ELECTION AND RELATED DOCTRINES

I) FOREORDINATION = THE OVERALL PLAN FOR THE UNIVERSE WHICH IS DETERMINED BEFOREHAND BY GOD

God foreordained, i.e., determined His plan for the universe in every minute detail beforehand - not as an ongoing, evolving, reactionary plan, to be adjusted one way or another depending upon circumstances and man's volition. Indeed, all circumstances in every minute detail including the free will choices of every man have occurred as part of God's foreordained plan for the universe.

[J. Dwight Pentecost in his book, "Things Which Become Sound Doctrine", Revell Publishing, Westwood, N.J., 1965, pp. 135-6]:

Foreordination = "To determine, to fix beforehand...

...Within this word is the thought that God possesses the ability to provide, with infinite precision, the things necessary for the ongoing of this universe which He has created. God planned all the details before the work of creation. God did not create and then sit down to decide what He would do with what had been created. As a careful Architect, God planned the use to which each part of creation would be put, the use to which each member within creation would be put."

A) [Compare Eph 1:4-5, 11]:

(Eph 1:4) "For He [God the Father, (v. 3a)] chose us [believers, (v. 1)] in Him [i.e., to be in Christ - to be saved, (v. 3b)] before the creation of the world to be holy and blameless in His sight."

[Pentecost, cont.]:

["This truth is presented to us in Ephesians 1:4 where the Apostle reminds us that God has chosen us in Him (that is, in Christ) before the foundation of the world...

God's purpose was determined previous to the actual act of creation....

God... was the Architect of a plan, (cf v. 11)."]

(v. 5) [In love, (v. 4c)] He predestined us to be adopted as His sons through Jesus Christ, in accordance with His pleasure and will.

(v. 11) In Him we were also chosen having been predestinated according to the plan of Him Who works out everything in conformity with the purpose of His will"

Notice that God indeed has a "plan" and He elects and predestines "everything according to [that] plan" and He "works out everything in conformity with the purpose of His will" not the will of man. So God's election of some is not as a result of man's will to believe in the gospel, but of God's will and purpose in accordance with His plan.

[Pentecost, cont.]:

"In Ephesians 1:5, Paul tells us that God has worked all things 'according to the good pleasure of his will. Then, in verse 11... God's purpose was to glorify Himself... God... predetermines His purpose, His goal, His aim, and His end in creation, and then God brings into existence that program which will fulfill His purpose and aim. Paul makes this very clear in 1 Corinthians 2:7."

B) [Compare 1 Cor 2:7]:

"No, we speak of God's secret wisdom, a wisdom that has been hidden and that God destined for our glory before time began."

[Pentecost, cont.]:

"From that verse we discover that foreordination has to do with the determining of a plan before the plan is put into operation."

II) DECREE = THE ACT BY WHICH GOD ESTABLISHED THE CERTAINTY OF WHAT HE FOREORDAINED

[Pentecost, op. cit., pp. 137-8]:

"[Decree is defined as] The act by which God established the certainty of what He has planned, or predetermined. By foreordination God determines what the program will be. By God's decree God establishes the certainty of that which He has foreordained....

A) [Compare Dan 11:36]:

"The king will do as he pleases. He will exalt and magnify himself above every god and will say unheard-of things against the God of gods. He will be successful until the time of wrath is completed, for what has been determined [by God] must take place."

Just as a king decrees what He decrees not on the basis of what one of his subjects might think, but on the basis of what he, the king "pleases";

in the same way, God decrees what He decrees not on the basis of what man might think, but on what God Himself pleases.

Furthermore, Daniel is recording the fact that God has issued a decree as to what His plan is and despite the king's will over his subjects, God's decree will certainly come to fulfillment, for Daniel says, '...that which is determined shall be done.'

B) [Compare Lk 22:22]:

"[Jesus said] 'The Son of Man will go as it has been decreed, but woe to that man who betrays Him.'

The word 'decreed' in that passage refers to God's decree by which God established what Jesus Christ would do during His earthly ministry in every detail - even with respect to men's free will choices in those ancient times which determined our Lord's trials, crucifixion and where he was buried.

