGS, AND THE SOURCE OF TEMPORAL AND ETERNAL LIFE. HE WAS AND WILL ALWAYS BE CREATOR, ETERNAL AND GOD; AND HE - THE LIFE - WAS IN [THE] BEGINNING AND WILL ALWAYS BE THE LIGHT OF MEN - THE ILLUMINATION TO MEN OF HIMSELF AS CREATOR, ETERNAL AND GOD AND OF TRUTH ABOUT GOD. NEVERTHELESS MEN HAVE DELIBERATELY REMAINED IN DARKNESS - IN SIN, WILLFULLY OPPOSED TO COMPREHENDING AND KNOWING GOD

(Jn 1:1 YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. (Jn 1:2 YLT) He [lit., This One] was in [the] beginning with God; (Jn 1:3 NAS) All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being. (Jn 1:4 NAS) In Him was life, and the Life was the Light of men. (Jn 1:5 NKJV) And the Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it." =

(Jn 1:5 Greek) "Kai .to ..phOs ...en tE ..skotia .......phainei .kai .hE .skotia ....auto .

.........................."And the Light ...in .the .darkness..appears and the darkness it ......

ou .katelaben"

not .comprehended."

Review of the context of Jn 1:1-4 leading to verse 5:

The verb rendered "was" in verses 1 & 2 and in the phrase "In Him [the Word] was life" from verse 4 is in the durative past tense. Hence the Word "was" and will always be "life" from the beginning of time and creation, i.e., He was and is the eternal source now and forever of all life: physical, spiritual, eternal as Creator and eternal God. Notice that the phrase in v. 3, "Through Him all things were made; without Him nothing was made that has been made." immediately precedes "In Him was life" in v. 4. Hence, the phrase "In Him was life" includes every sense and source of life from creating all things, at the beginning of time and creation to sustaining the life of all things, to being the source of eternal life in which anything that was created exists in Him and is sustained by Him. The Word is Creator, Eternal and God. Then the phrase rendered "and the Life was the Light of men" in verse 4 of the NAS calls "the Word," the eternal source of all life: temporal and eternal as Creator, Eternal and God, (cf. vv. 1-3), "the Life."

So in verse 4, the Word, the Life is referred to as follows, "the Life was the Light of men," in the sense that light illuminates truth; more specifically that the Light of men, the Word, the Life, from the beginning of time and creation was and will always be the illuminating revelation to all men of Himself: eternal, Creator, the Life (temporal and eternal) - God and of that which is true pertaining to God. Jn 1:5 then gives mankind's characteristic response to the Light: "And the Light shines in the darkness and the darkness did not comprehend it." The verb rendered "shines" is in the descriptive present tense depicting action in progress of the Light of men illuminating revelation of Himself - the Life, the Light of men, the Word upon the minds of men. This shining refers not to shining upon physical darkness but to the illumination of men's minds which are evidently willfully darkened to comprehending God; hence the need for godly illumination.

From a physical point of view, when light shines in darkness, there automatically results a certain amount of darkness being illuminated and dispelled. But from the standpoint of information to be received from an enlightening source into the darkened minds of men, each individual must choose to receive that knowledge willingly or the darkenss will remain, as is characteristic with all men.

The Greek phrase "auto ou katelaben," in Jn 1:5b, lit., 'comprehended it not,' and rendered, "and the darkness did not comprehend it," in the NKJV is in the aorist tense. It conveys a completed action which portrays the characteristic response of men throughout history to the Light of men, the Life (temporal and eternal), the Word, eternal Creator - God shining on their souls, i.e., providing information about Himself to their minds. And that characteristic response is one of willfully not choosing to comprehend, i.e., perceive, understand and know Who "the Life" is, nor truths about God which He reveals as the Light of men. So the souls of men are characterized as "darkness," i.e., sinful, rebellious toward the Light, unwilling to comprehend His revelation. Men are characteristically estranged from God.

1) [Compare Jn 1:10]:

(Jn 1:10 YLT) In the world He was, and the world through Him was made, and the world did not know Him.

IV) [Jn 1:6-7]:

(Jn 1:6 YLT) There came [into being, (cf. NASB)] a man - having been sent from God - whose name is John.

(Jn 1:7 NKJV) This man came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all through Him [the Light of men, the Life, the Word, (Jn 1:1-4)] might believe"

A) (Jn 1:6-7) IN VERSES 6 & 7, AUTHOR JOHN BEGINS WITH THE PHRASE, "THERE CAME A MAN," USING THE GREEK VERB "EGENETO" MEANING 'THERE CAME INTO BEING A MAN;' AS OPPOSED TO USING THE VERB "EN" RENDERED "WAS" WHICH DESCRIBES THE WORD IN VERSES 1-2 & 4 WHICH PORTRAYS AN ETERNAL, UNCREATED, PREEXISTENT, EXISTENCE EXCLUSIVE TO GOD ALONE

SO A [CREATED] MAN WAS SENT [LIT. HAVING BEEN SENT] FROM GOD WHOSE NAME WAS JOHN REFERRING TO A JOHN DIFFERENT FROM THE AUTHOR, TO BE CORROBORATED LATER AS JOHN THE BAPTIST. SO JOHN WAS SENT FROM GOD - IN THE SENSE OF BEFORE JOHN CAME INTO BEING - TO BEAR WITNESS TO MEN OF THE LIGHT, THE LIFE (TEMPORAL AND ETERNAL), THE WORD, ETERNAL CREATOR - GOD; THAT ALL MEN THROUGH HIM, (THE LIGHT) MIGHT BELIEVE IN ORDER TO HAVE AN ETERNAL LIFE RELATIONSHIP WITH GOD. THIS IN TURN IMPLIES THAT AN ATONING SACRIFICE FOR THE SINS OF THE WHOLE WORLD WILL BE PROVIDED

(Jn 1:1 YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. (Jn 1:2 YLT) He [lit., This One] was in [the] beginning with God; (Jn 1:3 NAS) All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being. (Jn 1:4 NAS) In Him was life, and the Life (temporal and eternal) was the Light of men. (Jn 1:5 NKJV) And the Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it. (Jn 1:6 YLT) There came [into being, (cf. NASB)] a man - having been sent from God - whose name is John. (Jn 1:7 NKJV) This man came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all through Him [the Light of men, the Life (temporal and eternal), the Word, (Jn 1:1-4)] might believe" =

In verse 6, author John the Apostle begins with the phrase rendered in the YLT, "There came a man," and in the NASB, "There came a man," or "There came into being a man." John used the Greek verb form "egeneto" from the infinitive "ginomai" which can mean "to be," "to come into being," "to be made," depending upon the context. Prior to this, author used the verb form "En," rendered "was," from the infinitive "eimi" meaning "to be, exist" to describe the existence of "the Word," indicating eternality - an uncreated, preexistent existence.

Whereupon author John used the Greek verb form "egeneto" twice and "gegonen" once, rendered "came into being," and "has come into being," respectively from the infinitive "ginomai" in verse 3 to indicate all created things. After which author John wrote of John in verse 6 using the same verb "egeneto" in the aorist tense to describe the existence of John [the Baptist] conveying a completed action at a particular time in history of this John's existence - being a created being - as opposed to an eternal, uncreated, preexistent existence exclusive to God and portrayed by the verb form "en" rendered "was" from the Greek verb 'eimi' = to be, describing the Word in Jn 1:1-2 & 4.

So there came into existence a man - a created man - having been sent, (Greek, "para" in the genitive case), from God in the sense of God decreeing that John be sent on his mission before he was created. The Greek word transliterated "para" when used with the genitive case has a primary meaning which indicates movement or procession from or near a person. In the case of Jn 1:6, God sent John the Baptist which is conveyed in an emphatic sense. The word rendered "sent" here is the same word from which the word rendered "apostle" is derived; as opposed to "apo," meaning "from" in the sense of origin , or "hupo" in the sense of under the authority of. Yet in history it was a long time after the beginning of creation that John actually arrived at the time - the particular time in history - for him to perform his mission.

And his name was John referring to a John which is different from the author, to be corroborated later as John the Baptist, (Jn 1:15-34). John the Baptist identified himself as one who would fufill the prophecy in Isaiah 40:3-5 of being the voice of one crying in the wilderness to make straight the way of the LORD - the coming Messiah, Whom John identified as Jesus, (Jn 1:29).

1) [Compare Jn 1:23 and Isa 40:3]:

(Jn 1:23 NKJV) '''He [John the Baptist, vv. 7, 15, 19] said: "I am 'The voice of one crying in the wilderness: "Make straight the way of the LORD," ' as the prophet Isaiah said.'''

(Isa 40:3 NKJV) "The voice of one crying in the wilderness: 'Prepare the way of the LORD; Make straight in the desert A highway for our God.' "

Jn 1:7 then declares, "This man came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all through Him might believe."

Since the Light is referred to in verses 4 & 5 as follows: "In Him [referring to the Word, (Jn 1:1-3)] was life, and the Life (temporal and eternal) was the Light of men. And the Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it," then the Light is the Word, eternal, Creator, the Life - the source of physical and eternal life, i.e., God.

Verse 7 is implying that John the Baptist was sent from God to bear witness to the world of the Light, the Life (temporal and eternal), the Word, eternal Creator - God, that all men through the Light might believe in Him in order to have an eternal life relationship with God. The word rendered "came" in verse 7 is "erchomai" meaning having come in the sense of arriving at a certain place in a certain appointed time as opposed to the verb form "egeneto" in verse 6 which refers to John's having come into existence.

In the case of Jn 1:7, the word rendered "witness" is defined as one who was appointed by God hence certain to be qualified to testify as to Who the Light of men, the Word, the Life was and that all through Him [the Light] might believe in Him and have eternal life.

The phrase rendered "that all through Him might believe" implies believing in "Him" = believing in the Word, the Light, the Life, (temporal and eternal) in order to establish an eternal life relationship with Him, (cf. Jn 1:12-12). This in turn implies that an atoning sacrifice for the sins of the whole world was to be provided through and by Him. For one is needed if a man, sinful by nature, is to spend eternity in the presence of a Holy God.

B) (Jn 1:6-7) LONG AFTER THE BEGINNING OF CREATION, AT THE TIME OF JOHN THE BAPTIST, THE WORD, THE LIGHT BEGAN A UNIQUE REVELATION OF HIMSELF TO MEN SO THAT JOHN THE BAPTIST COULD BEAR WITNESS TO MEN OF HIM THAT ALL MEN COULD READILY ENCOUNTER HIM, CHOOSE TO KNOW HIM, HENCE UNDERSTAND WHO GOD IS, AND BELIEVE IN HIM UNTO AN ETERNAL LIFE RELATIONSHIP WITH GOD. SO THE WORD, THE LIFE, THE LIGHT TOOK UPON HIMSELF HUMANITY IN THE SENSE OF ADDING TO HIMSELF HUMANITY IN ORDER TO PROVIDE HIMSELF AS AN ATONING SACRIFICE FOR THE SINS OF THE WHOLE WORLD. THIS IMPLIES THAT FROM THE BEGINNING, MEN CHARACTERISTICALLY DID NOT BELIEVE AND DID NOT HAVE AN ETERNAL LIFE RELATIONSHIP OR ANY RELATIONSHIP WITH GOD AT ALL. MEN HAVE CHARACTERISTICALLY AND WILLFULLY ALIENATED THEMSELVES FROM GOD BECAUSE OF THEIR SINS

(Jn 1:1 YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. (Jn 1:2 YLT) He [lit., This One] was in [the] beginning with God; (Jn 1:3 NAS) All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being. (Jn 1:4 NAS) In Him was life, and the Life was the Light of men. (Jn 1:5 NKJV) And the Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it. (Jn 1:6 YLT) There came [into being, (cf. NASB)] a man - having been sent from God - whose name [is] John. (Jn 1:7 NKJV) This man came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all through Him [the Light of men, the Life, the Word, (Jn 1:1-4)] might believe" =

Since there came into existence long after the beginning of creation at a particular time in history, a man named John the Baptist having been sent from God in order to bear witness to the Light, the Word, the Life (temporal and eternal); and since the beginning of creation the Word has always been illuminating revelation to men of God and eternal life; then this implies that at the time of John the Baptist, the Word, the Life (temporal and eternal), the Light began a unique revelation to men so that John the Baptist could bear witness to men of the Light so that all men could perceive the Light and through that they might believe in Him (the Word) unto an eternal life relationship with God. The context indicates that this implies that when an individual believes, he receives a benefit based on Who the Light is: the Life, the Source of physical and eternal life. So by believing in Him, it is implied one will receive eternal life - for He is Eternal.

Evidently then, at the time of John the Baptist, the Light began to appear amongst men as a man, having taken upon Himself Humanity in order to provide Himself as an atoning sacrifice for the sins of the whole world.

1) [Compare Jn 1:14]:

(Jn 1:14 NKJV) "And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the [One and only from] the Father, full of grace and truth."

Note that the Eternal Word, (Jn 1:1-3), is stipulated in Jn 1:14 as having become flesh, i.e, having added humanity to Himself and dwelt among men as a Man Himself, (as well as the Eternal Word, i.e., God), at the time of John the Baptist.

Finally, since John the Baptist was sent long after creation at a particular time in history from God to testify to men of the Light so that through the Light men might believe; then this implies that from the beginning, men characteristically did not believe, hence men characteristically did not have an eternal life relationship or any relationship with God at all as stipulated in verse 5. Men have characteristically and willfully alienated themselves from God because of their sins.

a) [Compare Jn 1:5]:

(Jn 1:5 NKJV) "And the Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it."

C) (Jn 1:6-7) JOHN THE BAPTIST WAS A MAN CREATED AND SENT FROM GOD TO TESTIFY ABOUT, I.E., PUBLICLY PROCLAIM THE LIGHT, THE LIFE, THE WORD TO MEN SO THAT ALL WHO HEAR HIS MESSAGE MIGHT HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO EXPRESS A MOMENT OF FAITH ALONE IN HIM (THE LIGHT) ALONE WHICH WOULD RESULT IN AN ETERNAL LIFE RELATIONSHIP WITH GOD

(Jn 1:6 YLT) There came [into being, (cf. NASB)] a man - having been sent from God - whose name is John. (Jn 1:7 NKJV) This man came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all through Him [the Light of men, the Life, the Word, (Jn 1:1-4)] might believe" =

Notice that Jn 1:7 says, "that all [men] through Him [the Light of men, the Life (temporal and eternal), the Word, (Jn 1:1-4)] might believe without directly stipulating the benefit of that moment of faith. The context indicates that this implies that when an individual believes, he receives a benefit based on Who the Light is: the Life, the Source of physical and eternal life. So by believing in Him, it is implied one will receive eternal life. Note that the verb rendered 'believe' in Jn 1:7 is "pisteusOsin." It is in the aorist tense which portrays a snapshot moment - a completed action, not a continuous action, of believing in order to bring about the result of the immediate and permanent possession of eternal life - because once possessed, it is eternal / permanent by definition.

1) [Compare Jn 1:12-13]:

(Jn 1:12 YLT) "But as many [of His own, (Jn 1:11a; i.e., as many of the rest of mankind)] as did receive Him to them He gave authority to become sons [lit., children] of God - to those believing in His name:

(Jn 1:13 YLT) "who - not of blood nor of a will of flesh, nor of a will of man but - of God were begotten [born]."

Note that the Greek phrase "tois pisteuousin" rendered "to those believing" in Jn 1:12 is a dative present participle with a definite article making it a noun - lit., to the believing one - signifying a moment of faith alone in His name alone to become one of those believing on His name in order to be born of God, confirming what is conveyed in Jn 1:7 - a moment of faith alone in Christ alone.

Jn 1:12-13 implies that men are characteristically not born of God when they are physically born, hence are not children of God in an eternal relationship with Him. They are born estranged from God; but when they believe in Him, the Light of men, they become born of God, children of God into that eternal relationship.

So in Jn 1:6-7, John the Baptist is a man created, having been sent from God to testify about (to publicly proclaim) the Light, the Life (temporal and eternal), the Word so that all who hear might have the opportunity to believe in Him (the Light) which will result in an eternal life relationship with God.

Note that the words "through Him," in Jn 1:7 in the phrase "that all [men] through Him [the Light of men, the Life, the Word, (Jn 1:1-4)] might believe" do not refer to John the Baptist as some suggest. For John barely lived one generation in a local area of the world and would not have witnessed of the Light to all men throughout history as the verse implies. Furthermore, for John to bear witness of the Light, he must testify about the Light, the Life - the Source of life to all men which testimony must be that it is through the Light that one is to believe and receive eternal life, and not through John himself. This is corroborated later in Jn 1:12-13 which is quoted above. Hence it is evident that the pronoun rendered "Him" in the phrase "believe through Him," refers to the Word, the Light, the Life (temporal and eternal), eternal Creator - God, the source of eternal life.

So John the Baptist is not the Agent through Whom an individual believes unto eternal life; the Light, the Life, the Word = eternal, Creator God is.

V) [Jn 1:8]:

(Jn 1:8 YLT) "that one [John the Baptist] was not the Light, but - that he might testify about the Light."

A) (Jn 1:8) JOHN HIMSELF WAS NOT THE LIGHT, THE WORD. HE CAME ONLY AS A WITNESS TO THE LIGHT

(Jn 1:6 YLT) There came [into being, (cf. NASB)] a man - having been sent from God - whose name is John. (Jn 1:7 NKJV) This man came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all through Him [the Light of men, the Life, the Word, (Jn 1:1-4)] might believe. (Jn 1:8 YLT) that one was not the Light, but - that he might testify about the Light." =

The author emphasizes in verse 8 that John the Baptist was not the Light, the Word, the Life; but a messenger of the Light. Evidently this has in view the possibility that some may consider John as the Light instead of one whose godly purpose was to bear witness to the Light. Notice that this implies that John the Baptist's appearance and actions might be perceived as identifying him as the Light. This implies further that the Light's form and actions in the time of John the Baptist included but were not limited to those of a man.

VI) [Jn 1:9]:

(Jn 1:9 NIV) "The true Light that gives light to every man was coming into the world."

A) (Jn 1:9) THE WORD, WHO IS ETERNAL, CREATOR, THE LIFE - GOD, GIVES ETERNAL LIFE TO EVERY MAN WHO BELIEVES IN HIM. HE IS THE TRUE LIGHT, I.E., THE TRUE REVELATION OF WHO GOD IS TO EVERY MAN. HE ENTERED HISTORY IN A UNIQUE FORM AT THE TIME OF JOHN THE BAPTIST IN THE FORM OF HUMANITY SO THAT MEN MIGHT READILY ENCOUNTER HIM THROUGH THE ONGOING WITNESS OF JOHN AND OTHERS, CHOOSE TO KNOW HIM HENCE UNDERSTAND WHO GOD IS AND BELIEVE IN HIM UNTO AN ETERNAL LIFE RELATIONSHIP WITH GOD

(Jn 1:1 YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. (Jn 1:2 YLT) He [lit., This One] was in [the] beginning with God; (Jn 1:3 NAS) All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being. (Jn 1:4 NAS) In Him was life, and the Life was the Light of men. (Jn 1:5 NKJV) And the Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it. (Jn 1:6 YLT) There came [into being, (cf. NASB)] a man - having been sent from God - whose name is John. (Jn 1:7 NKJV) This man came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all through Him [the Light of men, the Life, the Word, (Jn 1:1-4)] might believe. (Jn 1:8 YLT) that one was not the Light, but - that he might testify about the Light. (Jn 1:9 NIV) The true Light that gives light to every man was coming into the world." =

(Jn 1:9 Greek) "En ...to ..phOs to ...alEthinon ho ......phOtizei panta anthrOpon

.........................."Was the Light the .true ..........which lightens .every .man

erchomen eis ..ton kosmon."

coming ....into the world."

Author John reiterates in verse 9 that the Word, the Life, the Light of men is the true Light that gives light to every man.

1) [Compare Jn 1:4-5]:

(Jn 1:4 NAS) "In Him was life, and the Life was the Light of men.

(Jn 1:5 NKJV) And the Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it."

Although the Light, the Word, the Life, Creator - God is eternal and hence has always been omnipresent in the world, (Jn 1:1-4); and although the Word was declared by author John as being the Light of men from the beginning of time and creation when men were created, (Jn 1:1-4), from which time He has been shining His light of revelation about Himself upon the darkened minds of men while they chose not to comprehend Him, (cf. Jn 1:4-5); author John declares in Jn 1:9 that the Light "was coming into the world" in the sense of making a unique appearance in the world in history evidently having the form of Humanity.

The phrase "The true Light that gives light to every man in the world was coming into the world," in Jn 1:9, contains the imperfect tense verb "En" rendered "was" with the participle phrase "erchomen eis ton kosmon" rendered together, "was coming into the world" in the NIV. The imperfect verb form, "En" = "was" denotes an indefinite, linear, ongoing length of time of the coming of the Word, the Light of men into the world, not just into a region of the world. And He was coming beginning at the time when John the Baptist had been created, the latter having been sent from God to announce His entry, (Jn 1:7). And this coming was continuing throughout history, not just for a limited period of time.

This implies that the witness of John the Baptist of the Word's unique entry into the world in the form of Humanity is the beginning of an ongoing witness which will be carried on by others from the time of John the Baptist throughout the ages to all mankind so that all men might have an opportunity to know of Him and believe in Him unto an eternal life relationship with God. That all mankind throughout the ages is in view is corroborated with verse 7:

2) [Compare Jn 1:7 with 1:9]:

(Jn 1:7 NKJV) "This man came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all through Him [the Light of men, the Life, the Word, (Jn 1:1-4)] might believe."

(Jn 1:9 NIV) "The true Light that gives light to every man was coming into the world."

Notice that the true Light "gives light" in the sense of shining the light of truth about God upon mankind to reveal Himself to man as the Word; the Life, Creator - God in Whom is eternal life to be received when one believes in Him for it, (Jn 1:7).

Note that the phrase 'true Light' in Jn 1:9 implies that there are false 'lights' that lead to untruths which pervade man's thinking especially relative to God and life and eternal life.

This is not to say that a man is to receive some kind of inner light or enlightment within himself; for it is John's testimony about the Light, the Word, Who has come into the world as a personal revelation to mankind in the form of human being so that men might readily encounter Him, choose to know Him, hence understand Who God is and believe in Him unto an eternal life relationship with God, (cf. Jn 6-7).

In view of Jn 1:5, 10 and 11 it becomes evident that man has willfully refused to receive the light, i.e., believe in the Light, the Life, the Word, Creator - God.

3) [Compare Jn 1:5, 10-11]:

(Jn 1:5 NKJV) "And the Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it.

(Jn 1:10 YLT) In the world He was, and the world through Him was made, and the world did not know Him:

(Jn 1:11 NKJV) He came to His own [neuter, plural, i.e., He came to all things of His own, being Creator = all things of the world, both inanimate and animate, including mankind], and His own [mascline, plural = those animate objects who have the capacity to receive (i.e., believe in) Him, i.e., His own particular people, specifically the people of Israel] did not receive Him."

