EPHESIANS CHAPTER ONE

OBSERVATIONS

The purpose of the observation stage is to maintain focus on the text at hand in accordance with the framework in which it was written: a framework which is defined by the normative rules of language, context and logic - rules which do not impose undue, unintended meanings to the text , and which largely limit the observer to the content offered by Paul's epistle to the Ephesians and his other writings. In order for any passage from elsewhere to be considered, it must have a relationship with the context at hand, such as a Scriptural quotation or a specific cross reference in the passage at hand by the author. This will serve to avoid going on unnecessary tangents elsewhere; and more importantly, it will provide the framework for a proper and objective comparison with passages located elsewhere in Scripture.

Remember that something elsewhere may be true, but in the text at hand it may not be in view.

I) [Eph 1:1-2]:

(Eph 1:1 NASB) "Paul, ... apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God, To the saints who are at ... [Ephesus, Laodicea, Colossae, etc] [even, i.e., that is to say, to the believing ones] in Christ Jesus.

(Eph 1:2 NASB) Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

A) (Eph 1:1a) THE FIRST WORD RENDERED "PAUL" EMPHASIZES HIM AS AUTHOR OF THIS EPISTLE, APOSTLE OF CHRIST JESUS BY THE WILL OF GOD

(Eph 1:1 NASB) "Paul, ... apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God, to the saints who are at ... [Ephesus, Laodicea, Colossae, etc] [even, i.e., that is to say, to the believing ones] in Christ Jesus." =

1) [Eph 1:1 Greek Interlinear]:

(Eph 1:1 Greek) "Paulos........apostolos.Christou .IEsou dia ..........thelEmatos Theou

............................."Paul ...[an] apostle ....of Christ Jesus ..by .[the] .will .............of God,

tois ....hagiois tois ............ousin..... ...........................................................

to the saints ...the [ones] .being ... [in Ephesus, Laodicea, Colossae, etc]

kai .....................................pistois ...............en ChristO IEsou."

even, [that is to say][the] believing [ones].in Christ ...Jesus."

The first word of the epistle is "Paulos" rendered "Paul." Due to its first position in the first phrase of verse one, the name not only makes an emphatic point of declaring from whom the letter came, but the phrase goes on to declare that Paul is an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God. The Greek word "apostolos" is not accompanied by the definite article, hence it may be translated in this context accompanied by the English indefinite article to indicate that Paul is "an" apostle, (as opposed to the only apostle); or just simply translated "Paul, apostle of Christ Jesus."

The word "apostle" designates Paul as an appointed messenger of Christ Jesus by the will of God. Evidently the office of Apostle that Paul holds by the will of God has to do with being a specifically appointed messenger: Apostle for Jesus Christ, as opposed to all believers who are messengers of our Lord in a general sense. The absence of the article with the word rendered "Apostle" emphasizes having the office and characteristics of Apostle of Christ Jesus through the will of God. The immediate appearance of the phrase "Paul, ... apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God" in the epistle makes its declaration especially significant: one which authenticates the supreme value of the letter to its readers as coming from God through His chosen Apostle / Messenger Paul .

B) (Eph 1:1a) PAUL, APOSTLE OF CHRIST JESUS

(Eph 1:1 NASB) "Paul, ... apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God, to the saints who are at ... [Ephesus, Laodicea, Colossae, etc] [even, i.e., that is to say, to the believing ones] in Christ Jesus." =

1) (Eph 1:1a) [Manuscript Evidence - NTT&TC, Comfort For Eph 1:1a]:

WH NU p46, B, D P 33 and syr(h) have "apostle of Christ Jesus"

TR, Sinaiticus, A, F, G, Psi, 1739, Maj, it and syr(p) have "apostle of Jesus Christ"

The TR text and a number of manuscripts transpose "Christ Jesus" to "Jesus Christ," but this order is not characteristic of Paul in his epistles. When identifying His position in the opening verses of his epistles, he calls himself an apostle of "Christ Jesus" (See 1 Cor 1:1; 2 Cor 1:1; Col 1:1; 1 Tim 1:1; 2 Tim 1:1; Titus 1:1).

The WH, NU text has the support of the two earliest witnesses (p46, B), as well as other diverse attestation.

2) The Phrase "Christ Jesus" Has An Emphasis On The Word Rendered "Christ," Pointing To His Diety And His Annointed Purpose From God When He Took On The Form Of Humanity With A View To His Atonement For The Sins Of The Whole World

(Eph 1:1 NASB) "Paul, ... apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God, to the saints who are at ... [Ephesus, Laodicea, Colossae, etc] [even, i.e., that is to say, to the believing ones] in Christ Jesus." =

The Greek word "Christos" in the phrase, "en ChristO IEsou" rendered "in Christ Jesus" in the YLT, comes from the Greek word "chrio" meaning contact, to smear, to rub - to anoint or joyously bestow. "Chrio" is used to refer to anointing with oil for a particular purpose such as being appointed to some position or office or function. The Greek word "Christos" rendered "Christ," comes from the Hebrew word "mAshţach" meaning the anointed one which is given in Scripture an assigned usage meaning in Scripture which refers to the Messiah / Savior / Ruler of all the nations of the world in the kingdom of God, Who is to come into the world in the form of Humanity as an Israelite to deliver Israel and mankind from the bondage of sin unto residence in the Eternal Kingdom of God for those who trust in Him for it.

a) [Compare Ps 2:1-12]:

(Ps 2:1 NKJV) '''Why do the nations rage, And the people plot a vain thing?

(Ps 2:2 NKJV) The kings of the earth set themselves, And the rulers take counsel together, Against the LORD and against His Anointed [i.e., "mAshţach" = the Anointed One = "Christou" = in Christ, (Eph 1:1)], saying,

(Ps 2:3 NKJV) "Let us break Their bonds in pieces And cast away Their cords from us."

(Ps 2:4 NKJV) He who sits in the heavens shall laugh; The Lord shall hold them in derision.

(Ps 2:5 NKJV) Then He shall speak to them in His wrath, And distress them in His deep displeasure:

(Ps 2:6 NKJV) "Yet I have set My King On My holy hill of Zion.

(Ps 2:7 NKJV) I will declare the decree: The LORD has said to Me, 'You are My Son, Today I have begotten You.

(Ps 2:8 NKJV) Ask of Me, and I will give You The nations for Your inheritance, And the ends of the earth for Your possession.

(Ps 2:9 NKJV) You shall break them with a rod of iron; You shall dash them to pieces like a potter's vessel.'

(Ps 2:10 NKJV) Now therefore, be wise, O kings; Be instructed, you judges of the earth.

(Ps 2:11 NKJV) Serve the LORD with fear, And rejoice with trembling.

(Ps 2:12 NKJV) Kiss the Son, lest He be angry, And you perish in the way, When His wrath is kindled but a little. Blessed are all those who put their trust in Him." '''

The Psalmist asks why, in the sense of the futility of it, the nations of the world are in a rage, the peoples of the world, the kings and the rulers of the earth vainly plot and take counsel together and set themselves against the LORD and His Anointed. This is vanity especially in view of God's Almighty power and sovereignty, (Ps 1:1-2).

The LORD's Anointed is His chosen one to be ruler of Zion, i.e., the people of Israel, His chosen people, with David, the first king in view, (Ps 2:2, 6). The Psalmist declares that the kings and rulers of the earth in their rebellion against God and His Anointed are saying, 'Let us break their bonds in piece and cast away their cords from us,' (Ps 2:3).

The nations, peoples, kings and rulers of the world were evidently aware of the LORD and His Anointed ruler of the people of Zion. They were enraged and consorted with one another to defeat God's sovereignty over them. It was their view that they were in bondage to the LORD and His king, (Ps 2:2-3).

But the Psalmist declares that the LORD in heaven will laugh and hold them in derision. He will speak to them via His wrath and distress them via action that reflects His deep displeasure, (Ps 2:4-5).

The LORD declares that He has set His anointed king on His holy hill, Zion, (Ps 2:6).

The word Zion here refers to Jerusalem which indicates that the LORD's chosen people are Israelites whose Anointed / Chosen one is their king. Zion was originally a Canaanite city which was being conquered by David. The name Zion later on was used to refer to the temple area and then to the entire city of Jerusalem. The term 'Holy hill' is a synonym for the temple mount in Jerusalem. And the LORD declares that His Anointed / Chosen One has been begotten of God as His Son, (Ps 2:7).

In view of the fact that physical sonship is not reversible, so much the more is sonship to God irrevocable, and moreso, it is eternal because God is eternal. God goes on to say to His Anointed, "Ask of Me, and I will give you the nations for your inheritance, And the ends of the earth for your possession. You shall break them with a rod of iron; you shall dash them to pieces like a potter's vessel" (Ps 2:8-9).

The phrase "You are My son" in Ps 2:7, comes from the Davidic Covenant (2 Sam 7:14). It is appropriated in Psalm 2 to show the legitimate God ordained right of the king to rule. The phrase 'Today I have begotten You' refers to the day of one being Anointed / Chosen by God to be king of Israel, i.e., the day of the coronation of the king, and his adoption as a son of God into the family of God in an eternal life familial relationship with God. It is implied that the Anointed king of Israel, being declared to be a son of God, has the reception of eternal life and will receive an eternal kingdom inheritance to rule the nations to the ends of the earth in the future eternal kingdom, (Ps 2:8).

This also implies that the rebellion of the nations of the world toward the LORD and His Anointed, will finally be put down. In view of the lack of complete fulfillment of the prophecies in verses 1 through 9, through king David or any king after him so far, the context must jump out of the time of David to a future King of Israel, "the Anointed One, "the Christ," from the Greek, "ho Christos," Who will inherit the nations of the world, and the ends of the earth, evidently as an eternal inheritance and possession, (Ps 2:8).

So the Future Anointed of God, "the Christ," will meet the enraged nations, peoples, kings and rulers of the world in conflict and "break them with a rod of iron" and "dash them to pieces like a potter's vessel," despite the warning of the LORD through the Psalmist in verses 10-12, "Now therefore, be wise, O kings; Be instructed, you judges of the earth. Serve the LORD with fear, And rejoice with trembling. Kiss the Son, lest He be angry, And you perish in the way, When His wrath is kindled but a little. Blessed are all those who put their trust in Him." Notice that individual's throughout the world are blessed when they put their trust in the Anointed One of the LORD = "the Christ." This Anointed One is far more than a temporal king of Israel; for throughout the world one may trust in Him to be blessed. No temporal king can say or do that. Nor can the wrath of a king over all the nations of the earth be so powerful unless He is God Himself.

b) [Compare Ps 45:6-7]:

(v. 6) "Your throne, O God, will last for ever and ever; a scepter of justice will be the scepter of Your kingdom.

(v. 7) You love righteousness and hate wickedness; therefore God, Your God, has set You above Your companions by anointing You with the oil of joy."

c) [Compare Isa 9:6-7]:

(v. 6) "For a child will be born to us, [Israel, (vv. 1-5)] a Son will be given to us; And the government will rest on His shoulders; And His name will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace."

(v. 7) There will be no end to the increase of His government or of peace, On the throne of David and over His kingdom,

To establish it and to uphold it with justice and righteousness

From then on and forevermore.

The zeal of the Lord of hosts will accomplish this."

Old Testament Scripture spoke in ancient times of a Messiah Savior Who would be born as a Child and be God and Man at the same time. The prophet Isaiah verifies that a Messiah-Savior would be born of Israel Who is "Mighty God" and "Everlasting Father" Who could only then be God Himself as there are no other Gods, (Isa 43:10-11; 44:6).

Jesus (Hebrew, "yeh˘sua") refers to God the Son's name in His First Coming to die for sins. The name means "Jehovah the Savior" or "the salvation of Jehovah" or "Jehovah is salvation," (cf. Mt 1:21).

So passages with the phrase "Christ Jesus" such as Eph 1:1 stress the exalted and anointed Son of God Who graciously emptied Himself of, i.e., set aside His divine prerogatives, adding to Himself the form of perfect Humanity so as to take upon Himself the penalty of sins of the whole world by dying in the cross - the atonement for the sins of the whole world - forever to remain the GodMan. So when the Apostle Paul uses the term "Christ Jesus" he is emphasizing the grace of God with a view to His Son's atonement for the sins of the whole world.

C) (Eph 1:1b) PAUL WROTE HIS LETTER TO BE COPIED AND CIRCULATED TO THE SAINTS - TO THE BELIEVING ONES IN CHRIST JESUS - TO ALL THE CHURCHES IN ASIA MINOR FROM EPHESUS, TO LAODICEA AND ALL THE WAY TO COLOSSAE

(Eph 1:1b NASB) "Paul, ... apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God, to the saints who are at ... [Ephesus, Laodicea, Colossae, etc] [even, i.e., that is to say, to the believing ones] in Christ Jesus" =

1) [Eph 1:1 Greek Interlinear]:

(Eph 1:1 Greek) "Paulos........apostolos.Christou .IEsou dia ..........thelEmatos Theou

............................."Paul ...[an] apostle ....of Christ Jesus ..by .[the] .will .............of God,

tois ....hagiois tois ............ousin..... ...........................................................

to the saints ...the [ones] .being ... [in Ephesus, Laodicea, Colossae, etc]

kai .....................................pistois ...............en ChristO IEsou."

even, [that is to say][the] believing [ones].in Christ ...Jesus."

The word "hagiois" rendered "saints" literally means "set apart ones" or "holy ones," the ones "who are at .... [Ephesus, etc.]" - those who are identified in the last phrase of the verse as "the believing ones in Christ Jesus" for eternal life. Those individuals are specifically set apart for God's particular use - a godly and righteous use, since God is Righteous.

This word rendered "saints" is often used, as it is here in Eph 1:1, to describe the population of all who are part of that body of individuals who are called the believing ones - believers, i.e., those who have expressed a moment of faith alone in Christ alone unto eternal life. They are set apart from others because they have been commanded by God to choose daily to live godly and righteous lives as representatives of Jesus Christ on earth. This is not to say that all saints are only saints if they lead faithful lives; for the content of this letter is largely an exhortation to the saints to lead faithful lives implying that they may not always or at any time be faithful .

Since the Greek phrase "tois hagiois tois ousin en EphesO," (literally "to the saints the [ones] being at Ephesus") is joined by the Greek conjunction "kai" to the phrase "[kai] pistois en ChristO IEsou" (literally "[to the] believing [ones] in Christ Jesus"), and since the second phrase has no definite article; then the Granville Sharpe rule of Greek grammar applies. So "kai" is best rendered "even, i.e., that is to say." .......................................( on the Granville Sharpe rule). Hence the first phrase is identified and further defined by the second - both phrases describing the same thing. In this case, "the saints the [ones] being at Ephesus" is further defined and is the same as the "believing [ones] in Christ Jesus.

Furthermore, since the Greek phrase "tois hagiois tois ousin en EphesO" rendered "to the saints who are at ... [Ephesus, etc.]" is further described by the phrase which follows: "[kai] pistois en christO IEsou," then the second phrase - the latter - is best rendered "to the believing ones in Christ Jesus," and not as most versions render it, 'to the faithful in Christ Jesus,' for the following reasons:

(a) Since the Greek word "pistois," in Eph 1:1, can mean 'the believing one' or 'the faithful one' depending upon the context; and since all of those who have expressed a moment of faith alone in Christ alone are declared to be permanently "in Christ" regardless of how they live their lives, (cf. Eph 1:13-14); then the phrase "kai pistois en Christo IEsou" in Eph 1:1 has all believers in view, not just those who are faithful to Christ Jesus.

(b) Since the main theme of Paul's letter is an exhortation to believers to live faithful lives implying that believers may not, (Eph chapters 4-6); then the phrase "kai pistois en Christo IEsou" in Eph 1:1 has all believers in view, not just those who are faithful to Christ Jesus.

(c) Since a faithful believer is correctly described as faithful to Christ Jesus, not faithful "in Christ Jesus," then the phrase "kai pistois en ChristO IEsou," in Eph 1:1 points to all who are in Christ Jesus, not just the ones that are faithful to Him, i.e., all believers.

(d) If Ephesians 1:1 stipulates "to the faithful to Christ Jesus," (and it does not), then this would imply that there are believers who are always faithful to Christ Jesus all the time, contradicting the rest of this letter and Scripture. Hence the phrase "kai pistois en Christo IEsou" in Eph 1:1 has all believers in view, not just those who are faithful to Christ Jesus.

(e) Since the main theme of Paul's letter is an exhortation to all believers to live godly lives which implies that there are no believers that always live faithful lives, (cf. Eph chapters 4-6; 1 Jn 1:8-10); then the phrase "kai pistois en Christo IEsou" in Eph 1:1 has all believers in view, not just those who are faithful to Christ Jesus, hence it is best rendered "that is to say, to the believing ones in Christ Jesus."

2) [Manuscript Evidence - NTT&TC, Comfort for Eph 1:1b]:

TR, WH, NU, B(2), D, F, G, Psi, 33, Maj, syr, cop(sa) have "to the saints being in Ephesus [even, i.e., that is to say, to the believing ones] in Christ Jesus"

Sinaiticus (2), A, P, it(b), cop(bo) have "to all the saints being in Ephesus [even, i.e., that is to say, to the believing ones] in Christ Jesus" which appears in no version.

The insertion of "all" in the phrase is clearly a scribal attempt to harmonize this opening verse with several other opening verses in Paul's Epistles, where Paul addresses "all" the saints in a particular locality (see Ro 1:7; 1 Cor 1:2; 2 Cor 1:1).

The following manuscripts: p46, Sinaiticus, 672, 1739 and Marcion's Text have "to the saints being ... [even, i.e., that is to say, to the believing ones] in Christ Jesus"

This second variant, "to the saints being ... [even, i.e., that is to say, to the believing ones] in Christ Jesus" represents the original text as it was written by Paul. There are three good reasons why we can be confident about this:

(1) The definitive place name "in Ephesus" or any place name does not appear in some of the oldest and most reliable MSS. It is not found in the Chester Beatty papyrus P46 dating from about A.D. 200 (the earliest extant MS of the Pauline Epistles), nor in 1739, nor in the major fourth-century codd. Sinaiticus and Vaticanus (B) in their unrevised form. In 672, a reputable twelfth century minuscule, it is expunged by a corrector. Lightfoot believed that wherever Sinaiticus, Vaticanus (B) and 672 concurred in supporting a Pauline reading, the original text was invariably reflected. Basil the Great testified that the words "in Ephesus" were not to be discovered in any of the ancient MSS (Adv. Eunom. 2.19). Origen's commentary presupposes the omission, as Jerome confirmed. Tertullian accused Marcion of prefixing a spurious title but not of altering the text. On the other hand, "in Ephesus" occurs in commentaries from the time of John Chrysostom onwards. Considering all the evidence, however, the majority of recent textual critics are persuaded that the original reading did not contain the words.