C) [Compare Acts 2:23]:

"This Man, delivered up by the predetermined plan and foreknowledge of God, you nailed to a cross by the hands of godless men and put Him to death."

Notice that God predetermines and as a result foreknows rather than foreknows then predetermines. And it was by God's "predetermined plan", i.e., His decree that godless men would choose of their own volition to put Him to death by nailing Him to a cross.

D) [Compare Acts 4:27-28]:

(v. 27) "For truly in this city there were gathered together against Thy holy Servant Jesus, Whom Thou didst anoint, both Herod and Pontius Pilate, along with the Gentiles and the peoples of Israel.

(v. 28) to do whatever Thy hand and Thy purpose predestined to occur."

[Pentecost, cont.]:

"God had foreordained a certain program, and then God had established the certainty and irreversibility of that program by issuing a decree as to what would take place in detail. The Apostle, proclaiming the facts concerning the death of Christ, points out that Christ's death was no accident, that Christ was not subjected, primarily, to the will of the Jews nor the will of the Gentiles, but that the Jew and the Gentiles were doing that which God - Who had foreordained the course of events - had settled and established by His decree would certainly come to pass. God in foreordination lays the plan and program; God, by His decree and His determinative counsel, establishes the certainty of that program."

E) [Compare Lam 3:37-38]:

(v. 37) "Who can speak and have it happen if the Lord has not decreed it?

(v. 38) Is it not from the mouth of the Most High that both calamities and good things come?"

God is sovereign in all that occurs - the good and the bad. For example, those who of their own volition believe in Christ as Savior were decreed to believe of their own volition and those who reject Christ as Savior of their own volition were decreed to do just that of their own volition.

III) FOREKNOWLEDGE = WHAT GOD KNOWS WITH CERTAINTY WILL COME TO PASS BECAUSE HE HAS DECREED IT AND WILL SEE TO IT THAT IT IS FULFILLED, I.E., THAT WHICH IS ACCORDING TO THE ELECTION OF GOD BEING STRICTLY BY HIS GRACE AND AS FULFILLED THROUGH HIM

(Ro 10:20 NIV) "And Isaiah boldly says, 'I was found by those who did not seek me; I revealed Myself to those who did not ask for Me.' [Isa 65:1] (Ro 10:21 NIV) But concerning Israel he says, 'All day long I have held out my hands to a disobedient and obstinate people.' [Isa 65:2] (Ro 11:1 NKJV) "I say then, has God cast away His people? Certainly not! For I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. (Ro 11:2 NKJV) God has not cast away His people whom He foreknew. Or do you not know what the Scripture says of Elijah, how he pleads with God against Israel, saying, (Ro 11:3 NKJV) 'LORD, they have killed Your prophets and torn down Your altars, and I alone am left, and they seek my life'? (Ro 11:4 NKJV) But what does the divine response say to him? 'I have reserved for Myself seven thousand men who have not bowed the knee to Baal.' [1 Kgs 19:18] (Ro 11:5 NKJV) Even so then, at this present time there [has been] a remnant according to the election of grace" =

By his references to Isaiah 65, (Ro 10:20-21) and to 1 Kgs 19, (Ro 11:4), the meaning of foreknowledge is defined by Paul as a knowledge beforehand of events which are a result of God's decree - His plan and His instituting of that plan by direct intervention in order to insure its outcome. The passages indicates that a remnant of ancient Israelites would be preserved by the LORD so that His promise of a future generation of Israelites to occupy the promised land in the new heavens and the new earth as the LORD's chosen people would be fulfilled, (cf. Isa 65:8-9, 17-18). Notice that during Elijah's time, the LORD reserved for Himself seven thousand men who had not bowed the knee to Baal.