VII) [Jn 1:10]:

(Jn 1:10 YLT) "In the world He was, and the world through Him was made, and the world did not know Him:"

A) (Jn 1:10) AT THE TIME OF JOHN THE BAPTIST, THE LIGHT, THE WORD, THE LIFE, CREATOR - GOD BEGAN AN ONGOING UNIQUE PRESENCE IN THE WORLD TAKING UPON HIMSELF HUMANITY TO ENLIGHTEN ALL MEN ABOUT HIMSELF SO THAT MEN MIGHT CHOOSE TO KNOW HIM, HENCE UNDERSTAND WHO GOD IS AND BELIEVE IN HIM UNTO AN ETERNAL LIFE RELATIONSHIP WITH GOD. ALTHOUGH THE WORLD THROUGH HIM WAS MADE, THE WORLD DID NOT CHOOSE TO KNOW HIM

(Jn 1:1 YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. (Jn 1:2 YLT) He [lit., This One] was in [the] beginning with God; (Jn 1:3 NAS) All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being. (Jn 1:4 NAS) In Him was life, and the Life was the Light of men. (Jn 1:5 NKJV) And the Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it. (Jn 1:6 YLT) There came [into being, (cf. NASB)] a man - having been sent from God - whose name is John. (Jn 1:7 NKJV) This man came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all through Him [the Light of men, the Life, the Word, (Jn 1:1-4)] might believe, (Jn 1:8 YLT) that one was not the Light, but - that he might testify about the Light. (Jn 1:9 NIV) The true Light that gives light to every man was coming into the world; (Jn 1:10 YLT) in the world He was, and the world through Him was made, and the world did not know Him:" =

(Jn 1:10 Greek) "En tO .kosmO En .........kai ..ho ..kosmos di' .........autou egeneto

............................"In .the world ..He was .and ..the .world ..through Him ..came into being,

kai ..ho ..kosmos .auton .ouk .egnO."

and .the .world ...him ....not ..knew."

Verses 4 through 9 of John chapter one, indicate that, at the time of John the Baptist, the Light "was coming into the world," (Jn 1:9), in a unique sense: God having the form of Humanity to give light to every man, of Who God is so that men might choose to know Him, hence understand Who God is and believe in Him unto an eternal life relationship with God. Then in verse 10, author John writes that the true Light, the Life, the Word, eternal, Creator - God was in the world with the Greek phrase, "En tO kosmO En" rendered "in the world He was" in the YLT where "was," is in the imperfect tense designating an indefinite, linear ongoing period of time beginning at the time of John the Baptist. The phrase rendered "in the world He was" in Jn 1:10 YLT cannot be referring to the beginning of the existence of the Word because He is eternal, i.e., has always been, hence His presence in the world was from the beginning of time and creation, not beginning at the time of John the Baptist. So the presence in the world in view in Jn 1:10 which has a beginnning at the time of John the Baptist is a unique one implying the addition of the form of Humanity to His eternality. Furthermore, the Word was evidently in Human form in order that John the Baptist could be a witness for Him whereby men could encounter Him, and might choose to know Him hence understand Who God is and believe in Him unto an eternal life relationship with God.

Although the world "di' autou egeneto," literally 'came into being through Him,' corroborating that the Word is Creator of all things, (cf. Jn 1:3); the world, i.e., men did not know Him, i.e., choose to believe in Him. The Greek phrase "auton ouk egnO" rendered "did not know Him" is in the aorist tense portraying a completed action and signifying that the world characteristically chose to not know, i.e., believe in Him.

But there were individuals who did receive Him, largely not of His own particular people:

VIII) [Jn 1:11]:

(Jn 1:11 NKJV) "He came to His own [neuter, plural, i.e., He came to all things of His own, being Creator = all things of the world, both inanimate and animate, including mankind], and His own [mascline, plural = those animate objects who have the capacity to receive (i.e., believe in) Him, i.e., His own particular people, specifically the people of Israel] did not receive Him."

A) (Jn 1:11) THE WORD, THE LIFE, THE LIGHT OF MEN - CREATOR AND GOD, ENTERED THE WORLD IN HISTORY IN HIS HUMANITY, COMING TO ALL THINGS AND INDIVIDUALS OF HIS OWN [NEUTER, PLURAL = ALL THINGS IN THE WORLD INCLUDING MANKIND]; AND HIS OWN PARTICULAR PEOPLE [MASCULINE, PLURAL], I.E., ISRAEL] DID NOT RECEIVE / BELIEVE IN HIM TO HAVE AN ETERNAL LIFE FAMILIAL RELATIONSHIP WITH GOD

(Jn 1:1 YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. (Jn 1:2 YLT) He [lit., This One] was in [the] beginning with God; (Jn 1:3 NAS) All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being. (Jn 1:4 NAS) In Him was life, and the Life was the Light of men. (Jn 1:5 NKJV) And the Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it. (Jn 1:6 YLT) There came [into being, (cf. NASB)] a man - having been sent from God - whose name is John. (Jn 1:7 NKJV) This man came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all through Him [the Light of men, the Life, the Word, (Jn 1:1-4)] might believe, (Jn 1:8 YLT) that one was not the Light, but - that he might testify about the Light. (Jn 1:9 NIV) The true Light that gives light to every man was coming into the world; (Jn 1:10 YLT) in the world He was, and the world through Him was made, and the world did not know Him: (Jn 1:11 NKJV) "He came to His own [neuter, plural, i.e., He came to all things in the world of His own creation. Being Creator He came to all things of the world, both inanimate and animate, including mankind] and His own [mascline, plural = those animate objects who have the capacity to receive (i.e., believe in) Him, i.e., His own particular people, specifically the people of Israel] did not receive Him" =

(Jn 1:11 Greek) "eis ta ..idia .........elthen ....kai .hoi .idioi .......auton ou ..parelabon"

............................"To the His own .He came and the .His own .Him ..not .received" =

The Greek words "ta idia" in the first phrase of Jn 1:11, "eis ta idia elthen" rendered "He came to His own" in the NKJV, is a neuter plural adjective for noun with a definite article, ("ta"). It refers to those things in the world of His own - both inanimate and animate - to which the Word, the true Light in His perfect form of Humanity became and came into the world at the time of John the Baptist, (cf. Jn 1:14). The phrase "ta idia" being plural and neuter has in view all the things - inanimate and animate, including all the peoples - all creation of the whole world - which the Word, the Life the Light as Creator and God is His own - hence the neuter gender, (ref. Jn 1:1-3). This phrase cannot refer solely to His own particular people or nation Israel because the latter would require the masculine plural form of this adjective in order to refer just to a plurality of people. Note that the Greek word "laos" which means "people" is masculine.

The Greek words "hoi idioi" in the second phrase of Jn 1:11, "kai hoi idioi auton ou parelabon," rendered "and His own did not receive him," in the NKJV, is a masculine plural adjective for noun. This second phrase is joined with the first phrase, "eis ta idia elthen, [neuter, plural]" with the Greek word "kai," literally "and." This word is correctly rendered "and" in the NKJV and not "but" as some translations have it. The conjunction "but" is incorrect because it would signify that "His own" [neuter, plural] of the first phrase is the same as "His own" [masculine, plural] of the second phrase of Jn 1:11. But this is not the case because of the difference in gender. The conjunction "and," on the other hand, permits the distinction already afforded by the difference in gender. Since the Greek words "kai hoi idioi" in the second phrase, (Jn 1:11b), also have "His own" as an adjective for noun, with a definite article, plural but masculine, then it must refer to a particular entity in the world which is masculine in gender and plural in number which the Word identifies with as His own, which entity can choose to receive / believe in Him or not - ruling out inanimate objects, plants and animals. Hence the words "His own" in the second phrase refer to a plurality of people to which the Word at the time of John the Baptist in His Humanity belongs. Since the Word added to Himself Humanity, (ref. Jn 1:14), and became a Man, (ref. Jn 1:30) at the time of John the Baptist; then grammatically, but not contextually, it is possible that the Greek phrase "kai hoi idioi auton ou parelabon" rendered "and His own did not receive him" in the NKJV could mean that He came to His own people in the sense that He came to all of mankind when He was in His Humanity; and all of mankind characteristically did not receive Him. But this point had already been established in Jn 1:5 before He added to Himself Humanity which portrayed the characteristic response of men throughout history to the revelation of the Light of men, the Life (temporal and eternal), the Word, eternal Creator - God which provided information about Himself to their minds. And that characteristic response was one of willfully not choosing to comprehend, i.e., perceive, understand and know Who "the Life" is, nor truths about God which He revealed as the Light of men. So the souls of men were characterized as darkened, i.e., sinful and rebellious toward the Light, unwilling to choose to comprehend His revelation. Men were characteristically estranged from God from the beginning of Creation - before He added to Himself Humanity! (Jn 1:5)! Since verse 5 has already established that all of humanity throughout history has characteristically not received the Word in verse 5; and since the context in verse 11b is after He, the Word, had added to Himself Humanity; then a particular group of His own people out of the entire pool of humanity must be in view in Jn 1:11b - a group which He is particularly a part of - even born into - in the sense of His humanity, namely Israel, (Isa 9:6-7). And Israel characteristically did not receive the Word when He was in His Humanity, (ref. Jn 1:45). Although the Greek word for "people" = "laon" is masculine, singular; the Greek word "idioi," refers to a plurality of individuals, i.e., people, which are His own - His particular people - Israel.

The second phrase of Jn 1:11 rendered "and His own [referring to his own particular people - Israel] did not receive Him" indicates that the Word was in human form in order to be one of His own particular people. Later on in the gospel of John the particular group defined as "His own" people which did not receive Him will be corroborated as Israel:

1) [Compare Jn 1:45 NKJV]:

"Philip found Nathanael and said to him, 'We have found Him of whom Moses in the law, and also the prophets, wrote - Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph. "

[Note that the Word become flesh, Jesus Christ, (cf. Jn 1:14, 16-34) is declared here as the son of Joseph, an Israelite]

2) [Compare Jn 7:1]:

(Jn 7:1 NKJV) "After these things Jesus walked in Galilee; for He did not want to walk in Judea, because the Jews sought to kill Him."

[Note that Jesus was evidently rejected by the Jews to the extent of imminent assassination, so He departed and continued His ministry in Galilee away from His people, who did not receive Him]

IX) [Jn 1:12]:

(Jn 1:12 YLT) "But as many [individuals of His own creation, (Jn 1:11a)] as did receive Him to them He gave authority to become sons [lit., children] of God - to those believing in His name"

A) (Jn 1:12) AS MANY INDIVIDUALS OF HIS OWN CREATION WHO RECEIVE THE WORD, THE LIFE, THE LIGHT OF MEN, CREATOR, ETERNAL GOD IN A COMPLETED ACTION INSTANT OF BECOMING BELIEVERS IN HIS NAME, I.E., BY TRUSTING IN HIS CAPACITY, WILLINGNESS AND TRUSTWORTHINESS TO PROVIDE AN ETERNAL LIFE RELATIONSHIP WITH GOD THROUGH HIS ATONING SACRIFICE FOR SINS; ARE BORN OF GOD, AS CHILDREN OF GOD, TO WHOM GOD GAVE HIS RIGHTEOUSNESS AND THE AUTHORITY TO BECOME CHILDREN OF GOD, RESULTING IN AN ETERNALLY SECURE ETERNAL LIFE FAMILIAL RELATIONSHIP WITH GOD

(Jn 1:1 YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. (Jn 1:2 YLT) He [lit., This One] was in [the] beginning with God; (Jn 1:3 NAS) All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being. (Jn 1:4 NAS) In Him was life, and the Life was the Light of men. (Jn 1:5 NKJV) And the Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it. (Jn 1:6 YLT) There came [into being, (cf. NASB)] a man - having been sent from God - whose name is John. (Jn 1:7 NKJV) This man came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all through Him [the Light of men, the Life, the Word, (Jn 1:1-4)] might believe, (Jn 1:8 YLT) that one was not the Light, but - that he might testify about the Light. (Jn 1:9 NIV) The true Light that gives light to every man was coming into the world; (Jn 1:10 YLT) in the world He was, and the world through Him was made, and the world did not know Him: (Jn 1:11 NKJV) He came to His own [neuter, plural, i.e., He came to all things of His own, being Creator = all things of the world, both inanimate and animate, including mankind], and His own [mascline, plural = those animate objects who have the capacity to receive (i.e., believe in) Him, i.e., His own particular people, specifically the people of Israel] did not receive Him. (Jn 1:12 YLT) But as many [individuals of His own creation, (Jn 1:11a)] as did receive Him to them He gave authority to become sons [lit., children] of God - to those believing in His name:" =

(Jn 1:12 Greek) "hosoi ...........de ..elabon ..auton edOken .autois ...exousian tekna

............................"as many as .but received Him ..He gave to them authority children

theou ...genesthai ...........tois ....pisteuousin eis .......to ..onoma autou"

of God to be [become]....to the believing ....on [in].the name ..His"

The conjunction rendered "but" in Jn 1:12a in the phrase rendered "But as many as did receive Him" continues the context of "His own," (neuter, plural), in Jn 1:11a - since the provision of becoming born again unto eternal life is available to all mankind. For Jn 1:12a has in view as many of all of His creation who choose to receive / believe in His name.

According to Jn 1:12b, to receive Him, the Word, Creator of Life, (temporal and eternal), is to become sons / children of God, hence to receive the nature of Him which He offers to all who believe in His name the free gifts of His Perfect Righteousness and eternal life through His atoning sacrifice for sins. So Jn 1:12 continues a point begun in verse 11: "But as many of His own,

[neuter, plural, i.e., of individuals of His own creation - all of whom who have the capacity to receive Him, (Jn 1:3, 11a)]

as did receive Him,

[in the sense of believing in His name, i.e., of trusting in His capacity, willingness and trustworthiness to provide, through His atoning sacrifice for sins, an eternal life relationship with God, (cf. Jn 1:7, 12c)],

God gave authority to become sons [children] of God

[resulting in an eternally secure eternal life familial relationship with God. Note that for an already physically born individual to become a child of God implies another birth - being born again: being born of God - a spiritual birth, (ref Jn 1:13, 3:3-16)].

Notice the key Greek phrase in Jn 1:12,

"edOken .autois ...exousian .tekna ......theou ..genesthai"
"He gave to them .authority children .of God to be [become]"

which is rendered "He gave them authority to become [sons] children of God" in the YLT. The expression, "To give one authority" is a common linguistic expression which is used to portray someone being given authority to become an individual with a certain status as if to say that he has become that individual of that status. In the context of Jn 1:12, its use does not permit one to be uncertain as to the outcome of being born of God as a child of God, as some maintain. They say that individuals given the authority to become children of God may or may not actually become children of God unto eternal life depending upon their ongoing response to exercising that authority, (promoting salvation by faithfulness and works). However, the rules of language, context and logic, do not afford this conclusion. For example, just as the manager of a retail store can tell an employee that he has been given the authority to become a senior buyer, as if to say that he has become, i.e., been promoted to the status of senior buyer; so Jn 1:12 certainly says that the "as many" who have been given the authority to become children of God have indeed become born of God, children of God in an eternal life familial relationship with God as the last phrase of Jn 1:13 corroborates:

1) [Compare Jn 1:12-13]:

(Jn 1:12 YLT) "But as many [individuals of His own creation, (Jn 1:11a)] as did receive Him to them He gave authority to become sons [lit., children] of God - to those believing in His name:

(Jn 1:13 YLT) who - not of blood nor of a will of flesh, nor of a will of man but - of God were begotten [born]."

Jn 1:13 continues to convey what has occurred to the "as many [individuals of His own creation] as did receive Him... to those believing in His name," of Jn 1:12. These individuals are stipulated in Jn 1:13 as those "who - not of blood, nor of a will of flesh, nor a will of man but - of God were begotten, [born]." So "as many as did receive Him... to those believing in His name," (Jn 1:12), to whom God "gave authority to become children of God," were born of God, (Jn 1:13). Notice that at the moment of faith alone in the Word alone, these individuals were born of God as children of God to whom God gave authority to become children of God resulting in an eternal life familial relationship with God forever because eternal life is forever by definition. One who is born of God as a child of God cannot be 'unchilded' from Him any more than a physical birth can be unbirthed.

Furthermore, just as it says in Jn 1:7, "that all through Him [the Light of men, the Life, the Word, (Jn 1:1-4)] might believe" which has in view believing in Him, i.e., in His name, unto the reception of an eternal life relationship with Him; so the "as many as did receive Him" in Jn 1:12a who are said to be "those believing in His name, (Jn 1:12c)" have likewise received an eternal life relationship with Him.

Finally, the Greek phrase "elabon auton" in Jn 1:12 rendered "did receive Him" in the YLT is in the aorist tense which portrays a completed action of having received the Word, the Life, the Light of men. The meaning of "elabon auton," i.e., "did receive Him" is further defined in Jn 1:12c by the Greek phrase, "tois pisteuousin eis to onoma autou," rendered "to those believing in His name" in the YLT where "pisteuousin" is a participle for noun in the dative case with a definite article, literally "to the believing ones," which requires only a moment of faith. So a noun is in view, i.e., the believing ones = the believers, which portrays individuals who have expressed a moment of faith in the name of the Light of Men, the Life, the Word, to become born of God as children of God into an eternally secure eternal life familial relationship with God through His atoning sacrifice for sins. Note that to become a child of God is to be born of God by definition, (cf. Jn 1:13d). This result is evidently eternally secure since the action of a moment of faith alone in Christ alone to obtain the result is a completed action without further requirement of response and the eternal life relationship with God is by definition eternal = eternally secure. Being born of God as children of God is not something that can be abrogated or undone any more than children born of human parents can have their physical births nullified or reversed. So being born of God as children of God into an eternal life familial relationship with God is permanent and forever! And to become a born of God child of God is to receive the character of God, i.e., His Perfect Righteousness in order to receive their gift of eternal life. And that righteousness can only be received through a moment of believing in the name of the Word, the Life. For man is intrinsically unrighteous, unable to contribute anything to His salvation.

B) (Jn 1:12) SINCE THE WORD - ETERNAL, CREATOR, GOD, THE LIFE, THE TRUE LIGHT FROM THE BEGINNING OF CREATION HAS BEEN REVEALING THE TRUTH ABOUT HIMSELF SO THAT MEN MIGHT KNOW HIM AND THROUGH A MOMENT OF FAITH IN HIM HAVE ETERNAL LIFE; AND SINCE THE WORD CAME INTO THE WORLD WITH HUMAN FORM SO THAT MEN MIGHT ALL THE MORE BELIEVE IN HIM AS TESTIFIED TO BY JOHN THE BAPTIST AND THOSE WHO FOLLOW IN JOHN'S FOOTSTEPS; AND SINCE AS MANY AS DO RECEIVE HIM - TO THOSE BELIEVING IN HIS NAME, I.E., TRUSTING IN HIS ATONING SACRIFICE FOR SINS, ARE BORN OF GOD AS CHILDREN OF GOD INTO AN ETERNAL LIFE FAMILIAL RELATIONSHIP WITH HIM; THEN ALL MEN THROUGHOUT HISTORY HAVE HAD PROVISION MADE FOR AND BEEN GIVEN THE OPPORTUNITY TO BELIEVE IN HIS NAME UNTO ETERNAL LIFE - CORROBORATING THE DOCTRINE OF UNLIMITED ATONEMENT

(Jn 1:1 YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. (Jn 1:2 YLT) He [lit., This One] was in [the] beginning with God; (Jn 1:3 NAS) All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being. (Jn 1:4 NAS) In Him was life, and the Life was the Light of men. (Jn 1:5 NKJV) And the Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it. (Jn 1:6 YLT) There came [into being, (cf. NASB)] a man - having been sent from God - whose name is John. (Jn 1:7 NKJV) This man came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all through Him [the Light of men, the Life, the Word, (Jn 1:1-4)] might believe, (Jn 1:8 YLT) that one was not the Light, but - that he might testify about the Light. (Jn 1:9 NIV) The true Light that gives light to every man was coming into the world; (Jn 1:10 YLT) in the world He was, and the world through Him was made, and the world did not know Him: (Jn 1:11 NKJV) He came to His own [neuter, plural, i.e., He came to all things of His own, being Creator = all things of the world, both inanimate and animate, including mankind], and His own [mascline, plural = those animate objects who have the capacity to receive (i.e., believe in) Him, i.e., His own particular people, specifically the people of Israel] did not receive Him. (Jn 1:12 YLT) But as many [individuals of His own creation, (Jn 1:11a)] as did receive Him to them He gave authority to become sons [lit., children] of God - to those believing in His name:" =

Since the Word - Eternal, Creator, God, the Life, (Jn 1:1-3); the true Light from the beginning of time and Creation has been revealing the truth about Himself so that men might know Him and through faith in Him have eternal life; and since the Word became flesh and came into the world with human form so that men might believe in Him as testified to by John the Baptist and those who follow in John's footsteps, (Jn 1:4-9); and since as many of mankind as do receive Him - to those believing in His name; i.e., trusting in His atoning sacrifice for sins, are born of God as children of God into an eternal life familial relationship with Him, (Jn 1:12); then all men throughout history have had provision made for and been given the opportunity to believe in His name unto eternal life - corroborating the doctrine of unlimited atonement.

C) (Jn 1:12) TO RECEIVE THE WORD, THE LIFE (ETERNAL & TEMPORAL), THE LIGHT OF MEN, CREATOR OF ALL THINGS - GOD - IS TO BELIEVE IN HIS NAME, I.E., HIS CAPACITY, WILLINGNESS AND TRUSTWORTHINESS THROUGH HIS ATONING SACRIFICE FOR SINS TO PROVIDE AN ETERNAL LIFE FAMILIAL RELATIONSHIP WITH HIM AT THE MOMENT ONE BELIEVES RESULTING IN BECOMING A BORN OF GOD CHILD OF GOD WHOM GOD GAVE AUTHORITY TO BECOME A CHILD OF GOD

(Jn 1:1 YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. (Jn 1:2 YLT) He [lit., This One] was in [the] beginning with God; (Jn 1:3 NAS) All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being. (Jn 1:4 NAS) In Him was life, and the Life was the Light of men. (Jn 1:5 NKJV) And the Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it. (Jn 1:6 YLT) There came [into being, (cf. NASB)] a man - having been sent from God - whose name is John. (Jn 1:7 NKJV) This man came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all through Him [the Light of men, the Life, the Word, (Jn 1:1-4)] might believe, (Jn 1:8 YLT) that one was not the Light, but - that he might testify about the Light. (Jn 1:9 NIV) The true Light that gives light to every man was coming into the world; (Jn 1:10 YLT) in the world He was, and the world through Him was made, and the world did not know Him: (Jn 1:11 NKJV) He came to His own [neuter, plural, i.e., He came to all things of His own, being Creator = all things of the world, both inanimate and animate, including mankind], and His own [mascline, plural = those animate objects who have the capacity to receive (i.e., believe in) Him, i.e., His own particular people, specifically the people of Israel] did not receive Him.. (Jn 1:12 YLT) But as many [individuals of His own creation, (Jn 1:11a)] as did receive Him to them He gave authority to become sons [lit., children] of God - to those believing in His name:" =

The expression "to believe in His name" which is stipulated in Jn 1:12 as receiving Him, means to trust in the name - the reputation, i.e., the capacity, willingness and trustworthiness of the Word the Life (temporal & eternal), the Light of men, Creator of all things - God, to provide one with an eternal life familial relationship with God at the moment one believes resulting in becoming a born of God child of God whom God gave authority to become a child of God.