(2) If the text had originally included "in Ephesus," there is no reason to explain why the words would have been deleted. In fact, the absence of "in Ephesus" makes for a very difficult sentence, grammatically speaking, because something has to follow the participial phrase "tois ousin," literally "the being."

(3) The scribes of p46, Sinaiticus, 1739, 672 could have done something to fix this grammatical problem, but they stayed true to their exemplars, which retained the original form as it left the hand of Paul's amanuensis. Thus, in the original document (supported by p46, Sinaiticus, 672, 1739, Marcion) a blank space was likely left between "tois ousin" (literally, "the ones being") and "kai pistois en ChristO IEsou ("[even, i.e., that is to say, to the believing ones] in Christ Jesus"). The blank would be filled in with the name of each local church ("in Ephesus," "in Laodicea,""in Colossae," etc.) as the epistle circulated from city to city. Later manuscripts reflect the insertion of "in Ephesus" because Ephesus was the leading city in that region.

Paul evidently intended this epistle to be a general encyclical sent to the churches in Asia, of which Ephesus was one of the leading churches. No doubt, the epistle would have gone to Ephesus (perhaps first) and then on to other churches. Each time the epistle went to another church, the name of the locality would be supplied after the expression "to the saints in ..." Zuntz (1953, 228) indicated that this procedure also occurred with some multiple copies of royal letters during the Hellenistic period; the master copy would have a blank for the addressee and would be filled in for each copy. Zuntz considered the blank space in the address to the Ephesians to go back to the original. In the later textual tradition, certain scribes identified this epistle with Ephesus and therefore inserted "in Ephesus." In his own NT canon, Marcion listed this letter as the Epistle to the Ladoiceans. But this designation was never inserted into any manuscript that we know of. However, Marcion's designation signals that the epistle had probably gone to Laodicea. This epistle is probably one and the same as the letter Paul mentions in Col 4:16, where he tells the Colossians, "see to it that you also read the letter from Laodicea." This language indicates that a letter (presumably written by Paul) would be coming to the Colossians from Laodicea. Since it is fairly certain that Ephesians was written and sent at the same time as Colossians (Tychicus carried both epistles - Eph 6:21; Col 4:7-9), it can be assumed that Paul would expect that the encyclical epistle now known as Ephesians would eventually circulate from Colossae to Laodicea. Coming from Rome, Tychicus would have first arrived at Ephesus along the coast, then traveled north to Smyrna and Pergamum, then turned southeast to Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, Laodicea - and then on to Colossae (as perhaps the last stop). We can surmise that this circulation route would have been similar to the one for the book of Revelation (Rev 1:11), which was also sent to the churches in Asia Minor, (The book of Revelation was circulated from Ephesus to Smyrna to Pergamum to Thyatira to Sardis to Philadelphia to Laodicea.) Just to the southeast of Laodicea was Colossae, thereby making it the next logical stop.

The content of this epistle affirms its general nature, for it lacks the usual references to local situations and persons as found in Paul's other epistles. Paul had lived with the Christians at Ephesus for three years (Acts 20:31). He knew them intimately; and yet in this epistle there are no personal greetings or specific exhortations. When we consider Paul's manner in many of his other epistles (see the conclusions to Romans, 1 Corinthians, Philippians, and Colossians), it would be quite unlike him to have excluded these personal expressions.

Thus, the position that Ephesians was an encyclical helps to substantiate Pauline authorship of Ephesians. Those who doubt Paul's authorship argue that Ephesians has wording which makes it sound as if Paul did not know his readers. For example, in 1:15, Paul wrote, 'ever since I heard about your faith,' and in 3:2, 'surely you have heard about my stewardship.' But this epistle was intended for an audience much greater than Ephesus. Paul was addressing those believers who had never had face-to-face contact with him.

In the end it must be said that this textual variant has significant import on the exegesis of this book. If the addressee is assumed to be a particular local church (Ephesus), then this church is called upon to be far more than any local church ever hope to be. If the addressee is assumed to be the church at large, then it is easier to view this epistle as Paul's treatise on the universal church, the body of Christ. As such, it is not encumbered with local problems. It soars high above any mundane affairs and takes us into heaven, where we are presented with a heavenly view of the church as it fits into God's eternal plan. In this epistle Paul paints the church with multifarious splendor. He depicts her as God's inheritance (1:11, see NRSVmg NLTmg), Christ's body, His fullness (1:22-2:3), God's masterpiece (2:10, the one new person (2:15), the household of God (2:19), the habitation of God (2:21-22), the joint body comprised of Jewish and Gentile believers (3:6), the vessel for God to display His multifarious wisdom (3:10), the body equaling Christ's full stature (4:12-13), the full-grown, perfect person (4:13), the body growing into a building (4:16), the bride of Christ (5:23-32), the object of Christ's love (5:25), the very members of Christ's body (5:30), and God's warrior against Satan, (6:11-18). The church he pictured with words was the church in ideal perfection, the church as seen from heaven - but not yet manifested on earth in fullness. There is not one local church throughout all history that has ever come close to matching this ideal. This is the [destiny] of the universal church.

Two translations (RSV and NJB) attempted to follow the shorter, original superior reading. But in order to make good English they had to render the last part of the verse as 'to the saints who are faithful in Christ Jesus.' However, this rendering skips "kai" and becomes a translation of "tois aliois tois ousin pistois en ChristO Insou," literally translated as "To the saints at ... Ephesius, etc., [even, i.e., that is to say, to the believing ones] in Christ Jesus.' Paul's original document addressed two groups: (1) the saints being in ____, and (2) [even, i.e., that is to say, to the believing ones] in Christ Jesus. Of course, the 'kai' could function epexegetically ('the saints in ___, [even, i.e., that is to say, to the believing ones] in Christ Jesus"). Either way, the entire Greek text as it stands in the earliest witnesses (p46, Sinaiticus, Vaticanus (B)) has not been accurately rendered in any English translation. I would suggest the following:

"Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus through God's will to the saints who are at ______ [even, i.e., that is to say, to the believing ones] in Christ Jesus."

Although most copies of Paul's letter which have been found so far have been addressed specifically to the saints who are in Ephesus, a city in Asia Minor; there are a number of very key ancient manuscripts which have no address except to "the believing ones in Christ Jesus:" Three of these manuscripts have been found which omit the words "en EphesO" in Eph 1:1 with no substitutes: the Chester Beatty papyrus p46 dating from about A.D. 200 (the earliest extant MS of the Pauline Epistles), and two of the major fourth-century codd. Sinaiticus 01 aleph-org, and Vaticanus 03, B-org - in their unrevised form. Weiss' printed edition of the Greek text, (1894-1900) also omits any references to "en EphesO" or any city. Furthermore, Basil the Great testified that the words "in Ephesus" were not to be discovered in any of the ancient MSS, (Adv. Eunom. 2:19). Prigen's commentary presupposes the omission, as Jerome confirmed. And the majority of recent textual critics are persuaded that the original reading did not contain the words "en EphesO." Note that Marcion also referred to this epistle as the Epistle to the Laodiceans, which points to his observation that it was not necessarily limited to addressing the saints in Ephesus. Furthermore, Paul in his letter to the believers in Colosse exhorted them to read the letter he sent to the believers in Laodicea which is possibly the same as the one that was sent to Ephesus. Finally, since every copy of the letter includes the phrase rendered "to the believing [ones] in Christ Jesus," and since the letter was sent all over the world with the understanding that its message was applicable to every group of believers; then we may conclude that Paul's letter is applicable to all believers in Christ Jesus throughout the world from the time of Paul to the end of the age.

D) (Eph 1:2) GRACE AND PEACE TO YOU FROM GOD OUR FATHER AND THE LORD JESUS CHRIST - TO THE SAINTS WHO ARE AT ... THAT IS TO SAY TO THE BELIEVING ONES IN CHRIST JESUS

(Eph 1:2 NASB) "Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ."

1) The Phrase "Grace To You" Refers To Unmerited Godly Blessing To The Saints At ... Ephesius, etc., The Believing Ones In Christ Jesus From God Our Father And The Lord Jesus Christ

(Eph 1:2 NASB) "Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ." =

a) In Eph 1:2, Grace Is Defined As Unmerited Godly Blessing To The Saints At ... Ephesius, etc., The Believing Ones In Christ Jesus, From God Our Father And The Lord Jesus Christ

(Eph 1:2 NASB) "Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ." =

In Eph 1:2, grace is defined as unmerited godly blessing to the Saints at ... Ephesius, etc., the believing ones in Christ Jesus, from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ to which Paul as if in a prayer has requested God to do so to the believing ones who are at ... [Ephesus, Laodicea, Colossae, etc] [even, i.e., that is to say, to the believing ones] in Christ Jesus.

i) [Complete Biblical Library Greek-English Dictionary notes on "charis" = grace]:

"God’s grace is again the main theme of the New Testament. Charis occurs about 155 times in the New Testament, about 100 of these in the letters of Paul. Charis plays a crucial role in the New Testament’s presentation of God’s relationship to mankind. Grace is the autograph of the decree of God’s kingdom; it is governed by grace. Grace also shapes existence in the new age (Luke 4:19). The concept of charis is consistently defined in terms of God’s “gracious” act of redemption in Christ. His intervention in history for establishing a new covenant as well as His effort to maintain the new covenant are manifestations of His grace. Grace is simultaneously the cause as well as the effect of the saving work of Christ. The main gifts we receive because of grace are the forgiveness of sins, fellowship with God, and eternal life (see Romans 3:24f.; 5:1f.; Ephesians 2:5f.).

Everything that Jesus says and does reveals and actualizes the grace of God; thus, “grace and truth came by Jesus Christ” (John 1:17), and “of his fulness have all we received, and grace for grace” (John 1:16). Jesus’ message about the kingdom of God, the central element of His preaching, expresses God’s grace. The Kingdom’s coming is a sovereign act of grace, an unmerited, undeserved, merciful gift (Matthew 18:14; Luke 2:14; 12:32). The recipients of grace include the unworthy (Matthew 5:5; 11:5; Luke 15:21f.; 18:13,14), the lost (Luke 15), and the sinful (Matthew 9:13). By virtue of the shedding of His blood Jesus established the new covenant; moreover, He secured redemption for pardoned sinners (Matthew 26:28).

Grace is also a central concept in Paul’s theology; his entire theology might be termed “a theology of grace." God’s grace partially concerns the favor and goodness of God toward sinners which displaces His wrath (Romans 5:2). At the same time, Paul considered grace to pertain also to the merciful act of God in sending His Son as the atonement for humanity’s sins (Romans 5:8,9). Because of His grace God justifies the unworthy and undeserving. Through grace in Christ He grants them a share in eternal life (Romans 3:24f.; 5:1f.,15).

Being a Christian means one is a “partaker” of grace (Philippians 1:7). It is in this grace that believers “stand” (Romans 5:2). Grace is the sphere of existence for believers (Romans 1:7; 1 Corinthians 1:3; Colossians 1:2), and they live every aspect of their lives in light of this. They are, as Paul said in Romans 6:14, “under grace.” Although they “stand” in grace, they may also “fall” from it (Galatians 5:4).

Grace as a way of salvation stands in radical opposition to any notion that one can be saved by the Law (ibid., 9:394f.). Grace excludes any hope of achieving righteousness through works of the Law or self-redemption (Romans 6:14; Galatians 5:4). Likewise, human praise and wisdom are ineffective for securing salvation, “For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God: not of works, lest any man should boast” (Ephesians 2:8,9; cf. Titus 3:5). Grace and faith, therefore, complement one another (Romans 4:16; Ephesians 2:8). By faith we accept grace, and by faith the grace is in effect. Grace and faith, then, form an inseparable unity (1 Timothy 1:14).

In one sense it is proper to speak of different levels of grace (Romans 12:6; Ephesians 4:7). God’s grace may be manifest expressly through the gifts (charismata [see 5321]) given and distributed by the Spirit. Believers also can be strong or weak in their faith (2 Timothy 2:1; cf. John 1:16; 2 Peter 3:18). The effects of grace take place on a multiplicity of levels. One can speak of the “manifold grace of God” (1 Peter 4:10; cf. Romans 1:11; 2 Corinthians 1:15). The various gifts of grace and demonstrations of grace are all manifestations of the one grace—the grace of God in Christ. Grace instructs us in holy living and provides the impetus for sanctification (cf. 2 Timothy 2:1; Titus 2:12).

Paul’s understanding of grace is echoed elsewhere in the New Testament. The message of God’s saving act in Christ is thus described as “the gospel of the grace of God” (Acts 20:24) and the “word of his grace” (Acts 20:32; cf. 14:3). In this work of grace Christ tastes death (Hebrews 2:9). And at the “throne of grace” believers receive “grace to help” (Hebrews 4:16). To become a Christian is to experience the grace of God and to hold it fast (Acts 11:23; 13:43).

John did not speak of grace as frequently as the apostle Paul; however, his whole notion of love (agapE ) includes the concept of grace. Here too the notion of grace involves first and foremost the saving act of God in Christ, just as it did for Paul (John 1:14,16; cf. 1:17). Grace forms the basis for fellowship with God and the forgiveness of sins (1 John 1:6ff.). And again, faith works hand in hand with grace to see that forgiveness realized (John 3:16,36; etc.).

In summary, one could say that charis primarily denotes the demonstration of God’s grace, favor, kindness toward mankind. This especially relates to the work of Christ as that demonstration. Moreover, it concerns the effects of this gesture of grace: a new relationship with God based upon faith and grace. Charis further expresses the manifestations of God’s grace that believers continue to receive in the life of the Church (e.g., the charismata").

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b) (Eph 1:2) The Phrase "Peace From God Our Father And The Lord Jesus Christ" Refers To The Peace That The Saints, The Believing Ones In Christ Jesus Can All Experience In Their Mortal And Eternal Lives

(Eph 1:2 NASB) "Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ." =

The phrase "Peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ" in Eph 1:2 refers to the peace that the saints, the believing ones in Christ Jesus can all experience in their mortal and eternal lives.

i) [Complete Biblical Library Greek-English Dictionary notes on peace]:

"It is primarily in the light of this rich heritage from the Old Testament that "Eirene" [rendered "peace" in Eph 1:2] is understood in the New Testament. Now the prophetic hope of the future "shal˘m," [rendered] “peace,” is about to be fulfilled in Jesus Christ. At His birth the angels sang of peace on earth (Luke 2:14). When Jesus entered Jerusalem on His journey to suffering and death, the multitude sang, in accordance with Zechariah 9:9,10, of “peace in heaven” (Luke 19:38). From the day of the Fall man has been at enmity, at war, with God. People are “alienated and enemies” not only because of their deeds but because of their disposition (Colossians 1:21; the carnal mind is at enmity against God [Romans 8:7]). If there was to be peace between God and man, God himself had to take the initiative. He did so when He sent His Son, He Who “is our peace” (Ephesians 2:14). At His atoning death for our sins we were reconciled to God in spite of our sins. The message of reconciliation is called “the gospel of peace” (Acts 10:36; Ephesians 2:17; 6:15), and the God who has performed this is called “the God of peace” (cf. Romans 5:2-5). The Holy Spirit bears the fruit of peace in the life of the believer (Galatians 5:22). The attitude of peace within the Christian is acquired through the new relationship with God. In turn, believers can also affect their surroundings: “Blessed are the peacemakers”—literally “those who make peace” (Matthew 5:9). The Christian is admonished to live peaceably with all men, if it is possible (Romans 12:18; Hebrews 12:14). Believers are to seek peace and to pursue it (1 Peter 3:11). This is especially applicable in relationships with other believers (2 Corinthians 13:11; Ephesians 4:3; 1 Thessalonians 5:13; 2 Timothy 2:22). Thus "Eirene" as a fruit of the Spirit concerns the heart of the individual. Peace is not only a condition in relation to God and men; it is also a blessed experience in concrete life situations. It affords a good conscience (Luke 7:50; 8:48), and the believer can experience the peace of God. Still, the peace he feels is something much more than a matter of feelings. The peace of the soul which he experiences is grounded on the real declaration of peace with God that has been made through Christ. This is the background of the words of Jesus when He promised His disciples “my peace” (John 14:27). No external circumstances can rob this peace from a believer, not even the greatest tribulation (John 16:33; Romans 8:35-39). This peace will be with a believer (1 Corinthians 1:3), it will reign in his or her heart (Colossians 3:15), and it will keep his or her heart and thoughts in Christ Jesus (Philippians 4:7). The New Testament does not imagine any permanent political peace in the world during this age. On the contrary, war and strife should be expected right into the last days (Matthew 24:6; Revelation 12:17; 13:7; 19:19; passim). When the new heaven and the new earth are created, peace will reign. The prophecies of the Old Testament of eternal peace will have their total fulfillment in the new earth where righteousness lives (2 Peter 3:13). Thus peace corresponds to the language of the Old Testament; peace is the consummation of the eschatological salvation."

c) (Eph 1:2) The Last Part Of The Phrase "Grace To You And Peace From God Our Father And The Lord Jesus Christ" In Eph 1:2 Establishes The Originator Of The Grace And Peace To Be God Our Father And The Lord Jesus Christ. It Also Establishes That God Is Declared To Be The Father Of Those Who Are Saints Including The Apostle Paul, That Is To Say The Ones Believing In Christ Jesus - The Ones Who Have Become Children Of God

(Eph 1:2 NASB) "Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ." =

The last part of the phrase "Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ" in Eph 1:2 establishes the Originator of the grace and peace to be God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. It also establishes that God is declared to be the Father of those who are saints, including the Apostle Paul, that is to say the ones believing in Christ Jesus - the ones who have become children of God.

i) [Compare Ro 8:15-16]:

(Ro 8:15 NASB) '''For you have not received a spirit of slavery leading to fear again, but you have received a spirit of adoption as sons by which we cry out, "Abba! Father!"

(Ro 8:16 NASB) The Spirit Himself testifies with our spirit that we are children of God" '''

II) [Eph 1:3-14]:

(Eph 1:3 NASB) "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who [did bless] us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ,

(Eph 1:4 HCSB) for He chose us in Him, before the foundation of the world, to be holy and blameless in His sight [in love],

(Eph 1:5 NKJV) having predestined us to adoption as sons by Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the good pleasure of His will,

(Eph 1:6 NASB) to the praise of the glory of His grace, [of] which He freely bestowed on us in the Beloved [One].

(Eph 1:7 NASB) In Him [lit. Whom] we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of His grace

(Eph 1:8 NKJV) which He made to abound toward us in all wisdom and prudence [i.e., insight],

(Eph 1:9 NKJV) having made known to us the mystery of His will, according to His good pleasure which He purposed in Himself,

(Eph 1:10 NKJV) that in the dispensation [i.e., the administration] of the fullness [the completion] of the times He might gather together in one all things in Christ, ... which are [on the heavens] and which are on earth - in Him [Christ];

(Eph 1:11 NKJV) In Him also we have obtained an [eternal] inheritance, [having been] predestined according to the purpose of Him Who [is working] all things according to the counsel of His will.