Having said that, Paul declares that in the same way that the LORD foreknew the Israelites to be His chosen people - to be preserved for eternity to inherit the promised land, "so at this present time there [has been] a remnant of individuals - evidently Gentiles - according to the election of grace" who will likewise be preserved for eternity. Notice that God has specifically chosen by grace, i.e., by unmerited favor - by nothing that they would do themselves - a number of individuals to be a remnant destined for eternal life. For an individual to be part of a remnant by the election of the grace of the LORD evidently means that the LORD has foreknown him because He has chosen him by decree. This corroborates that God is proactive in what He foreknows will occur to the extent that He decrees, hence predestinates that occurence and directly intervenes to make it come to pass. Hence individuals who make the specific choice of trusting in the gospel of their own volition are decreed to do just that and God intervenes to see that this comes to pass. Hence they are foreknown by the LORD to be a remnant destined to be preserved unto eternal life.

[Pentecost, op. cit., pp. 138-9]

"...Foreknowledge, as used in Scripture, refers to what God knows with certainty will come to pass because He has decreed that event. God knows all things, not only because He is an omniscient God, but because God by His decree has settled and established what will come to pass in fulfillment of His predetermined program. Foreknowledge, then, is the result of God's foreordination, or God's decree, of what would take place. God foreknows, not only what will take place, but the people who will be instruments in the fulfillment of His plan and His program. Foreknowledge has to do not only with what will take place but who will be included within the scope of God's program.

It is that thought that is in mind when the Apostle writes to the Romans and says:

A) [Ro 8:29]:

"For those God foreknew He also predestined to be conformed to the likeness of His Son, that He might be the Firstborn among many brothers."

1) GOD DID NOT ELECT CERTAIN INDIVIDUALS ON ACCOUNT OF FOREKNOWING THAT THEY WOULD ACCEPT CHRIST AS SAVIOR BUT ON ACCOUNT OF HIS DECREE THAT THEY WOULD ACCEPT CHRIST AS SAVIOR

[Pentecost, cont.]

"A widely-held interpretation is that God has elected those whom He knows will accept Christ as Personal Savior. This is an erroneous interpretation, for if God elected those whom He knew beforehand would accept Him as Savior then God has not foreordained, God has not decreed, God has not foreknown; but rather, God has exercised His omniscience, and has limited Himself by the will of man. God is no longer a sovereign God if He elects those whom He knew would accept Him as a Savior, those whom would put faith in His Son, the Lord Jesus Christ. God is then subject to the whims of the human will, and God cannot act upon, nor go beyond, the limits of the human will. Rather, what the Apostle writes in Romans 8:29 is the fact that God knew whom would be included in His plan because He has foreordained and decreed that they would be included.

We find the same truth is presented in 1 Peter 1:2 where Peter says that we were elect according to the foreknowledge of God...

a) [1 Pet 1:2]:

"[God's elect, (v. 1)] who have been chosen according to the foreknowledge of God the father, through the sanctifying work of the Spirit, for obedience to Jesus Christ and sprinkling by His blood...."

Peter teaches that we were 'elect according to the foreknowledge of God...' The election is in keeping with the foreknowledge, not because of the foreknowledge, or based upon the foreknowledge. Foreknowledge says nothing of what God knew the individual would do but foreknowledge has to do with what God knew He would do with men. God foreordained; that is, He drew the plan. God, by His decree or by His determination, settled, solidified, and finalized the plan. Consequently, God in foreknowledge knows what He will do because of His foreordination and His decree."

IV) ELECTION

A) ELECT AND ELECTION DEFINED

The elect = the chosen = the selected out ones = those who are appointed by God for a certain object or goal.

Election = the process of selecting out, choosing, appointing for a certain object or goal.

It is indeed true that God calls out some for the purpose of salvation and others He does not.

1) [Compare Ro 11:5-8]:

(v. 5) "So too, at the present time there is a remnant chosen by grace.

(v. 6) And if by grace, then it is no longer by works; if it were, grace would no longer be grace.

(v. 7) What then? What Israel sought so earnestly it did not obtain, but the elect did. The others [the non-elect] were hardened,

[Notice that God hardened the hearts of the non-elect]

(v. 8) as it is written: 'God gave them a spirit of stupor, eyes so that they could not see and ears so that they could not hear, to this very day.' "

[Kenneth S. Wuest states relative to the term elect in 'Ephesians and Colossians in the Greek New Testament', Wm B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. Grand Rapids, Mich, 1963, p. 29-30]:

"Elect = pick out, choose...[eklego]...