D) (Jn 1:12) BEFORE ONE BELIEVES IN THE NAME OF THE WORD, ONE IS NOT A CHILD OF GOD, I.E., NOT IN THE FAMILY OF GOD

(Jn 1:11 NKJV) "He came to His own [neuter, plural, i.e., He came to all things of His own, being Creator = all things of the world, both inanimate and animate, including mankind], and His own [mascline, plural = those animate objects who have the capacity to receive (i.e., believe in) Him, i.e., His own particular people, specifically the people of Israel] did not receive Him. (Jn 1:12 YLT) But as many [individuals of His own creation, (Jn 1:11a)] as did receive Him to them He gave authority to become sons [lit., children] of God - to those believing in His name:" =

What is implied here is that before one believes in the name of the Word, one is not born of God as a child of God, i.e., not in the family of God. All men have been created by God, (Jn 1:3), and by dint of that are His creation; but not all men are part of the eternal family of God, His children by being born again, i.e., born of God.

X) [Jn 1:13]:

(Jn 1:13 YLT) "who - not of blood nor of a will of flesh, nor of a will of man but - of God were begotten [born]."

A) (Jn 1:13) BUT AS MANY OF HIS OWN CREATION AS DID RECEIVE HIM - TO THE ONES BELIEVING IN HIS NAME, I.E. TRUSTING IN HIS CAPACITY, WILLINGNESS AND TRUSTWORTHINESSS TO PROVIDE HIS ATONNG SACRIFICE FOR SINS - WERE BORN NOT OF MIXING OF BLOODLINES THROUGH PROCREATION, NOR OF A WILL OF AN INDIVIDUAL TO HAVE SEXUAL INTERCOURSE, NOR OF A WILL OF A MAN TO DECIDE TO HAVE CHILDREN, I.E., DESCENDANTS, (HEIRS); BUT BORN OF GOD AS CHILDREN OF GOD TO WHOM GOD GAVE AUTHORITY TO BECOME CHILDREN OF GOD RESULTING IN AN ETERNAL LIFE FAMILIAL RELATIONSHIP WITH HIM

(Jn 1:1 YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. (Jn 1:2 YLT) He [lit., This One] was in [the] beginning with God; (Jn 1:3 NAS) All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being. (Jn 1:4 NAS) In Him was life, and the Life was the Light of men. (Jn 1:5 NKJV) And the Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it. (Jn 1:6 YLT) There came [into being, (cf. NASB)] a man - having been sent from God - whose name is John. (Jn 1:7 NKJV) This man came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all through Him [the Light of men, the Life, the Word, (Jn 1:1-4)] might believe, (Jn 1:8 YLT) that one was not the Light, but - that he might testify about the Light. (Jn 1:9 NIV) The true Light that gives light to every man was coming into the world; (Jn 1:10 YLT) in the world He was, and the world through Him was made, and the world did not know Him: (Jn 1:11 NKJV) He came to His own [neuter, plural, i.e., He came to all things of His own, being Creator = all things of the world, both inanimate and animate, including mankind], and His own [mascline, plural = those animate objects who have the capacity to receive (i.e., believe in) Him, i.e., His own particular people, specifically the people of Israel] did not receive Him. (Jn 1:12 YLT) But as many [individuals of His own creation, (Jn 1:11a)] as did receive Him to them He gave authority to become sons [lit., children] of God - to those believing in His name: (Jn 1:13 YLT) who - not of blood nor of a will of flesh, nor of a will of man but - of God were begotten [born]." =

(Jn 1:13 Greek) "Hoi .ouk ex haimatOn .oude ek thelEmatos sarkos

............................"who not .of .bloods [pl].nor ..of .will ............of flesh [of humans]

oude ek thelEmatos andros .all' .ek Theou egennEthEsan"

nor ..of .will .............of man but .of .God ...were born [aorist tense ]."

Verse 12 declares, "As many [individuals of His own creation] as did receive [the Word, Jesus Christ, (vv. 16-17), (aorist = in a completed action moment)], to them He gave [aorist = in a completed action moment] the authority to become children of God, [aorist infinitive = in a completed action moment] - to those believing in His name, [dative, present participle = a noun = a moment of faith alone in Christ alone to become the believing ones]! Then verse 13 continues to convey what has occurred to the "as many [individuals of His own creation] as did receive Him... to those believing in His name," of Jn 1:12. These individuals are stipulated in Jn 1:13 as those "who - not of blood, nor of a will of flesh, nor of a will of man but - of God were begotten, [born]."

In view of the message that verses 12 and 13 together convey, the two verses are best read together and conveyed as follows, 'But as many as did receive Him - to the ones believing in His name, i.e., trusting in His capacity, willingness and trustworthiness to provide Himself as an atoning sacrifice for sins - were born not of the mixing of bloodlines via procreation, nor of a will of an individual to have sexual intercourse, nor of a will of a man to decide to have children, i.e., descendants (heirs), but were born of God to whom He gave authority to become children of God - resulting in an eternal life familial relationship with God. So those individuals who receive Him when they believe in His name, i.e., trust in His capacity, willingness and trustworthiness to provide Himself as atoning sacrifice for sins, are born of God into an eternal life familial relationship with God forever because eternal life and being a child of God is 'forever' by definition. Hence when an individual expresses a moment of faith in the name of the Word he becomes born of God, i.e., born again or regenerated.

B) (Jn 1:13) TO BECOME BORN OF GOD AS CHILDREN OF GOD TO WHOM GOD GAVE AUTHORITY TO BECOME CHILDREN OF GOD RESULTING IN AN ETERNALLY SECURE ETERNAL LIFE FAMILIAL RELATIONSHIP WITH GOD IS NOT BY THE MIXING OF BLOODLINES, NOR BY A WILL OF THE FLESH TO HAVE SEXUAL INTERCOURSE, NOR BY A WILL OF A MAN TO DECIDE TO HAVE DESCENDANT CHILDREN, BUT IT IS EXCLUSIVELY VIA BEING BORN OF GOD IN THE SPIRITUAL NOT THE NATURAL REALM

(Jn 1:1 YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. (Jn 1:2 YLT) He [lit., This One] was in [the] beginning with God; (Jn 1:3 NAS) All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being. (Jn 1:4 NAS) In Him was life, and the Life was the Light of men. (Jn 1:5 NKJV) And the Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it. (Jn 1:6 YLT) There came [into being, (cf. NASB)] a man - having been sent from God - whose name is John. (Jn 1:7 NKJV) This man came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all through Him [the Light of men, the Life, the Word, (Jn 1:1-4)] might believe, (Jn 1:8 YLT) that one was not the Light, but - that he might testify about the Light. (Jn 1:9 NIV) The true Light that gives light to every man was coming into the world; (Jn 1:10 YLT) in the world He was, and the world through Him was made, and the world did not know Him: (Jn 1:11 NKJV) He came to His own [neuter, plural, i.e., He came to all things of His own, being Creator = all things of the world, both inanimate and animate, including mankind], and His own [mascline, plural = those animate objects who have the capacity to receive (i.e., believe in) Him, i.e., His own particular people, specifically the people of Israel] did not receive Him. (Jn 1:12 YLT) But as many [individuals of His own creation, (Jn 1:11a)] as did receive Him to them He gave authority to become sons [lit., children] of God - to those believing in His name: (Jn 1:13 YLT) who - not of blood [lit., bloods] nor of a will of flesh, nor of a will of man but - of God were begotten [born]." =

The Greek phrase "Hoi ouk ex haimatOn," lit., who [were born, 1:13d] not of bloods, [plural], and rendered "who [were born, 1:13d] - not of blood" in the YLT refers to not being born by natural birth, i.e., of the physical or natural world wherein physical births occur of children who are a product of the physical traits of their ancestors - i.e., their bloodlines. It conveys the concept that those who have become children of God via believing in the name of the Word have been born not of physical procreation - the mingling of bloodlines, ("haimatOn" = bloods); nor via "a will of flesh," i.e., a decision by individuals to have sexual relations which produces children; nor "ek thelEmatos andros" = "out of a will of man [to decide to produce descendants, (heirs)]," (YLT) - the Greek word "andros meaning "male" or "man" as opposed to "anthropos" which has the generic meaning of human being, male and female.

So the three phrases which cover the stages of physical procreation, of being physically born, are stipulated as excluded from becoming a child of God:

1) The phrase rendered in the YLT, "who not of blood [lit., bloods]....were born," in Jn 1:13a which refers to the forming of the child in the womb through the mixing of the parents' "haimatOn" = "bloods."

2) The second phrase "nor of a will of flesh.." which refers to sexual union which precedes the "mixing of bloods."

3) And the third phrase "nor of a will of man," which refers to the will - the decision - of the husband to have children, i.e., descendants (heirs) - the tradition of masculine authority in the family in the ancient societies as well as many societies of today of the decision of a man to have children, i.e., descendants (heirs) which precedes the sexual union and the forming of the child in the womb.

So to become an eternally secure child of God unto an eternal life familial relationship with God is exclusively via becoming born of God in the spiritual realm as opposed to anything to do with the natural world as a result of believing in the name of the Light of Men, the Life, the Word, Jesus Christ, (vv. 16-17).

C) (Jn 1:13) REGENERATION DOES NOT PRECEDE SAVING FAITH, SAVING FAITH COMES FIRST AND RESULTS IN REGENERATION - BEING BORN OF GOD

(Jn 1:1 YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. (Jn 1:2 YLT) He [lit., This One] was in [the] beginning with God; (Jn 1:3 NAS) All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being. (Jn 1:4 NAS) In Him was life, and the Life was the Light of men. (Jn 1:5 NKJV) And the Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it. (Jn 1:6 YLT) There came [into being, (cf. NASB)] a man - having been sent from God - whose name is John. (Jn 1:7 NKJV) This man came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all through Him [the Light of men, the Life, the Word, (Jn 1:1-4)] might believe, (Jn 1:8 YLT) that one was not the Light, but - that he might testify about the Light. (Jn 1:9 NIV) The true Light that gives light to every man was coming into the world; (Jn 1:10 YLT) in the world He was, and the world through Him was made, and the world did not know Him: (Jn 1:11 NKJV) He came to His own [neuter, plural, i.e., He came to all things of His own, being Creator = all things of the world, both inanimate and animate, including mankind], and His own [mascline, plural = those animate objects who have the capacity to receive (i.e., believe in) Him, i.e., His own particular people, specifically the people of Israel] did not receive Him. (Jn 1:12 YLT) But as many [individuals of His own creation, (Jn 1:11a)] as did receive Him to them He gave authority to become sons [lit., children] of God - to those believing in His name: (Jn 1:13 YLT) who - not of blood nor of a will of flesh, nor of a will of man but - of God were begotten [born]." =

Notice that those that insist that regeneration precedes saving faith find themselves refuted when observing the context of Jn 1:12-13 which portrays in a completed action moment of faith alone in the name of the Word, Jesus Christ alone, a completed action - hence eternally secure reception of becoming born of God as a child of God, unto an eternal life familial relationship with God:

Verse 12 declares, "As many [individuals of His own creation] as did receive [the Word, Jesus Christ, (aorist = in a completed action moment)], to them He gave [aorist = in a completed action moment] the authority to become children of God, [aorist infinitive = in a completed action moment] - to those believing in His name, [dative, present participle = a noun = a moment of faith alone in Christ alone to become the believing ones]! Then verse 13 continues to convey what has occurred to the "as many [individuals of His own creation] as did receive Him... to those believing in His name," of Jn 1:12. These individuals are stipulated in Jn 1:13 as those "who - not of blood, nor of a will of flesh, nor of a will of man but - of God were begotten, [born]."

In view of the message verses 12 and 13 together convey, the two verses read best together and as follows, 'But as many as did receive Him - to the ones believing in His name - were born not of the mixing of bloodlines via procreation, nor of a will of an individual to have sexual intercourse, nor of a will of a man to decide to have children, i.e., descendants (heirs), but were born of God as children of God to whom He gave authority to become children of God - resulting in an eternal life familial relationship with God. These individuals when they believed in His name were born of God hence they evidently were born unto an eternal life familial relationship with God forever because eternal life and being a child of God is 'forever' by definition. Hence when an individual expresses a moment of faith in the name of the Word he becomes born of God, i.e., born again or regenerated. The faith comes first resulting in being regenerated. It is not the other way around as some maintain.

One can hardly become born of God then believe in order to become a child of God. To be born of God is to be a child of God by definition! The image itself would be absurd if one insisted that one is born of God when one believes but not yet a child of God!

1) [Compare 1 Jn 5:1]:

(1 Jn 5:1 NASB) "Whoever believes that Jesus is the Christ is born of God, and whoever loves the Father loves the child born of Him."

Notice that an expression of faith that Jesus is the Christ comes before becoming born of God.

2) [Compare Acts 16:31]:

(Acts 16:31 NASB) "They said, "Believe in the Lord Jesus, and you will be saved, you and your household."

Since being saved unto eternal life is in view - the concern of the Philippian jailer for his eternal welfare, not just his temporal salvation, for he had lost none of his prisoners, so the Roman authority would not execute him, (vv. 26-29); and since Paul and Silas told the Philippian jailer that he must "Believe in the Lord Jesus," in order to be saved unto eternal life; and since the possession of eternal life would be tantamount to having become an eternal child of God, i.e., regenerated - the two go together because a regenerated child of God could hardly be lacking possession of eternal life before he believes and receives eternal life; then regeneration as well as salvation unto eternal life are both and simultaneously brought about by believing in the Lord Jesus for both and more. So this Acts 16:31 cannot truthfully be reversed in the order that it appears so that it reads one must be saved and then one will believe in the LORD Jesus!

XI) [Jn 1:14]:

(Jn 1:14 NKJV) "And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the [One and only from] the Father, full of grace and truth."

A) (Jn 1:14) THE WORD - ETERNAL, CREATOR, THE LIFE, THE LIGHT OF MEN - GOD ADDED TO HIS ESSENCE PERFECT HUMANITY AND DWELT AMONG MEN SO THAT ALL MEN THROUGHOUT HISTORY, INCLUDING THE FUTURE THROUGH WITNESS ACCOUNTS BEGINNING WITH JOHN THE BAPTIST MIGHT HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO RECOGNIZE, KNOW AND BELIEVE IN HIM UNTO AN ETERNAL LIFE RELATIONSHIP WITH GOD

(Jn 1:1 YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. (Jn 1:2 YLT) He [lit., This One] was in [the] beginning with God; (Jn 1:3 NAS) All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being. (Jn 1:4 NAS) In Him was life, and the Life was the Light of men. (Jn 1:5 NKJV) And the Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it. (Jn 1:6 YLT) There came [into being, (cf. NASB)] a man - having been sent from God - whose name is John. (Jn 1:7 NKJV) This man came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all through Him [the Light of men, the Life, the Word, (Jn 1:1-4)] might believe, (Jn 1:8 YLT) that one was not the Light, but - that he might testify about the Light. (Jn 1:9 NIV) The true Light that gives light to every man was coming into the world; (Jn 1:10 YLT) in the world He was, and the world through Him was made, and the world did not know Him: (Jn 1:11 NKJV) He came to His own [neuter, plural, i.e., He came to all things of His own, being Creator = all things of the world, both inanimate and animate, including mankind], and His own [mascline, plural = those animate objects who have the capacity to receive (i.e., believe in) Him, i.e., His own particular people, specifically the people of Israel] did not receive Him. (Jn 1:12 YLT) But as many [individuals of His own creation, (Jn 1:11a)] as did receive Him to them He gave authority to become sons [lit., children] of God - to those believing in His name: (Jn 1:13 YLT) who - not of blood nor of a will of flesh, nor of a will of man but - of God were begotten [born]. (Jn 1:14 NKJV) And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the [One and only from] the Father, full of grace and truth." =

(Jn 1:14 Greek) "Kai .hO Logos sarx .egeneto kai .eskenOsen ..en .........hEmin

............................"And the Word flesh became and tabernacled among .us

"sarx" = flesh, human, mortal nature, physical life.

kai .etheasametha tEn doxan autou doxan .hOs monogenous ........para .patros"

and we beheld ......the .glory ..His ....glory ..as ....of a one and only with. Father"

"para" = beside, by, with, at, from

pleres charitos .kai .alEtheias."

full ....of grace .and truth."

1) [Compare Jn 1:14 KJV]:

(Jn 1:14 KJV) "And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father), full of grace and truth."

The verb "was made" in the phrase "And the Word was made flesh" is the rendering by the King James Version translators for the Greek verb "egeneto" in Jn 1:14. With this rendering, the verse could be mistakenly interpreted to mean that the Word was created in the flesh beginning His existence as human; or that the Word entered / indwelt / filled a man; or that God's words were created into flesh to represent Him, despite the fact that it has already been stipulated, "In the beginning [of creation] was the Word, and the Word was with God and the Word was God," (Jn 1:1). But "egeneto" is the aorist tense form of the Greek infinitive verb, ginomai, which means, in the context of Jn 1:14, to come into being, or to become. So it is best rendered "[The Word] became [flesh]"not '[The Word] was made [flesh]' in Jn 1:14. Note that the Greek word "sarx" which literally means "flesh," is not referring to "sinful flesh in the Greek phrase "kao hO Logos sarx egeneto" rendered "and the Word became flesh" in the NKJV. It refers to perfect sinless Humanity, (as was originally created by the Word, {Jn 1:3}), becoming an essence of the Word because of Who He is: perfect, sinless, eternal, Creator, God, the Life, the Light of men. This implies that the Word, did not previously have a permanent essence of Humanity. Furthermore, the absence of the definite article with "sarx" stresses the quality of Humanity to be added to the Word as opposed to being changed/transformed from Creator, eternal God to finite, created man. So the Word becoming flesh is not the same as a caterpillar becoming, i.e., being transformed into a butterfly where it no longer is a caterpillar. Since God is eternal, and the Word is God, then the Word cannot cease to exist as God. So the verb form "egeneto" conveys the concept that the Word became flesh in the sense of newly adding the quality of Humanity to Himself. For example, just as an individual can become a police officer as an additional expression of his being without losing being a civilian wherein sometimes he expresses himself as a civilian (off duty) and at other times as an officer of the Law (on duty); so the Word became flesh (Human), as an additional expression of His being without losing being eternal, uncreated, preexistent God wherein at times He chooses to express Himself in His finite Humanity and at other times as eternal, uncreated, preexistent God.

2) [Compare Jn 1:4, 6-11]:

(Jn 1:4 NAS) "In Him was life, and the Life was the Light of men...

(Jn 1:6 YLT) There came [into being, (cf. NASB)] a man - having been sent from God - whose name is John.

(Jn 1:7 NKJV) This man came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all through Him [the Light of men, the Life, the Word, (Jn 1:1-4)] might believe,

(Jn 1:8 YLT) that one was not the Light, but - that he might testify about the Light.

Jn 1:9 NIV) The true Light that gives light to every man was coming into the world;

(Jn 1:10 YLT) in the world He was, and the world through Him was made, and the world did not know Him:

(Jn 1:11 NKJV) He came to His own [neuter, plural, i.e., He came to all things of His own, being Creator = all things of the world, both inanimate and animate, including mankind], and His own [mascline, plural = those animate objects who have the capacity to receive (i.e., believe in) Him, i.e., His own particular people, specifically the people of Israel] did not receive Him."

Just as verse 4 indicates that the Word was the Light of men implying that the Word was actively providing revelation to mankind about Himself; and just as verse 9 indicates that the true Light that gives light to every man was coming into the world; and just as verse 10 stipulates that the Word was in the world; and just as verse 11 indicates that the Word came into the world to His own [neuter, plural, i.e., He came to all things of His own, being Creator = all things of the world, both inanimate and animate, including mankind], and His own [mascline, plural = those animate objects who have the capacity to receive (i.e., believe in) Him, i.e., His own particular people, specifically the people of Israel] did not receive Him indicating that He was Human, to be corroborated as one of the Israelite people; so verse 14 stipulates that the Word became flesh, i.e., added Perfect Humanity to His essence; and in this manner came into the world at the time of John the Baptist, (Jn 1:6-8), so that He indeed was able to be perceived as the Light of men, and be received by the world that all men throughout history, including the future through witness accounts beginning with John the Baptist might believe in Him in order to have an eternal life relationship with God. So the Word, having added Perfect Humanity to His essence, made His dwelling "among us," literally, "tented" or "tabernacled" among all mankind, primarily exercising His essence of finite created Humanity yet at the same time being infinite uncreated, preexistent eternal God.

B) (Jn 1:14) AUTHOR JOHN AND OTHERS EXPERIENCED SEEING THE GLORY OF GOD IN THE WORD IN HIS PERFECT HUMANITY - THE ONE AND ONLY WHO CAME FROM THE FATHER

(Jn 1:1 YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God... (Jn 1:14 NKJV) And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the [One and only from] the Father, full of grace and truth." =

(Jn 1:14 Greek) "Kai .hO Logos sarx .egeneto kai .eskenOsen ..en .........hEmin

............................"And the Word flesh became and tabernacled among .us

"sarx" = flesh, human, mortal nature, physical life.

kai .etheasametha tEn doxan autou doxan .hOs monogenous ........para .patros"

and we beheld ......the .glory ..His ....glory ..as ....of a one and only with. Father"

"para" = beside, by, with, at, from

pleres charitos .kai .alEtheias."

full ....of grace .and truth."

Since the Word is God, (Jn 1:1), then the glory of the Word, Who in His Humanity is stipulated as having come from the Father, is the glory of God - the expression of the honor, power & holiness of God. This glory was able to be seen by man evidently as a result of the Word in His Perfect Humanity as He made His dwelling among mankind in history beginning at the time of John the Baptist. Author John expresses this seeing of the glory of God in the Word as a personal experience with others. Note that the Word in His Diety has always possessed the glory of God, being God - the Son of God, as previously stipulated in Jn 1:1c.