(Eph 1:12 NASB) to the end that we who were [the ones having first put hope] in [the] Christ would be to the praise of His glory.

(Eph 1:13 YLT) in Whom [in Christ, (v. 12)] [you] also, having heard the word of the truth - the good news of your salvation - in Whom [Christ, (vv. 12-13)] also having believed, [you] were sealed with the Holy Spirit of the promise [of eternal life / redemption],

(Eph 1:14 NKJV) Who / Which is the guarantee [lit., "arrhabOn" = deposit, pledge] of our inheritance until the redemption of the purchased possession [God's possession - the believer, v. 13], to the praise of His glory."

A) (Eph 1:3-14) IN THE NEXT 12 VERSES FROM EPH 1:3-14 - WHICH VERSES COMPRISE ONE SINGLE SENTENCE - PERHAPS OFTEN SUNG AS A HYMN IN CONGREGATION, PAUL EXPRESSES HIS PERSONAL LOVE AND PRAISE TOWARD GOD HIS FATHER AND HIS LORD JESUS CHRIST ON BEHALF OF ALL THE SAINTS: ON BEHALF OF ALL OF THE BELIEVING ONES IN CHRIST JESUS. IT IS GOD TO WHOM PAUL GIVES PRAISE AND BLESSING, WHO HAS ALREADY BLESSED ALL HIS CHILDREN IN CHRIST THROUGH THE SAVING EVENTS OF HIS SON'S LIFE, DEATH AND RESURRECTION. PAUL CONTINUES THIS DISCUSSION OF BELIEVERS' SPIRITUAL BLESSINGS BY SHOWING THAT THEY ARE BASED ON THE WORK OF THE THREE PERSONS OF THE GODHEAD - THE TRINITY: THE SELECTION OF THE FATHER (VV. 3-6); THE REDEMPTIVE WORK - THE SACRIFICE OF THE SON (VV. 7-12), AND THE SEAL OF THE HOLY SPIRIT (VV. 13-14)

(Eph 1:3 NASB) "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who [did bless] us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ,

(Eph 1:4 HCSB) for He chose us in Him, before the foundation of the world, to be holy and blameless in His sight [in love],

(Eph 1:5 NKJV) having predestined us to adoption as sons by Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the good pleasure of His will,

(Eph 1:6 NASB) to the praise of the glory of His grace, [of] which He freely bestowed on us in the Beloved [One].

(Eph 1:7 NASB) In Him [lit. Whom] we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of His grace

(Eph 1:8 NKJV) which He made to abound toward us in all wisdom and prudence [i.e., insight],

(Eph 1:9 NKJV) having made known to us the mystery of His will, according to His good pleasure which He purposed in Himself,

(Eph 1:10 NKJV) that in the dispensation [i.e., the administration] of the fullness [the completion] of the times He might gather together in one all things in Christ, ... which are [on the heavens] and which are on earth - in Him [Christ];

(Eph 1:11 NKJV) In Him also we have obtained an [eternal] inheritance, [having been] predestined according to the purpose of Him Who [is working] all things according to the counsel of His will.

(Eph 1:12 NASB) to the end that we who were [the ones having first put hope] in [the] Christ would be to the praise of His glory.

(Eph 1:13 YLT) in Whom [in Christ, (v. 12)] [you] also, having heard the word of the truth - the good news of your salvation - in Whom [Christ, (vv. 12-13)] also having believed, [you] were sealed with the Holy Spirit of the promise [of eternal life / redemption],

(Eph 1:14 NKJV) Who / Which is the guarantee [lit., "arrhabOn" = deposit, pledge] of our inheritance until the redemption of the purchased possession [God's possession - the believer, v. 13], to the praise of His glory." =

In the next 12 verses from Eph 1:3-14 - which verses comprise one single sentence - perhaps often sung as a hymn in congregation, Paul expresses his personal love and praise toward God his Father and his Lord Jesus Christ on behalf of all the saints: on behalf of all of the believing ones in Christ Jesus. It is God to Whom Paul gives praise and blessing, Who has already blessed all His children in Christ through the saving events of His Son's life, death and resurrection. Paul continues this discussion of believers' spiritual blesshings by showing that they are based on the work of the three Persons of the Godhead - the Trinity: the election of the Father (vv. 3-6); the redemptive work - the sacrifice of the Son (vv. 7-12), and the seal of the Holy Spirit (vv. 13-14) as follows:

(1) being blessed with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places, (v. 3);

(2) becoming God's eternal possession, (vv. 4, 14);

(3) being transformed in the future into beings which will experience being holy and blameless in His sight, (v. 4);

(4) being adopted as sons [of God] by Jesus Christ to Himself [God], (v. 5);

(5) being bestowed with the grace of God, (v. 6);

(6) receiving eternal redemption through His [Christ's] blood, the forgiveness of their trespasses - both in the present and in the future final redemptive state holy and blameless, (vv. 4, 7, 14);

(7) abounding in the wisdom and prudence of God, (v. 8);

(8) having been made known to them the mystery of God's will of the gathering together in one all things in Christ, (v. 9);

(9) obtaining an eternal inheritance and thus being the praise of God's glory (v. 11);

(10) receiving possession of salvation unto eternal life which is guaranteed by the seal of the Holy Spirit personally indwelling each believer forever, (vv. 13-14);

(11) being included / sealed in Christ forever unto the promise of eternal life / redemption / eternal inheritance via the guarantee of the Holy Spirit Who has indwelled them as a deposit guarantee, (vv. 11, 13-14).

B) (Eph 1:3) AUTHOR AND APOSTLE PAUL PRAISES / BLESSES THE GOD AND FATHER OF OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST ON BEHALF OF ALL THE SAINTS FOR HAVING BESTOWED UPON THEM - THE ONES BELIEVING IN CHRIST JESUS - EVERY SPIRITUAL BLESSING IN THE HEAVENLY PLACES IN CHRIST IN THE SENSE OF BY MEANS OF CHRIST

(Eph 1:3 NASB) "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who [did bless] us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ," =

1) Manuscript evidence for Eph 1:3 - NT Text And Translation Commentary, Philip W. Comfort, Tyndale, Carol Stream, Ill, 2008

WE HO Sinaiticus, A, Vaticanus (B), D, K, L, P, Elzev, Gries, Lach, Treg, Alf, Word, Tisc, Weis, Dod, UBS, Various modern text editions have "in Christ."

TR has "with Christ"

The preponderance of manuscript evidence points to "in Christ" as the original text.

2) (Eph 1:3) Author And Apostle Paul Praises / Blesses The God And Father Of Our Lord Jesus Christ On Behalf Of All The Saints For Having Bestowed Upon Them - The Ones Believing In Christ Jesus - Every Spiritual Blessing In The Heavenly Places In Christ In The Sense Of By Means Of Christ

(Eph 1:3 NASB) "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who [did bless] us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ," =

Paul repeatedly expressed praise toward God his Father and his Lord Jesus Christ on behalf of the saints in Eph 1:3-14, beginning with "Blessed [is] God the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ," in verse 3. The Greek word "Eulogetos" rendered "Blessed" literally means "speaking well of." Paul is praising and extolling God because God did bless us [the saints, including the apostle Paul - the believing ones in Christ Jesus, (v. 1)] in every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ - in the sense of by means of. At the end of the passage, Paul finishes this section at the end of verse 14 with "to the praise of His [God's] glory." Paul repeats statements like these as in vv. 3, 6, 7, 12, 14 much like an anthem - a hymn to be sung by believers in congregation.

In Eph 1:2, it is stipulated that God is the Father of all the saints - the ones believing in Christ Jesus. Here in verse 3, God is declared to be the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the word "hemon" rendered "our" twice implying that the saints, the ones believing in Christ Jesus belong to the Lord Jesus Christ. Since the Lord Jesus Christ is the Son of God and since the saints are thus declared to have a familial connection with Jesus Christ, then they have a familial connection with God as their Father as He is declared to be "God our Father" in Eph 1:2. The emphasis of the saints being in the family of God as children of God belonging to the Lord Jesus Christ is evidently an eternal relationship and a blessed one, wholly by God's grace as a result of their moment of faith in His Son, in accordance with the spiritual blessings bestowed by God in the heavenly places in Christ upon the saints.

The aorist, nominative participle "eulogEsas" rendered "who did bless" in the next phrase in Eph 1:3, "[God] Who did bless us in every spiritual blessing in the heavenly .places in Christ," which literally means, 'having blessed,' points to God's having blessed all believers in a one time completed action in the past - eternity past. And all saints, those who have believed in Christ Jesus including the apostle Paul are thereby blessed by God their Father with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly realms - every spiritual enrichment needed for the spiritual life in the temporal life and for all eternity with God. Since these benefits have already been bestowed on believers, they should not ask for them but rather appropriate them in their temporal lives by continuing in the faith, evidently through a study and obedience to God's Word and constant acknowledgment of their shortcomings before God .

The sphere of God's spiritual enrichment is through being placed into Christ. As a result of being in Christ, of having believed in Him for eternal life, these spiritual blessings have been made available to the saint - the one believing in Christ Jesus. So the place of these 'blessings' is in the heavenly realms. Thus these blessings are spiritual, not limited to the material; heavenly, not limited to the earthly; eternal, not limited to the temporal life.

C) (Eph 1:4) AUTHOR AND APOSTLE PAUL PRAISES / BLESSES THE GOD AND FATHER OF OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST ON BEHALF OF ALL THE SAINTS FOR HAVING BESTOWED EVERY SPIRITUAL BLESSING IN THE HEAVENLY PLACES UPON THE SAINTS - THE ONES BELIEVING IN CHRIST JESUS, FOR HE CHOSE US IN HIM BEFORE THE FOUNDATION OF THE WORLD, TO BE HOLY AND BLAMELESS IN HIS SIGHT IN LOVE

(Eph 1:3 NASB) "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who [did bless] us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ, (Eph 1:4 HCSB) for He chose us in Him, before the foundation of the world, to be holy and blameless in His sight [in love]," =

1) (Eph 1:4) Manuscript Evidence - NTT&TC, Comfort for Eph 1:4

Most manuscripts read "He chose us in Him." Two manuscripts (F, G) change this to "He chose us in [by] Himself." The difference could have been accidental (the omission of one letter, nu) or intentional (in order to make God the Father both the elector and the source of election). But as it is in the text, the Father is the elector and Christ is the source and sphere of election.

2) (Eph 1:4) Author And Apostle Paul Praises / Blesses The God And Father Of Our Lord Jesus Christ On Behalf Of All The Saints For Having Bestowed Every Spiritual Blessing In The Heavenly Places Upon The Saints - The Ones Believing In Christ Jesus, For He Chose Us In Him Before The Foundation Of The World, To Be Holy And Blameless In His Sight In Love

(Eph 1:3 NASB) "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, Who [did bless] us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ, (Eph 1:4 HCSB) for He chose us in Him, before the foundation of the world, to be holy and blameless in His sight [in love] =

Paul continues the long sentence of Eph 1:3-14:

Verse 3 reads

"Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, Who [did bless] us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ,

[then verse 4 provides the first blessing]:

for He [God] chose us in Him, before the foundation of the world, to be holy and blameless in His sight [in love].

God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, Who did bless "us" = saints, believing ones in Christ Jesus, (v. 1), with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ, (v. 3). For He chose "us" before the foundation / before the creation of the world to be in Him with a view to "our" eternal destiny of being holy - set apart to be His possession and to be in "our" experience of being holy and without blame, i.e., to be without sin in His sight. And all of this was decreed to be done out of God's agapE / godly love for us. The phrase rendered "in Him" as well as the words "in Christ" in verse 3: "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who [did bless] us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ," indicate that all of God's blessings are decreed before the creation of the world to come to those whom He chose to be "in Christ," literally "in the sphere of Christ," i.e., to belong to Him.

Every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ in view in Eph 1:3 will be bestowed because of the election of God: through the work of God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ which He decreed will come to pass.

a) [Compare Eph 1:11]:

(Eph 1:11 NKJV) "In Him also we have obtained an [eternal] inheritance, [having been] predestined according to the purpose of Him Who [is working] all things according to the counsel of His will."

These blessings will not occur because of anything believers do, might become or might persevere in. For God Himself has taken the initiative to provide salvation to them - before the creation of the world. It is His choosing - His election - based upon His grace, not upon man's merit, (cf. Eph 2:8-9). And the purpose of God's election is so that those whom He has chosen should be "holy and blameless in His sight" evidently to be transformed by God into holy and blameless creatures when they receive their promised eternal inheritance, (Eph 1:7-14). This is the God side of our salvation - God's choosing individuals, before the creation of the world, to be in Christ: "to be holy and blameless in His sight in love" - out of His agapE love for them. On the human side which is not immediately in view in this passage, (but will be in view in chapter 2), all individuals may and must exercise a moment of faith alone in Christ alone of their own free will to be saved unto eternal life and that alone, which will evidently corroborate in perfect agreement with God's election before the creation of the world: those whom God has chosen will all choose to believe in His Son; and those whom God has not chosen will all not choose to believe in His Son, albeit they will be given every opportunity to do so because God's Son has provided atonement for the sins of the whole world, (1 Jn 2:2), not just those whom He chose.

Furthermore, Eph 1:4 stipulates that God chose people so that they would "be holy and blameless in His sight in love," - out of His agapE love for them. And it will evidently be through His work, not the saint's when they will experience the final stage of their redemption, (Eph 1:7-14). The words rendered "in love" at the end of verse 4 are taken to modify what came before in verse 4 as opposed to characterizing what comes later in the next verse.

D) (Eph 1:5) AUTHOR AND APOSTLE PAUL PRAISES / BLESSES THE GOD AND FATHER OF OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST ON BEHALF OF ALL THE SAINTS FOR HAVING BESTOWED EVERY SPIRITUAL BLESSING IN THE HEAVENLY PLACES UPON THE SAINTS - THE ONES BELIEVING IN CHRIST JESUS, FOR HE CHOSE US IN HIM BEFORE THE FOUNDATION OF THE WORLD, TO BE HOLY AND BLAMELESS IN HIS SIGHT IN LOVE, HAVING PREDESTINED THEM TO ETERNAL LIFE AND ADOPTION AS SONS BY JESUS CHRIST TO HIMSELF, ACCORDING TO THE GOOD PLEASURE OF HIS WILL

(Eph 1:3 NASB) "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who [did bless] us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ, (Eph 1:4 HCSB) for He chose us in Him, before the foundation of the world, to be holy and blameless in His sight [in love], (Eph 1:5 NKJV) having predestined us to adoption as sons by Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the good pleasure of His will," =

Verse 5 further defines verse 4's "for He chose us in Him before the foundation of the world to be holy and blameless in His sight [in love]," with the second blessing afforded to those whom God chose before the foundation of the world: "having predestined us to adoption as sons by Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the good pleasure of His will." Note that "as sons" is not stipulated in the Greek text of Eph 1:5, it is nevertheless implied.

The cause of God's election is God's predestination of believers unto sonship. The Greek word "proorisas," rendered "predestined" means "determined beforehand." The believers' predetermined destiny is their being adopted as full-fledged sons of God through Jesus Christ, the Agent of the adoption - the One through Whom they received eternal life and sonship via their free will moment of trust in Him alone for it.

God predestined those whom He chose to be in Him [in Christ] before the foundation of the world: those whom He chose to be holy and blameless in His sight in love: to be blessed with adoption as His sons by Jesus Christ, [through His redemption for them which they will inevitably choose of their own free wills to believe in, (Eph 1:7-14)], according to the pleasure of His will - His perfect and righteous will.

In this context it seems that predestination logically precedes election: after God looked forward to the glorious destiny of adopting believers into His family, He chose those amongst all mankind before the foundation of the world to choose of their own volition to become believers, (cf. Rom. 8:30 where "predestined" precedes "called," which refers to His efficacious saving). All this was done in accordance with His pleasure (cf. Eph. 1:9) and will (cf. vv. 1, 9, 11), that is, He delighted to impart His spiritual benefits to His children.

1) [Compare Ro 8:28-30]:

(Ro 8:28 YLT) "And we have known that to those loving God all things do work together for [godly] good, to those who are called according to [His] purpose.

(Ro 8:29 NKJV) For whom He foreknew, He also predestined to be conformed to the image [of glory] of His Son, that He might be the firstborn among many brethren.

(Ro 8:30 NKJV) Moreover whom He predestined, these He also called; whom He called, these He also justified; and whom He justified, these He also glorified."

Note that Jesus Christ is God's Son by nature, but those who trust in God's Son become children of God and coheirs with Christ by adoption and grace, (cf. Ro 8:15-17) - all of this according to the good pleasure of His will. God's satisfaction is in view - the expression of His Essence. It was God's good pleasure that they should be brought to Him - to become His children.

2) [Compare Ro 8:15-17 ]:

(Ro 8:15 NKJV) "For you did not receive the spirit of bondage again to fear, but you received the Spirit of adoption by whom we cry out, 'Abba, Father.'

(Ro 8:16 NIV) The Spirit Himself testifies with our spirit that we are God's children

(Ro 8:17 ASV) and if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ; if so be that we suffer with him, that we may be also glorified with Him."

E) (Eph 1:6) IN EPH 1:6, AUTHOR AND APOSTLE PAUL PRAISES / BLESSES THE GOD AND FATHER OF OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST ON BEHALF OF ALL THE SAINTS FOR HAVING BESWOWED EVERY SPIRITUAL BLESSING IN THE HEAVENLY PLACES UPON THE SAINTS - THE BELIEVING ONES IN CHRIST JESUS, FOR HE CHOSE US IN HIM BEFORE THE FOUNDATION OF THE WORLD, TO BE HOLY AND BLAMELESS IN HIS SIGHT IN LOVE, HAVING PREDESTINED THEM TO ETERNAL LIFE AND ADOPTION AS SONS BY JESUS CHRIST TO HIMSELF, ACCORDING TO THE GOOD PLEASURE OF HIS WILL, TO THE PRAISE OF THE GLORY OF HIS GRACE, [OF] WHICH HE FREELY BESTOWED ON US IN THE BELOVED ONE - JESUS CHRIST

(Eph 1:3 NASB) "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who [did bless] us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ, (Eph 1:4 HCSB) for He chose us in Him, before the foundation of the world, to be holy and blameless in His sight [in love], (Eph 1:5 NKJV) having predestined us to adoption as sons by Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the good pleasure of His will, (Eph 1:6 NASB) to the praise of the glory of His grace, [of] which He freely bestowed on us in the Beloved [One]." =

1) Manuscript Evidence - NTT&TC, Comfort for Eph 1:6a

WH NU read [Genetive case] "His grace of which He freely bestowed on us," Genitive case according to p46, Sinaiticus-org, A, Vaticanus (B), P, 33, Lach, Treg, Alf, Tisc, 1739, sod, UBS.