First, the word is used of God choosing out Israel from amongst all nations to be the channel through which He will bring salvation to all those in these other nations who will receive it. This choosing out of Israel from among the nations does not imply that those nations not chosen are rejected or refused salvation. Indeed, the salvation of Israel was for the purpose of making salvation possible to the other nations. The same usage applies in the case of individual sinners selected out from amongst mankind. These are selected for the purpose of being channels through which the knowledge of salvation might be brought to the rest of mankind, so that those who put their trust in the Lord Jesus as Savior might be saved. This precludes the idea that those not selected are rejected or refused salvation;

Second, the middle voice of the verb [elect] gives it the meaning of [God] taking or setting apart something for... [Himself], to see, or choose out something for [Himself]...

The main import is appointment for a certain object or goal;

Third, the word is used of the act of choosing some person or thing for a definite object or calling. The middle voice in Greek represents the subject of the verb acting in His own interest or for Himself...

2) [1 Thes 1:4-5]:

(v. 4) "Knowing, brethren beloved by God, His choice of you,

["eklogen" = calling out of, election]

(v. 5) for our gospel did not come to you in word only, but also in power and in the Holy Spirit and with full conviction; just as you know what kind of men we proved to be among you for your sake."

3) [1 Pet 1:1-2]:

(v. 1) "Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, To God's elect, strangers in the world, scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia and Bithynia,

(v. 2) who have been chosen according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through the sanctifying work of the Spirit, for obedience to Jesus Christ and sprinkling by His blood: Grace and peace be yours in abundance."

[Wuest, op. cit., pp. 30-31]:

"The word 'elect.... is the translation of the noun form of this verb eklego. Here these are said to be 'selected out ones', this selection being dominated by the foreordination of God the Father in the sphere of the setting apart work of the Spirit resulting in obedience and the sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ.' We have here three steps God takes in the salvation of a sinner. God the Father selects him out from among mankind. This selection is made in the sphere of the setting apart work of the Spirit, which the Holy Spirit brings that sinner to the act of faith in the Lord Jesus, which faith is answered by the act of God the Son cleansing him in His precious blood. God the Father selects, God the Spirit brings to the act of faith, and God the Son cleanses the believing sinner in His precious blood. This is the same election or selection spoken of in Ephesians....

Expositors says: 'What is meant, therefore, is that the blessing which God bestowed on these Ephesians was not a thing of time merely, but the issue of an election prior to their call or conversion, a blessing that came to them in accordance with a definite choice of them out of a mass of others by God for Himself.'...

...The grammatical classification is locative of sphere, the translation, chosen out 'in the sphere of Christ.' That is, those chosen out were chosen with the provision and limitation that this choice would be followed by the inclusion of the person thus chosen, within the sphere of the saving work of the Lord Jesus, which in turn would result in their position in Him as the Last Adam who would confer upon them righteousness and life as the first Adam by his fall brought sin and death upon the entire human race...

The idea of the Divine election in the N.T. is not a philosophical idea expressing the ultimate explanation of the system of things or giving the rationale of the story of the human race as such, but a religious idea, a note of grace, expressing the fact that salvation is originally and wholly of God...

It is, as is here clearly intimated, an eternal determination of the Divine Will, and it has its ground in the freedom of God, not in anything foreseen in its subjects. Of a prevision of faith as the basis or motive of the election, there is no indication here....

That choice is as eternal as God is...

What a salvation, based upon an eternal choice, which extends through time, into, and throughout the eternity after time ceases. And then some dear children of God are afraid that after God has saved them, they can be lost."

B) ONLY THOSE WHO ARE GIVEN BY THE FATHER TO THE SON WILL COME TO THE SON AND NO ONE CAN COME TO THE SON UNLESS THE FATHER DRAWS AND ENABLES HIM

1) [Compare Jn 6:37, 44, 65]:

(v. 37) "All that the Father gives Me will come to Me, and whoever comes to Me I will never drive away.

[Note that the Father is sovereign in His choice of whom to give to the Son - not depending upon the will of man.

Since not all men will be saved,

then only some will be chosen to be given by the Father to the Son, i.e., only some are elect and will be saved.