C) (Jn 1:14) THE WORD BECAME FLESH, I.E., ADDED TO HIMSELF PERFECT HUMANITY AND IN THAT HUMANITY HE IS ONE AND ONLY FROM THE FATHER IMPLYING A UNIQUE SONSHIP WITH THE FATHER

(Jn 1:14 NKJV) "And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the [One and only from] the Father, full of grace and truth." =

kai .etheasametha tEn doxan autou doxan .hOs monogenous ........para .patros"

and we beheld ......the .glory ..His ....glory ..as ....of a one and only with. Father" =

The Greek word "monogenous" in Jn 1:14 means "unique," or "One and only." It is a genetive, singular, masculine adjective consisting of the Greek prefix "mono" = "one" and "genous" from the Greek verb infinitive "ginomai" which means to cause to be. The stem of this word "monogenous" is "gEne" = "One Who is." So "monogenous" = the only one who is, i.e., the "One and only." Notice: only one "n" occurs in the verb "ginomai" and only one "n" occurs in the form of this verb which the Apostle John uses in this verse: "genous;" hence "monogenous" is not derived from the Greek verb "gennao" - to procreate, beget. Notice the two "n"'s in this verb. One verb, meaning to cause to be, (unique), has one "n" and the other, meaning to beget has two. So the word "monogenous" means "the only One Who is" or "the unique One."

[The Complete Biblical Library, NT Greek-English Dictionary, Lambda-Omicron, World Library Press, Springfield, Mo, Ralph W Harris, Exec. Editor, 1991, p. 218]:

"In the Fourth Century, a heresy known as Arianism mistakenly saw monogenEs as a derivation related to the word gennaO (1074), which means 'to beget, to generate, or to give birth.' This inappropriate connection was used to support the false doctrine that Jesus was created by God and was not eternal with Him."

[BKC, cont., p. 273]:

"[The Word] is the Son of God in a sense totally different from a human who believes and becomes a child of God..... [a] Sonship [which] is unique for He is eternal and is of the same essence as the Father."

[Expositor's, Vol. 9, Zondervan, Grand Rapids, Mich, 1981, Frank E Gaebelein, Gen. Editor, p. 33 ]:

"The "one and only Son" represents the Greek monogenEs, which is derived from genos, which means "kind" or "species." It means "literally 'one of a kind,' 'only,' 'unique' (unicus), not 'only-begotten.' ... The emphasis is on the thought that, as the 'only' Son of God, He has no equal and is able fully to reveal the Father"... God's personal revelation of Himself in Christ has no parallel elsewhere, nor has it ever been repeated.

D) (Jn 1:14) BOTH THE FATHER AND THE WORD - THE SON OF GOD ARE IN VIEW AS INDIVIDUAL PERSONALITIES, I.E., MODES OF EXPRESSION OF GOD. THE WORD BECAME FLESH, I.E., ADDED PERFECT HUMANITY TO HIS ESSENCE WHICH CAME FROM THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE FATHER

(Jn 1:1 YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. (Jn 1:2 YLT) He [lit., This One] was in [the] beginning with God; (Jn 1:3 NAS) All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being. (Jn 1:4 NAS) In Him was life, and the Life was the Light of men. (Jn 1:5 NKJV) And the Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it. ((Jn 1:6 YLT) There came [into being, (cf. NASB)] a man - having been sent from God - whose name is John. (Jn 1:7 NKJV) This man came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all through Him [the Light of men, the Life, the Word, (Jn 1:1-4)] might believe, (Jn 1:8 YLT) that one was not the Light, but - that he might testify about the Light. (Jn 1:9 NIV) The true Light that gives light to every man was coming into the world; (Jn 1:10 YLT) in the world He was, and the world through Him was made, and the world did not know Him: (Jn 1:11 NKJV) He came to His own [neuter, plural, i.e., He came to all things of His own, being Creator = all things of the world, both inanimate and animate, including mankind], and His own [mascline, plural = those animate objects who have the capacity to receive (i.e., believe in) Him, i.e., His own particular people, specifically the people of Israel] did not receive Him. (Jn 1:12 YLT) But as many [individuals of His own creation, (Jn 1:11a)] as did receive Him to them He gave authority to become sons [lit., children] of God - to those believing in His name: (Jn 1:13 YLT) who - not of blood [lit., bloods] nor of a will of flesh, nor of a will of man but - of God were begotten [born]. (Jn 1:14 NKJV) And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the [One and only from] the Father, full of grace and truth." =

So far in John chapter one verses 1-14, we have two Personalities, two modes of expression of God in view. Verse one has the Word, Who was with God and was God: two Persons Who are God. More is said of the Word in verses 1-14: that all things came into being through Him, (v. 3); that in Him was Life (temporal and eternal), and that the Life (the Word) was the Light - the illumination / revelation of truth about God to all men, (vv. 4, 9); that through Him all might believe to receive an eternal life relationship with God, (vv. 7, 12); that the Word became flesh and dwelt among men and manifested the glory of God to men as One and only from the Father, full of grace and truth, (v. 14). The word "Father" in verse 14 is used to portray the mode of expression - the Personality of God, the glory of Whom was beheld by author John and others in the Word in His Perfect Humanity. Hence one of the Persons of God is described as "patros" rendered "Father" in the NKJV, i.e., God the Father which leaves the Word as God the Son. Hence references in the text to "God" can be determined to be God the Father. Note that the Greek word "patros" in Jn 1:14 is without the definite article which conveys an intimacy, a familiarity on the part of John and those with him as if they are His children, which believers are, (Jn 1:12-13).

So the stipulation in verse 14 "The Word... Who came from the Father" indicates that the Word became flesh, i.e., added to Himself Perfect Humanity from the Father, i.e., under the sovereignty and auspices of the Father. Evidently there is a line of authority amongst the Personalities of God.

E) (Jn 1:14) THE WORD IS FULL OF GRACE - THE GRACE OF SALVATION AND THE WHOLE OF THE GRACE OF GOD, BECAUSE HE IS GOD - THE SON OF GOD

(Jn 1:1 YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. (Jn 1:2 YLT) He [lit., This One] was in [the] beginning with God; (Jn 1:3 NAS) All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being. (Jn 1:4 NAS) In Him was life, and the Life was the Light of men. (Jn 1:5 NKJV) And the Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it. (Jn 1:6 YLT) There came [into being, (cf. NASB)] a man - having been sent from God - whose name is John. (Jn 1:7 NKJV) This man came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all through Him [the Light of men, the Life, the Word, (Jn 1:1-4)] might believe, (Jn 1:8 YLT) that one was not the Light, but - that he might testify about the Light. (Jn 1:9 NIV) The true Light that gives light to every man was coming into the world; (Jn 1:10 YLT) in the world He was, and the world through Him was made, and the world did not know Him: (Jn 1:11 NKJV) He came to His own [neuter, plural, i.e., He came to all things of His own, being Creator = all things of the world, both inanimate and animate, including mankind], and His own [mascline, plural = those animate objects who have the capacity to receive (i.e., believe in) Him, i.e., His own particular people, specifically the people of Israel] did not receive Him. (Jn 1:12 YLT) But as many [individuals of His own creation, (Jn 1:11a)] as did receive Him to them He gave authority to become sons [lit., children] of God - to those believing in His name: (Jn 1:13 YLT) who - not of blood [lit., bloods] nor of a will of flesh, nor of a will of man but - of God were begotten [born]. (Jn 1:14 NKJV) And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the [One and only from] the Father, full of grace and truth." =

"Kai .ek .......tou plErOmatos autou hEmeis pantes elabomen kai ...charin

"And out of .the fullness.........His ....we ........all .......received ..even..grace

anti ..............charitos"

in place of..grace"

Jn 1:14 indicates that the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we - those who observed Him in His Perfect Humanity, beheld His glory as that Perfect Human, the glory as of the One and only from Father God, full of grace and truth. The word grace is defined as unmerited favor, or undeserved blessing. Grace is the principle upon which life from God comes - both temporal and eternal; and the Word is God Who gave life to all living beings, (Jn 1:1-4). Furthermore, there is nothing of merit that one has an opportunity to express in order to be born in temporal or eternal life. Grace therefore is the principle by which the Word created and sustains all things, and provides an eternal life familial relationship with God. Hence the Word, Who is Creator of all things, (Jn 1:3), is full of grace. He is the Life, (Jn 1:4), the source of eternal life; and the Light of men Who from the beginning of time and Creation has and continues to graciously illuminate the world as to Who God is, of (His) creation and life, despite being rejected by men who deliberately have remained in darkness - alienated and at enmity with God, (Jn 1:4-5, 9-10). He has continuously declared to men that He is, because He has made Himself to be, the sole Means by which an individual can be born of God as a child of God into an eternal life familial relationship with God by grace through a moment of faith alone in His name alone, (Jn 1:12-13). Hence the mankind is characterized as without merit, deserving nothing but condemnation; yet verses 12 and 13 portray the grace of God at work: the Word having become flesh amongst undeserving mankind, making available - evidently through an atoning sacrifice for the sins of the whole world - becoming born of God, children of God, unto eternal life by receiving the Word, the Life, the Light of men by grace through a moment of faith alone in the name of the Word alone. This is grand evidence that the Word was indeed full of grace.

F) (Jn 1:14) THE WORD, CREATOR OF ALL THINGS, GOD - BECAME FLESH, I.E., ADDED TO HIMSELF PERFECT HUMANITY AND CAME INTO THE WORLD FULL OF TRUTH: THE TRUTH OF WHO GOD IS, OF (HIS) CREATION AND LIFE, AND THE TRUTH THAT HE IS, BECAUSE HE HAS MADE HIMSELF TO BE, THE SOLE MEANS BY WHICH AN INDIVIDUAL CAN BE BORN OF GOD AS A CHILD OF GOD UNTO AN ETERNAL LIFE FAMILIAL RELATIONSHIP WITH GOD BY GRACE THROUGH A MOMENT OF FAITH ALONE IN HIS NAME ALONE

(Jn 1:1 YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. (Jn 1:2 YLT) He [lit., This One] was in [the] beginning with God; (Jn 1:3 NAS) All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being. (Jn 1:4 NAS) In Him was life, and the Life was the Light of men. (Jn 1:5 NKJV) And the Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it. (Jn 1:6 YLT) There came [into being, (cf. NASB)] a man - having been sent from God - whose name is John. (Jn 1:7 NKJV) This man came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all through Him [the Light of men, the Life, the Word, (Jn 1:1-4)] might believe, (Jn 1:8 YLT) that one was not the Light, but - that he might testify about the Light. (Jn 1:9 NIV) The true Light that gives light to every man was coming into the world; (Jn 1:10 YLT) in the world He was, and the world through Him was made, and the world did not know Him: (Jn 1:11 NKJV) He came to His own [neuter, plural, i.e., He came to all things of His own, being Creator = all things of the world, both inanimate and animate, including mankind], and His own [mascline, plural = those animate objects who have the capacity to receive (i.e., believe in) Him, i.e., His own particular people, specifically the people of Israel] did not receive Him. (Jn 1:12 YLT) But as many [individuals of His own creation, (Jn 1:11a)] as did receive Him to them He gave authority to become sons [lit., children] of God - to those believing in His name: (Jn 1:13 YLT) who - not of blood [lit., bloods] nor of a will of flesh, nor of a will of man but - of God were begotten [born]. (Jn 1:14 NKJV) And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the [One and only from] the Father, full of grace and truth." =

From verses 1-3, it is evident that the Word is God and Creator Who has created all things which includes truth, hence the Word is full of truth. And from verses 1-13 it is evident that the Word Who is God is the Life, (eternal and temporal). He was from the beginning of time and Creation and continues to be the Light of men that gives light (the truth of God) to every man, (Jn 1:9); Who from the beginning of time and Creation has and continues to graciously illuminate the world as to the truth of Who God is, despite being rejected by men who deliberately have remained in darkness - alienated and at enmity with God, (Jn 1:5). He has continuously declared to men that He is, because He has made Himself to be, the sole Means by which an individual can be born of God as a child of God into an eternal life familial relationship with God by grace through a moment of faith alone in His name alone, (Jn 1:12-13).

XII) [Jn 1:15]:

(Jn 1:15 YLT) '''John [lit., witnesses] concerning Him, and [lit., cried out], saying, "This was He of Whom I said, 'He who after me is coming, has come before me, for He was before me' " '''

A) (Jn 1:15) JOHN THE BAPTIST, CONTINUING TO BEAR WITNESS TO THE LIFE, THE LIGHT OF MEN, THE WORD, WHO WAS TO COME INTO THE WORLD, SAID;

"THIS WAS HE OF WHOM I SAID, 'HE WHO AFTER ME IS COMING

(REFERRING TO THE WORD'S COMING INTO THE WORD, HAVING ADDED TO HIMSELF PERFECT HUMANITY AND COMING IN THAT HUMANITY AT THE TIME OF JOHN)

HAS COME BEFORE ME

(REFERRING TO THE WORD'S PRESENCE IN THE WORLD AT THE BEGINNING OF TIME AND CRATION - LONG BEFORE HE ADDED TO HIMSELF PERFECT HUMANITY)

FOR HE WAS BEFORE ME

(REFERRING TO HIS ETERNAL EXISTENCE AS GOD)' "

(Jn 1:1 YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. (Jn 1:2 YLT) He [lit., This One] was in [the] beginning with God; (Jn 1:3 NAS) All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being. (Jn 1:4 NAS) In Him was life, and the Life was the Light of men. (Jn 1:5 NKJV) And the Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it. (Jn 1:6 YLT) There came [into being, (cf. NASB)] a man - having been sent from God - whose name [is] John. (Jn 1:7 NKJV) This man came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all through Him [the Light of men, the Life, the Word, (Jn 1:1-4)] might believe, (Jn 1:8 YLT) that one was not the Light, but - that he might testify about the Light. (Jn 1:9 NIV) The true Light that gives light to every man was coming into the world; (Jn 1:10 YLT) in the world He was, and the world through Him was made, and the world did not know Him: (Jn 1:11 NKJV) He came to His own [neuter, plural, i.e., He came to all things of His own, being Creator = all things of the world, both inanimate and animate, including mankind], and His own [mascline, plural = those animate objects who have the capacity to receive (i.e., believe in) Him, i.e., His own particular people, specifically the people of Israel] did not receive Him. (Jn 1:12 YLT) But as many [individuals of His own creation, (Jn 1:11a)] as did receive Him to them He gave authority to become sons [lit., children] of God - to those believing in His name: (Jn 1:13 YLT) who - not of blood [lit., bloods] nor of a will of flesh, nor of a will of man but - of God were begotten [born]. (Jn 1:14 NKJV) And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the [One and only from] the Father, full of grace and truth. (Jn 1:15 YLT) John [lit., witnesses] concerning Him, and [lit., cried out], saying, "This was He of Whom I said, 'He Who after me is coming, has come before me, for He was before me' " =

(Jn 1:15 Greek) "IOannEs marturei .peri .............autou kai kekragen ...legOn, Ohoutos

............................"John ......witnesses ..concerning Him, .and cried out, ..saying, This[One]....

En .......hon .........eipon .Ho opisO mou erchomenos emprosthen .................mou ..gegonen

was he .of whom I said, .the after .me ...coming .......precedence[is ahead] ..of me .has

hoti prOtos mou En."

for ..before .me ..He was."

Concerning John the Baptist, it has already been established that there came into being a man having been sent from God named John, (Jn 1:6); and that he came to be a witness of the Light of men so that men might believe in Him unto an eternal life familial relationship with God, (Jn 1:6-8, 12-13). To be such a witness sent from God implies that John the Baptist was required to be knowledgeable about the Light of men, the Life, the Word: Who He is, His eternal essence as God and His purpose for having added to Himself Perfect Humanity and for coming into the world in that Perfect Humanity. This is especially important since it is stipulated that the key purpose of John's witness was so that men might believe that the Light of men, the Word is because He has made Himself to be - the sole Means by which an individual can be born of God as a child of God into an eternal life familial relationship with God by grace through a moment of faith alone in His name alone, (Jn 1:6-8, 12-13).

At a time in history when the presence of the Word in His Perfect Humanity came upon John the Baptist, John cried out, "This was He of Whom I said, 'He Who after me is coming.' " This was part of the fulfullment of John the Baptist's purpose for which he came into the world, having been sent from God: to bear witness to the Light of men, so that men might believe in Him unto an eternal life familial relationship with God, (Jn 1:6-8, 12-13). The underlined phrase refers to the Word in His perfect Humanity Who was to come into the world at the time of John the Baptist.

1) [Compare Jn 1:26-30]:

(Jn 1:26 NKJV) "John answered them saying, 'I baptize with water, but there stands One among you Whom you do not know

(Jn 1:26b YLT) this One it is Who is coming after me, Who [has] been before me

(Jn 1:27a YLT) of Whom I am not worthy that I may loose the cord of His sandal.'

(Jn 1:29 NKJV) The next day John saw Jesus coming toward him, and said, "Behold! The Lamb of God Who takes away the sin of the world!

(Jn 1:30 YLT) This is He concerning Whom I said, After me does come a man, Who has come before me, because He was before me:' "

Notice that in Jn 1:26-30, John the Baptist declares essentially the same message as Jn 1:15 does. Furthermore, Jn 1:26-30 stipulates that the coming Christ is a Man. Hence He is both God and Man. Previously, John quoted from Isa 40:3 to the Jewish interrogators, which passage declared that the coming Christ is LORD and God. The second phrase of John 1:15 declares, "This was He of Whom I said, 'He Who after me is coming has come before me." The underlined phrase conveys that the Word came into the world before John the Baptist was born, (cf. Jn 1:26-30), evidently appearing in a number of forms including human . In the third and final phrase of Jn 1:15, John explains: "This was He of Whom I said, 'He Who after me is coming, has come before me, for He was before Me.' " The underlined phrase refers to the Light of men, the Word, the Life, (eternal and temporal), i.e., God. It indicates that the Word "was" in existence in an ongoing, uncreated, preexistent eternal sense before John existed and before the Word had come into the world when He added Perfect Humanity to Himself. The phrase has the same meaning as that which is conveyed in Jn 1:1:

2) [Compare Jn 1:1]:

(Jn 1:1 YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God."

The Greek verb "En" rendered "was" in Jn 1:1 portrays the Word as uncreated, preexistent and eternal. He was the Light of men, of Whom John the Baptist, having been sent from God came into being into the world to be a witness. "En" is the same Greek verb "En" rendered "was" in Jn 1:15 in the phrase "for He was before me," which also portrays the Word as uncreated, preexistent and eternal, the Light of men about Whom John the Baptist was testifying, Who was before him.

So just as the phrase from Jn 1:1a, "In the beginning was the Word," stresses that before the beginning of the creation of all things, the Word was; i.e., He is eternal and uncreated, preexistent; so the phrase from Jn 1:15, "For He [the Word] was before me" stresses that before John the Baptist existed, the Word was eternal and uncreated, preexistent - Who existed before John the Baptist.

XIII) [Jn 1:16]:

(Jn 1:16 YLT) "and out of His fullness did we all receive, [even] grace [in place of] grace"

A) (Jn 1:16) OUT OF THE FULLNESS OF THE WORD - FROM HIS FULLNESS OF THE GRACE AND TRUTH OF GOD - DID ALL MANKIND RECEIVE TIME AFTER TIME, LIKE THE WAVES OF THE OCEAN; NOT THE LEAST OF WHICH ARE THOSE GRACIOUS AND DAILY UNMERITED BLESSINGS WHICH SUSTAIN ONES TEMPORAL LIFE; AND THE EVER COMING MESSAGES OF THE TRUTH ABOUT THE AVAILABILITY THROUGH THE WORD, THE LIGHT OF MEN OF AN ETERNAL LIFE FAMILIAL RELATIONSHIP WITH GOD BY GRACE THROUGH A MOMENT OF FAITH ALONE IN HIS NAME ALONE

(Jn 1:1 YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. (Jn 1:2 YLT) He [lit., This One] was in [the] beginning with God; (Jn 1:3 NAS) All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being. (Jn 1:4 NAS) In Him was life, and the Life was the Light of men. (Jn 1:5 NKJV) And the Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it. (Jn 1:6 YLT) There came [into being, (cf. NASB)] a man - having been sent from God - whose name is John. (Jn 1:9 NIV) The true Light that gives light to every man was coming into the world. (Jn 1:10 YLT) in the world He was, and the world through Him was made, and the world did not know Him: (Jn 1:12 YLT) But as many [individuals of His own creation, (Jn 1:11a)] as did receive Him to them He gave authority to become sons [lit., children] of God - to those believing in His name: (Jn 1:14 NKJV) And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the [One and only from] the Father, full of grace and truth... (Jn 1:16 YLT) and out of His fullness did we all receive, [even] grace [in place of] grace" =

(Jn 1:16 Greek) "Kai .ek tou plErOmatos autou hEmeis pantes .elabomen kai ............charin anti .......................charitos."

............................"And of .the fullness .......His ...we ........all ........received, .even ..........grace .upon [in place of] grace"

Jn 1:14 indicates that the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we - those who observed Him in His Perfect Humanity, beheld His glory as that Perfect Human, the glory as of the One and only from Father God, full of grace and truth. The word grace is defined as unmerited favor, or undeserved blessing. Grace is the principle upon which life from God comes - both temporal and eternal; and the Word is God Who gave life to all living beings, (Jn 1:1-4). Furthermore, there is nothing of merit that one has an opportunity to express in order to be born in temporal or eternal life. Grace therefore is the principle by which the Word created and sustains all things, and provides an eternal life familial relationship with God. Hence the Word, Who is Creator of all things, (Jn 1:3), is full of grace. He is the Life, (Jn 1:4), the source of eternal life; and the Light of men Who from the beginning of time and Creation has and continues to graciously illuminate the world as to Who God is, despite being rejected by men who deliberately have remained in darkness - alienated and at enmity with God, (Jn 1:4-6, 9-10). He has continuously declared to all mankind, who deserve nothing but condemnation, that He is, because He has made Himself to be, the sole Means by which an individual can be born of God as a child of God into an eternal life familial relationship with God by grace through a moment of faith alone in His name alone, (Jn 1:12-13). This is grand evidence that the Word was indeed full of grace.

From verses 1-3, it is evident that the Word is God and Creator Who has created all things which includes truth, hence the Word is full of truth. And from verses 1-13 it is evident that the Word Who is God is the Life, (eternal and temporal). He was from the beginning of time and Creation and continues to be the Light of men that gives light (the truth of God) to every man, (Jn 1:9); Who from the beginning of time and Creation has and continues to graciously illuminate the world as to the truth of Who God is, despite being rejected by men who deliberately have remained in darkness - alienated and at enmity with God, (Jn 1:5). He has continuously declared to men that He is, because He has made Himself to be, the sole Means by which an individual can be born of God as a child of God into an eternal life familial relationship with God by grace through a moment of faith alone in His name alone, (Jn 1:12-13).

So when it says in Jn 1:16, "And out of His fullness [the fullness of His grace and truth, (Jn 1:14)] did we all receive, [even] grace [in place of] grace" the statement is referring to the unmerited blessings that mankind receives time after time, like the waves of the ocean, from the fullness of the grace and truth of the Word; not the least of which are temporal life and that which sustains that life, and the truth that He has made Himself to be the sole Means by which an individual can be born of God as a child of God into an eternal life familial relationship with God by grace through a moment of faith alone in His name alone, (Jn 1:12-13).