This was adjusted in later manuscripts [to Dative case] (Sinaiticus(corr -2), D, F, G, K, L, Psi, Maj (- so TR), and some modern text editions to read "His grace in which He freely bestowed on us" in order to avoid the difficulty of the genitive rendered "of which."

Either way the meaning is the same, the scribal adjustment unnecessary.

2) Manuscript Evidence - NTT&TC, Comfort for Eph 1:6b

The expression rendered "in the beloved one" was expanded unnecessarily in a number of Western witnesses (D, F, G, it, syr(h) and cop(sa) to "in His beloved Son."

3) (Eph 1:6) Author And Apostle Paul Praises / Blesses The God And Father Of Our Lord Jesus Christ On Behalf Of All The Saints For Having Bestowed Every Spiritual Blessing In The Heavenly Places Upon The Saints - The Ones Believing In Christ Jesus, For He Chose Us In Him Before The Foundation Of The World, To Be Holy And Blameless In His Sight In Love, Having Predestined Them To Eternal Life And Adoption As Sons By Jesus Christ To Himself, According To The Good Pleasure Of His Will, To The Praise Of The Glory Of His Grace, [Of] Which He Freely Bestowed On Us In The Beloved One - Jesus Christ

(Eph 1:3 NASB) "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who [did bless] us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ, (Eph 1:4 HCSB) for He chose us in Him, before the foundation of the world, to be holy and blameless in His sight [in love], (Eph 1:5 NKJV) having predestined us to adoption as sons by Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the good pleasure of His will, (Eph 1:6 NASB) to the praise of the glory of His grace, [of] which He freely bestowed on us in the Beloved [One]." =

In verse 3, author and Apostle Paul praises / blesses the God and Father of our Lord Christ on behalf of all the saints for having bestowed every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places upon the saints - the ones believing in Christ Jesus, for Paul wrote in verse 4 that He [God] chose us in Him before the foundation of the world, to be holy and blameless in His sight in love, (v. 5) having predestined them to eternal life and adoption as sons by Jesus Christ to Himself [God], according to the good pleasure of His will, (vv. 5-7; 11-14) to the praise of the glory of His grace, [of] which He freely bestowed on us in the Beloved One - Jesus Christ.

So in v. 6, Paul emphasized the glory of God's grace which He freely bestowed on the saints in the Beloved One in the sense of by means of His Son, Jesus Christ - His redemption for mankind's sins. The grace of God refers to unmerited / undeserved favor which He freely bestowed on the believers in the Beloved [One] referring to His Son. The word "grace" is modified by "glory" in the sense of deserving / reflecting the splendor, the honor the absolute righteousness / holiness of God as exemplified by what God has bestowed on those who have trusted in His Son for eternal life - which is certainly worthy of the praise of those so blessed by God.

Paul repeatedly expressed praise toward God his Father and his Lord Jesus Christ on behalf of the saints in Eph 1:3-14. Paul is thus praising and extolling God because God did blesss us [the saints, including the apostle Paul - the believing ones in Christ Jesus, (v. 1)] in every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ, (v. 3).

F) (Eph 1:7) AUTHOR AND APOSTLE PAUL PRAISES / BLESSES THE GOD AND FATHER OF OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST ON BEHALF OF ALL THE SAINTS FOR HAVING BESTOWED EVERY SPIRITUAL BLESSING IN THE HEAVENLY PLACES UPON THE SAINTS - THE ONES BELIEVING IN CHRIST JESUS, FOR HE CHOSE US IN HIM BEFORE THE FOUNDATION OF THE WORLD, TO BE HOLY AND BLAMELESS IN HIS SIGHT IN LOVE, HAVING PREDESTINED THEM TO ETERNAL LIFE AND ADOPTION AS SONS BY JESUS CHRIST TO HIMSELF, ACCORDING TO THE GOOD PLEASURE OF HIS WILL, TO THE PRAISE OF THE GLORY OF HIS GRACE, [OF] WHICH HE FREELY BESTOWED ON US IN THE BELOVED ONE - JESUS CHRIST, IN WHOM WE HAVE REDEMPTION THROUGH HIS BLOOD, THE FORGIVENESS OF OUR TRESPASSES, ACCORDING TO THE RICHES OF HIS GRACE

(Eph 1:3 NASB) "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who [did bless] us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ, (Eph 1:4 HCSB) for He chose us in Him, before the foundation of the world, to be holy and blameless in His sight [in love], (Eph 1:5 NKJV) having predestined us to adoption as sons by Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the good pleasure of His will, (Eph 1:6 NASB) to the praise of the glory of His grace, [of] which He freely bestowed on us in the Beloved [One]. (Eph 1:7 NASB) In [Whom] we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of His grace" =

1) Manuscript Evidence - NTT&TC, Comfort for Eph 1:7

A few manuscripts (Sinaiticus-org, D-org, Psi, 104, 2495) changed the present tense rendered "we have [redemption]" to the past tense ("we had [redemption]"). Although Christ's accomplishment of redemption was a past act, it is a present possession for believers; thus the present tense here is appropriate. Influenced by Ro 2:4, a few other witnesses (A cop (bo) changed "grace" to "kindness," amounting to the same meaning - unmerited favor.

2) (Eph 1:7) Author And Apostle Paul Praises / Blesses The God And Father Of Our Lord Jesus Christ On Behalf Of All The Saints For Having Bestowed Every Spiritual Blessing In The Heavenly Places Upon The Saints - The Ones Believing In Christ Jesus, For He Chose Us In Him Before The Foundation Of The World, To Be Holy And Blameless In His Sight In Love, Having Predestined Them To Eternal Life And Adoption As Sons By Jesus Christ To Himself, According To The Good Pleasure Of His Will, To The Praise Of The Glory Of His Grace, [Of] Which He Freely Bestowed On Us In The Beloved One - Jesus Christ, In Whom We Have Redemption Through His Blood, The Forgiveness Of Our Trespasses, According To The Riches Of His Grace

(Eph 1:3 NASB) "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who [did bless] us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ, (Eph 1:4 HCSB) for He chose us in Him, before the foundation of the world, to be holy and blameless in His sight [in love], (Eph 1:5 NKJV) having predestined us to adoption as sons by Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the good pleasure of His will, (Eph 1:6 NASB) to the praise of the glory of His grace, [of] which He freely bestowed on us in the Beloved [One], (Eph 1:7 NASB) In [Whom] we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of His grace" =

Author and Apostle Paul praises / blesses the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ on behalf of all the saints for having bestowed every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places upon the saints - the ones believing in Christ Jesus, for He chose us in Him before the foundation of the world, to be holy and blameless in His sight in love, having predestined them to eternal life and adoption as sons by Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the good pleasure of his will, to the praise of the glory of His grace, [of] which He freely bestowed on us in the Beloved One - [by means of Jesus Christ], in Whom we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of His grace.

The phrase in Eph 1:7 rendered "in Whom we have redemption through His blood" has in view the redemption, Greek "tEn apolutrOsin," accusative case - the payment for the trespasses / sins particularly of the saints, the believing ones in Christ Jesus Who paid for the sins of all mankind with His sacrifice by the shedding of His blood upon the cross, (cf. Ro 3:21-24 ; 1 Jn 2:2). The Greek word "apolutrOsin" rendered "redemption" implies that sin had formerly held all mankind captive to a self-destructive lifestyle of sin. "ApolutrOsin" is further defined in Eph 1:7 as "the forgiveness of our trespasses," evidently through a moment of faith in Christ's redemption through His blood which brings every spiritual blessing to the saint, the one believing in Christ Jesus. So Eph 1:7 has in view the soteriological [salvation] meaning - the present redemption / salvation; while Eph 1:14 has the Holy Spirit having been given as a pledge or guarantee of a future inheritance: the eschatolotical redemption which is waiting for "us" "until the future redemption of the purchased possession.

The apostle repeated this thought in Ephesians 4:30, using the same Greek word "apolutrOseOs," genetive case where he declared that we have received the Holy Spirit as a seal until the day of our redemption - looking to the future redemption, the eschatological meaning of the word relative to believers in Christ, the saints,.

This is identical with what Paul termed “the redemption of our body” (Romans 8:23), (Greek "tEn apolutrOsin," accusative case).

Note that "trespasses" (paraptOmatOn) are lapses, while "sins" (hamartiai) are shortcomings - both referring to the same thing. There is no distinction between thoughts and deeds when they fall short of the Righteousness of God. The shedding of blood indicates that Jesus Christ in His Humanity actually went to and died on the cross, refuting the myth that He did not actually pay for sins in this manner. And the redemption of Jesus Christ is further defined as "the forgiveness of our trespasses" - the forgiveness of the saint himself, his intrinsic sinful nature at the moment when he believes in Jesus Christ for forgiveness . And this forgiveness is "according to the riches of His [God's] grace," according to the measure of the wealth of God's unmerited favor to everyone who exercises a moment of faith alone in His Son alone for eternal life.

G) (Eph 1:8-9) AUTHOR AND APOSTLE PAUL PRAISES / BLESSES THE GOD AND FATHER OF OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST ON BEHALF OF ALL THE SAINTS FOR HAVING BESTOWED EVERY SPIRITUAL BLESSING IN THE HEAVENLY PLACES UPON THE SAINTS - THE ONES BELIEVING IN CHRIST JESUS, FOR HE CHOSE US IN HIM BEFORE THE FOUNDATION OF THE WORLD, TO BE HOLY AND BLAMELESS IN HIS SIGHT IN LOVE, HAVING PREDESTINED THEM TO ETERNAL LIFE AND ADOPTION AS SONS BY JESUS CHRIST TO HIMSELF, ACCORDING TO THE GOOD PLEASURE OF HIS WILL, TO THE PRAISE OF THE GLORY OF HIS GRACE, [OF] WHICH HE FREELY BESTOWED ON US IN THE BELOVED [ONE] - JESUS CHRIST, IN WHOM WE HAVE REDEMPTION THROUGH HIS BLOOD, THE FORGIVENESS OF OUR TRESPASSES, ACCORDING TO THE RICHES OF HIS GRACE WHICH HE MADE TO ABOUND TOWARD US IN ALL WISDOM AND PRUDENCE, HAVING MADE KNOWN TO US THE MYSTERY OF HIS WILL, ACCORDING TO HIS GOOD PLEASURE WHICH HE PURPOSED IN HIMSELF

(Eph 1:3 NASB) "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who [did bless] us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ, (Eph 1:4 HCSB) for He chose us in Him, before the foundation of the world, to be holy and blameless in His sight [in love], (Eph 1:5 NKJV) having predestined us to adoption as sons by Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the good pleasure of His will, (Eph 1:6 NASB) to the praise of the glory of His grace, of which He freely bestowed on us in the Beloved [One], (Eph 1:7 NASB) In [Whom] we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of His grace (Eph 1:8 NKJV) which He made to abound toward us in all wisdom and prudence [i.e., insight], (Eph 1:9 NKJV) having made known to us the mystery of His will, according to His good pleasure which He purposed in Himself," =

Author and Apostle Paul praises / blesses the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ on behalf of all the saints for having bestowed every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places upon the saints - the ones believing in Christ Jesus, for He chose us in Him before the foundation of the world, to be holy and blameless in His sight in love, having predestined them to eternal life and adoption as sons by Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the good pleasure of His will, to the praise of the glory of His grace, of which He freely bestowed on us in the Beloved [One] - Jesus Christ, in Whom we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of His grace which He made to abound toward us in all wisdom and prudence, having made known to us the mystery of His will, according to His good pleasure which He purposed in Himself.

Notice that the riches of God's grace are made to abound toward the saints in all wisdom and prudence in the sense of in our understanding of it as wisdom and prudence from God. God gives the saints - the believing ones in Christ Jesus wisdom, i.e., objective insight into the true nature of God's revelation and understanding - the subjective apprehension of it, rendered "prudence." So believers are able to grasp the wisdom of God through the grace of God, i.e., the grace perception of God's truths. And verse 9 indicates that these particular truths have been made known to the saints - the mystery - something kept hidden until a certain time - of His will, according to His good pleasure which He purposed in Himself.

From eternity past the Father cherished in His own mind a plan that was to be carried out in Christ. This has now been revealed to the church through Paul. In the rest of Ephesians the content of the plan is more fully elaborated. Here the apostle restricts himself to a brief summary.

H) (Eph 1:10) AUTHOR AND APOSTLE PAUL PRAISES / BLESSES THE GOD AND FATHER OF OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST ON BEHALF OF ALL THE SAINTS FOR HAVING BESTOWED EVERY SPIRITUAL BLESSING IN THE HEAVENLY PLACES UPON THE SAINTS - THE ONES BELIEVING IN CHRIST JESUS, FOR HE CHOSE US IN HIM BEFORE THE FOUNDATION OF THE WORLD, TO BE HOLY AND BLAMELESS IN HIS SIGHT IN LOVE, HAVING PREDESTINED THEM TO ETERNAL LIFE AND ADOPTION AS SONS BY JESUS CHRIST TO HIMSELF, ACCORDING TO THE GOOD PLEASURE OF HIS WILL, TO THE PRAISE OF THE GLORY OF HIS GRACE, [OF] WHICH HE FREELY BESTOWED ON US IN THE BELOVED [ONE] - JESUS CHRIST, IN WHOM WE HAVE REDEMPTION THROUGH HIS BLOOD, THE FORGIVENESS OF OUR TRESPASSES, ACCORDING TO THE RICHES OF HIS GRACE WHICH HE MADE TO ABOUND TOWARD US IN ALL WISDOM AND PRUDENCE, HAVING MADE KNOWN TO US THE MYSTERY OF HIS WILL, ACCORDING TO HIS GOOD PLEASURE WHICH HE PURPOSED IN HIMSELF, THAT IN THE DISPENSATION [I.E., THE ADMINISTRATION] OF THE FULLNESS [THE COMPLETION] OF THE TIMES HE MIGHT GATHER TOGETHER IN ONE ALL THINGS IN CHRIST, ... WHICH ARE [ON THE HEAVENS] AND WHICH ARE ON EARTH - IN HIM [CHRIST]

(Eph 1:3 NASB) "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who [did bless] us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ, (Eph 1:4 HCSB) for He chose us in Him, before the foundation of the world, to be holy and blameless in His sight [in love], (Eph 1:5 NKJV) having predestined us to adoption as sons by Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the good pleasure of His will, (Eph 1:6 NASB) to the praise of the glory of His grace, [of] which He freely bestowed on us in the Beloved [One], (Eph 1:7 NASB) In [Whom] we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of His grace (Eph 1:8 NKJV) which He made to abound toward us in all wisdom and prudence [i.e., insight], (Eph 1:9 NKJV) having made known to us the mystery of His will, according to His good pleasure which He purposed in Himself, (Eph 1:10 NKJV) that in the dispensation [i.e., the administration] of the fullness [the completion] of the times He might gather together in one all things in Christ, ... which are [on the heavens] and which are on earth - in Him [Christ]." =

1) Manuscript Evidence - NTT&TC, Comfort for Eph 1:10

TR, Steph have "both"

WE HO, Sinaiticus-org, A, Vaticanus (B), D, K, L, P, Lach, Treg, Alf, Word, Tisc, Weis, SOD, UBS and Modern Text Editions omit "both"

The insertion of "both" does not change what is being conveyed.

WH, NU, p46, Sinaiticus-org, Vaticanus (B), D, L, Lach, Treg, Alf, Tisc, Weis, SOD, UBS, Modern Text Editions) have "on the heavens."

TR, Sinaiticus-corr, A, F, G, Psi, 33, 1739, syr(h), K, P, byz, bo have the reading with the preposition "in" rendered "in heaven."

The second reading was a scribal change motivated by one of two reasons: (1) it sounds odd to speak of things being "on/upon (epi) the heavens" of (2) the text was conformed to Col 1:20, a parallel passage. The first factor motivated all English translators to make the phrase read, "the things in heaven."

There was no need to change the original text.

2) (Eph 1:10) Author And Apostle Paul Praises / Blesses The God And Father Of Our Lord Jesus Christ On Behalf Of All The Saints For Having Bestowed Every Spiritual Blessing In The Heavenly Places Upon The Saints - The Ones Believing In Christ Jesus, For He Chose Us In Him Before The Foundation Of The World, To Be Holy And Blameless In His Sight In Love, Having Predestined Them To Eternal Life And Adoption As Sons By Jesus Christ To Himself, According To The Good Pleasure Of His Will, To The Praise Of The Glory Of His Grace, [Of] Which He Freely Bestowed On Us In The Beloved One - Jesus Christ, In Whom We Have Redemption Through His Blood, The Forgiveness Of Our Trespasses, According To The Riches Of His Grace Which He Made To Abound Toward Us In All Wisdom And Prudence, Having Made Known To Us The Mystery Of His Will, According To His Good Pleasure Which He Purposed In Himself, That In The Dispensation [i.e., The Administration] Of The Fullness [The Completion] Of The Times He Might Gather Together In One All Things In Christ, ... Which Are [On The Heavens] And Which Are On Earth - In Him [Christ]

(Eph 1:3 NASB) "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who [did bless] us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ, (Eph 1:4 HCSB) for He chose us in Him, before the foundation of the world, to be holy and blameless in His sight [in love], (Eph 1:5 NKJV) having predestined us to adoption as sons by Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the good pleasure of His will, (Eph 1:6 NASB) to the praise of the glory of His grace, [of] which He freely bestowed on us in the Beloved [One], (Eph 1:7 NASB) In [Whom] we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of His grace (Eph 1:8 NKJV) which He made to abound toward us in all wisdom and prudence [i.e., insight], (Eph 1:9 NKJV) having made known to us the mystery of His will, according to His good pleasure which He purposed in Himself, (Eph 1:10 NKJV) that in the dispensation [i.e., the administration] of the fullness [the completion] of the times He might gather together in one all things in Christ, ... which are [on the heavens] and which are on earth - in Him [Christ]." =

Paul then refers to the dispensation, i.e., to the administration of God relative to the principles by which His Sovereignty, His rule is administered - to its fullness, to its completion at which time God will gather together all things in Christ - all things which are on the heavens and which are in earth in Him: under His, Jesus Christ's rule, (cf. 1 Cor 15:24-28; Col 1:20). So salvation history is regarded as unfolding in a series of administrations or economies or seasons that reach completion / fulfillment in Christ beginning with His Second Advent. Hence the present age of grace must still run its course until Christ comes again to rule forever over all things in heaven and on earth.

Note that this implies that there are no other worlds, no other universes, no other peoples outside of those which Christ will rule over, as some contend there were / are / will be.