The concept of the Father giving individuals to the Son does not infer that the Father is dependent upon knowing that those individuals will believe in Christ as Savior first because the order of events and sovereign priority is that those who are given by the Father to the Son will then come to the Son, i.e., believe in Him and be saved. God cannot be dependent upon the will of man, otherwise His sovereignty is not absolute. Furthermore, we have to consider the Father's drawing and enabling of an individual to come to the Son]:

(v. 44) No one can come to Me, unless the Father Who sent Me draws him; and I will raise him up on the last day.

(v. 65) He [Jesus] went on to say, 'This is why I told you that no one can come to Me unless the Father has enabled him.' "

[If all individuals, elect and non-elect are drawn/enabled by the Father to the Son to be saved, then our Lord's statement in verse 44, 'No one can come to Me, unless the Father Who sent me draws him,' of verse 65: "...enabled" would be redundant. But this is not the case, one must draw the conclusion here that only those who are to be 'raised... up on the last day' are drawn/enabled by the Father, i.e., only those who are elect are drawn & enabled.

So, since not all men will be saved,

and since only all of those who are drawn and enabled by the Father to come to Christ will come to Christ,

then not all men will be drawn and enabled by the Father to be saved]

2) [Compare Jn 12:32]:

"But I, when I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all men to myself."

C) ALL WHO COME TO FAITH IN JESUS MUST BE DRAWN BY THE FATHER, (V. 44), AND ALL WHO COME TO FAITH WERE GIVEN BY THE FATHER TO THE SON, (V. 37); AND JESUS SHALL LOSE NONE OF ALL THAT THE FATHER HAS GIVEN HIM FOR EVERYONE GIVEN BELIEVES IN JESUS AND SHALL HAVE ETERNAL LIFE AND BE RAISED AT THE LAST DAY, (VV. 39-40)

1) [Compare Jn 6:44, 37, 40]:

(v. 44) "No one can come to Me unless the Father Who sent Me draws him, and I will raise him up at the last day....

(v. 37) All that the Father gives me will come to me, and whoever comes to me I will never drive away...

(v. 39) And this is the will of him who sent me, that I shall lose none of all that he has given me, but raise them up at the last day.

(v. 40) For My Father's will is that everyone who looks to the Son and believes in Him shall have eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day."

In the light of verses 37-44 it can be concluded that all who come to faith in Jesus were previously drawn by the Father, (v. 44); and thus all who come to faith were, previous to that faith, given by the Father to the Son, (v. 37); and Jesus "shall lose none of all that He [the Father] has given [Him], but raise them [all] at the last day", (v. 39). Finally, it is the "Father's will that everyone who looks to the Son and believes in Him [which is all who will ever believe] shall have eternal life, and I [Jesus] will raise him[= all] up at the last day", (v. 40).

D) SINCE THE INHERENT NATURE OF BELIEVING IS FREE WILL, GOD'S DRAWING DOES NOT FORCE MAN TO BELIEVE

1) [Compare Jn 6:44]:

"No one can come to Me unless the Father Who sent Me draws Him, and I will raise Him up at the last day."

Although "no one can come to Me [= saving faith in Jesus Christ] unless the Father.... draws him," the individual must still choose of his own volition to come by definition of the word believe.

To come to Christ in this context is to believe in Him to provide eternal life for you. To believe is defined as to accept, regard, receive as true that Jesus Christ is the Bread of Life Who will provide eternal life in a moments faith in Him to do that. Hence the word believe requires that the individual have complete freedom to exercise his will to believe in what he will. Therefore God's drawing stipulated in v. 44 cannot overpower the exercise of an individual's exercise of what he believes.

[Kittel's Theological Dictionary of the New Testament]:

'''The basic meaning is "to draw," "tug," or, in the case of persons, "compel." It may be used for "to draw" to a place by magic, for demons being "drawn" to animal life, or for the inner influencing of the will (Plato). The Semitic world has the concept of an irresistible drawing to God (cf. 1 Sam. 10:5; 19:19ff.; Jer. 29:26; Hos. 9:7). In the OT helkein denotes a powerful impulse, as in Cant. 1:4, which is obscure but expresses the force of love. There is no thought here of force or magic. The term figuratively expresses the supernatural power of the love of God or Christ [p. 227].'''