A literal translation of the last phrase of verse 16, rendered "And out of His fullness did we all receive, [even] grace over-against grace," in the YLT should read: "[even] grace in place of grace" because the Greek word "kai" in this context is best rendered "even" as it describes the action in the previous phrase; and the Greek word transliterated "anti" is correctly rendered "in place of." Most translations including the NAS translate this as something on the order of "grace upon grace." The NIV renders this: "we have all received one blessing after another." The KJV renders the entire verse: "And of his fulness have all we received, [even] grace for grace." In the final analysis, author John is putting an emphasis on the concept of grace, [unmerited favor] as it is received by mankind: From the fullness of the Word continuously come the unmerited blessings from the grace God to mankind like the waves of the ocean come one after another.

XIV) [Jn 1:17]:

(Jn 1:17) "For the Law was given through Moses; grace and truth came through Jesus Christ'''

A) (Jn 1:17) OUT OF THE FULLNESS OF THE WORD DID ALL MANKIND RECEIVE, EVEN GRACE IN PLACE OF GRACE: THE LAW, A GRACE GIFT OF THE STATUTES OF GOD'S RIGHTEOUSNESS FOR TEMPORAL BLESSING THROUGH MOSES TO HIS PEOPLE AND INDIRECTLY TO ALL MANKIND, WAS REPLACED BY THE GRACE AND TRUTH OF GOD THROUGH JESUS CHRIST, THE WORD BECOME FLESH, TO FULLFILL THE LAW AND BY BEING A SACRIFICE FOR SINS, BECOME THE MEANS BY WHICH AN INDIVIDUAL COULD BE BORN OF GOD AS A CHILD OF GOD INTO AN ETERNAL LIFE FAMILIAL RELATIONSHIP WITH GOD BY GRACE ALONE THROUGH A MOMENT OF FAITH ALONE IN HIS NAME ALONE

(Jn 1:4 NAS) "In Him was life, and the Life was the Light of men. (Jn 1:5 NKJV) And the Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it. (Jn 1:14 NKJV) And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the [One and only from] the Father, full of grace and truth..... (Jn 1:15 YLT) John [lit., witnesses] concerning Him, and [lit., cried out], saying, "This was He of Whom I said, 'He Who after me is coming, has come before me, for He was before me' (Jn 1:16 YLT) and out of His fullness did we all receive, [even] grace [in place of] grace: (Jn 1:17) For [because] the Law was given through Moses; grace and truth came through Jesus Christ''' =

Verse 14 stipulates that the Word become flesh and made His dwelling among mankind. It goes on to say "we have seen His glory, as of the one and only Who came from the Father full of grace and truth." Hence what was seen by author John and others when the Word became flesh was a demonstration of God's fullness of grace and truth in His Perfect Humanity. So the phrase "full of grace and truth" describes the Word, named as Jesus Christ in verse 17. Verses 16-17 then stipulate "And of His fullness we have all received, [even] grace in place of grace. The Law was given through Moses, grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. The "grace and truth which came through Jesus Christ" thus replaced the previous act of grace providing the Law through Moses.

So in order to complete the thought of verse 16 which states, "and out of His fullness did we all receive, [even] grace in place of grace," Jn 1:17a goes on to say, "For [=because] the Law was given through Moses," evidently as a grace gift out of the fullness of the Word, (Jn 1:15, 16), which was followed by the next wave of God's grace which replaced the Law: the grace and truth of God which came through the Perfect Humanity of Jesus Christ, Who, by fulfilling the Law Himself and being a sacrifice for sins, became the means by which an individual could be born of God as a child of God into an eternal life familial relationship with God by grace alone through a moment of faith alone in His name alone, (Jn 1:17b).

The Law by definition is a set of statutes. It was given through Moses to his people and indirectly to all mankind, by the grace and truth of the Word - the Light of men Who has been shining the truth of God into the darkness of humanity from the beginning, (Jn 1:4-5). So the statutes of the Law were to be kept by the Israelites to receive the temporal blessings of God. Being God's standard of behavior, it represented the righteousness of God for Israel and indirectly all mankind to know and emulate; hence it was for all peoples of the world to follow the principles contained therein and be blessed, not the least of which is to express a moment of faith alone in His Son alone in order to receive the gift of His Perfect Righteousness to provide for them the gift of eternal life.

B) (Jn 1:17) FOR THE FIRST TIME, AUTHOR JOHN PROVIDES THE NAME OF JESUS CHRIST, (= MESSIAH / = HEBREW: HAMASHIOCH) TO IDENTIFY BUT NOT BE LIMITED IN SCOPE TO THE PERFECT HUMANITY OF THE WORD, THE LIFE, THE LIGHT OF MEN, THE SON OF GOD HAVING COME INTO THE WORLD; FOR THE WORD, JESUS CHRIST IS ETERNAL, HE WAS IN THE BEGINNING AND FOREVER WILL BE JESUS CHRIST

(Jn 1:14 NKJV) '''And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the [One and only from] the Father, full of grace and truth. (Jn 1:15 YLT) John [lit., witnesses] concerning Him, and [lit., cried out], saying, "This was He of Whom I said, 'He Who after me is coming, has come before me, for He was before me' (Jn 1:16 YLT) and out of His fullness did we all receive, [even] grace [in place of] grace: (Jn 1:17) For [because] the Law was given through Moses; grace and truth came through Jesus Christ''' =

For the first time, author John provides the name of Jesus Christ, (= Messiah / = Hebrew: Hamashioch) to identify but not be limited in scope to the Perfect Humanity of the Word, the Life, the Light of men, the Son of God having come into the world; for the Word, Jesus Christ, is eternal, He was in the beginning and forever will be.

XV) [Jn 1:18]:

(Jn 1:18 NAS) "No one has seen God at any time; the [lit., One and only] God Who is in the bosom of the Father, He has [lit., declared] Him"

(Jn 1:18 Greek) "Theon oudeis heOraken pOpote ........ho monogenEs ...Theos ho On .....

....................... .......God ...no one has seen ..at any time; .the one and only God ...the being

eis ton kolpon tou ....patros ..ekeinos exEgEsato

in .the bosom of the Father, .that .......declared.

A) (Jn 1:18) NO ONE - NO FINITE HUMAN BEING HAS EVER SEEN GOD IN HIS ESSENCE WITH ONES PHYSICAL EYES

(Jn 1:1 YLT) '''In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. (Jn 1:14 NKJV) And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the [One and only from] the Father, full of grace and truth. (Jn 1:14 NKJV) And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the [One and only from] the Father, full of grace and truth. (Jn 1:15 YLT) John [lit., witnesses] concerning Him, and [lit., cried out], saying, "This was He of Whom I said, 'He Who after me is coming, has come before me, for He was before me' (Jn 1:16 YLT) and out of His fullness did we all receive, [even] grace [in place of] grace: (Jn 1:17) For [because] the Law was given through Moses; grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. (Jn 1:18 NAS) No one has seen God at any time; [but] the [lit., One and only] God Who is in the bosom of the Father, He has [lit., declared] Him." ''' =

"Theon oudeis heOraken ..pOpote

"God ...no one has seen.....at any time"

The Greek verb form "heOraken" is in the perfect tense which corroborates that no finite human being has seen God at any time - in the sense of with ones physical eyes.

Since author John declares that no one has seen God at any time, i.e., no human has ever seen God with the human physical eye, (notice the words rendered "at any time," an emphatic expression allowing for no exceptions), then we must conclude that God in His essence has indeed not been seen with the human physical eye. This does not exclude, however, certain phenonemon that would permit men to perceive some characteristic of God via dreams, visions, supernatural forms such as angels or human being or some other form within their own finite understanding.

B) (Jn 1:18) THE CORRECT RENDERING OF VERSE 18 HAS "THE ONE AND ONLY GOD" IN IT AS OPPOSED TO "THE ONE AND ONLY SON" OR "THE ONLY BEGOTTEN..." TO CONVEY THE FACT THAT NO HUMAN BEING HAS SEEN GOD AT ANY TIME, BUT GOD THE ONE AND ONLY - THE WORD IN HIS PERFECT HUMANITY WHO IS IN THE BOSOM OF THE FATHER HAS DECLARED HIM, I.E., MADE HIM KNOWN

(Jn 1:1 YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. (Jn 1:14 NKJV) And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the [One and only from] the Father, full of grace and truth. (Jn 1:18 NAS) No one has seen God at any time; [but] the [lit., One and only] God Who is in the bosom of the Father, He has [lit., declared] Him." =

(Jn 1:18 Greek) "Theon oudeis heOraken pOpote ........ho monogenEs ...Theos ho On .....eis ton

..............................God ...no one has seen ..at any time; .the one and only God ...the being in ..the

kolpon tou ....patros ..ekeinos exEgEsato

bosom of the Father, .that .......declared.

The Greek word "monogenEs" in Jn 1:18 means "unique," or "One and only." It is a nominative, singular, masculine adjective consisting of the Greek prefix "mono" = "one" and "genEs" from the Greek verb infinitive "ginomai" which means to cause to be. The stem of this word "monogenEs" is "gEne" = "One Who is." So "monogenEs" = the only one who is, i.e., the "One and only." Notice: only one "n" occurs in the verb "ginomai" and only one "n" occurs in the form of this verb which the Apostle John uses in this verse: "genEs;" hence "monogenEs" is not derived from the Greek verb "gennao" - to procreate, beget. Notice the two "n"'s in this verb. One verb, meaning to cause to be, (unique), has one "n" and the other, meaning to beget has two. So the word "monogenEs" means "the only One Who is" or "the unique One." So the Word is in view here as having become, i.e., having added to Himself Perfect Humanity as One and only from the Father, i.e., the unique Son of the Father, eternal God, Son of God and Perfect Human being at the same time.

[The Complete Biblical Library, NT Greek-English Dictionary, Lambda-Omicron, World Library Press, Springfield, Mo, Ralph W Harris, Exec. Editor, 1991, p. 218]:

"In the Fourth Century, a heresy known as Arianism mistakenly saw [monogenEs] as a derivation related to the word gennaO (1074), which means 'to beget, to generate, or to give birth.' This inappropriate connection was used to support the false doctrine that Jesus was created by God and was not eternal with Him."

The phrase "God the One and only" in 1:18 is unique to the New Testament in describing the Word become flesh, Jesus Christ. This rendering has come under question because there are some manuscripts that have "the One and only Son." The word "Son" was evidently substituted for the word "God" in manuscript copies to correct a perceived error in a manuscript copy because it was probably thought that the word "Son" is what the author originally wrote since this was John's usual way of referring to our Lord. On the other hand, the best old Greek manuscripts (Aleph B C L) and other reliable manuscripts have what is rendered "[but] the One and only God," in the NAS. Considering the manuscript evidence "God" is undoubtedly the true text as follows:

"Theon oudeis heOraken pOpote .........'O .monogenEs ..Theos

"God ....no one has seen ...ever......[but] the One and only God

ho ....On eis ton kolpon tou ....patros .ekeinos exEgEsato"

Who .is ..in .the bosom .of the Father he .........declared [Him]"

Although the Word is the One and only Son of God as well as God the One and Only Who is in the bosom of the Father which portrays a close, face to face relationship with the Father of the most intimate and personal kind, the context, manuscript evidence and grammar weigh most lheavily toward "but God the One and Only" in 1:18:

Jn 1:1 says "In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God," declaring that in the beginning, the Word was, He was with God and He was eternal, uncreated, preexistent, God;

and Jn 1:14 declares that "the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the [One and only from] Father, full of grace and truth," stating that the Word is the One and only from Father God Who became flesh and as God in Perfect Humanity manifested the glory of God to men;

that Jn 1:18 is best rendered, "No one has seen God at any time; [but] the [lit., One and only] God Who is in the bosom of the Father, He has [lit., declared] Him."

C) (Jn 1:18) NO FINITE HUMAN BEING HAS SEEN GOD AT ANY TIME; BUT THE ONE AND ONLY GOD, THE WORD, WHO HAS ALWAYS BEEN FACE TO FACE WITH GOD - ABLE TO SEE AND INTIMATELY KNOW GOD, WHO IS IN THE BOSOM OF THE FATHER - IN THE CLOSEST PERSONAL INTIMATE RELATIONSHIP WITH HIM - HAS BECOME FLESH. AND IN HIS PERFECT HUMANITY HE HAS COME INTO THE WORLD TO DECLARE THROUGH HIMSELF WHO GOD IS. MANKIND CAN NOW BEHOLD THE GLORY AS OF THE ONE AND ONLY FROM THE FATHER, FULL OF THE GRACE AND TRUTH OF GOD. THE WORD BECOME FLESH HAS MADE GOD KNOWABLE AND KNOWN TO MANKIND, SO THAT MEN CAN CHOOSE TO KNOW GOD AND TRUST IN THE WORD UNTO AN ETERNAL LIFE FAMILIAL RELATIONSHIP WITH GOD

(Jn 1:1 YLT) '''In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. (Jn 1:4 NAS) In Him was life, and the Life was the Light of men. (Jn 1:5 NKJV) And the Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it. (Jn 1:12 YLT) But as many [individuals of His own creation, (Jn 1:11a)] as did receive Him to them He gave authority to become sons [lit., children] of God - to those believing in His name: (Jn 1:13 YLT) who - not of blood [lit., bloods] nor of a will of flesh, nor of a will of man but - of God were begotten [born]. (Jn 1:14 NKJV) And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the [One and only from] the Father, full of grace and truth. (Jn 1:15 YLT) John [lit., witnesses] concerning Him, and [lit., cried out], saying, "This was He of Whom I said, 'He Who after me is coming, has come before me, for He was before me' (Jn 1:16 YLT) and out of His fullness did we all receive, [even] grace [in place of] grace: (Jn 1:17) For [because] the Law was given through Moses; grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. (Jn 1:18 NAS) No one has seen God at any time; [but] the [lit., One and only] God Who is in the bosom of the Father, He has [lit., declared] Him.''' =

No finite human being has seen God at any time, (Jn 1:18a); but the One and only God, (Jn 1:18b), the Word, Who has always been face to face with God - able to see and intimately know God, (Jn 1:1-2), Who is in the bosom of the Father - in the closest personal intimate relationship with Him, (Jn 1:18b) - has become flesh, (Jn 1:14). And in His Perfect Humanity, the One and only God, has come into the world, (Jn 1:14), to declare through Himself Who God is to mankind, (Jn 1:18). Mankind can now behold the glory as of the One and only from the Father, full of the grace and truth of God, (Jn 1:14). The Word become flesh has made God knowable and known to mankind, so that men can choose to know God and trust in the Word unto an eternal life familial relationship with God, (Jn 1:12-13).

XVI) [Jn 1:19-28]:

(Jn 1:19 NKJV) ''' "Now this is the testimony of John, when the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, "Who are you?"

(Jn 1:20 NKJV) He confessed, and did not deny, but confessed, "I am not the Christ."

(Jn 1:21 NKJV) And they asked him, "What then? Are you Elijah?" He said, 'I am not." "Are you the Prophet?" And he answered, "No."

(Jn 1:22 NKJV) Then they said to him, "Who are you, that we may give an answer to those who sent us? What do you say about yourself?"

(Jn 1:23 NKJV) He said: "I am 'The voice of one crying in the wilderness: 'Make straight the way of the LORD,' as the prophet Isaiah said.' "

(Jn 1:24 NKJV) Now those who were sent were from the Pharisees.

(Jn 1:25 NAS) [And] they asked him, and said to him, "Why then are you baptizing, if you are not the Christ, nor Elijah, nor the Prophet?"

(Jn 1:26 NKJV) John answered them saying, 'I baptize with water, but there stands One among you Whom you do not know

(Jn 1:26b YLT) this One it is Who is coming after me, Who [has] been before me

(Jn 1:27a YLT) of Whom I am not worthy that I may loose the cord of His sandal"

(Jn 1:28 NAS) These things took place in Bethany beyond [lit., across] the Jordan where John was baptizing." '''

A) (Jn 1:19-28) THE JEWISH RULERS SENT PRIESTS AND LEVITES FROM JERUSALEM TO INTERROGATE JOHN THE BAPTIST WHICH IMPLIES THAT HE DID NOT CONFORM TO THEIR SPHERE OF RELIGIOUS AND CIVIL AUTHORITY

(Jn 1:14 NKJV) '''And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the [One and only from] the Father, full of grace and truth. (Jn 1:19 NKJV) Now this is the testimony of John, when the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, "Who are you?" (Jn 1:20 NKJV) He confessed, and did not deny, but confessed, "I am not the Christ." (Jn 1:21 NKJV) And they asked him, "What then? Are you Elijah?" He said, 'I am not." "Are you the Prophet?" And he answered, "No." (Jn 1:22 NKJV) Then they said to him, "Who are you, that we may give an answer to those who sent us? What do you say about yourself?" (Jn 1:23 NKJV) He said: "I am 'The voice of one crying in the wilderness: 'Make straight the way of the LORD,' as the prophet Isaiah said.' " (Jn 1:24 NKJV) Now those who were sent were from the Pharisees. (Jn 1:25 NAS) [And] they asked him, and said to him, "Why then are you baptizing, if you are not the Christ, nor Elijah, nor the Prophet?" (Jn 1:26 NKJV) John answered them saying, 'I baptize with water, but there stands One among you Whom you do not know (Jn 1:26b YLT) this One it is Who is coming after me, Who [has] been before me (Jn 1:27a YLT) of Whom I am not worthy that I may loose the cord of His sandal" (Jn 1:28 NAS) These things took place in Bethany beyond [lit., across] the Jordan where John was baptizing." ''' =

The Jewish rulers sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, 'Who are you?' The priests represented the Jewish theological / civil authority and the Levites served under them relative to Temple ritual and service.

1) [Compare Jn 1:24]:

(Jn 1:24 NKJV) "Now those who were sent were from the Pharisees."

Evidently the priests and the Levites were sent by the Pharisees, who at the time comprised the strongest contingent of the Jewish ruling council, the ruling body of Israel.

It is implied that John the Baptist's activities were considered to be a threat to the Jewish rulers' spheres of authority, for the attitude of the priests and Levites representing the ruling authority of the Israelites was direct, authoritative and confrontational. Their questions implied that John the Baptist did not conform to the sphere of their religious and civil authority.

B) (Jn 1:19-28) THE PRIESTS AND LEVITES ASKED JOHN THE BAPTIST, 'WHO ARE YOU?' EVIDENTLY WITH SOME CONCEPT OF "THE CHRIST" IN MIND. JOHN RESPONDED CURTLY AND INTUITIVELY, 'I AM NOT THE CHRIST,' ANTICIPATING WHO THEY THOUGHT HE MIGHT BE. THE NAME 'THE CHRIST,' ACCORDING TO SCRIPTURE, IS THE MESSIAH / SAVIOR /RULER OF ISRAEL AND THE WORLD WHO BEING GOD AND MAN WAS TO COME FROM GOD AND OUT OF ISRAEL TO DELIVER ISRAEL AND MANKIND FROM BONDAGE AND SIN INTO THE ETERNAL KINGDOM OF GOD - THE CHRIST!

(Jn 1:19 NKJV) '''Now this is the testimony of John, when the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, "Who are you?" (Jn 1:20 NKJV) He confessed, and did not deny, but confessed, "I am not the Christ." (Jn 1:21 NKJV) And they asked him, "What then? Are you Elijah?" He said, "I am not." "Are you the Prophet?" And he answered, "No." '''=

The first question that the priests and Levites asked John the Baptist was "Who are you?" John's answer was not to say who he was, but to tell them Who he was not. He said, "I am not the Christ." John's answer implies that he anticipated that the questionners had "the Christ" foremost in their minds as to whom John might be. In the absence of any response other than, "What then? Are you Elijah? (Jn 1:21a), the phrase "What then?" corroborates that the Jews did have "the Christ" in mind as their first choice of who John might be. Then they followed with their second choice, "Are you Elijah?"

Christos comes from the Greek word “chrio” (number 5548) meaning contact, to smear, to rub - to anoint or joyously bestow. "Chrio" is used to refer to anointing with oil for a particular purpose such as being appointed to some position or office or function. Therefore, the phrase "ho Christos" rendered "the Christ" with the definite article is given an assigned usage meaning in Scripture: “the Anointed One." It most often refers to the Messiah / Savior / Ruler of all the nations of the world in the kingdom of God, Who is to come into the world as an Israelite to deliver Israel and mankind from bondage and sin into the eternal kingdom of God. Later on, John the Baptist quotes from Isaiah chapter 40 which declares that the Anointed One of God, "the Christ" is God and Man.

1) [Compare Isa 40:1-5]:

(Isa 40:1 NKJV) " 'Comfort, yes, comfort My people!' Says your God.

(Isa 40:2 NKJV) Speak comfort to Jerusalem, and cry out to her, That her warfare is ended, That her iniquity is pardoned; For she has received from the LORD's hand Double for all her sins.'

(Isa 40:3 NKJV) The voice of one crying in the wilderness: 'Prepare the way of the LORD; 'Make straight in the desert A highway for our God.'

(Isa 40:4 NKJV) Every valley shall be [Heb. nasa' = lit., lifted up]. And every mountain and hill brought low; The crooked places shall be made straight And the rough places smooth;

(Isa 40:5 NKJV) The glory of the LORD shall be revealed, And all flesh shall see it together; For the mouth of the LORD has spoken."

2) [Compare Ps 2:1-12]:

(Ps 2:1 NKJV) '''Why do the nations rage, And the people plot a vain thing?

(Ps 2:2 NKJV) The kings of the earth set themselves, And the rulers take counsel together, Against the LORD and against His Anointed [i.e., The Christ], saying,

(Ps 2:3 NKJV) "Let us break Their bonds in pieces And cast away Their cords from us."

(Ps 2:4 NKJV) He who sits in the heavens shall laugh; The Lord shall hold them in derision.

(Ps 2:5 NKJV) Then He shall speak to them in His wrath, And distress them in His deep displeasure:

(Ps 2:6 NKJV) "Yet I have set My King On My holy hill of Zion.

(Ps 2:7 NKJV) I will declare the decree: The LORD has said to Me, 'You are My Son, Today I have begotten You.

(Ps 2:8 NKJV) Ask of Me, and I will give You The nations for Your inheritance, And the ends of the earth for Your possession.

(Ps 2:9 NKJV) You shall break them with a rod of iron; You shall dash them to pieces like a potter's vessel.'

(Ps 2:10 NKJV) Now therefore, be wise, O kings; Be instructed, you judges of the earth.

(Ps 2:11 NKJV) Serve the LORD with fear, And rejoice with trembling.