I) (Eph 1:11) AUTHOR AND APOSTLE PAUL PRAISES / BLESSES THE GOD AND FATHER OF OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST ON BEHALF OF ALL THE SAINTS FOR HAVING BESTOWED EVERY SPIRITUAL BLESSING IN THE HEAVENLY PLACES UPON THE SAINTS - THE ONES BELIEVING IN CHRIST JESUS, FOR HE CHOSE US IN HIM BEFORE THE FOUNDATION OF THE WORLD, TO BE HOLY AND BLAMELESS IN HIS SIGHT IN LOVE, HAVING PREDESTINED THEM TO ETERNAL LIFE AND ADOPTION AS SONS BY JESUS CHRIST TO HIMSELF, ACCORDING TO THE GOOD PLEASURE OF HIS WILL, TO THE PRAISE OF THE GLORY OF HIS GRACE, [OF] WHICH HE FREELY BESTOWED ON US IN THE BELOVED [ONE] - JESUS CHRIST, IN WHOM WE HAVE REDEMPTION THROUGH HIS BLOOD, THE FORGIVENESS OF OUR TRESPASSES, ACCORDING TO THE RICHES OF HIS GRACE WHICH HE MADE TO ABOUND TOWARD US IN ALL WISDOM AND PRUDENCE, HAVING MADE KNOWN TO US THE MYSTERY OF HIS WILL, ACCORDING TO HIS GOOD PLEASURE WHICH HE PURPOSED IN HIMSELF, THAT IN THE DISPENSATION OF THE FULLNESS OF THE TIMES HE MIGHT GATHER TOGETHER IN ONE ALL THINGS IN CHRIST, ... WHICH ARE ON THE HEAVENS AND WHICH ARE ON EARTH - IN HIM, IN HIM ALSO WE HAVE OBTAINED AN [ETERNAL] INHERITANCE, [HAVING BEEN] PREDESTINED ACCORDING TO THE PURPOSE OF HIM WHO IS WORKING ALL THINGS ACCORDING TO THE COUNSEL OF HIS WILL

(Eph 1:3 NASB) "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who [did bless] us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ, (Eph 1:4 HCSB) for He chose us in Him, before the foundation of the world, to be holy and blameless in His sight [in love], (Eph 1:5 NKJV) having predestined us to adoption as sons by Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the good pleasure of His will, (Eph 1:6 NASB) to the praise of the glory of His grace, [of] which He freely bestowed on us in the Beloved [One], (Eph 1:7 NASB) In [Whom] we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of His grace (Eph 1:8 NKJV) which He made to abound toward us in all wisdom and prudence [i.e., insight], (Eph 1:9 NKJV) having made known to us the mystery of His will, according to His good pleasure which He purposed in Himself, (Eph 1:10 NKJV) that in the dispensation [i.e., the administration] of the fullness [the completion] of the times He might gather together in one all things in Christ, ... which are [on the heavens] and which are on earth - in Him [Christ]; (Eph 1:11 NKJV) In Him also we have obtained an [eternal] inheritance, [having been] predestined according to the purpose of Him Who [is working] all things according to the counsel of His will." =

1) Manuscript Evidence - NTT&TC, Comfort for Eph 1:11

TR WH NU p46, p92, Sinaiticus, A, Vaticanus (B), C have the reading "En hO kai EklerOthemEn" in the passive voice which can be rendered in two ways (1) "in Whom also we were made an inheritance" or (2) "in Whom also we have obtained an [eternal] inheritance." This reading, followed by most English versions (although variously rendered), has excellent testimony.

A, D, (F*), G. have "En hO kai EklethOmen" rendered "in [by] whom also we were called").

The earliest manuscripts, including p46 and p92, affirm the reading "EklerOthemen." As just noted, this Greek word in this context has been interpreted to mean (1) believers have become God's inheritance or (2) believers have been given a portion of God's inheritance. The first meaning accords with the passive voice, although it is more difficult to imagine the believers being God's inheritance than vice versa. Nevertheless it has the best manuscript evidence and hence is best rendered "in Him also we have obtained an [eternal] inheritance." Nevertheless, the text was changed to the more common expression, "EklethOmen" ("we were called"). A few modern versions reflect this amelioration - notably the NIV, which reads, "we were chosen." The better attestation is the best rendering.

2) (Eph 1:11) Author And Apostle Paul Praises / Blesses The God And Father Of Our Lord Jesus Christ On Behalf Of All The Saints For Having Bestowed Every Spiritual Blessing In The Heavenly Places Upon The Saints - The Ones Believing In Christ Jesus, For He Chose Us In Him Before The Foundation Of The World, To Be Holy And Blameless In His Sight In Love, Having Predestined Them To Eternal Life And Adoption As Sons By Jesus Christ To Himself, According To The Good Pleasure Of His Will, To The Praise Of The Glory Of His Grace, [Of] Which He Freely Bestowed On Us In The Beloved One - Jesus Christ, In Whom We Have Redemption Through His Blood, The Forgiveness Of Our Trespasses, According To The Riches Of His Grace Which He Made To Abound Toward Us In All Wisdom And Prudence, Having Made Known To Us The Mystery Of His Will, According To His Good Pleasure Which He Purposed In Himself, That In The Dispensation Of The Fullness Of The Times He Might Gather Together In One All Things In Christ, ... Which Are On The Heavens And Which Are On Earth - In Him. In Him Also We Have Obtained An [Eternal] Inheritance, [Having Been] Predestined According To The Purpose Of Him Who Is Working All Things According To The Counsel Of His Will

(Eph 1:3 NASB) "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who [did bless] us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ, (Eph 1:4 HCSB) for He chose us in Him, before the foundation of the world, to be holy and blameless in His sight [in love], (Eph 1:5 NKJV) having predestined us to adoption as sons by Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the good pleasure of His will, (Eph 1:6 NASB) to the praise of the glory of His grace, [of] which He freely bestowed on us in the Beloved [One], (Eph 1:7 NASB) In [Whom] we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of His grace (Eph 1:8 NKJV) which He made to abound toward us in all wisdom and prudence [i.e., insight], (Eph 1:9 NKJV) having made known to us the mystery of His will, according to His good pleasure which He purposed in Himself, (Eph 1:10 NKJV) that in the dispensation [i.e., the administration] of the fullness [the completion] of the times He might gather together in one all things in Christ, ... which are [on the heavens] and which are on earth - in Him [Christ]; (Eph 1:11 NKJV) In Him also we have obtained an [eternal] inheritance, [having been] predestined according to the purpose of Him Who [is working] all things according to the counsel of His will." =

And in Him - Jesus Christ - also, in addition to becoming holy and blameless in His sight in love, (v. 4); and in addition to [having been] predestined to adoption as sons [of God] by Jesus Christ to Himself, (v. 5); and in addition to having redemption through His blood, the forgivenesses of our trespasses, (v. 7); we - saints, the ones believing in Christ Jesus - both Jew and Gentile, (v. 1), also have obtained an [eternal] inheritance - eternal because the inheritance is further described as "in the heavenly places," (v. 3); including adoption as sons of God Who is Eternal, (v. 4); including eternal redemption through Christ's blood, the eternal forgiveness of trespasses, (v. 7).

And we saints have been predestined for this eternal inheritance according to the purpose of Him [God], Who is working all things according to the counsel of His will, (v. 11). Note that the word "also" refers in this case to additional spiritual blessings for all the saints - Jew and Gentile, not just to the Gentiles as some contend.

J) (Eph 1:12) AUTHOR AND APOSTLE PAUL PRAISES / BLESSES THE GOD AND FATHER OF OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST ON BEHALF OF ALL THE SAINTS FOR HAVING BESTOWED EVERY SPIRITUAL BLESSING IN THE HEAVENLY PLACES UPON THE SAINTS - THE ONES BELIEVING IN CHRIST JESUS, FOR HE CHOSE US IN HIM BEFORE THE FOUNDATION OF THE WORLD, TO BE HOLY AND BLAMELESS IN HIS SIGHT IN LOVE, HAVING PREDESTINED THEM TO ETERNAL LIFE AND ADOPTION AS SONS [OF GOD] BY JESUS CHRIST TO HIMSELF [GOD], ACCORDING TO THE GOOD PLEASURE OF HIS WILL, TO THE PRAISE OF THE GLORY OF HIS GRACE, [OF] WHICH HE FREELY BESTOWED ON US IN THE BELOVED [ONE] - JESUS CHRIST, IN WHOM WE HAVE REDEMPTION THROUGH HIS BLOOD, THE FORGIVENESS OF OUR TRESPASSES, ACCORDING TO THE RICHES OF HIS GRACE WHICH HE MADE TO ABOUND TOWARD US IN ALL WISDOM AND PRUDENCE, HAVING MADE KNOWN TO US THE MYSTERY OF HIS WILL, ACCORDING TO HIS GOOD PLEASURE WHICH HE PURPOSED IN HIMSELF, THAT IN THE DISPENSATION OF THE FULLNESS OF THE TIMES HE MIGHT GATHER TOGETHER IN ONE ALL THINGS IN CHRIST, ... WHICH ARE ON THE HEAVENS AND WHICH ARE ON EARTH - IN HIM, IN HIM ALSO WE HAVE OBTAINED AN [ETERNAL] INHERITANCE, [HAVING BEEN] PREDESTINED ACCORDING TO THE PURPOSE OF HIM WHO IS WORKING ALL THINGS ACCORDING TO THE COUNSEL OF HIS WILL, TO THE END THAT WE WHO WERE [THE ONES HAVING FIRST PUT HOPE] IN [THE] CHRIST WOULD BE TO THE PRAISE OF HIS GLORY

(Eph 1:3 NASB) "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who [did bless] us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ, (Eph 1:4 HCSB) for He chose us in Him, before the foundation of the world, to be holy and blameless in His sight [in love], (Eph 1:5 NKJV) having predestined us to adoption as sons [of God] by Jesus Christ to Himself [God], according to the good pleasure of His will, (Eph 1:6 NASB) to the praise of the glory of His grace, [of] which He freely bestowed on us in the Beloved [One], (Eph 1:7 NASB) In [Whom] we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of His grace (Eph 1:8 NKJV) which He made to abound toward us in all wisdom and prudence [i.e., insight], (Eph 1:9 NKJV) having made known to us the mystery of His will, according to His good pleasure which He purposed in Himself, (Eph 1:10 NKJV) that in the dispensation [i.e., the administration] of the fullness [the completion] of the times He might gather together in one all things in Christ, ... which are [on the heavens] and which are on earth - in Him [Christ]; (Eph 1:11 NKJV) In Him also we have obtained an [eternal] inheritance, [having been] predestined according to the purpose of Him Who [is working] all things according to the counsel of His will, (Eph 1:12 NASB) to the end that we who were [the ones having first put hope] in [the] Christ would be to the praise of His glory" =

1) Manuscript Evidence - NTT&TC, Comfort for Eph 1:12

A, Steph have no article before "doxes" rendered "glory."

WE, HO, Sinaiticus, Vaticanus (B), D, K, L, P, byz, Lach, Treg, Alf, Word, Tisc, Weis, Sod, UBS and various modern text editions have the definite article before "glory."

2) (Eph 1:12) Author And Apostle Paul Praises / Blesses The God And Father Of Our Lord Jesus Christ On Behalf Of All The Saints For Having Bestowed Every Spiritual Blessing In The Heavenly Places Upon The Saints - The Ones Believing In Christ Jesus, For He Chose Us In Him Before The Foundation Of The World, To Be Holy And Blameless In His Sight In Love, Having Predestined Them To Eternal Life And Adoption As Sons [Of God] By Jesus Christ To Himself [God], According To The Good Pleasure Of His Will, To The Praise Of The Glory Of His Grace, [Of] Which He Freely Bestowed On Us In The Beloved One - Jesus Christ, In Whom We Have Redemption Through His Blood, The Forgiveness Of Our Trespasses, According To The Riches Of His Grace Which He Made To Abound Toward Us In All Wisdom And Prudence, Having Made Known To Us The Mystery Of His Will, According To His Good Pleasure Which He Purposed In Himself, That In The Dispensation Of The Fullness Of The Times He Might Gather Together In One All Things In Christ, ... Which Are On The Heavens And Which Are On Earth - In Him. In Him Also We Have Obtained An [Eternal] Inheritance, [Having Been] Predestined According To The Purpose Of Him Who Is Working All Things According To The Counsel Of His Will, to the end that we who were [the ones having first put hope] in [the] Christ would be to the praise of His glory

(Eph 1:3 NASB) "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who [did bless] us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ, (Eph 1:4 HCSB) for He chose us in Him, before the foundation of the world, to be holy and blameless in His sight [in love], (Eph 1:5 NKJV) having predestined us to adoption as sons [of God] by Jesus Christ to Himself [God], according to the good pleasure of His will, (Eph 1:6 NASB) to the praise of the glory of His grace, [of] which He freely bestowed on us in the Beloved [One], (Eph 1:7 NASB) In [Whom] we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of His grace (Eph 1:8 NKJV) which He made to abound toward us in all wisdom and prudence [i.e., insight], (Eph 1:9 NKJV) having made known to us the mystery of His will, according to His good pleasure which He purposed in Himself, (Eph 1:10 NKJV) that in the dispensation [i.e., the administration] of the fullness [the completion] of the times He might gather together in one all things in Christ, ... which are [on the heavens] and which are on earth - in Him [Christ]; (Eph 1:11 NKJV) In Him also we have obtained an [eternal] inheritance, [having been] predestined according to the purpose of Him Who [is working] all things according to the counsel of His will, (Eph 1:12 NASB) to the end that we who were [the ones having first put hope] in [the] Christ would be to the praise of His glory" =

Verse 11 stipulates that it is in Him, Jesus Christ, we - saints, the believing ones in Christ Jesus, (v. 1), Jews and Gentiles alike - have obtained an eternal inheritance, [having been] predestined according to the purpose of Him [God] Who is working all things according to the counsel of His will. Whereupon verse 12 continues on the subject of the predestined inheritance of the believers: specifically relative to those who were the first to hope - to believe - in [the] Christ. The Greek word "proelpikotas" literally "the having fore-hoped" and best rendered "the ones having first put hope" refers to the ones who first put their trust, their sure hope .in"the Christ," the Messiah / Savior unto eternal life, ( on "the Christ"). Verse 12 evidently has in view with the word rendered "we," Paul and a number of Jews who were the first to believe in Christ at the beginning of the church age when believers began becoming part of the body of Christ, the church.

a) [Compare Eph 1:22-23]:

(Eph 1:22 NASB) "And He put all things in subjection under His feet, and gave Him as head over all things to the church,

(Eph 1:23 YLT) which is His body, the fullness of Him Who is filling ... all [things] in all [ways]."

Paul repeatedly expressed praise toward God his Father and his Lord Jesus Christ on behalf of the saints in Eph 1:3-14, beginning with "Blessed [is] God the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ," in verse 3. The Greek word "Eulogetos" rendered "Blessed" literally means "speaking well of." Paul is praising and extolling God because God did bless us [the saints, including the apostle Paul - the believing ones in Christ Jesus, (v. 1)] in every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ. At the end of the passage, Paul finishes this section at the end of verse 14 with "to the praise of His [God's] glory." The word rendered "glory" has the sense of God deserving / reflecting the splendor, the honor the absolute righteousness / holiness of God as exemplified by what God has bestowed on those who have trusted in His Son for eternal life - which is certainly worthy of the praise of those so blessed by God. Paul repeats statements like these as in vv. 3, 6, 7, 12, 14 much like an anthem - a hymn to be sung by believers in congregation.

Verses 13-14, which follow verse 12, indicate that a number of Gentiles addressed by the plural Greek word "humEis" rendered "you," plural, will also put their trust in the Christ would obtain an inheritance, having been predestined according to the purpose of God, (v. 11). Hence all Gentiles as well as all Jews who believe in Christ will be to the praise of God's glory, (vv. 12, 14); and all will "have obtained an [eternal] inheritance having been predestined according to the purpose of Him [God] Who [is working] all things according to the counsel of His will, (v. 11)."

K) (Eph 1:13-14) AUTHOR AND APOSTLE PAUL PRAISES / BLESSES THE GOD AND FATHER OF OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST ON BEHALF OF ALL THE SAINTS FOR HAVING BESTOWED EVERY SPIRITUAL BLESSING IN THE HEAVENLY PLACES UPON THE SAINTS - THE ONES BELIEVING IN CHRIST JESUS, FOR HE CHOSE US IN HIM BEFORE THE FOUNDATION OF THE WORLD, TO BE HOLY AND BLAMELESS IN HIS SIGHT IN LOVE, HAVING PREDESTINED THEM TO ETERNAL LIFE AND ADOPTION AS SONS [OF GOD] BY JESUS CHRIST TO HIMSELF [GOD], ACCORDING TO THE GOOD PLEASURE OF HIS WILL, TO THE PRAISE OF THE GLORY OF HIS GRACE, [OF] WHICH HE FREELY BESTOWED ON US IN THE BELOVED [ONE] - JESUS CHRIST, IN WHOM WE HAVE REDEMPTION THROUGH HIS BLOOD, THE FORGIVENESS OF OUR TRESPASSES, ACCORDING TO THE RICHES OF HIS GRACE WHICH HE MADE TO ABOUND TOWARD US IN ALL WISDOM AND PRUDENCE, HAVING MADE KNOWN TO US THE MYSTERY OF HIS WILL, ACCORDING TO HIS GOOD PLEASURE WHICH HE PURPOSED IN HIMSELF, THAT IN THE DISPENSATION OF THE FULLNESS OF THE TIMES HE MIGHT GATHER TOGETHER IN ONE ALL THINGS IN CHRIST, ... WHICH ARE ON THE HEAVENS AND WHICH ARE ON EARTH - IN HIM, IN HIM ALSO WE HAVE OBTAINED AN [ETERNAL] INHERITANCE, [HAVING BEEN] PREDESTINED ACCORDING TO THE PURPOSE OF HIM WHO IS WORKING ALL THINGS ACCORDING TO THE COUNSEL OF HIS WILL, IN WHOM [IN CHRIST, (V. 12)] [YOU] ALSO, HAVING HEARD THE WORD OF THE TRUTH - THE GOOD NEWS OF YOUR SALVATION - IN WHOM ALSO HAVING BELIEVED, [YOU] WERE SEALED WITH THE HOLY SPIRIT OF THE PROMISE [OF ETERNAL LIFE / REDEMPTION], WHO / WHICH IS THE GUARANTEE [LIT., "ARRHABON" = DEPOSIT, PLEDGE] OF OUR INHERITANCE UNTIL THE REDEMPTION OF THE PURCHASED POSSESSION [GOD'S POSSESSION - THE BELIEVER, V. 13], TO THE PRAISE OF HIS GLORY

(Eph 1:3 NASB) "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who [did bless] us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ, (Eph 1:4 HCSB) for He chose us in Him, before the foundation of the world, to be holy and blameless in His sight [in love], (Eph 1:5 NKJV) having predestined us to adoption as sons [of God] by Jesus Christ to Himself [God], according to the good pleasure of His will, (Eph 1:6 NASB) to the praise of the glory of His grace, [of] which He freely bestowed on us in the Beloved [One], (Eph 1:7 NASB) In [Whom] we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of His grace (Eph 1:8 NKJV) which He made to abound toward us in all wisdom and prudence [i.e., insight], (Eph 1:9 NKJV) having made known to us the mystery of His will, according to His good pleasure which He purposed in Himself, (Eph 1:10 NKJV) that in the dispensation [i.e., the administration] of the fullness [the completion] of the times He might gather together in one all things in Christ, ... which are [on the heavens] and which are on earth - in Him [Christ]; (Eph 1:11 NKJV) In Him also we have obtained an [eternal] inheritance, [having been] predestined according to the purpose of Him Who [is working] all things according to the counsel of His will, (Eph 1:12 NASB) to the end that we who were [the ones having first put hope] in [the] Christ would be to the praise of His glory, (Eph 1:13 YLT) in Whom [in Christ, (v. 12)] [you] also, having heard the word of the truth - the good news of your salvation - in Whom [Christ, (vv. 12-13)] also having believed, [you] were sealed with the Holy Spirit of the promise [of eternal life / redemption], (Eph 1:14 NKJV) Who / Which is the guarantee [lit., "arrhabOn" = deposit, pledge] of our inheritance until the redemption of the purchased possession [God's possession - the believer, v. 13], to the praise of His glory," =

1) Manuscript Evidence - NTT&TC, Comfort for Eph 1:13

p46, Sinaiticus-org, Vaticanus (B), D, F, G, byz, various modern text editions have "humeis" rendered you, 2pl.