A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and other Early Christian Literature, says helkuo is used figuratively "of the pull on man's inner life....draw, attract J 6:44" [Bauer, Arndt, Gingrich, Danker, p. 251].

The Analytical Lexicon to the Greek New Testament, states that helkuo is used metaphorically "to draw mentally and morally, John 6:44; 12:32" [William Mounce, p. 180].

The Greek-English Lexicon to the New Testament has, "met., to draw, i.e. to attract, Joh. xii. 32. Cf. Joh. vi. 44" [W.J. Hickie, p. 13].

The Analytical Lexicon of the Greek New Testament by Timothy Friberg, Barbara Friberg, and Neva F. Miller says, "figuratively, of a strong pull in the mental or moral life draw, attract (JN 6.44)" [p. 144].

Calvinist Spiros Zodhiates, in his Hebrew-Greek Key Study Bible, says, "Helkuo is used of Jesus on the cross drawing by His love, not force (Jn. 6:44; 12:32)" [New Testament Lexical Aids, p. 1831]

Finally, the context of forceful drawing elsewhere in Scripture, (Jas 2:6; Jn 21:6) cannot be imposed upon Jn 6:44 to change its context and make God force an individual to believe in Jesus Christ for the action of believing by definition must always be volitional.

E) SINCE MAN'S CHOOSING TO BELIEVE IS IN VIEW WHICH BY DEFINITION IS VOLITIONAL, THEN MAN'S CAPACITY TO COME TO JESUS BY FAITH IS IMPLIED. YET THIS CANNOT OCCUR BECAUSE MAN WILL NOT BELIEVE UNLESS THE FATHER DRAWS HIM, (v. 44).

1) [Compare Jn 6:44]:

"No one can come to Me unless the Father Who sent Me draws him, and I will raise him up at the last day"

The nature of faith is volitional by definition, i.e., by the will of man. Coming to faith in Christ then is implied as within the capacity of man depending upon his will. Yet for man to exercise his will and believe in Jesus Christ unto salvation, the Father must draw one to exercise one's will unto saving faith within one's capacity to believe. Evidently what is in view is that man has the capacity to believe in Jesus Christ unto eternal life but he will not exercise that capacity until after the Father draws him. Details of the Father's drawing are not provided except that only those that are drawn will believe and be saved, such drawing not to violate man's free will to believe.

F) ALL MANKIND IS ALSO DRAWN TO GOD IN A NUMBER OF WAYS BUT NOT ALL WILL RESPOND

1) [Jn 12:32-33]:

(v. 32) "If I be lifted up, I will draw all unto Me (John 12:32-33).

(v. 33) He said this to show the kind of death he was going to die."

a) ALL MEN ARE DRAWN BY CHRIST WHEN HE WAS LIFTED UP BUT NOT ALL WILL RESPOND

Here in this passage, it is evident our Lord said that He will draw all men, Greek "pantas" Str 3956 = all, (i.e., everyone whoever lived to Him with a view of His death on the cross for the sins of the whole world, (Jn 3:14-18; 1 Jn 2:2).

The all in this passage is not restricted and therefore is universal, the same as it is in Romans 10:13 and Jn 2:24:

i) [Ro 10:13]:

'''For, "Everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved."

"Everyone" = "pas" Str 3956 = all, everyone - not just all types of men, same root word as in Jn 6:44.

ii) [Jn 2:24]:

"But Jesus would not entrust himself to them, for he knew all men."

"All" = "pantas" Str 3956 = all, everyone - not just types of men, identical word as in Jn 6:44.

For example, Judas was surely drawn to Christ in a very intense way, yet he rejected Him. That is why his guilt is so great. The nation of Israel was consistently drawn to trust in a coming Messiah and repent in that light, yet she consistently failed except for a remnant who believed. Jesus said that the guilt of those in Chorazin and Bethsaida would be greater than that of those from ancient Tyre and Sidon because they had rejected greater light (Luke 10:13-16). Indeed, Jesus indicted the whole generation for rejecting One greater than Solomon and Jonah (Luke 11:29-32).