(Ps 2:12 NKJV) Kiss the Son, lest He be angry, And you perish in the way, When His wrath is kindled but a little. Blessed are all those who put their trust in Him." '''

The Psalmist asks why, in the sense of the futility of it, the nations of the world are in a rage, the peoples of the world, the kings and the rulers of the earth vainly plot and take counsel together and set themselves against the LORD and His Anointed. This is vanity especially in view of God's Almighty power and sovereignty, (Ps 1:1-2). The LORD's Anointed is His chosen one to be ruler of Zion, i.e., the people of Israel, His chosen people, with David, the first king in view, (Ps 2:2, 6). The Psalmist declares that the kings and rulers of the earth in their rebellion against God and His Anointed are saying, 'Let us break their bonds in piece and cast away their cords from us,' (Ps 2:3). The nations, peoples, kings and rulers of the world were evidently aware of the LORD and His Anointed ruler of the people of Zion. They were enraged and consorted with one another to defeat God's sovereignty over them. It was their view that they were in bondage to the LORD and His king, (Ps 2:2-3). But the Psalmist declares that the LORD in heaven will laugh and hold them in derision. He will speak to them via His wrath and distress them via action that reflects His deep displeasure, (Ps 2:4-5). The LORD declares that He has set His anointed king on His holy hill, Zion, (Ps 2:6). The word Zion here refers to Jerusalem which indicates that the LORD's chosen people are Israelites whose Anointed / Chosen one is their king. Zion was originally a Canaanite city which was being conquered by David. The name Zion later on was used to refer to the temple area and then to the entire city of Jerusalem. The term 'Holy hill' is a synonym for the temple mount in Jerusalem. And the LORD declares that His Anointed / Chosen One has been begotten of God as His Son, (Ps 2:7). In view of the fact that physical sonship is not reversible, so much the more is sonship to God irrevocable, and moreso, it is eternal because God is eternal. God goes on to say to His Anointed, "Ask of Me, and I will give you the nations for your inheritance, And the ends of the earth for your possession. You shall break them with a rod of iron; you shall dash them to pieces like a potter's vessel" (Ps 2:8-9). The phrase "You are My son" in Ps 2:7, comes from the Davidic Covenant (2 Sam 7:14). It is appropriated in Psalm 2 to show the legitimate God ordained right of the king to rule. The phrase 'Today I have begotten You' refers to the day of one being Anointed / Chosen by God to be king of Israel, i.e., the day of the coronation of the king, and his adoption as a son of God into the family of God in an eternal life familial relationship with God. It is implied that the Anointed king of Israel, being declared to be a son of God, has the reception of eternal life and will receive an eternal kingdom inheritance to rule the nations to the ends of the earth in the future eternal kingdom, (Ps 2:8). This also implies that the rebellion of the nations of the world toward the LORD and His Anointed, will finally be put down.

In view of the lack of complete fulfillment of the prophecies in verses 1 through 9, through king David or any king after him so far, the context must jump out of the time of David to a future King of Israel, "the Anointed One, "the Christ," from the Greek, "ho Christos," Who will inherit the nations of the world, and the ends of the earth, evidently as an eternal inheritance and possession, (Ps 2:8). So the Future Anointed of God, "the Christ," will meet the enraged nations, peoples, kings and rulers of the world in conflict and "break them with a rod of iron" and "dash them to pieces like a potter's vessel," despite the warning of the LORD through the Psalmist in verses 10-12, "Now therefore, be wise, O kings; Be instructed, you judges of the earth. Serve the LORD with fear, And rejoice with trembling. Kiss the Son, lest He be angry, And you perish in the way, When His wrath is kindled but a little. Blessed are all those who put their trust in Him." Notice that individual's throughout the world are blessed when they put their trust in the Anointed One of the LORD = "the Christ." This Anointed One is far more than a temporal king of Israel; for throughout the world one may trust in Him to be blessed. No temporal king can say or do that. Nor can the wrath of a king over all the nations of the earth be so powerful unless He is God Himself.

C) (Jn 1:19-28) THEN THE JEWISH INTERROGATORS ASKED JOHN THE BAPTIST "WHAT THEN" ARE YOU ELIJAH?" EVIDENTLY REFERRING TO THE PROPHET OF ANCIENT TIMES WHO SCRIPTURE FORETOLD WAS TO COME BACK INTO THE WORLD AFTER HE WAS TRANSLATED INTO HEAVEN HUNDREDS OF YEARS AGO

(Jn 1:21 NKJV) And they asked him, "What then? Are you Elijah?" He said, 'I am not." "Are you the Prophet?" And he answered, "No." =

The first question that the priests and Levites asked John the Baptist was, "Who are you?" John's answer was not to say who he was, but to tell them Who he was not: "I am not the Christ." John's answer implies that he had anticipated that the questionners had "the Christ" foremost in their minds as to whom he might claim to or actually be. Evidently first and foremost on his mind and theirs was the coming of "the Christ," the Messiah / Savior / Ruler of all the nations of the earth to come from Israel. Whereupon the response of the Jewish "interrogaters" to John's "I am not the Christ," was, "What then? Are you Elijah? (Jn 1:21a). The phrase "What then?" points to the fact that the Jews did think he might be "the Christ." Then they followed with their second choice, "Are you Elijah?" And John's answer to this question was "I am not." The priests and the Levites were speaking of the ancient Jewish prophet who was translated into heaven hundreds of years ago. Elijah was prophesied in Scripture to come back into the world "before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the LORD" when the Anointed One, the Christ would come into the world to enforce God's righteousness. Evidently, John's rough appearance, ascetism and activities reminded the Jews of Elijah who led a similar lifestyle, and opposed the 'religious' politicos of his day.

1) [Compare 2 Ki 2:11]:

(2 Ki 2:11 NKJV) "Then it happened, as they [Elijah and Elisha] continued on and talked, that suddenly a chariot of fire appeared with horses of fire, and separated the two of them; and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven."

2) [Compare Mal 4:5-6]:

(Mal 4:5 NKJV) "Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet Before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the LORD.

(Mal 4:6 NKJV) And he will turn The hearts of the fathers to the children, And the hearts of the children to their fathers, Lest I come and strike the earth with a curse."

D) (Jn 1:19-28) THE JEWISH INTERROGATORS PERSISTED WITH JOHN THE BAPTIST. THEY ASKED, "ARE YOU THE PROPHET," THEIR THIRD CHOICE OF WHOM THEY THOUGHT JOHN THE BAPTIST MIGHT BE. THEY WERE REFERRING TO SCRIPTURE TO THE ONE WHOM MOSES FORETOLD WOULD BE A PROPHET LIKE HIMSELF - THE KEY PROPHET OF ISRAEL - WHO WOULD LEAD THEM IN A FINAL EXODUS FROM THEIR ENEMIES AND FROM SIN INTO THE PROMISED ETERNAL KINGDOM OF GOD - THE CHRIST!

(Jn 1:21 NKJV) "And they asked him, [John the Baptist] "What then? Are you Elijah?" He said, 'I am not.' 'Are you the Prophet?' And he answered, 'No.' "=

Since the priests and Levites asked John the Baptist if he was the prophet, then "the Prophet" they were referring to had not come into the world up to that time. The words, "the prophet" with the definite article imply a specific Prophet. Although John the Baptist was the greatest prophet of his age, who spoke of the coming Messiah like no one else, he answered 'No,' for he was not the prophet they spoke of. Note that John's answer, 'No,' is the shortest yet, indicating the kind of interrogation he is receiving and his resistance to it. Scripture teaches that "the Prophet" is to be an Israelite Who will be the key prophet of Israel - the One Who, after the manner of Moses, will speak directly with God and to Israel for God. He will lead them in a final exodus from their enemies and from sin into the promised eternal kingdom of God as Moses delivered the Israelites from bondage to Egypt giving them the opportunity to live in freedom and righteousness under God's direct rule in the Promised Land.

Just as Moses spoke directly to God and spoke for Him to the Israelites - speaking of Who God is and what He expected of His chosen people, and foretelling great events in their history; so the Prophet will be God's representative to Israel and to mankind on the earth. Just as Moses delivered his people from bondage to her enemies and brought her to the Promised Land where they could live under the direct rulership of God Almighty Himself, so will the Prophet bring in and rule the eternal kingdom. Note that the Jewish interrogators have evidently missed that "the Christ" is "the Prophet," for it is the Prophet Who as Moses did, will intercede for Israel with God as Prophet and Ruler of Israel in the eternal kingdom. The Prophet will inherit rulership of the nations of the word to the ends of the earth from God.

1) [Compare Dt 18:15-19]:

(Dt 18:15 NKJV) "The LORD your God will raise up for you a Prophet like me [Moses] from your midst, from your brethren [Israelites]. Him you shall hear

[Note that the Prophet will be like Moses. He will also be from Israel, and it is He Whom the Israelites will hear as the representative voice of the LORD]:

(Dt 18:16 NKJV) according to all you desired of the LORD your God in Horeb in the day of the assembly, saying, 'Let me not hear again the voice of the LORD my God, nor let me see this great fire anymore, lest I die.'

[So the Prophet will be just like Moses, Who will intercede between God and Israel, just as Moses did in the past]

(Dt 18:17 NAS) The LORD said to me, 'They have spoken well.

(Dt 18:18 NKJV) I will raise up for them a Prophet like you from among their brethren, and will put My words in His mouth, and He shall speak to them all that I command Him.

[God will raise up for Israel a Prophet like Moses from among their brethren, i.e., to be an Israelite. And God will put His words in the mouth of the Prophet to speak for Him to the Israelites]

(Dt 18:19 NKJV) And it shall be that whoever will not hear My words, which He speaks in My name, I will require it of him.' "

The LORD will hold all men accountable to His commands including those who "will not hear [His] words", i.e., who will turn a deaf ear to them.

E) (Jn 1:19-28) JOHN TELLS HIS JEWISH INTERROGATORS THAT HE IS THE VOICE WHICH ISAIAH WROTE ABOUT: THE ONE WHO CRIES OUT IN THE WILDERNESS, TELLING ISRAEL TO MAKE STRAIGHT THE WAY OF THE LORD WHO IS COMING INTO THE WORLD TO ESTABLISH HIS ETERNAL KINGDOM RULE OF RIGHTEOUSNESS AT JERUSALEM THROUGH HIS CHOSEN PEOPLE ISRAEL. SO ALL ISRAEL MUST TRUST IN THE LORD FOR DELIVERANCE FROM SIN AND COMMIT TO RIGHTEOUSNESS SO THAT THE GLORY OF THE LORD WILL BE REVEALED TO ALL MANKIND

(Jn 1:19 NKJV) '''Now this is the testimony of John, when the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, "Who are you?" (Jn 1:20 NKJV) He confessed, and did not deny, but confessed, "I am not the Christ. (Jn 1:21 NKJV) And they asked him, "What then? Are you Elijah?" He said, 'I am not." "Are you the Prophet?" And he answered, "No." (Jn 1:22 NKJV) Then they said to him, "Who are you, that we may give an answer to those who sent us? What do you say about yourself? (Jn 1:23 NKJV) He said: "I am 'The voice of one crying in the wilderness: 'Make straight the way of the LORD,' as the prophet Isaiah said." '''

Despite John the Baptist's short answers and abrupt tone, the priests and Levites persisted. They confronted him with, 'Who are you, that we may give an answer to those who sent us? What do you say about yourself?' So John answers by quoting from Isaiah to convey to them that he is not the Christ but he is the one who is announcing - as a prophet in his own right - the imminent coming of the LORD / the Messiah, "the Christ" into the world. So John the Baptist says in Jn 1:23, "I am, 'The voice of one crying in the wilderness. 'Make straight the way of the LORD.' "

****** EXCERPTS FROM ISAIAH CHAPTERS 7, 9 & 40 ******

IN VIEW OF THE IMMINENT RETURN IN ANCIENT TIMES OF ISRAEL FROM BABYLONIAN CAPTIVITY TO A JERUSALEM WHICH WOULD BE REBUILT, A VOICE OF A PROPHET CRIED OUT TO THE PEOPLE OF JERUSALEM TELLING THEM IN A FIGURATIVE / SPIRITUAL SENSE, NOT A LITERAL SENSE, THAT IN THE WILDERNESS THEY WERE ALL TO PREPARE THE WAY OF THE LORD IN THE SENSE OF MAKING THE WAY OF THE LORD RIGHTEOUS; AND IN THE SAME SENSE, MAKE A STRAIGHT HIGHWAY FOR OUR GOD IN THE DESERT, AND LIKEWISE HAVE EVERY VALLEY LIFTED UP, EVERY MOUNTAIN AND HILL LEVELED, AND UNEVEN GROUND BECOME SMOOTH AND ROUGH PLACES A PLAIN, I.E., SO THAT THE PEOPLE OF ISRAEL WOULD BE CHARACTERIZED AS HAVING THE RIGHTEOUSNESS OF GOD THUS HAVING REMOVED THE SPIRITUAL HINDRANCES WITHIN THEMSELVES TO THE COMING OF THE LORD AND HIS RIGHTEOUSNESS SO THAT ALL MANKIND WOULD SEE THE GLORY OF THE LORD WHEN HE COMES TO RULE OVER HIS EVERLASTING KINGDOM OF HEAVEN ON THE EARTH, AS DECLARED BY THE PROPHET TO BE TRUE, FOR ISAIAH DECLARED THAT THE MOUTH OF THE LORD HAD SPOKEN IT TO HIM. SO THE TIME OF THE LORD'S RULE WOULD BEGIN WHEN EACH ONE OF NATIONAL ISRAEL, TO WHOM THE MESSAGE OF THE PROPHET CRYING OUT WAS EXCLUSIVELY DIRECTED, RESPONDED TO IT EVIDENTLY VIA A MOMENT OF FAITH ALONE IN THE COMING LORD ALONE TO DELIVER ONE FROM ONE'S SINS SUCH THAT EACH ONE WOULD BE PROVIDED WITH THE GIFT OF GOD'S PERFECT RIGHTEOUSNESS WITHIN ONESELF UNTO ETERNAL LIFE AND BY THAT PREPARE THE WAY OF THE LORD TO COME TO RULE OVER HIS EVERLASTING KINGDOM OF HEAVEN ON THE EARTH THROUGH HIS PEOPLE ISRAEL. NOTICE THAT THIS REPENTANCE CANNOT MEAN DOING GODLY WORKS IN ORDER TO RECEIVE REMISSION (FORGIVENESS) OF SINS IN ORDER TO ENTER THE KINGDOM OF GOD, AS SOME CONTEND; BECAUSE DOING GODLY WORKS CANNOT ERASE SINFUL DEEDS. NOR CAN REPENTANCE MEAN TO TURN FROM SIN IN THE SENSE OF NOT COMMITTING SINS ANY MORE; FOR THAT IS A TASK WHICH IS NOT POSSIBLE GIVEN THE SINFUL NATURE OF EVERY INDIVIDUAL. ISAIAH INDICATED PREVIOUSLY THAT THIS OUTCOME WAS TO BEGIN WITH A CHILD BORN SUPERNATURALLY OF AN ISRAELITE MAIDEN / VIRGIN - A SON AND CHILD OF ISRAEL, WHO WOULD BE DECLARED WONDERFUL, COUNSELOR, MIGHTY GOD, EVERLASTING FATHER, PRINCE OF PEACE WHO WOULD COME TO ESTABLISH HIS EVERLASTING KINGDOM OF HEAVEN RULE OVER THE WORLD UPON THE THRONE OF DAVID FROM JERUSALEM THROUGH HIS PEOPLE, ISRAEL AS BOTH GOD AND MAN

(Isa 7:14 YLT) '''Therefore the Lord Himself [is giving] to you [plural, i.e., Judah] a sign, [behold], the Virgin [the pregnant one] [the one giving birth to] a son, And she [has called] his name Immanuel. (Isa 7:15 NKJV) Curds and honey He shall eat, that He may know to refuse the evil and choose the good. (Isa 7:16 NKJV) For before the Child shall know to refuse the evil and choose the good, the land that you dread will be forsaken by both her kings... (Isa 9:6 NKJV) For unto us [Israel, Isa 1:1, 8:18] a Child is born, Unto us a Son is given; And the government will be upon His shoulder. And His name will be called Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace. (Isa 9:7 NKJV) Of the increase of His government and peace There will be no end, Upon the throne of David and over His kingdom, To order it and establish it with judgment and justice From that time forward, even forever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this... (Isa 39:1 NKJV) At that time Merodach-Baladan the son of Baladan, king of Babylon, sent letters and a present to Hezekiah, for he heard [lit., was hearing] that he had been sick and had recovered [lit., was recovering]. (Isa 39:2 NKJV) And Hezekiah was pleased [lit., was being pleased] with them, and showed them [lit., was showing them] the house of his treasures - the silver and gold, the spices and precious ointment, and all his armory - all that was found [lit., had been found] among his treasures. There was nothing in his house or in all his dominion that Hezekiah did not show them. (Isa 39:3 NKJV) Then Isaiah the prophet went [lit., was coming] to King Hezekiah, and said [lit., was saying] to him, "What did these men say [lit., have these men said], and from where did they come [lit., were coming] to you?" So Hezekiah said, "They came [lit., had come] to me from a far country, from Babylon." (Isa 39:4 NKJV) And he said, [lit., was saying], "What have they seen in your house?" So Hezekiah answered, [lit., was answering], "They have seen all that is in my house; there is nothing among my treasures that I have not shown them." (Isa 39:5 NKJV) Then Isaiah said to Hezekiah, "Hear the word of the LORD of hosts: (Isa 39:6 NKJV) 'Behold, the days are coming when all that is in your house, and what your fathers have accumulated until this day, shall be carried [lit., have been carried] to Babylon; nothing shall be left,' says the LORD. (Isa 39:7 NKJV) And they shall take away [lit., be taking away] some of your sons who will descend [lit., shall be descendants] from you, whom you will beget [lit., be begetting]; and they shall be eunuchs in the palace of the king of Babylon.' (Isa 39:8 NKJV) So Hezekiah said [lit., was saying] to Isaiah, "The word of the LORD which you have spoken is good!" For he said, "At least there will be peace and truth in my days." (Isa 40:1 Holman) "Comfort, comfort My people," says your God. (Isa 40:2 NKJV) "Speak [to the heart of] Jerusalem, and cry out to her, That her warfare [has been] ended, that her iniquity [is to have been pardoned], For she has received from the LORD's hand Double for all her sins." (Isa 40:3 HOLMAN) A voice of one crying out: ["In the wilderness, prepare the way of the LORD]; make a straight highway for our God in the desert. (Isa 40:4 HOLMAN) Every valley will be lifted up, and every mountain and hill will be leveled; the uneven ground will become smooth, and the rough places a plain. (Isa 40:5 NKJV) [And] the glory of the LORD shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together, for the mouth of the LORD has spoken [it].' " ''' =

In view in this passage in Isaiah chapter 40 is the imminent return in ancient times of the Israelites from Babylonian captivity to a Jerusalem which was to be rebuilt by them. Israel's past iniquity had been pardoned through having received double punishment for all her sins, (Isa 40:1-2). Whereupon the next verse portrays the voice of a prophet announcing the imminent coming of the LORD in His glory to establish on earth the Eternal Kingdom of God conditional upon all Israelites making the necessary preparation: "A voice of one crying out, 'In the wilderness prepare the way of the LORD; Make a straight highway for our God in the desert, Every valley will be lifted up, and every mountain and hill will be leveled; the uneven ground will become smooth, and the rough places a plain," [And] the glory of the LORD shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together, for the mouth of the LORD has spoken [it],' " ''' (Isa 40:3-5).

The phrases such as "In the wilderness, prepare the way of the LORD; make a straight highway for our God in the desert. Every valley will be lifted up, and every mountain and hill will be leveled; the uneven ground will become smooth, and the rough places a plain," (Isa 40:3-5), cannot be literal because such a fulfillment of these phrases which portray the world completely without hill or valley, or uneven or rough ground is not literally possible with finite, flawed man; nor useful in enabling the coming of the LORD, Who is Creator and Master of the physical world, and would not be hindered by any physical obstruction. And from whence does it begin and to where does the highway go which is to be built for our God in the desert? One can only conclude that the prophet crying out is speaking figuratively of the way of God's Perfect Righteousness which can only be via every one of a generation of Israelites removing the spiritual hindrances from within oneself to receive the coming of the LORD through trusting alone in the LORD alone to deliver one from one's sins to provide the gift of God's perfect Righteousness within oneself unto eternal life; whereupon the LORD would come to establish His everlasting Kingdom of Heaven on the earth through His people Israel - having prepared His way of Perfect Righteousness within man by providing it for and within each individual by faith as a free gift. In the past, Israel's lack of faith had blocked her fellowship with the LORD and caused punishment and captivity to befall her, (cf. Isa 39:1-8). Nevertheless the ancient Israelites returning from Babylon had their opportunity to see the salvation of their God come into the world but failed to prepare for the LORD to bring in His Kingdom via repentance unto faith. Notice that this repentance cannot mean doing godly works in order to receive remission (forgiveness) of sins in order to enter the Kingdom of God, as some contend; because doing godly works cannot erase sinful deeds. Nor can repentance mean to turn from sin in the sense of not committing sins any more; for that is a task which is not possible given the sinful nature of every individual. Hence the LORD postponed the completion of His mission for when a future generation of Israelites will prepare itself properly for His coming.

According to the context of the Book of Isaiah chapters 1 through 40, the coming of the LORD and His Righteousness into the world would begin as a Child: born of a maiden / virgin Whom she called His name Immanuel, (Isa 7:14-16).

[Compare Isa 7:14-16]:

(Isa 7:14 YLT) '''Therefore the Lord Himself [is giving] to you [plural, i.e., Judah] a sign, [behold], the Virgin [the pregnant one] [the one giving birth to] a son, And she [has called] his name Immanuel.

(Isa 7:15 NKJV) Curds and honey He shall eat, that He may know to refuse the evil and choose the good.

(Isa 7:16 NKJV) For before the Child shall know to refuse the evil and choose the good, the land that you dread will be forsaken by both her kings'''

So a Child shall be born of a maiden / virgin. His name shall be called "Immanuel" meaning "God is with us," (Isa 7:14-16).

[Compare Isa 9:6-7]:

(Isa 9:6 NKJV) "For unto us [Israel, Isa 1:1, 7:14-16; 8:18] a Child is born, Unto us a Son is given; And the government will be upon His shoulder. And His name will be called Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.

(Isa 9:7 NKJV) Of the increase of His government and peace There will be no end, Upon the throne of David and over His kingdom, To order it and establish it with judgment and justice From that time forward, even forever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this."

So He will be born of Israel, hence a Son of Israel; and be declared, "Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace." He will come to establish His Everlasting Kingdom rule over the world on the throne of David from Jerusalem through His people, Israel, (Isa 9:6-7). . The time of His everlasting rule would begin when national Israel responded to Him by faith in order to be delivered each one of his sins, (Isa 40:3). When that becomes the case in history, every obstacle to God's rule of righteousness will be removed; which Isaiah 40:4 expresses figuratively in order to convey a spiritual meaning of God's provision of the gift of His Righteousness to man: "Every valley will be lifted up, and every mountain and hill will be leveled; the uneven ground will become smooth, and the rough places a plain." Hence all mankind will see the glory of the LORD - His Perfect Righteousness - when He comes to rule over His everlasting kingdom on the earth, (Isa 40:5).

[Compare Isa 6:3 NKJV]:

"Holy, holy, holy is the LORD of hosts; The whole earth is full of His glory!"