Sinaiticus - corr, A, K, L, Psi, 326, 629, 630, 1241 continues to have the first person plural from the previous verse, referring the the Jewish believers: "hemEis" ("we") and "emOn" ("our").

In 1:12 Paul was writing about Jewish believers including himself when he wrote, "we who were the first to hope in [the] Christ." And then, in Eph 1:13, according to p46, Sinaiticus-org, Vaticanus (B), D, F, G, byz, various modern text editions, the pronoun shifts in 1:13 to the plural Greek word "humEis" rendered "you," plural. The shift in pronouns (from "hemas" rendered "us" in 1:12 to "humEis" rendered "you," plural and "humOn" rendered "your" plural in 1:13) is the best rendering and best attested to by the manuscript evidence. It indicates that Paul was writing of the Gentile believers when he wrote, "and you.also were included in Christ, when you heard the word of the truth, the gospel of your salvation in Whom [Christ, (vv. 12-13)] also having believed." So those Gentiles who would also put their trust in the Christ to obtain an inheritance, which had been predestined for them according to the purpose of God.

2) Manuscript Evidence - NTT&TC, Comfort for Eph 1:14

WH NU p46, A, B, F, G, L, P, 1739, IT(b,d), syr(p) have "Which is a guarantee," neuter gender because the gender of "pneuma," rendered "Spirit" is neuter.

TR Sinaiticus, D, Psi, 33, Maj have "Who is a guarantee," masculine gender in order to personalize the Spirit.

In context, Paul was speaking of the promised Holy Spirit, Which/Who is the guarantee (or, "down payment;" (arrabOn) of the believers' inheritance. With few exceptions, the Greek pronominal reference to the Spirit in the Greek NT is in the neuter because the Greek word for "Spirit" (pneuma) is neuter. Two reasons can be given for the masculine gender variation in Eph 1:14:

(1) Paul originally wrote the neuter pronoun, which was later changed to the masculine by scribes who wanted to personalize the Spirit.

(2) The manuscript evidence seems to favor the second view, for the two earliest manuscripts (p46, B) contain the neuter, as well as several other diverse witnesses.

The textual evidence of p46 with B influenced the editors of NA26 to make a change from previous editions of the Nestle text. Since translators also tend to personalize the Spirit, referring to the Spirit as "Him" or "Who" rather than "It" or "Which," we cannot be absolutely sure whether or not the translators strictly adhered to one variant reading over the other.

3) (Eph 1:13-14) Author And Apostle Paul Praises / Blesses The God And Father Of Our Lord Jesus Christ On Behalf Of All The Saints For Having Bestowed Every Spiritual Blessing In The Heavenly Places Upon The Saints - The Ones Believing In Christ Jesus, For He Chose Us In Him Before The Foundation Of The World, To Be Holy And Blameless In His Sight In Love, Having Predestined Them To Eternal Life And Adoption As Sons [of God] By Jesus Christ To Himself [God], According To The Good Pleasure Of His Will, To The Praise Of The Glory Of His Grace, [Of] Which He Freely Bestowed On Us In The Beloved One - Jesus Christ, In Whom We Have Redemption Through His Blood, The Forgiveness Of Our Trespasses, According To The Riches Of His Grace Which He Made To Abound Toward Us In All Wisdom And Prudence, Having Made Known To Us The Mystery Of His Will, According To His Good Pleasure Which He Purposed In Himself, That In The Dispensation Of The Fullness Of The Times He Might Gather Together In One All Things In Christ, ... Which Are On The Heavens And Which Are On Earth - In Him. In Him Also We Have Obtained An [Eternal] Inheritance, [Having Been] Predestined According To The Purpose Of Him Who Is Working All Things According To The Counsel Of His Will, To The End That We Who Were [The Ones Having First Put Hope] In [The] Christ Would Be To The Praise Of His Glory, In Whom [In Christ, (v. 12)] [You] Also, Having Heard The Word Of The Truth - the good news of your salvation - in Whom [Christ, (vv. 12-13)] Also Having Believed, [You] Were Sealed With The Holy Spirit Of The Promise [Of Eternal Life / Redemption], Who / Which Is The Guarantee [Lit., "arrhabOn = Deposit, Pledge] Of Our Inheritance Until The Redemption Of The Purchased Possession [God's Possession - The Believer, v. 13], To The Praise Of His Glory." =

(Eph 1:3 NASB) "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who [did bless] us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ, (Eph 1:4 HCSB) for He chose us in Him, before the foundation of the world, to be holy and blameless in His sight [in love], (Eph 1:5 NKJV) having predestined us to adoption as sons [of God] by Jesus Christ to Himself [God], according to the good pleasure of His will, (Eph 1:6 NASB) to the praise of the glory of His grace, [of] which He freely bestowed on us in the Beloved [One], (Eph 1:7 NASB) In [Whom] we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of His grace (Eph 1:8 NKJV) which He made to abound toward us in all wisdom and prudence [i.e., insight], (Eph 1:9 NKJV) having made known to us the mystery of His will, according to His good pleasure which He purposed in Himself, (Eph 1:10 NKJV) that in the dispensation [i.e., the administration] of the fullness [the completion] of the times He might gather together in one all things in Christ, ... which are [on the heavens] and which are on earth - in Him [Christ]; (Eph 1:11 NKJV) In Him also we have obtained an [eternal] inheritance, [having been] predestined according to the purpose of Him Who [is working] all things according to the counsel of His will, (Eph 1:12 NASB) to the end that we who were [the ones having first put hope] in [the] Christ would be to the praise of His glory, (Eph 1:13 YLT) in Whom [in Christ, (v. 12)] [you] also, having heard the word of the truth - the good news of your salvation - in Whom [Christ, (vv. 12-13)] also having believed, [you] were sealed with the Holy Spirit of the promise [of eternal life / redemption], (Eph 1:14 NKJV) Who / Which is the guarantee [lit., "arrhabOn" = deposit, pledge] of our inheritance until the redemption of the purchased possession [God's possession - the believer, v. 13], to the praise of His glory," =

a) "in Whom [in Christ, (v. 12)] [you] also, having heard the word of the truth - the good news of your salvation - in Whom [Christ, (vv. 12-13)] also having believed," .=

In Eph 1:12, Paul was writing about Jewish believers including himself when he wrote, "we who were the first to hope in [the] Christ." But then in Eph 1:13 according to p46, Sinaiticus-org, Vaticanus (B), D, F, G, byz, various modern text editions the pronouns shift from "hemas" rendered "us" in 1:12 to "humEis" rendered "you," plural and "humOn" rendered "your," plural in 1:13. These pronouns in verse 13 are the best attested to by the manuscript evidence and the best renderings in English. They indicate in v. 13 that Paul was writing largely about the Gentile believers as opposed to himself and fellow Jews who first believed in Christ at the beginning of the church age. Paul wrote, "in Whom [in Christ, (v. 12)] [you] also, having heard the word of the truth - the good news of your salvation - in Whom [Christ, (vv. 12-13)] also having believed." So those Gentiles and others after the first group of Jews including Paul believed, would also put their trust in the Christ for salvation unto eternal life, and would thereby also obtain an inheritance which also had been predestined for them according to the purpose of God. Verse 13 goes on to add the same blessings as the first group received: "in Whom [in Christ, (v. 12)] also having believed, [you - Gentiles and others] were also sealed with the Holy Spirit of the promise [of eternal life / redemption (vv. 3, 5, 7, 13-14)], Who / Which is the guarantee [lit., "arrhabOn" = deposit, pledge] of our inheritance.

Notice that the word rendered "our" in the phrase rendered, "Who / Which is the guarantee [lit., "arrhabOn" = deposit, pledge] of our inheritance until the redemption of the purchased possession to the praise of His glory," has in view..all those who believe, Jews and Gentiles, including Paul - those who first believed and all those thereafter until the end of the age. They are all guaranteed their inheritance "until the redemption of the purchased possession [God's possession: all those who believe in Christ for salvation, v. 13], to the praise of His [God's] glory," (v. 14b).

b) "in Whom [in Christ, (v. 12)] [you] also having heard the word of the truth - the good news of your salvation - in Whom [Christ, (vv. 12-13)] also having believed" .=

The words "[you] also" in the phrase in verse 13 rendered, "in Whom [in Christ, (v. 12)] [you] also having heard the word of the truth - the good news of your salvation - in Whom [Christ, (vv. 12-13)] also having believed" refers to those individuals besides those Jews including the apostle Paul who first believed, (v. 12), who like those first Jews who believed also would hear the good news of their salvation and like the first ones to believe in Christ, they also believed and like them they also were sealed by the Holy Spirit. So the "you" refers largely to Gentiles and others who believed after those first believers.

Salvation unto eternal life is in view because the context of the passage Eph 1:3-14 is

(1) being blessed with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places, (v. 3);

(2) becoming God's eternal possession, (vv. 4, 14);

(3) being transformed in the future into beings which will experience being holy and blameless in His sight, (v. 4);

(4) being adopted as sons [of God] by Jesus Christ to Himself [God], (v. 5);

(5) being bestowed with the grace of God, (v. 6);

(6) receiving eternal redemption through His [Christ's] blood, the forgiveness of their trespasses - both in the present and in the future final redemptive state holy and blameless, (vv. 4, 7, 14);

(7) abounding in the wisdom and prudence of God, (v. 8);

(8) having been made known to them the mystery of God's will of the gathering together in one all things in Christ, (v. 9);

(9) obtaining an eternal inheritance and thus being the praise of God's glory (v. 11);

(10) receiving possession of salvation unto eternal life which is guaranteed by the seal of the Holy Spirit personally indwelling each believer forever, (vv. 13-14);

(11) being included / sealed in Christ forever unto the promise of eternal life / redemption / eternal inheritance via the guarantee of the Holy Spirit Who has indwelled them as a deposit guarantee, (vv. 11, 13-14).

Notice that the word rendered "having believed" in v. 13 is an aorist, active, participle which portrays a completed action, i.e., a single moment of believing in order to secure the stated results in vv. 3-14 and much .on the believer's standing in Christ.

c) "In Whom [in Christ, v. 12)] [you] were sealed with the Holy Spirit of the promise [of eternal life / redemption]," =

In verse 13, the words, "in Whom [meaning in Christ, (v. 12)] ... having believed [you, (referring to Gentiles and others who later believe in Christ, after the Jews first did] were sealed with the Holy Spirit," in the sense of being placed / sealed in Christ, i.e., into His Body, the church, (cf. Eph 1:22-23). This action signifies God's absolute guarantee of the believer's inheritance of eternal life. For God is the Guarantor of the believer's redemption into a perfect and eternal body - holy and blameless in God's sight, (v. 4). And believers have all become God's possession forever - His adopted children through the redemptive work of His Son, Jesus Christ, (v. 5).

i) [Compare Eph 4:30]:

(Eph 4:30 NASB) "Do not grieve the Holy Spirit of God, by whom you were sealed for the day of redemption."

ii) [Compare 2 Cor 1:21-22]:

(2 Cor 1:21 NASB) "Now He who establishes us with you in Christ and anointed us is God, (2 Cor 1:22 NASB) Who also sealed us and gave us the Spirit in our hearts as a pledge."

And the Greek word "esphragisthetE" rendered "were sealed" in the phrase "In Whom [in Christ, (vv. 12-13)] also having believed, [you] were sealed with the Holy Spirit of the promise [of eternal life / redemption]," in verse 13 refers to the securing with the Seal of the Holy Spirit, salvation unto eternal life; and everything else that is stipulated in this passage for an individual who has heard the word of truth - the good news of his salvation and believed in Christ for salvation unto eternal life.

So the individual who believes in Christ is personally sealed / guaranteed / absolutely secured by God the Holy Spirit Himself Who has indwelt that individual unto his salvation, evidently within his human spirit, (cf. Ro 8:10). And that guarantee, that promise includes every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places, (v. 3); being holy and blameless in God's sight, (v. 4); adoption as sons by Jesus Christ to God - His eternal possession purchased by the redemption of His Son for them, (v. 5, 14); redemption through Christ's blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, (v. 7, 14); an [eternal] inheritance, (v. 11); this will be the final stage of his salvation: that of going to be with the Lord in heaven in a perfect state of righteousness - a perfect body holy and blameless, (vv. 4, 13-14). Furthermore, since there is no obligation of the individual stipulated in this passage other than to express a moment of belief in the gospel, then it is a unilateral guarantee and promise and seal of God Himself. Considering the absolute holiness and absolute power of God, any unilateral promise of God will be fulfilled. So here there is no question that the believer will remain sealed into Christ forever, i.e., eternally secure in his salvation.

Notice that the individual first hears the gospel and believes in it. Thereafter he is sealed in Christ personally by the Holy Spirit guaranteeing that individual's eternal redemption unto eternal life - his adoption by Christ unto sonship with God; and not the other way around where an individual must first be transformed into a saint - adopted as child of God first, and then he chooses to believe, as some contend, (cf. Jn 1:12-13).

d) "Who / Which is the guarantee [lit., "arrhabOn" = deposit, pledge] of our inheritance" =

The Greek word "arrabOn" rendered "deposit" in verse 14 is an earnest, a down payment with more to come, i.e., the final redeemed state of the believer’s perfection in Christ. God being the One Who has put down this earnest, Who actually is the earnest, He will absolutely deliver. The Holy Spirit of the promise [of eternal life / redemption] in verse 13 is further described as the guarantee, Greek "arrhabOn" which literally means a deposit, a first installment, a pledge of the believer's eternal inheritance - his eternal redemption. The believer is guaranteed to be the purchased possession of God to experience his final, eternal completed state when he will be transformed into a being who is holy and blameless, (v. 4).

e) "until the redemption of the purchased possession of [God's possesion - the believer, v. 13]," =

God the Holy Spirit is the absolute Deposit, the absolute Earnest, the absolute Guarantor of the believer’s eternal inheritance which is the redemption of the believers "who are [now, being in Christ] God's possession, i.e., guaranteed to be in his final perfect / sinless state when he has been completely redeemed to live with God for all eternity.

f) "to the praise of His glory" =

Paul repeatedly expressed praise toward God his Father and his Lord Jesus Christ on behalf of the saints in Eph 1:3-14, beginning with "Blessed [is] God the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ," in verse 3. The Greek word "Eulogetos" rendered "Blessed" literally means "speaking well of." Paul is praising and extolling God because God did bless us [the saints, including the apostle Paul - the believing ones in Christ Jesus, (v. 1)] in every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ. At the end of the passage, Paul finishes with "to the praise of His [God's] glory." The word rendered "glory" has the sense of God deserving / reflecting the splendor, the honor, the absolute righteousness, the holiness of God as demonstrated by what God has bestowed on those who have trusted in His Son for eternal life. This is certainly worthy of the praise of those so blessed by God. Paul repeats statements like this in vv. 3, 6, 7, 12, 14. The passage reads much like an anthem - a hymn to be sung by believers in congregation in worship of the LORD.

g) Summary of verses 13-14

Verses 13 & 14 continue the context of verse 12 by adding Gentiles, and others to the number of Jews who, at the beginning of the church age believed and were the first ones to become part of the body of Christ, the church, (Eph 1:22-23). It was they who were the ones having first put their sure hope, their trust, in the Christ for salvation unto eternal life to the praise of God's glory, (v. 13).

These last two verses of Eph 1:3-14 indicate that all of those who are saints, the believing ones in Christ Jesus - both Jew and Gentile, those who have heard the word of the truth - the good news of their salvation - in Whom, (Christ Jesus), also having believed, were also sealed in Christ with the Holy Spirit of the promise [of eternal life / redemption] of that good news unto:

(1) being blessed with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places, (v. 3);

(2) becoming God's eternal possession, (vv. 4, 14);

(3) being transformed in the future into beings which will experience being holy and blameless in His sight, (v. 4);

(4) being adopted as sons [of God] by Jesus Christ to Himself [God], (v. 5);

(5) being bestowed with the grace of God, (v. 6);

(6) receiving eternal redemption through His [Christ's] blood, the forgiveness of their trespasses - both in the present and in the future final redemptive state holy and blameless, (vv. 4, 7, 14);

(7) abounding in the wisdom and prudence of God, (v. 8);

(8) having been made known to them the mystery of God's will of the gathering together in one all things in Christ, (v. 9);

(9) obtaining an eternal inheritance and thus being the praise of God's glory (v. 11);

(10) receiving possession of salvation unto eternal life which is guaranteed by the seal of the Holy Spirit personally indwelling each believer forever, (vv. 13-14);

(11) being included / sealed in Christ forever unto the promise of eternal life / redemption / eternal inheritance via the guarantee of the Holy Spirit Who has indwelled them as a deposit guarantee, (vv. 11, 13-14).

III) [Eph 1:15-23]:

(Eph 1:15 YLT) "Because of this I also, having heard of your faith in the Lord Jesus and in all the saints,

(Eph 1:16 NKJV) [I, (v. 15)] do not cease to give thanks for you, making mention of you in my prayers

(Eph 1:17 NASB) [I pray, (v. 16)] that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give to you a spirit of wisdom and of revelation in the knowledge of Him.