All of this was declared by the prophet to be true, for the mouth of the LORD had spoken it to him, (Isa 5:16; 6:3; 7:14-16; 9:6-7; 39:5; 40:1-5).

****** END OF EXCERPTS FROM ISAIAH CHAPTERS 7, 9 & 40 ******

E cont.) (Jn 1:19-28) JOHN TELLS HIS JEWISH INTERROGATORS THAT HE IS THE VOICE WHICH ISAIAH WROTE ABOUT: THE ONE WHO CRIES OUT IN THE WILDERNESS, TELLING ISRAEL TO MAKE STRAIGHT THE WAY OF THE LORD WHO IS COMING INTO THE WORLD TO ESTABLISH HIS ETERNAL KINGDOM RULE OF RIGHTEOUSNESS AT JERUSALEM THROUGH HIS CHOSEN PEOPLE ISRAEL. SO ALL ISRAEL MUST TRUST IN THE LORD FOR DELIVERANCE FROM SIN AND COMMIT TO RIGHTEOUSNESS SO THAT THE GLORY OF THE LORD WILL BE REVEALED TO ALL MANKIND, (cont.)

(Jn 1:19 NKJV) '''Now this is the testimony of John, when the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, "Who are you?" (Jn 1:20 NKJV) He confessed, and did not deny, but confessed, "I am not the Christ. (Jn 1:21 NKJV) And they asked him, "What then? Are you Elijah?" He said, 'I am not." "Are you the Prophet?" And he answered, "No." (Jn 1:22 NKJV) Then they said to him, "Who are you, that we may give an answer to those who sent us? What do you say about yourself? (Jn 1:23 NKJV) He said: "I am 'The voice of one crying in the wilderness: 'Make straight the way of the LORD,' as the prophet Isaiah said." ''' =

So the prophecies in Isaiah 7:14, 9:7 and 40:5 are corroborated by author John when he stated that the Word became flesh and revealed to John and others the glory of God:

1) [Compare Jn 1:14]:

(Jn 1:14 NKJV) "And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the [One and only from] the Father, full of grace and truth."

Notice that Isa 40:5 stipulated that all flesh, i.e., all mankind shall see the glory of the LORD revealed as He comes to set up His worldwide kingdom of God. Since the glory of God will be revealed in the Anointed One of the LORD and part of the glory of God is His righteousness, then the key mission of the LORD is indeed to bring His glory, His righteousness into the world to be revealed and imposed upon mankind. So when John the Baptist declared that he was the voice that Isaiah wrote about - of one crying in the wilderness, John was declaring that John the Baptist was announcing the imminent coming of the Christ, the LORD, God and Man, (cf. Jn 1:30); and Israel's need for repentance unto faithfulness and righteousness. In the case of the message of John of repentance unto remission of sins, the word repentance cannot mean doing godly works in order to receive remission (forgiveness) of sins, as some contend; because doing godly works cannot erase sinful deeds. Nor can repentance mean to turn from sin in the sense of not committing sins any more; for that is a task which is not possible given the sinful nature of every individual. So the righteousness of God and His kingdom was at hand - ready to be established at the time of John the Baptist and upon all Israel's acceptance by faith of the Christ and His atonement for the sins of the whole world.

F) (Jn 1:19-28) THE JEWISH INTERROGATORS, SENT BY THE PHARISEES, RULERS OF THE JEWS, DEMANDED TO KNOW WHY JOHN THE BAPTIST WAS BAPTIZING JEWS AT BETHANY ACROSS THE JORDAN. JOHN'S ANSWER: HIS WATER BAPTISMS WERE PUBLIC EXPRESSIONS WHICH SYMBOLIZED ISRAELITES' ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF THE COMING OF THE LORD, "THE CHRIST," WHICH INCLUDED BELIEVING IN HIM FOR FORGIVENESS OF SINS UNTO AN ETERNAL LIFE FAMILIAL RELATIONSHIP WITH GOD IN THE KINGDOM OF GOD, AND A COMMITTMENT TO LIVE RIGHTEOUSLY BEFORE THE LORD IN ORDER TO PREPARE THE WAY FOR HIS ENTRY INTO THE WORLD TO ESTABLISH HIS RIGHTEOUSNESS AND HIS ETERNAL KINGDOM THROUGH HIS CHOSEN PEOPLE ISRAEL. IN VIEW OF THE GLORY AND RIGHTEOUS CHARACTER OF THE CHRIST WHO IS TO COME, JOHN DECLARED HIS UNWORTHINESS TO LOOSE THE CORD OF HIS SANDAL

(Jn 1:19 NKJV) '''Now this is the testimony of John, when the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, "Who are you?" (Jn 1:20 NKJV) He confessed, and did not deny, but confessed, "I am not the Christ. (Jn 1:21 NKJV) And they asked him, "What then? Are you Elijah?" He said, 'I am not." "Are you the Prophet?" And he answered, "No." (Jn 1:22 NKJV) Then they said to him, "Who are you, that we may give an answer to those who sent us? What do you say about yourself?" (Jn 1:23 NKJV) He said: "I am 'The voice of one crying in the wilderness: Make straight the way of the LORD,' as the prophet Isaiah said." (Jn 1:24 NKJV) "Now those who were sent were from the Pharisees. (Jn 1:25 NAS) [And] they asked him, and said to him, "Why then are you baptizing, if you are not the Christ, nor Elijah, nor the Prophet?" (Jn 1:26 NKJV) John answered them saying, 'I baptize with water, but there stands One among you Whom you do not know (Jn 1:26b YLT) this One it is Who is coming after me, Who [has] been before me (Jn 1:27a YLT) of Whom I am not worthy that I may loose the cord of His sandal. (Jn 1:28 NAS) These things took place in Bethany beyond [lit., across] the Jordan where John was baptizing." ''' =

In verses Jn 1:19 & 24, author John indicates that the priests and Levites who were interrogating John the Baptist were sent by the Pharisees, who at the time comprised the majority of the Jewish ruling council. They persisted despite John's curt answers, and demanded to know, "Why then are you baptizing, if you are not the Christ, nor Elijah, nor the Prophet?" (Jn 1:25) It is apparent in the eyes of the priests and Levites that John the Baptist did not have an official capacity to baptize Israelites under their authority, especially since he was not the Christ, nor Elijah, nor the Prophet. Whereupon John replied, (Jn 1:26 NKJV) "I baptize with water, but there stands One among you Whom you do not know (Jn 1:26b YLT) this One it is Who is coming after me, Who [has] been before me (Jn 1:27a YLT) of Whom I am not worthy that I may loose the cord of His sandal." This evidently evoked no remarkable response from the inquiry committee. The passage in John chapter one goes on to say, "These things took place in Bethany beyond [lit., across] the Jordan where John was baptizing," (Jn 1:28). So we know from this that John was baptizing individual Jews in the Jordan River near Jerusalem as part of his mission to prepare the way for the coming of the Christ. So John's water baptism points to the Christ Who was coming after him Who was before him, being eternal God, to reveal His glory to mankind in His Perfect Humanity; and to bring righteousness and His eternal kingdom into the world through His chosen people Israel. In view of the glory and righteous character of the Christ Who is to come, John declared his unworthiness to loose the cord of the sandal of the coming Christ. Note that 'the Christ,' the One Who is to come will be One Who will be an Israelite Who wears sandals as testified by John the Baptist.

Since water baptism is an activity representing a particular reality, and since that reality in this case was the imminent arrival of the LORD, "the Christ" to establish His righteousness and His eternal kingdom into the world; then John the Baptist's water baptism, which were immersions in water, were public expressions which symbolized Israelites' acknowledgement of the coming of the LORD which included believing in Him for forgiveness of sins unto an eternal life familial relationship with God in the kingdom of God, and a committment to live righteously before the LORD in order to prepare the way for His entry into the world to establish His righteousness and His eternal kingdom.

Note that John's answer to the Jews of, "This One it is Who is coming after me Who [has] been before me" repeats what he had said earlier:

1) [Compare Jn 1:15 YLT]:

'''John [lit., witnesses] concerning Him, and [lit., cried out], saying, "This was He of Whom I said, 'He who after me is coming, has come before me, for He was before me' " '''

a) John The Baptist, Continuing To Bear Witness To The Life, The Light Of Men, The Word, Who Was To Come Into The World, Said;

"This Was He Of Whom I said, 'He Who After Me Is Coming (Referring To The Word's Human Presence, The Christ To Come, At The Time Of John)

Has Come Before Me

(Referring To The Word's PreMessianic Presence In Human Form In The World)

For He Was Before Me

(Referring To His Eternal Existence As God)' "

(Jn 1:1 YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. (Jn 1:2 YLT) He [lit., This One] was in [the] beginning with God; (Jn 1:3 NAS) All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being. (Jn 1:4 NAS) In Him was life, and the Life was the Light of men. (Jn 1:5 NKJV) And the Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it. (Jn 1:6 YLT) There came [into being, (cf. NASB)] a man - having been sent from God - whose name [is] John. (Jn 1:7 NKJV) This man came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all through Him [the Light of men, the Life, the Word, (Jn 1:1-4)] might believe, (Jn 1:8 YLT) that one was not the Light, but - that he might testify about the Light. (Jn 1:9 NIV) The true Light that gives light to every man was coming into the world; (Jn 1:10 YLT) in the world He was, and the world through Him was made, and the world did not know Him: (Jn 1:11 NKJV) He came to His own [neuter, plural, i.e., He came to all things of His own, being Creator = all things of the world, both inanimate and animate, including mankind], and His own [mascline, plural = those animate objects who have the capacity to receive (i.e., believe in) Him, i.e., His own particular people, specifically the people of Israel] did not receive Him. (Jn 1:12 YLT) But as many [individuals of His own creation, (Jn 1:11a)] as did receive Him to them He gave authority to become sons [lit., children] of God - to those believing in His name: (Jn 1:13 YLT) who - not of blood [lit., bloods] nor of a will of flesh, nor of a will of man but - of God were begotten [born]. (Jn 1:14 NKJV) And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the [One and only from] the Father, full of grace and truth. (Jn 1:15 YLT) John [lit., witnesses] concerning Him, and [lit., cried out], saying, "This was He of Whom I said, 'He Who after me is coming, has come before me, for He was before me' " =

(Jn 1:15 Greek) "IOannEs marturei ...peri ...........autou kai kekragen ...legOn, .Houtos En ........hon .........eipon .

............................ "John......witnesses .concerning Him, .and cried out, ...saying, .This .....was he .of Whom I said,

Ho opisO mou erchomenos emprosthen ..............mou ..gegonen ..............hoti prOtos mou En."

the after .me ...coming, .......ahead .......................of me has been, ............for ..before .me ..he was."

Concerning John the Baptist, it has already been established that there came into being a man having been sent from God named John, (Jn 1:6); and that he came to be a witness of the Light of men so that men might believe in Him unto an eternal life familial relationship with God, (Jn 1:6-8, 12-13). To be such a witness sent from God implies that John the Baptist was required to be knowledgeable about the Light of men, the Life, the Word: Who He is, His eternal essence as God and His purpose for coming into the world in Perfect Humanity. This is especially important since it is stipulated that the key purpose of John's witness was so that men might believe that the Light of men, the Word is, because He has made Himself to be, the sole Means by which an individual can be born of God as a child of God into an eternal life familial relationship with God by grace through a moment of faith alone in His name alone, (Jn 1:6-8, 12-13).

At a time when the presence of the Word in His Perfect Humanity came upon John the Baptist, John cried out, "This was He of Whom I said, 'He Who after me is coming,' " in continuation of fulfullment of his purpose for which he came into the world sent from God: to bear witness to the Light of men, so that men might believe in Him unto an eternal life familial relationship with God, (Jn 1:6-8, 12-13). The underlined phrase refers to the Word in His perfect Humanity Who was to come into the world at the time of and John the Baptist began to announce His coming.

b) [Compare Jn 1:26-30]:

(Jn 1:26 NKJV) "John answered them saying, 'I baptize with water, but there stands One among you Whom you do not know

(Jn 1:26b YLT) this One it is Who is coming after me, Who [has] been before me

(Jn 1:27a YLT) of Whom I am not worthy that I may loose the cord of His sandal.'

(Jn 1:29 NKJV) The next day John saw Jesus coming toward him, and said, "Behold! The Lamb of God Who takes away the sin of the world!

(Jn 1:30 YLT) This is He concerning Whom I said, After me does come a man, Who has come before me, because He was before me:' "

Notice that in Jn 1:26-30, John the Baptist declares the same message as Jn 1:15 does. Furthermore, Jn 1:26-30 stipulates that the coming Christ is a Man, (Jn 1:30). Previously, John quoted from Isa 40:3 to the Jewish interrogators, which passage declared that the coming Christ is LORD and God. The second phrase of John 1:15 declares, "This was He of Whom I said, 'He Who after me is coming has come before me." The underlined phrase conveys that the Word came into the world before John the Baptist was born, (cf. Jn 1:26-30), evidently appearing in a number of ways including human form {short description of image}. In the third and final phrase of Jn 1:15, John explains: "This was He of Whom I said, 'He Who after me is coming, has come before me, for He was before Me.' " The underlined phrase refers to the Light of men, the Word, the Life, (eternal and temporal), i.e., God. It indicates that the Word "was" in existence in an ongoing, uncreated, preexistent eternal sense before John existed and before the Word had come into the worldwhen He added Perfect Humanity to Himself. The phrase has the same meaning as that which is conveyed in Jn 1:1:

c) [Compare Jn 1:1]:

(Jn 1:1 YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God."

The Greek verb "En" rendered "was" in Jn 1:1 which portrays the Word as uncreated, preexistent and eternal, the Light of men for whom John the Baptist had been sent from God to come into being and come into the world to be a witness, is the same Greek verb "En" rendered "was" in Jn 1:15 in the phrase "for He was before me," which also portrays the Word as uncreated, preexistent and eternal, the Light of men to which John the Baptist is testifying.

So just as the phrase from Jn 1:1a, "In the beginning was the Word," stresses that before the beginning of the creation of all things, the Word was; i.e., He is eternal and uncreated, preexistent; so the phrase from Jn 1:15, "For He [the Word] was before me" stresses that before John the Baptist existed, the Word was eternal and uncreated, preexistent - Who preexisted His own comings into the world before John the Baptist as well as His becoming flesh and preexisting beforecoming into the world in Perfect Humanity at the time of John.

d) [Compare Jn 1:29-30]:

(Jn 1:29 NKJV) "The next day John saw Jesus coming toward him, and said, 'Behold! The Lamb of God Who takes away the sin of the world!

(Jn 1:30 YLT) this is He concerning Whom I said, After me does come a man, Who has come before me, because He was before me:"

Compare the words of John the Baptist in verse 15, "He Who after me is coming, has come before me, for He was before me" and his words in verse 30, "After me does come a man, Who has come before me, because He was before me." So Jn 1:30 points to Jesus Christ Who John declares came before him; yet is coming after him as the One John is announcing as "the Christ."

[Expositor's, pp. 35-37]:

[Jn 1:24-25] "The Pharisees represented the strict interpreters of the Law and were particularly interested in examining the credentials of any new religious teacher in Judaism... When the delegates from the religious leaders in Jerusalem challenged John concerning his right to baptize, he stated that he did not profess to speak with ultimate authority...

26-27 It is not unlikely that John's baptism followed the pattern of proselyte baptism, which required a renunciation of all evil, complete immersion in water, and then reclothing as a member of the holy community of law-keepers.

John drew his reference to untying the sandals of his successor from the practice of using the lowest slave of a household to remove the sandals and wash the feet of guests. John's witness, therefore, reflected the exalted nature of Jesus and placed the latter far above himself.

28 'Bethany on the other side of Jordan' was so named to distinguish it from the Bethany near Jerusalem... Its exact site is unknown. That it was located 'on the other side' shows that the author must have been accustomed to thinking of the west side of the Jordan as his home territory."

XVII) [Jn 1:29-34]:

(Jn 1:29 NKJV) '''The next day John saw Jesus coming toward him, and said, "Behold! The Lamb of God Who takes away the sin of the world!

(Jn 1:30 YLT) This is He concerning Whom I said, 'After me doth come a man, Who hath come before me, because He was before me:'

(Jn 1:31 NKJV) I did not know Him; but that He should be revealed to Israel, therefore I came baptizing with water."

(Jn 1:32 NKJV) And John bore witness, saying, "I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and He remained upon Him.

(Jn 1:33 NKJV) I did not know Him, but He who sent me to baptize with water said to me, 'Upon whom you see the Spirit descending, and remaining on Him, this is He who baptizes with the Holy Spirit.'

(Jn 1:34 NKJV) And I have seen and testified that this is the Son of God." '''

A) (Jn 1:29-34) AT THE MOMENT WHEN JOHN THE BAPTIST FIRST KNEW THAT JESUS WAS THE CHRIST, JESUS WAS COMING TOWARD HIM AND JOHN DECLARED THAT HE WAS THE LAMB OF GOD, (THE ATONING SACRIFICE), WHO TAKES AWAY THE SIN OF THE WORLD. HERETOFORE, JOHN HAD ANNOUNCED THAT THERE WAS A MAN, (THE CHRIST) WHO WAS TO COME AFTER HIM; WHO (IN PREMESSIANIC HUMAN FORM) HAD COME BEFORE HIM BECAUSE HE (BEING ETERNAL GOD) WAS BEFORE HIM. JOHN DID NOT KNOW THE CHRIST UNTIL THE TIME HAD COME FOR THE CHRIST TO BE ANNOUNCED AND REVEALED TO ISRAEL; AND THEN GOD REVEALED HIM TO JOHN THE BAPTIST. JOHN WATER BAPTIZED ISRAELITES TO SYMBOLIZE THEIR ACCEPTANCE BY FAITH IN THE COMING OF CHRIST AND HIS RIGHTEOUSNESS UNTO AN ETERNAL LIFE FAMILIAL RELATIONSHIP WITH GOD IN THE KINGDOM OF GOD

(Jn 1:12 YLT) '''But as many [of His own, (Jn 1:11a)] as did receive Him to them He gave authority to become sons [lit., children] of God - to those believing in His name: (Jn 1:13 YLT) who - not of blood nor of a will of flesh, nor of a will of man but - of God were begotten [born]. (Jn 1:19 NKJV) Now this is the testimony of John, when the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, "Who are you?" (Jn 1:20 NKJV) He confessed, and did not deny, but confessed, "I am not the Christ. (Jn 1:21 NKJV) And they asked him, "What then? Are you Elijah?" He said, 'I am not." "Are you the Prophet?" And he answered, "No." (Jn 1:22 NKJV) Then they said to him, "Who are you, that we may give an answer to those who sent us? What do you say about yourself?" (Jn 1:23 NKJV) He said: "I am 'The voice of one crying in the wilderness: Make straight the way of the LORD,' as the prophet Isaiah said." (Jn 1:24 NKJV) "Now those who were sent were from the Pharisees. (Jn 1:25 NAS) [And] they asked him, and said to him, "Why then are you baptizing, if you are not the Christ, nor Elijah, nor the Prophet?" (Jn 1:26 NKJV) John answered them saying, 'I baptize with water, but there stands One among you Whom you do not know (Jn 1:26b YLT) this One it is Who is coming after me, Who [has] been before me (Jn 1:27a YLT) of Whom I am not worthy that I may loose the cord of His sandal. (Jn 1:28 NAS)These things took place in Bethany beyond [lit., across] the Jordan where John was baptizing. (Jn 1:29 NKJV) The next day John saw Jesus coming toward him, and said, "Behold! The Lamb of God Who takes away the sin of the world! (Jn 1:30 YLT) This is He concerning Whom I said, After me doth come a man, Who hath come before me, because He was before me: (Jn 1:31 NKJV) I did not know Him; but that He should be revealed to Israel, therefore I came baptizing with water." ''' =

On the previous day, John told the contingent of interrogators of Jewish priests and Levites that he was the one who is to announce the coming into the world of the Anointed One of God, "the Christ," Who is both God and Man, (cf. Jn 1:20, 23, 26-27). The next day, John first saw Jesus as the Christ. The LORD was coming toward him; and John said, "Behold the Lamb of God Who takes away the sin of the world! This is He concerning Whom I said, After me doth come a man, Who hath come before me, because He was before me: I did not know Him; but that He should be revealed to Israel, therefore I came baptizing with water," (Jn 1:29-31).

When John the Baptist said, "Behold the Lamb of God Who takes away the sin of the world," he implied that Jesus was the coming Christ Who was bringing His righteousness into the world by providing Himself - as a Man - as the atoning sacrifice for the sin of the whole world so that through Him and Him alone, can mankind be righteousness by receiving God's righteousness through a moment of faith alone in Christ's atoning sacrifice alone. Note that the first step for the Christ to establish His righteous rule over mankind is to provide for mankind's unrighteousness through His atoning sacrifice as a Man for the sins of the whole world. Atonement for men is impossible through the actions of men because all men are intrinsically unrighteous, except for the Christ in His Perfect Humanity. Author John had already said in Jn 1:12-13 that one is to receive the LORD by believing in His name in order to become a child of God, to have an eternal life familial relationship with God, which implies an atoning sacrifice being made by the LORD. Note that to become a child of God one must have God's righteousness because the character of ones Father is righteous. God's righteousness can only be received through a moment of faith alone in Christ alone; and not by anything one can do:

1) [Compare Jn 1:12-13]:

(Jn 1:12 YLT) "But as many [individuals of His own creation, (Jn 1:11a)] as did receive Him to them He gave authority to become sons [lit., children] of God - to those believing in His name: (Jn 1:13 YLT) who - not of blood nor of a will of flesh, nor of a will of man but - of God were begotten [born]."

Evidently John the Baptist was familiar with what John the author conveyed in Jn 1:1-18, including verses 12-13 quoted above. For when the Baptist first saw Jesus, he said, "Behold the Lamb of God Who takes away the sin of the world," implying that Christ's atoning sacrifice was the means by which one could attain righteousness through faith in Him unto an eternal life familial relationship with God. And since the Baptist previously referred to Jesus Christ as the One Who was coming, Who is LORD and GOD at which time His glory in His Perfect Humanity should be revealed to Israel and through Israel to all mankind, (Jn 1:23, 29-30; Isa 40:3), then we can know that John the Baptist had a clear understanding of Who Jesus Christ and what His mission was.

John the Baptist further explained, "this is He concerning Whom I said, 'After me doth come a man [notice that "the Christ" has Perfect Humanity because He is LORD = GOD, (Jn 1:23)], Who hath come before me, because He was before me," (Jn 1:30). Although John the Baptist was cousin to Jesus; their mothers having visited one another while they both were expecting; and their families came together to go to Jerusalem on holy days; the Baptist said, "I did not know Him; but that He should be revealed to Israel, therefore I came baptizing with water," (Jn 1:31 NKJV). What John was speaking of was not that he did not know Jesus as his cousin or as a person; but that he did not know, until God revealed it to him, (cf. Jn 1:32-34), that Jesus was "the Christ," the coming Messiah / Savior / LORD "that He should be revealed to Israel." So John the Baptist's water baptisms, given to Jews in the Jordan River near Bethany, were a public testimony of acceptance by faith of the Person and mission of the Christ - of His coming into the world to reveal Himself to Israel to establish His eternal kingdom of righteousness through His atoning sacrifice as the Lamb of God for the sins of the whole world. Those Jews who trusted in Him received the righteousness of Christ which would be established through His atoning sacrifice in order for them to enter into the eternal kingdom of God; whereupon when all Israel accepts Him - which is yet to come, Scripture teaches, the Christ, having provided Himself as the atoning sacrifice for the sin of the whole world, will establish His righteousness and His kingdom on earth for all mankind through Israel.

This was what was spoken of by the prophet Isaiah when he foretold of the LORD coming to establish His righteousness and His kingdom through Israel from which account John the Baptist refers to himself as the voice who announces the coming of the LORD to Israel:

2) (Review Jn 1:23 NKJV):

"He [John the Baptist] said: "I am 'The voice of one crying in the wilderness: 'Make straight the way of the LORD,' as the prophet Isaiah said.' "

B) (Jn 1:29-34) JOHN THE BAPTIST BORE FURTHER WITNESS OF THE CHRIST WHEN HE SPOKE OF SEEING THE HOLY SPIRIT DESCENDING FROM HEAVEN LIKE A DOVE AND REMAINING UPON JESUS AS GOD'S CONFIRMATION TO JOHN THROUGH THIS REVELATION THAT JESUS WAS THE CHRIST, THE COMING MESSIAH. JOHN DID NOT KNOW JESUS AS THE CHRIST BEFORE THIS, BUT NOW JOHN DECLARES THAT THE CHRIST IS THE SON OF GOD AND THE ONE WHO BAPTIZES WITH THE HOLY SPIRIT IDENTIFYING THE BELIEVER WITH CHRIST AND HIS RIGHTEOUSNESS

(Jn 1:6 YLT) There came [into being, (cf. NASB)] a man - having been sent from God - whose name is John. (Jn 1:7 NKJV) This man came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all through Him [the Light of men, the Life, the Word, (Jn 1:1-4)] might believe, (Jn 1:8 YLT) that one was not the Light, but - that he might testify about the Light... (Jn 1:19 NKJV) Now this is the testimony of John, when the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, "Who are you?" (Jn 1:20 NKJV) He confessed, and did not deny, but confessed, "I am not the Christ." (Jn 1:21 NKJV) And they asked him, "What then? Are you Elijah?" He said, 'I am not." "Are you the Prophet?" And he answered, "No." (Jn 1:22 NKJV) Then they said to him, "Who are you, that we may give an answer to those who sent us? What do you say about yourself?" (Jn 1:23 NKJV) He said: "I am 'The voice of one crying in the wilderness: 'Make straight the way of the LORD,' as the prophet Isaiah said.' " (Jn 1:24 NKJV) Now those who were sent were from the Pharisees. (Jn 1:25 NAS) [And] they asked him, and said to him, "Why then are you baptizing, if you are not the Christ, nor Elijah, nor the Prophet?" (Jn 1:26 NKJV) John answered them saying, 'I baptize with water, but there stands One among you Whom you do not know (Jn 1:26b YLT) this One it is Who is coming after me, Who [has] been before me (Jn 1:27a YLT) of Whom I am not worthy that I may loose the cord of His sandal" (Jn 1:28 NAS) These things took place in Bethany beyond [lit., across] the Jordan where John was baptizing." (Jn 1:29 NKJV) The next day John saw Jesus coming toward him, and said, 'Behold! The Lamb of God Who takes away the sin of the world! (Jn 1:30 YLT) this is He concerning Whom I said, 'After me doth come a man, Who hath come before me, because He was before me:' (Jn 1:31 NKJV) I did not know Him; but that He should be revealed to Israel, therefore I came baptizing with water.' (Jn 1:32 NKJV)And John bore witness, saying, "I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and He remained upon Him. (Jn 1:33 NKJV) I did not know Him, but He who sent me to baptize with water said to me, 'Upon whom you see the Spirit descending, and remaining on Him, this is He Who baptizes with the Holy Spirit.' (Jn 1:34 NKJV) And I have seen and testified that this is the Son of God." ''' =

John the Baptist bore further witness of "the Christ" when he spoke of seeing the Spirit, meaning the Spirit of God, the Holy Spirit, (cf. Jn 1:33c), descending from heaven like a dove and remaining upon Jesus; evidently via direct revelation from God. John reiterates that, beforehand, he did not know Jesus as "the Christ." Then he explains that God, Who sent him to announce the coming of "the Christ," (Jn 1:6-9), revealed to him that he would see the Holy Spirit descending and remaining upon the Christ as confirmation that He was the Christ and that "this [was] He Who baptizes with the Holy Spirit," (Jn 1:33c). So John's revelation from God implies that the Holy Spirit will remain upon "the Christ" in His Humanity, as a permanent indwelling, evidently to aid Him in His mission as the atoning sacrifice for the sin of the world. The last phrase of Jn 1:33, "This is He [the Christ] Who baptizes with the Holy Spirit" implies that heretofore all believers will be baptized with the Holy Spirit which will remain on, i.e., remain in the believer as the Spirit remained on, i.e., remain in "the Christ." Since baptism signifies immersion into / an identification with something, then the Christ's baptism of individuals with the Holy Spirit signifies being immersed into the Holy Spirit to the extent of being identified with God's righteousness and holiness at the moment of faith alone in the Christ alone. This is the same as what John's water baptisms of Israelites symbolized at the time they believed. But the key difference between John the Baptist's water baptisms and the Christ's baptisms with the Holy Spirit are that John's are symbolic of the relationship with God which were established by faith through the work of the Holy Spirit, and the LORD's are the actual working of the Holy Spirit, Who will now remain upon, i.e., permanently indwell the individual as He did the Humanity of Jesus.

At the point of God's revelation to him of the Spirit descending upon Jesus, John the Baptist testified that He was "the Son of God" with the definite article, "the." The phrase "the Son of God," (Jn 1:34), which John the Baptist declared "the Christ" to be, describes "the Christ" as the unique Son of God. The meaning of the word "Son" refers to having the characteristics, the qualities of God. Hence He is both God and Perfect Man in an hypostatic union. This corroborates what author John and John the Baptist have been declaring in John chapter one: that "the Christ" is God, (Jn 1:1-3, 15, 30), Who has the characteristics and glory of God and as such makes God known to man, (Jn 1:14; 18); and Who, as God, is coming into the world in Human form, (Jn 1:23; Isa 40:3).

XVIII) [Jn 1:35-51]:

(Jn 1:35 YLT) '''On the morrow, again, John was standing, and two of his disciples,

(Jn 1:36 NKJV) And looking at Jesus as He walked, he said, "Behold the Lamb of God!"

(Jn 1:37 YLT) and the two disciples heard him speaking, and they followed Jesus.

(Jn 1:38 NKJV) [But] Jesus [having] turned, and [having seen] them following, said to them, "What do you seek?" And they said to Him, "Rabbi, (which is to say, [being interpreted] Teacher), "Where [do you reside]?"

(Jn 1:39 NKJV) He said to them, "Come and see." They came and saw where He was staying, and remained with Him that day (now it was about the tenth hour).

(Jn 1:40 NKJV) One of the two who heard John speak, and followed Him, was Andrew, Simon Peter's brother.

(Jn 1:41 NKJV) He first found his own brother Simon, and said to him, "We have found the Messiah" (which is translated the Christ).

(Jn 1:42 NKJV) And he brought him to Jesus. [And] when Jesus looked at him, He said, "You are Simon the son of Jonah. You shall be called Cephas" (which is translated, ... stone).

(Jn 1:43 NKJV) The following day Jesus wanted to go to Galilee, and He found Philip and said to him, "Follow Me."

(Jn 1:44 NKJV) Now Philip was from Bethsaida, the city of Andrew and Peter.

(Jn 1:45 NKJV) Philip found Nathanael and said to him, "We have found Him of whom Moses in the law, and also the prophets, wrote - Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph."

(Jn 1:46 NKJV) And Nathanael said to him, "Can anything good come out of Nazareth?" Philip said to him, "Come and see."

(Jn 1:47 NKJV) Jesus saw Nathanael coming toward Him, and said of him, "Behold, an Israelite indeed, in whom is no deceit!"

(Jn 1:48 NKJV) Nathanael said to Him, "How do You know me?" Jesus answered and said to him, "Before Philip called you, when you were under the fig tree, I saw you."

(Jn 1:49 NKJV) Nathanael answered and said to Him, "Rabbi, You are the Son of God! You are the King of Israel!"

(Jn 1:50 NKJV) Jesus answered and said to him, "Because I said to you, 'I saw you under the fig tree,' do you believe? You will see greater things than these."

(Jn 1:51 NKJV) And He said to him, "Most assuredly, I say to you, hereafter you shall see heaven open, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of Man." '''

A) (Jn 1:35-51) AS JOHN THE BAPTIST CONTINUED TO ANNOUNCE JESUS AS THE LAMB OF GOD, ANDREW AND ANOTHER DISCIPLE OF JOHN BEGAN TO FOLLOW JESUS. SIMON PETER, PHILIP AND NATHANAEL JOIN THEM. DECLARATIONS ARE MADE OF FINDING THE MESSIAH IN JESUS, AND THAT HE IS THE SON OF GOD AND KING OF ISRAEL. DUE TO NATHANAEL'S REMARKABLE FAITH IN HIM, JESUS SAYS TO NATHANAEL: "HEREAFTER YOU SHALL SEE HEAVEN OPEN, AND THE ANGELS OF GOD ASCENDING AND DESCENDING UPON THE SON OF MAN"

(Jn 1:29 NKJV) '''The next day John saw Jesus coming toward him, and said, "Behold! The Lamb of God Who takes away the sin of the world! (Jn 1:30 YLT) This is He concerning Whom I said, 'After me doth come a man, Who hath come before me, because He was before me:' (Jn 1:31 NKJV) I did not know Him; but that He should be revealed to Israel, therefore I came baptizing with water." (Jn 1:32 NKJV) And John bore witness, saying, "I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and He remained upon Him. (Jn 1:33 NKJV) I did not know Him, but He who sent me to baptize with water said to me, 'Upon whom you see the Spirit descending, and remaining on Him, this is He who baptizes with the Holy Spirit.' (Jn 1:34 NKJV) And I have seen and testified that this is the Son of God." (Jn 1:35 YLT) On the morrow, again, John was standing, and two of his disciples, (Jn 1:36 NKJV) And looking at Jesus as He walked, he said, "Behold the Lamb of God!" (Jn 1:37 YLT) and the two disciples heard him speaking, and they followed Jesus. (Jn 1:38 NKJV) [But] Jesus [having] turned, and [having seen] them following, said to them, "What do you seek?" And they said to Him, "Rabbi, (which is to say, [being interpreted] Teacher), "Where [do you reside]?" (Jn 1:39 NKJV) He said to them, "Come and see." They came and saw where He was staying, and remained with Him that day (now it was about the tenth hour). (Jn 1:40 NKJV) One of the two who heard John speak, and followed Him, was Andrew, Simon Peter's brother. (Jn 1:41 NKJV) He first found his own brother Simon, and said to him, "We have found the Messiah" (which is translated the Christ). (Jn 1:42 NKJV) And he brought him to Jesus. [And] when Jesus looked at him, He said, "You are Simon the son of Jonah. You shall be called Cephas" (which is translated, ... stone). (Jn 1:43 NKJV) The following day Jesus wanted to go to Galilee, and He found Philip and said to him, "Follow Me." (Jn 1:44 NKJV) Now Philip was from Bethsaida, the city of Andrew and Peter. (Jn 1:45 NKJV) Philip found Nathanael and said to him, "We have found Him of whom Moses in the law, and also the prophets, wrote - Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph." (Jn 1:46 NKJV) And Nathanael said to him, "Can anything good come out of Nazareth?" Philip said to him, "Come and see." (Jn 1:47 NKJV) Jesus saw Nathanael coming toward Him, and said of him, "Behold, an Israelite indeed, in whom is no deceit!" (Jn 1:48 NKJV) Nathanael said to Him, "How do You know me?" Jesus answered and said to him, "Before Philip called you, when you were under the fig tree, I saw you." (Jn 1:49 NKJV) Nathanael answered and said to Him, "Rabbi, You are the Son of God! You are the King of Israel!" (Jn 1:50 NKJV) Jesus answered and said to him, "Because I said to you, 'I saw you under the fig tree,' do you believe? You will see greater things than these." (Jn 1:51 NKJV) And He said to him, "Most assuredly, I say to you, hereafter you shall see heaven open, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of Man." ''' =

The day after John the Baptist recognized Jesus for the first time as "the Christ;" John who was again standing with two of his disciples, once more looking at Jesus as He walked, said, "Behold the Lamb of God." The previous day, John, when he first recognized Jesus as "the Christ" declared "Behold the Lamb of God," and at that time added, "Who takes away the sin of the world," (Jn 1:29). Note that both declarations refer to the key to the fulfillment of our LORD's mission to bring His righteous kingdom rule into the world: His atoning sacrifice for the sins of the world, offering Himself as the perfect sacrificial "Lamb of God."

So when John the Baptist said, "Behold the Lamb of God" on the next day, his two disciples, who heard John announcing the arrival of Jesus with, "Behold the Lamb of God," followed Jesus. But Jesus having turned and having seen them following, said to them, "What do you seek?" And they said to Him, "Rabbi" meaning Teacher, "Where do you reside?"

1) [Compare Jn 1:38 Greek]:

"Strapheis .........de ho IEsous kai theasamenos autous akolouthountas .legei autois

"Having turned .but ....Jesus, and .beheld ..........them ...following, ..........says .to them,

Ti ......zEteite .....Hoi .de .eipon autO ...Rhabbi ho ......legetai .....hermEneuomenon .Didaskale, pou ....meneis"

What seek you? The and said ..to him .Rabbi ..which .is to say ..being interpreted ...Teacher, ...where do you reside?"

Jesus responded to Andrew's "Where do you reside?" with "Come and see." So the two disciples of John came and saw where Jesus was staying, and remained with Him that day. And then it was about the tenth hour, (Jn 1:39), which most likely was 4 PM, since Jewish time was customarily reckoned from sunrise.

Since John the Baptist's purpose was to announce the coming of the Christ to establish His righteousness and His eternal kingdom through His atoning sacrifice for the sins of the whole world, so that men might choose to believe in Him to enter that kingdom and follow Him as disciples; then when the Christ came, that was the beginning of the culmination of John the Baptist's ministry. Hence Scripture reports that on the day after John first announced the presence of the Messiah, two of his disciples began to follow Jesus and became His disciples. Note that the two disciples' following Jesus was a signal that they had moved from being disciples of John the Baptist to disciples of Jesus the Christ, the Lamb of God. When the two men asked Jesus, "Where do you reside," they called Him "Rabbi, literally Master or Teacher. And Jesus' answer was "Come and see," which implies for them to follow Him.

One of the two disciples of John who heard John speak and followed Jesus, was named Andrew, brother of Simon Peter, (Jn 1:40). The next verse, (Jn 1:41), indicates with the beginning phrase, "He [Andrew] first found his own brother Simon" that the first thing Andrew did after visiting with Jesus was to find his brother, Simon. Andrew said to Simon, " 'We have found the Messiah,' (which is translated the Christ, [Jn 1:41].)" This corroborates that "the Christ," the annointed One of God is the Messiah

So Andrew brought Simon to Jesus, and when Jesus looked at him, He said "You are Simon the son of Jonah. You shall be called Cephas" (rendered Stone, in the NKJV, (Jn 1:42). The Aramaic word "Cephas" (KEphas), meaning "rock" is the name Jesus gave to Simon. Author John translated the aramaic word into the Greek word Petros, for his readers. "Petros"refers to a throwing sized rock as opposed to Petra, a boulder or foundational stone.

The following day, (notice that this is a sequential historical narrative), Jesus made it known that He wanted to go to Galilee. He found Philip, and He said to Philip, "Follow Me, (Jn 1:43)." Note that Philip was from Bethsaida, the city of Andrew and Peter, (Jn 1:44). Later, Philip found Nathanael and said to him: "We [evidently referring to other disciples of John the Baptist] have found Him of Whom Moses in the Law and also the Prophets wrote [OT Scripture, (Jn 1:45)]." Philip was speaking of OT Scripture passages which referred to the Messiah / Savior / Ruler coming to bring in His righteous Kingdom of God through Israel. And then Philip says, [The One Moses and the Prophets refers to is] "Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph," Whom he evidently knew as a man of his generation from the local town of Nazareth, a son of a local man named Joseph. Nathanael responded negatively with, "Can anything good come out of Nazareth?" Nathanael reflected upon the negative character of the village of Nazareth. Andrew did not debate this with Nathanael, but simply said, "Come and see," (Jn 1:46). And Nathanael did come and see. When Jesus saw Nathanael, He said, "Behold, an Israelite indeed, in whom is no deceit," (Jn 1:47). Evidently, Nathanael's character included being forthright and honest in a finite human sense. This is not to say that Nathanael was absolutely guileless as God is without guile. And Nathanael responded as if Jesus had a specially informed insight into his character with, "How do you know me?" Jesus' answer to Nathanael's question "How do you know me?" was "Before Philip called you, when you were under the fig tree, I saw you," (Jn 1:48). Jesus' answer implies a supernatural knowing of Nathanael; for walking by where Nathanael was sitting under a fig tree would not have provided insight into Nathanael's character being without guile. Nathanael's response affirms that he understood that Jesus had a supernatural knowledge of his nature: "Rabbi, You are the Son of God! You are the King of Israel!"

So Nathanael's understanding was that Jesus was the Christ, the Son of God. And Nathanael's key focus was that Jesus was coming to be King of Israel. Note that author John did not indicate that Nathanael understood that the Christ was to be, as John the Baptist said, "the Lamb of God Who takes away the sin of the world" so as to bring in His Kingdom of Righteousness not just to Israel but to the whole world. Jesus then answered Nathanael, "Because I saw you under the fig tree, do you believe? You will see greater things than these. Most assuredly [Jesus said to Nathanael] hereafter you shall see heaven open and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of Man." So Nathanael will be given spiritual vision of heaven opening and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of Man, Jesus Christ.

Jn 1:48-51 implies that Nathanael was knowledgable of passages in Scripture which related to the coming Messiah / Savior / Ruler as the Son of God and King of Israel. When Jesus referred to Nathanael seeing angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of Man, (Jn 1:51); this was similar to when John the Baptist saw the Spirit of God descending from heaven like a dove upon Jesus, (Jn 1:32); and the time when Jacob saw in a dream, the angels going up and down a ladder into the world:

2) [Compare Gen 28:10-12]:

(Gen 28:10 NKJV) "Now Jacob went out from Beersheba and went toward Haran.

(Gen 28:11 NKJV) So he came to a certain place and stayed there all night, because the sun had set. And he took one of the stones of that place and put it at his head, and he lay down in that place to sleep.

(Gen 28:12 NKJV) Then he dreamed, and behold, a ladder was set up on the earth, and its top reached to heaven; and there the angels of God were ascending and descending on it."

Jesus' statement to Nathanael in Jn 1:51, "Hereafter you will see heaven open and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of Man" has Jesus in view as the Son of Man. With the definite article, "the," a specific Son of Man is in view, a unique Human Being - a representative of Mankind, as the phrase "Son of" means having the characteristics of. The phrase "Son of Man" comes from a number of passages in the Old Testament:

3) [Compare Dan 7:9-14]:

(Dan 7:9 NKJV) "I watched till thrones were put in place, And the Ancient of Days [God the Father] was seated; His garment was white as snow, And the hair of His head was like pure wool. His throne was a fiery flame, Its wheels a burning fire;

(Dan 7:10 NKJV) A fiery stream issued And came forth from before Him. A thousand thousands ministered to Him; Ten thousand times ten thousand stood before Him. The court was seated, And the books were opened.

(Dan 7:11 NKJV) I watched then because of the sound of the pompous words which the horn was speaking; I watched till the beast was slain, and its body destroyed and given to the burning flame.

(Dan 7:12 NKJV) As for the rest of the beasts, they had their dominion taken away, yet their lives were prolonged for a season and a time.

(Dan 7:13 NKJV) I was watching in the night visions, And behold, One like the Son of Man, Coming with the clouds [angels] of heaven! He came to the Ancient of Days [God the Father], And they brought Him near before Him.

(Dan 7:14 NKJV) Then to Him was given dominion and glory and a kingdom, That all peoples, nations, and languages should serve Him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion, Which shall not pass away, And His kingdom the one Which shall not be destroyed."

The phrase, "Ancient of Days," in Dan 7:9-14 refers to God the Father. And the phrase "Son of Man" in Dan 7:13, where "Son of" means to have the characteristics of; in the case of Dan chapter 7, a representative of Man, i.e., Humanity Who at the same time is God.

With the definite article, "the" a specific Son of Man is in view, a unique Human Being Who Daniel saw in a vision "coming with the clouds of heaven" [Angels, (cf. Ps 104:1-4)] toward the Ancient of Days, [God the Father], (Dan 7:9). Note that heaven does not characteristically have clouds; nor does the Son of Man come with the clouds of heaven unless those clouds were other than literal clouds, i.e., angelic beings. Hence those clouds, it can be concluded are angelic beings, who characteristically would accompany the Son of Man, (cf. Ps 104:1-4), and lead Him into the presence of the Ancient of Days, a term used to describe God, (Dan 7:9-10). So God the Son, Who is God and Man at the same time, appears in heaven in Daniel's vision of the future in His glorified human body. So the Son of Man is led by angels into the throne room and the presence of God the Father before hosts of angelic beings and believers of ages past, (vv. 9-12). Such a unique "Son of Man," who can approach the Ancient of Days, God the Father, must also be more than a man, for verse 7:14 declares that "He was given authority, glory and sovereign power; all peoples, nations and men of every language worshipped Him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion that will not pass away; and His kingdom is one that will never be destroyed;" for only God is to be worshipped, (Dt 6:13), and has an everlasting dominion and absolute sovereign power. Hence "the Son of Man" is God and Man. So it is in the name of the Son of Man in which universal judgment is committed to Him. And in the Son of Man is fulfilled blessing and salvation through a coming Man. All of this is a function of God and God alone. So He Who bears the title of the Son of Man is God Himself.

4) [Compare Ps 80:14-17]:

(Ps 80:14 NKJV) "Return, we beseech You, O God of hosts; Look down from heaven and see, And visit this vine,

(Ps 80:15 NKJV) And the vineyard which Your right hand has planted, And the branch that You made strong for Yourself.

(PS 80:16 NKJV) It is burned with fire, it is cut down; They perish at the rebuke of Your countenance.

(PS 80:17 NKJV) Let Your hand be upon the Man of Your right hand, Upon the Son of Man Whom You made strong for Yourself."

CORROBORATION AND FURTHER COMMENTARY OF VERSES 1-18

MOVE TO JOHN CHAPTER TWO