(Eph 1:18 NKJV) [I, Paul, pray that, (v. 17)] the eyes of your [heart =] understanding [having been] enlightened; that you may know what is the [sure] hope of His calling, what are the riches of the glory of His inheritance in the saints,

(Eph 1:19 NKJV) and [may know, (v. 18b)] what is the exceeding greatness of His power toward us who believe, [these are] according to the working of His mighty power

(Eph 1:20 NASB) which He brought about in Christ, when He raised Him from the dead and seated Him at His right hand in the heavenly places,

(Eph 1:21 NASB) far above all rule and authority and power and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this age but also in the one to come;

(Eph 1:22 NKJV) and [when, (v. 20b)] He put all things under His feet, and gave Him to be head over all things to the church,

(Eph 1:23 YLT) which is His body, the fullness of Him Who is filling ... all [things] in all [ways]."

A) (Eph 1:15-23) PAUL'S PRAYER IN EPH 1:15-23 IS A SINGLE SENTENCE THAT COMPRISES A PRAYER TO GOD FOR BELIEVERS FOR TEMPORAL BLESSINGS WITH A VIEW TO THEIR HEAVENLY BLESSINGS OF VV. 3-14. FOR THERE ARE NO GUARANTEES PRESENTED IN VV. 3-14 THAT BELIEVERS WILL LEAD FAITHFUL LIVES IN THEIR MORTAL BODIES IN ACCORDANCE WITH THEIR SECURE ETERNAL DESTINY AS STIPULATED IN THOSE 12 VERSES

(Eph 1:15 YLT) "Because of this I also, having heard of your faith in the Lord Jesus and in all the saints,

(Eph 1:16 NKJV) [I, (v. 15)] do not cease to give thanks for you, making mention of you in my prayers

(Eph 1:17 NASB) [I pray, (v. 16)] that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give to you a spirit of wisdom and of revelation in the knowledge of Him.

(Eph 1:18 NKJV) [I, Paul, pray that, (v. 17)] the eyes of your [heart =] understanding [having been] enlightened; that you may know what is the [sure] hope of His calling, what are the riches of the glory of His inheritance in the saints,

(Eph 1:19 NKJV) and [may know, (v. 18b)] what is the exceeding greatness of His power toward us who believe, [these are] according to the working of His mighty power

(Eph 1:20 NASB) which He brought about in Christ, when He raised Him from the dead and seated Him at His right hand in the heavenly places,

(Eph 1:21 NASB) far above all rule and authority and power and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this age but also in the one to come;

(Eph 1:22 NKJV) and [when, (20b)] He put all things under His feet, and gave Him to be head over all things to the church,

(Eph 1:23 YLT) which is His body, the fullness of Him Who is filling ... all [things] in all [ways]."

Paul's prayer in Eph 1:15-23 is a single sentence that comprises a prayer to God for believers for temporal blessings in conjunction with their heavenly blessings of vv. 3-14. For there are no guarantees presented in vv. 3-14 that believers will lead faithful lives in their mortal bodies in accordance with their secure eternal destiny as stipulated in those 12 verses in order to receive temporal blessings.

B) (Eph 1:15-16) AUTHOR AND APOSTLE PAUL PRAISES THE GOD AND FATHER OF OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST ON BEHALF OF ALL THE SAINTS FOR HAVING BESTOWED EVERY SPIRITUAL BLESSING IN THE HEAVENLY PLACES UPON THE SAINTS - THE ONES BELIEVING IN CHRIST JESUS, FOR HE CHOSE US IN HIM BEFORE THE FOUNDATION OF THE WORLD, TO BE HOLY AND BLAMELESS IN HIS SIGHT IN LOVE, HAVING PREDESTINED THEM TO ETERNAL LIFE AND ADOPTION AS SONS [OF GOD] BY JESUS CHRIST, TO HIMSELF [GOD], ACCORDING TO THE GOOD PLEASURE OF HIS WILL, TO THE PRAISE OF THE GLORY OF HIS GRACE, [OF] WHICH HE FREELY BESTOWED ON US IN THE BELOVED [ONE] - JESUS CHRIST, IN WHOM WE HAVE REDEMPTION THROUGH HIS BLOOD, THE FORGIVENESS OF OUR TRESPASSES, ACCORDING TO THE RICHES OF HIS GRACE WHICH HE MADE TO ABOUND TOWARD US IN ALL WISDOM AND PRUDENCE, HAVING MADE KNOWN TO US THE MYSTERY OF HIS WILL, ACCORDING TO HIS GOOD PLEASURE WHICH HE PURPOSED IN HIMSELF, THAT IN THE DISPENSATION OF THE FULLNESS OF THE TIMES HE MIGHT GATHER TOGETHER IN ONE ALL THINGS IN CHRIST, ... WHICH ARE ON THE HEAVENS AND WHICH ARE ON EARTH - IN HIM, IN HIM ALSO WE HAVE OBTAINED AN [ETERNAL] INHERITANCE, [HAVING BEEN] PREDESTINED ACCORDING TO THE PURPOSE OF HIM WHO IS WORKING ALL THINGS ACCORDING TO THE COUNSEL OF HIS WILL, IN WHOM [IN CHRIST, (V. L2)] [YOU] ALSO, HAVING HEARD THE WORD OF THE TRUTH - THE GOOD NEWS OF YOUR SALVATION - IN WHOM ALSO HAVING BELIEVED, [YOU] WERE SEALED WITH THE HOLY SPIRIT OF THE PROMISE [OF ETERNAL LIFE / REDEMPTION], WHO / WHICH IS THE GUARANTEE [LIT., "ARRHABON" = DEPOSIT, PLEDGE] OF OUR INHERITANCE UNTIL THE REDEMPTION OF THE PURCHASED POSSESSION [GOD'S POSSESSION - THE BELIEVER, V. 13], TO THE PRAISE OF HIS GLORY. BECAUSE OF THIS I ALSO, HAVING HEARD OF YOUR FAITH IN THE LORD JESUS AND IN ALL THE SAINTS, [I, (V. 15)] DO NOT CEASE TO GIVE THANKS FOR YOU, MAKING MENTION OF YOU IN MY PRAYERS

(Eph 1:3 NASB) "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who [did bless] us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ, (Eph 1:4 HCSB) for He chose us in Him, before the foundation of the world, to be holy and blameless in His sight [in love], (Eph 1:5 NKJV) having predestined us to adoption as sons [of God] by Jesus Christ to Himself [God], according to the good pleasure of His will, (Eph 1:6 NASB) to the praise of the glory of His grace, [of] which He freely bestowed on us in the Beloved [One], (Eph 1:7 NASB) In [Whom] we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of His grace (Eph 1:8 NKJV) which He made to abound toward us in all wisdom and prudence [i.e., insight], (Eph 1:9 NKJV) having made known to us the mystery of His will, according to His good pleasure which He purposed in Himself, (Eph 1:10 NKJV) that in the dispensation [i.e., the administration] of the fullness [the completion] of the times He might gather together in one all things in Christ, ... which are [on the heavens] and which are on earth - in Him [Christ]; (Eph 1:11 NKJV) In Him also we have obtained an [eternal] inheritance, [having been] predestined according to the purpose of Him Who [is working] all things according to the counsel of His will, (Eph 1:12 NASB) to the end that we who were [the ones having first put hope] in [the] Christ would be to the praise of His glory, (Eph 1:13 YLT) in Whom [in Christ, (v. 12)] [you] also, having heard the word of the truth - the good news of your salvation - in Whom [Christ, (vv. 12-13)] also having believed, [you] were sealed with the Holy Spirit of the promise [of eternal life / redemption], (Eph 1:14 NKJV) Who / Which is the guarantee [lit., "arrhabOn" = deposit, pledge] of our inheritance until the redemption of the purchased possession [God's possession - the believer, v. 13], to the praise of His glory, (Eph 1:15 YLT) Because of this I also, having heard of your faith in the Lord Jesus and in all the saints, (Eph 1:16 NKJV) [I, (v. 15)] do not cease to give thanks for you, making mention of you in my prayers:," =

1) Manuscript Evidence - NTT&TC, Comfort for Eph 1:15:

WH p46, Sinaiticus-org, P, A, B, 33, 1739, 1881 Jerome and all versions have "your faith in the Lord Jesus and in all the saints."

TR NU Sinaiticus-corr, D-corr, Psi, Maj, syr(h), cop(sa), F, G, byz and various modern editions have "your faith in the Lord Jesus and love toward all the saints."

Metzger (Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament), reasoned that "your faith in the Lord Jesus and in all the saints" was the result of a scribal error, the words rendered "love" were omitted due to homoeoarchton - the eye of the scribe passing from the "ten" before the word "agapen," rendered "love" to the "ten" before "eis pantas," rendered "toward all." However, it is difficult to imagine that this error would have been present in so many diverse witnesses. On the contrary, "your faith in the Lord Jesus and in all the saints" has been the best attestation and is the most difficult of the readings. If it was the original text, Paul was saying that he had heard of the believers' "faith in the Lord Jesus and in all the saints." The only passage close to this is Phlm 5, which says, "having heard of your love and faith in the Lord Jesus and in all the saints." But the statement in Phlm is usually understood to be a chiasm; hence, it is translated: "your faith in the Lord Jesus and love for all the saints." The variant in Eph 1:15 is not chiastic; it has to be understood to mean that the believers expressed faith in the Lord Jesus and in the saints. Since Paul emphasizes the universal solidarity of the church in this epistle and encourages mutual edification, it is not out of the question for him to have declared that they expressed faith in the Lord Jesus and toward all the saints. Thus, it could be argued that all the other variants are merely attempts to fix what seemed incomplete or to make 1:15 conform to Col 1:4, a parallel passage. However, not one translation has adopted the shorter text, though some (probably influenced by the strong testimony of p46, Sinaiticus, A, Vaticanus (B)) provide a marginal note about the omission.

2) Manuscript Evidence for Eph 1:16:

(Eph 1:16 NKJV) "[I, (v. 15)] do not cease to give thanks for you, making mention of you in my prayers:"

WH Sinaiticus, A, Vaticanus (B), D-org, 33, Lach, Treg, Alf, Tisc, Weis, Sod, UBS, Various modern text editions have "while making mention of you in my prayers"

TR, D-corr, K, L, P, byz, bo omit of you, nevertheless the meaning "of you" is implied.

The better attested manuscripts include "of you," but even with the omission, the meaning is the same.

3) (Eph 1:15-16) Author And Apostle Paul Praises The God And Father Of Our Lord Jesus Christ On Behalf Of All The Saints For Having Bestowed Every Spiritual Blessing In The Heavenly Places Upon The Saints - The Ones Believing In Christ Jesus, For He Chose Us In Him Before The Foundation Of The World, To Be Holy And Blameless In His Sight In Love, Having Predestined Them To Eternal Life And Adoption As Sons [Of God] By Jesus Christ, To Himself [God], According To The Good Pleasure Of His Will, To The Praise Of The Glory Of His Grace, [Of] Which He Freely Bestowed On Us In The Beloved [One] - Jesus Christ, In Whom We Have Redemption Through His Blood, The Forgiveness Of Our Trespasses, According To The Riches Of His Grace Which He Made To Abound Toward Us In All Wisdom And Prudence, Having Made Known To Us The Mystery Of His Will, According To His Good Pleasure Which He Purposed In Himself, That In The Dispensation Of The Fullness Of The Times He Might Gather Together In One All Things In Christ, ... Which Are On The Heavens And Which Are On Earth - In Him, In Him Also We Have Obtained An [Eternal] Inheritance, [Having Been] Predestined According To The Purpose Of Him Who Is Working All Things According To The Counsel Of His Will, In Whom [In Christ, (v. l2)] [You] Also, Having Heard The Word Of The Truth - The Good News Of Your Salvation - In Whom Also Having Believed, [You] Were Sealed With The Holy Spirit Of The Promise [Of Eternal Life / Redemption], Who / Which Is The Guarantee [Lit., "Arrhabon" = Deposit, Pledge] Of Our Inheritance Until The Redemption Of The Purchased Possession [God's Possession - The Believer, v. 13], To The Praise Of His Glory. Because of this I also, having heard of your faith in the Lord Jesus and in all the saints, [I, (v. 15)] do not cease to give thanks for you, making mention of you in my prayers =

(Eph 1:3 NASB) "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who [did bless] us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ, (Eph 1:4 HCSB) for He chose us in Him, before the foundation of the world, to be holy and blameless in His sight [in love], (Eph 1:5 NKJV) having predestined us to adoption as sons [of God] by Jesus Christ to Himself [God], according to the good pleasure of His will, (Eph 1:6 NASB) to the praise of the glory of His grace, [of] which He freely bestowed on us in the Beloved [One], (Eph 1:7 NASB) In [Whom] we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of His grace (Eph 1:8 NKJV) which He made to abound toward us in all wisdom and prudence [i.e., insight], (Eph 1:9 NKJV) having made known to us the mystery of His will, according to His good pleasure which He purposed in Himself, (Eph 1:10 NKJV) that in the dispensation [i.e., the administration] of the fullness [the completion] of the times He might gather together in one all things in Christ, ... which are [on the heavens] and which are on earth - in Him [Christ]; (Eph 1:11 NKJV) In Him also we have obtained an [eternal] inheritance, [having been] predestined according to the purpose of Him Who [is working] all things according to the counsel of His will, (Eph 1:12 NASB) to the end that we who were [the ones having first put hope] in [the] Christ would be to the praise of His glory, (Eph 1:13 YLT) in Whom [in Christ, (v. 12)] [you] also, having heard the word of the truth - the good news of your salvation - in Whom [Christ, (vv. 12-13)] also having believed, [you] were sealed with the Holy Spirit of the promise [of eternal life / redemption], (Eph 1:14 NKJV) Who / Which is the guarantee [lit., "arrhabOn" = deposit, pledge] of our inheritance until the redemption of the purchased possession [God's possession - the believer, v. 13], to the praise of His glory, (Eph 1:15 YLT) Because of this I also, having heard of your faith in the Lord Jesus and in all the saints, (Eph 1:16 NKJV) [I, (v. 15)] do not cease to give thanks for you, making mention of you in my prayers:," =

Because of this - because of what Paul has written about from the beginning of this epistle:

Paul, ... apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God, To the saints who are at ... [Ephesus, Laodicea, Colossae, etc] [even, i.e., that is to say, to the believing ones] in Christ Jesus. (Eph 1:2 NASB) Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. Author and Apostle Paul praises / blesses the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ on behalf of all the saints for having bestowed every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places upon the saints - the ones believing in Christ Jesus, for He chose us in Him before the foundation of the world, to be holy and blameless in His sight in love, having predestined them to eternal life and adoption as sons [of God] by Jesus Christ to Himself [God], according to the good pleasure of His will, to the praise of the glory of His grace, [of] which He freely bestowed on us in the beloved [One] - Jesus Christ, in Whom we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of His grace which He made to abound toward us in all wisdom and prudence, having made known to us the mystery of His will, according to His good pleasure which He purposed in Himself, that in the dispensation of the fullness of the times He might gather together in one all things in Christ, ... which are on the heavens and which are on earth - in Him, in Him also we have obtained an [eternal] inheritance, [having been] predestined according to the purpose of Him Who is working all things according to the counsel of His will, in Whom [in Christ, (v. 12)] [you] also, having heard the word of the truth - the good news of your salvation - in Whom also having believed, [you] were sealed with the Holy Spirit of the promise [of eternal life / redemption], Who / Which is the guarantee [lit., "arrhabon" = deposit, pledge] of our inheritance until the redeption of the purchased possession [God's possession - the believer, v. 13], to the praise of His glory. Because of this I also, having heard of your faith in the Lord Jesus and in all the saints, [I, (v. 15)] do not cease to give thanks for you, making mention of you in my prayers ...

... because of what is stipulated above, the apostle Paul having heard of their faith in the Lord Jesus and in all the saints - having heard about their having trusted in the Lord Jesus for salvation unto eternal life, and about their continued faith in Him and in all the saints - signs of their spiritual growth, he prays for them without ceasing. The next 7 verses, a continuation of the single sentence begun in verse 15, provide the content of that prayer:

C) (Eph 1:17-18) PAUL PRAYS FOR BELIEVERS IN THEIR TEMPORAL LIVES TO RECEIVE A SPIRIT OF WISDOM AND OF REVELATION IN THE KNOWLEDGE OF GOD IN CONJUNCTION WITH WHAT VERSES 3-14 HAVE PROMISED TO BLESS THEM WITH IN ETERNITY - THAT THEIR UNDERSTANDING MAY BE ENLIGHTENED SO THAT THEY MAY KNOW - THAT THEY MAY EXPERIENCE IN THEIR TEMPORAL LIVES:

(i) KNOWING WHAT IS THE SURE HOPE OF GOD'S CALLING, I.E., THAT WHICH IS IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE CALLING OF GOD - HIS CHOOSING BELIEVERS TO BE IN HIM BEFORE THE FOUNDATION OF THE WORLD TO BE HOLY AND BLAMELESS IN HIS SIGHT HAVING PREDESTINED THEM TO ETERNAL LIFE AND ADOPTION AS SONS OF GOD BY JESUS CHRIST TO HIMSELF; AND

(ii) KNOWING WHAT ARE THE RICHES OF THE GLORY OF HIS INHERITANCE IN THE SAINTS WITH UNDERSTANDING / ENLIGHTENMENT SO THAT THEY MAY BE BLESSED IN THEIR TEMPORAL LIVES AS WELL AND BE LOOKING FORWARD TO ETERNITY WITH GOD

(Eph 1:17 NASB) "[I pray, (v. 16)] that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give to you a spirit of wisdom and of revelation in the knowledge of Him. (Eph 1:18 NKJV) [I, Paul, pray that, (v. 17)] the eyes of your [heart =] understanding [having been] enlightened; that you may know what is the [sure] hope of His calling, what are the riches of the glory of His inheritance in the saints," =

1) [Manuscript Evidence For Eph 1:17]:

[Note: no definite article with spirit, hence "a spirit" not "the Spirit"]

2) [ManuscriptEvidence - NTT&TC, Comfort for Eph 1:18:

WH NU Sinaiticus, A, D, F, G, Psi, Maj, syr have "the eyes of your hearts"

Variant 1 - p46, Vaticanus (B), 33, 1739, 1881 but no versions have "the eyes of the hearts"

Variant 2 - TR, it(d), Cyril Theodoret have "the eyes of your mind"

The reading of the WH NU text seems to include a scribal filler ("humOn" rendered "of your"), which is not necessary to complete the meaning of the statement, since the article can function as a possessive. Thus, the first variant, which has better textual support, is likely original. By contrast, the second variant, which has little manuscript support, is the invention of someone who wanted to make it clear that spiritual enlightenment takes place in one's "mind." This reading, not found in the majority of manuscripts, made its way into TR, and was thereby rendered in KJV and NKJV. The NJB translators may have followed this reading or simply substituted "mind" for "heart" in the interest of understandability.

3) (Eph 1:17-18) Paul Prays For Believers In Their Temporal Lives To Receive A Spirit Of Wisdom And Of Revelation In The Knowledge Of God In Conjunction With What Verses 3-14 Have Promised To Bless Them With In Eternity - That Their Understanding May Be Enlightened So That They May Know - That They May Experience In Their Temporal Lives:

(i) Knowing What Is The Sure Hope Of God's Calling, I. E., That Which Is In Accordance With The Calling Of God - His Choosing Believers To Be In Him Before The Foundation Of The World To Be Holy And Blameless In His Sight Having Predestined Them To Eternal Life And Adoption As Sons Of God By Jesus Christ To Himself; And

(ii) Knowing What Are The Riches Of The Glory Of His Inheritance In The Saints With Understanding / Enlightenment So That They May Be Blessed In Their Temporal Lives As Well And Be Looking Forward To Eternity With God.

(Eph 1:17 NASB) "[I pray, (v. 16)] that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give to you a spirit of wisdom and of revelation in the knowledge of Him. (Eph 1:18 NKJV) [I, Paul, pray that, (v. 17)] the eyes of your [heart =] understanding [having been] enlightened; that you may know what is the [sure] hope of His calling, what are the riches of the glory of His inheritance in the saints," =

*****

Paul's prayer in Eph 1:15-23 is a single sentence that comprises a prayer to God for believers for temporal blessings in conjunction with the heavenly blessings of vv. 3-14. For there are no guarantees presented in vv. 3-14 that believers will lead faithful lives in their mortal bodies in accordance with their secure eternal destiny as stipulated in those 12 verses as follows:

(1) being blessed with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places, (v. 3);

(2) becoming God's eternal possession, (vv. 4, 14);

(3) being transformed in the future into beings which will experience being holy and blameless in His sight, (v. 4);

(4) being adopted as sons [of God] by Jesus Christ to Himself [God], (v. 5);

(5) being bestowed with the grace of God, (v. 6);

(6) receiving eternal redemption through His [Christ's] blood, the forgiveness of their trespasses - both in the present and in the future final redemptive state holy and blameless, (vv. 4, 7, 14);

(7) abounding in the wisdom and prudence of God, (v. 8);

(8) having been made known to them the mystery of God's will of the gathering together in one all things in Christ, (v. 9);

(9) obtaining an eternal inheritance and thus being the praise of God's glory (v. 11);

(10) receiving possession of salvation unto eternal life which is guaranteed by the seal of the Holy Spirit personally indwelling each believer forever, (vv. 13-14);

(11) being included / sealed in Christ forever unto the promise of eternal life / redemption / eternal inheritance via the guarantee of the Holy Spirit Who has indwelled them as a deposit guarantee, (vv. 11, 13-14).

So Paul's prayer to God is that believers take hold in their temporal lives of the blessings that are in store for them as stipulated in Eph 1:3-14; and the means by which they are to do that is stipulated in the rest of Ephesians. Believers must make an effort to study God's Word and be obedient to what He commands - a subject about which Paul prays again in 3:14-21 and expounds in detail in Ephesians chapters 4-6 .

Paul first prays in verse 17 "that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give to believers a spirit of wisdom and of revelation in the knowledge of Him."

Having a spirit of wisdom and of revelation in the knowledge of God has in view the individual believer's propensity to discern the wisdom of God and the propensity to receive the revelation of God through what God has conveyed to them evidently through His Word, (for there will be no new revelation until the end of the age). The meaning of the words rendered "a spirit" is the activation principle within a person which influences him to decide to and receive knowledge about God - a matter of his volition. Having such a spirit is not guaranteed to occur in the temporal / mortal lives of all believers due to mankind's natural / sinful spirit / propensity to reject that which is of God. Hence Paul's petition to God that they who have already been guaranteed all that verses 3-14 have stipulated as a result of a moment of faith alone in Christ alone in the heavenly places, i.e., in eternity, that they might in their temporal / mortal lives be given a spirit of wisdom and of revelation in the knowledge of Him [God] in conjunction with what verses 3-14 have promised to bless them with in eternity. Paul's prayer for the believer's possession of a spirit of wisdom and for revelation in the knowledge of God was evidently intended for blessing in the temporal / mortal lives of believers as each one chooses to live his life because of and out of gratitude to God for their future eternal life.

Whereupon, in verse 18, Paul continued his prayer with a petition to God that "the eyes of the believers' understanding may be enlightened; that they may know what is the sure hope of His calling, and what are the riches of the glory of His inheritance in the saints. This continues to imply that in their temporal / mortal lives believers may be enlightened to know of what has been guaranteed to them in the future as stipulated in vv. 3-14; that they may experience in their temporal / mortal lives:

(1) knowing what is the sure hope of God's calling, i.e., that which is in accordance with the calling of God - His choosing believers to be in Him before the foundation of the world to be holy and blameless in His sight having predestined them to eternal life and adoption as sons of God by Jesus Christ to Himself, (vv. 3-14); and

(2) knowing what are the riches of the glory of His inheritance in the saints with understanding / enlightenment so that they may be blessed in their temporal / mortal lives as well and looking forward to eternity with God.

Note that the believers themselves will comprise part of the riches of the glory of God - of His inheritance in the saints.

The fact that Paul prayed for what he prayed implies that believers can lose sight of their eternal rewards and even be unfaithful and ungrateful to God throughout their temporal / mortal lives.

The rest of the book of Ephesians addresses what prays for to occur in the temporal / mortal lives of believers with the implication that they would be motivated by the knowledge of their eternal destiny to obey God's commands and be blessed in their temporal / mortal lives with a view of what Almighty God had done for them through His Son, Jesus Christ out of gratitude and love for God.

a) [Compare Eph 2:10]:

(Eph 2:10 NKJV) "For we are His workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared beforehand that we should walk in them.

Notice that the phrase rendered "that we should walk in them," in Eph 2:10 is in the subjunctive mood, ("should" = objective possibility). Hence 2:10 offers no guarantee that believers will be faithful in their walk.

*****

b) [Compare Eph 3:14-21]:

(Eph 3:14 NASB) "For this reason I [Paul] bow my knees before the Father,

(Eph 3:15 NASB) from Whom every family in heaven and on earth derives its name,

(Eph 3:16 NASB) that He would grant you, according to the riches of His glory, to be strengthened with power through His Spirit in the inner man,

(Eph 3:17 NASB) so that Christ may dwell in your hearts through faith; and that you, being rooted and grounded in love,

(Eph 3:18 NASB) may be able to comprehend with all the saints what is the breadth and length and height and depth,

(Eph 3:19 NASB) and to know the love of Christ which surpasses knowledge, that you may be filled up to all the fullness of God.

(Eph 3:20 NASB) Now to Him who is able to do far more abundantly beyond all that we ask or think, according to the power that works within us,

(Eph 3:21 NASB) to Him be the glory in the church and in Christ Jesus to all generations forever and ever. Amen."

c) [Compare Ephesisans Chapters 4-6 ]:

D) (Eph 1:19-23) PAUL PRAYS FOR BELIEVERS IN THEIR TEMPORAL / MORTAL LIVES TO RECEIVE A SPIRIT OF WISDOM AND OF REVELATION IN THE KNOWLEDGE OF GOD IN CONJUNCTION WITH WHAT VERSES 3-14 HAVE PROMISED TO BLESS THEM WITH IN ETERNITY - THAT THEIR UNDERSTANDING MAY BE ENLIGHTENED SO THAT THEY MAY KNOW - THAT THEY MAY EXPERIENCE IN THEIR TEMPORAL / MORTAL LIVES AS FOLLOWS:

(1) KNOWING WHAT IS THE SURE HOPE OF GOD'S CALLING, I.E., THAT WHICH IS IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE CALLING OF GOD - HIS CHOOSING BELIEVERS TO BE IN HIM BEFORE THE FOUNDATION OF THE WORLD TO BE HOLY AND BLAMELESS IN HIS SIGHT HAVING PREDESTINED THEM TO ETERNAL LIFE AND ADOPTION AS SONS OF GOD BY JESUS CHRIST TO HIMSELF; AND

(2) KNOWING WHAT ARE THE RICHES OF THE GLORY OF HIS INHERITANCE IN THE SAINTS WITH UNDERSTANDING / ENLIGHTENMENT SO THAT THEY MAY BE BLESSED IN THEIR TEMPORAL / MORTAL LIVES AS WELL AND BE LOOKING FORWARD TO ETERNITY WITH GOD, AND

(3) KNOWING WHAT IS THE EXCEEDING GREATNESS OF HIS POWER TOWARD US WHO BELIEVE, [THESE - THE FOLLOWING - ARE] ACCORDING TO THE WORKING OF HIS MIGHTY POWER WHICH HE BROUGHT ABOUT IN CHRIST:

(a) WHEN HE RAISED HIM FROM THE DEAD AND SEATED HIM AT HIS RIGHT HAND IN THE HEAVENLY PLACES, FAR ABOVE ALL RULE AND AUTHORITY AND POWER AND DOMINION, AND EVERY NAME THAT IS NAMED, NOT ONLY IN THIS AGE BUT ALSO IN THE ONE TO COME

(b) THAT HE PUT ALL THINGS UNDER HIS [CHRIST'S] FEET, AND GAVE HIM TO BE HEAD OVER ALL THINGS TO THE CHURCH, WHICH IS HIS BODY, THE FULLNESS OF HIM WHO FILLS ALL IN ALL

(Eph 1:17 NASB) "[I pray, (v. 16)] that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give to you a spirit of wisdom and of revelation in the knowledge of Him. (Eph 1:18 NKJV) [I, Paul, pray that, (v. 17)] the eyes of your [heart =] understanding [having been] enlightened; that you may know what is the [sure] hope of His calling, what are the riches of the glory of His inheritance in the saints, (Eph 1:19 NKJV).and [may know, (v. 18b)] what is the exceeding greatness of His power toward us who believe, [these are] according to the working of His mighty power (Eph 1:20 NASB) which He brought about in Christ, when He raised Him from the dead and seated Him at His right hand in the heavenly places, (Eph 1:21 NASB) far above all rule and authority and power and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this age but also in the one to come; (Eph 1:22 NKJV) and [when, (20b)] He put all things under His feet, and gave Him to be head over all things to the church, (Eph 1:23 YLT) which is His body, the fullness of Him Who is filling ... all [things] in all [ways]," =

1) [ManuscriptEvidence - NTT&TC, Comfort for Eph 1:20]:

TR, NU, Sinaiticus, D, F, G, Psi, K, L, P, Maj, byz have "enErgEsen," aorist tense rendered "brought about" in the first part of the verse,

WH, A, Vaticanus (B), Lach, Alf, Tisc, Weis, Sod, UBS, various modern editions have enErgEken" perfect tense rendered "has brought about" in the first part of the verse.

TR, D, K, L, P, byz have "ekathisen," aorist tense rendered "seated," in the last phrase,

WH, Sinaiticus, A, Vaticanus (B), 33, Lach, Treg, Alf, TisC, Weis, Sod, UBS, various modern editions have "kathisas," aorist participle, rendered "having seated."

Either of the verbs in the first part of the verse could have been confused for the other because there is only a one-letter difference (k/s).

The verbs in the last phrase are significantly different and appear to be due to a deliberate change.

Nevertheless, either of the verbs suit the context and do not change the meaning. The perfect tense provides a continuous effect after the initial moment of action - but the key is a completed action which is in view with any of the verb forms.

2) [Compare Eph 1:23 Greek Interlinear and Manuscript Evidence]:

hEtis .estin to ..sOma autou, to ...plErOma ta ..panta ......en pasin plEroumenou

which is .....the body ..his, .....the fullness ....the all things in .all .....filling [one]

TR has the article "tou" which is masc/neuter and singular, which has no manuscript evidence.

WH, Sinaiticus, A, B, D, K, L, P, Gries, Lach, Treg, Alf, Word, Tisc, Weis, Sod, UBS have "ta," which is neuter,.plural.

The word "panta" which may be masculine / neuter, singular / plural is best rendered in the plural, meaning "things" which best fits the context. Hence the article "ta" which is plural is preferred over "tou" because it best fits the manuscript evidence and the context because it may be neuter and plural modifying "panta" which may be neuter and is by context plural.

On the other hand, either word would not effect the meaning differently.

3) (Eph 1:19-23) Paul Prays For Believers In Their Temporal / Mortal Lives To Receive A Spirit Of Wisdom And Of Revelation In The Knowledge Of God In Conjunction With What Verses 3-14 Have Promised To Bless Them With In Eternity - That Their Understanding May Be Enlightened So That They May Know - That They May Experience In Their Temporal / Mortal Lives As Follows:

(a) Knowing What Is The Sure Hope Of God's Calling, I.E, That Which Is In Accordance With The Calling Of God - His Choosing Believers To Be In Him Before The Foundation Of The World To Be Holy And Blameless In His Sight Having Predestined Them To Eternal Life And Adoption As Sons Of God By Jesus Christ To Himself, And

(b) Knowing What Are The Riches Of The Glory Of His Inheritance In The Saints With Understanding / Enlightenment So That They May Be Blessed In Their Temporal / Mortal Lives As Well And Be Looking Forward To Eternity With God, And

(c) Knowing What Is The Exceeding Greatness Of His Power Toward Us Who Believe, [These - The Following - Are] According To The Working Of His Mighty Power Which He Brought About In Christ:

(i) When He Raised Him From The Dead And Seated Him At His Right Hand In The Heavenly Places, Far Above All Rule And Authority And Power And Dominion, And Every Name That Is Named, Not Only In This Age But Also In The One To Come

(ii) That He Put All Things Under His [Christ's] Feet, And Gave Him To Be Head Over All Things To The Church, Which Is His Body, The Fullness Of Him Who Fills All In All

(Eph 1:17 NASB) "[I pray, (v. 16)] that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give to you a spirit of wisdom and of revelation in the knowledge of Him. (Eph 1:18 NKJV) [I, Paul, pray that, (v. 17)] the eyes of your [heart =] understanding [having been] enlightened; that you may know what is the [sure] hope of His calling, what are the riches of the glory of His inheritance in the saints, (Eph 1:19 NKJV).and [may know, (v. 18b)] what is the exceeding greatness of His power toward us who believe, [these are] according to the working of His mighty power (Eph 1:20 NASB) which He brought about in Christ, when He raised Him from the dead and seated Him at His right hand in the heavenly places, (Eph 1:21 NASB) far above all rule and authority and power and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this age but also in the one to come; (Eph 1:22 NKJV) and [when, (20b]) He put all things under His feet, and gave Him to be head over all things to the church, (Eph 1:23 YLT) which is His body, the fullness of Him Who is filling ... all [things] in all [ways]." =

In verses 17 and 18, Paul prayed that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory may give to believers a spirit of wisdom and of revelation in the knowledge of Him. Paul prayed that the eyes of believers' understanding may be enlightened so that they may know what is the sure hope of God's calling, (referring to God's choosing them in Him to be holy and blameless in His sight, and all the blessings that that entails as stipulated in vv. 3-14 ); that they may know what are the riches of the glory of God's inheritance in them - the saints, (vv. 3-14); so that they may experience in their temporal / mortal lives the following:

(a) knowing what is the sure hope of God's calling, i.e., that which is in accordance with the calling of God - His choosing believers to be in Him before the foundation of the world to be holy and blameless in His sight having predestined them to eternal life and adoption as sons of God by Jesus Christ to Himself, etc., (vv. 3-14); and

(b) knowing what are the riches of the glory of His inheritance in the saints with understanding / enlightenment so that they may be blessed in their temporal / mortal lives as well and be looking forward to eternity with God, (cf. vv. 3-14).

It is the believers themselves who will be part of the riches of the glory of God. They are His inheritance, His eternal possession, chosen to be in Him before the foundation of the world.

Then in verses 19-23, Paul continues his prayer which began in vv. 17-18 with his petition to God that believers may know what is the sure hope of His calling, and what are the riches of the glory of His inheritance in the saints:

(vv. 19-23): "[that they may know, (v. 18b)] what is the exceeding greatness of His power toward [those] who believe, [to know that] according to the working of His mighty power, which He brought about in Christ, when He raised Him from the dead and seated Him at His right hand in the heavenly places, far above all rule and authority and power and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this age but also in the one to come; and He put all things under His [Christ's] feet, and gave Him to be head over all things to the church, which is His body, the fullness of Him Who is filling ... all [things] in all [ways]."

Verse 19 and the first phrase of verse 20 are the key to Paul's prayer to God that believers in Christ would have a spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of God:

[He prayed that they may know] "what is the exceeding greatness of His [God's] power toward us who believe [these - the following - are] according to the working of His mighty power which He brought about in Christ as follows below in points (a) and (b) - the rest of verses 20-23:

Believers are to have a mentality that is largely focused on eternity not on things in their temporal / mortal lives that will not positively effect them in their eternal state. And the key focus for them is to be upon studying what Paul and the other writers of Scripture have written in order to become knowledgeable of the exceeding greatness of God's power which was exercised in their favor specifically in accordance with what He did for them through His Son, Jesus Christ:

(a) "when He raised Him from the dead and seated Him at His right hand in the heavenly places, far above all rule and authority and power and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this age but also in the one to come;"

And

(b) "[when,] He put all things under His feet, and gave Him to be head over all things to the church, which is His body, the fullness of Him Who is filling ... all [things] in all [ways]."

4) [Compare Eph 1:23 Greek Interlinear]:

hEtis .estin to ..sOma autou, to ...plErOma ta ..panta ......en pasin plEroumenou

which is .....the body ..his, .....the fullness ....the all things in .all .....filling [one]

5) [Conclusion To Chapter One]:

God put all things under Christ's feet, and gave Him to be head over all things - the universe including the church. Furthermore, God gave Christ to the church over which He is Head, and which is His body, and the fullness of Him Who [Christ] is filling [Greek participle] all things - the universe, the church, in all ways with His power. So believers in this age will comprise the body of Christ, and have the fullness of Christ in them, being constantly filled by Him - by His power. This is not saying that Christ is made complete by the church's filling up of Him, as some contend, for Christ is God, Who by nature is complete, and needs no filling.

So believers will participate with Jesus Christ in His headship over all things. Each member's participation will depend upon each one's focus in his mortal life upon temporal things which will be of little value or on eternal things for eternal value. All of this has been determined before the foundation of the world; yet it includes the believer's volition .

This ends Paul's prayer. After demonstrating that believers have all spiritual blessings (1:3-14), Paul prayed that believers would come to know God intimately (v. 17) in order that they might know three facts:

(1) the past call of salvation that produced hope (v. 18),

(2) the future inheritance that God has in His saints (v. 18), and

(3) the present power of God that is available to believers, (vv. 19-23) which

(a) was manifested in the past in Christ's resurrection and Ascension, (v. 20),

(b) will be manifested in the future in Christ's headship over Creation, (v. 21), and

(c) is presently manifested in Christ's headship over the church, (vv. 22-23).

Continue to chapter two