All men indeed are drawn to Christ and Him crucified. So all men have available to them the full benefit of what He did on the cross. But Scripture elsewhere indicates that not all men will respond, (Mt 7:13-14).

b) ALL MEN ARE DRAWN BY THE HOLY SPIRIT TO CONVICTION OF SIN AND JUDGMENT AND THE NEED FOR RIGHTEOUSNESS BUT FEW RESPOND

i) [Jn 16:8-11]:

(v. 8) "When He [the Holy Spirit, vv. 7-8)] comes, He will convict the world of guilt in regard to sin and righteousness and judgment:

(v. 9) in regard to sin, because men do not believe in Me;

(v. 10) in regard to righteousness, because I am going to the Father, where you can see Me no longer;

(v. 11) and in regard to judgment, because the prince of this world now stands condemned."

Note that Jesus said that as a result of unbelief in Him and our Lord's ascension to the Father and the defeat of the Devil, the Holy Spirit would come to convict the world of sin, righteousness, and judgment. This implies that men can be convicted of sin, the need for righteousness and of judgment to come. Man is thus held accountable for his unbelief in Jesus Christ especially as to His message of convicting men of sin, the need for righteousness and a coming judgment.

c) ALL MANKIND IS DRAWN BY CREATION AND THE ORDER IN WHICH IT EXISTS TO BELIEVE IN THE CREATOR, BUT FEW WILL RESPOND

i) [Compare Ro 1:18-23]:

(v. 18) "The wrath of God is being revealed from heaven against all the godlessness and wickedness of men who suppress the truth by their wickedness,

(v. 19) since what may be known about God is plain to them, because God has made it plain to them.

(v. 20) For since the creation of the world God's invisible qualities--his eternal power and divine nature--have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made, so that men are without excuse."

[Notice that the creation of the world gives clear and plain evidence of Who God is. Hence creation draws all mankind to God, but few respond]

ii) [Compare Acts 17:24-27]:

(v. 24) "The God who made the world and everything in it is the Lord of heaven and earth and does not live in temples built by hands.

(v. 25) And He is not served by human hands, as if He needed anything, because He Himself gives all men life and breath and everything else.

(v. 26) From one man He made every nation of men, that they should inhabit the whole earth; and He determined the times set for them and the exact places where they should live.

(v. 27) God did this so that men would seek Him and perhaps reach out for Him and find Him, though He is not far from each one of us."

[Notice that the order in which creation exists, especially God's determination of the times set for man and the exact places where they should live give clear evidence of Who God is so that all men may be drawn to their Creator and seek Him. This implies that man can understand Who God is and seek Him. But few do.]

d) GOD PROVIDES THE GIFT OF FAITH FOR THOSE THAT CHOOSE TO TRUST ALONE IN HIS SON ALONE UNTO ETERNAL LIFE

i) [Compare Phil 1:29]:

"For it has been granted to you on behalf of Christ not only to believe on Him, but also to suffer for Him."

[Notice that God has granted to believers not only to believe on Jesus Christ but also to suffer for Him. The context has in view God's exclusive granting of faith in Christ and suffering to believers. These two grants are portrayed as exclusive to believers in light of a number of things:

1) Since unbelievers can do nothing to please God, then God's grant of suffering is exclusive to those who believe;

and since believing is paralleled with suffering in this verse, then God's grant of faith is also exclusive to those who believe.

2) If one could come to faith in Christ without God's grant to believe on His Son then God's gift of faith would be meaningless.

[BKC, NT, Walvoord & Zuck, Victor Books, USA, 1988, p. 318]:

"Jesus said that at the cross He would draw all men to Himself. He did not mean everybody will be saved [or drawn by the Father to the Son] for He made it clear that some will be lost (John 5:28-29). If the drawing by the Son is the same as that of the Father (6:44), it means He will draw indiscriminately [i.e., not just one kind of men, but draw from the entire population of men]. Those saved will include not only Jews, but also those from every tribe, language, people, and nation (Rev 5:9; cf. John 10:16; 11:52).

2) [Jn 10:16]:

"I have other sheep that are not of this sheep pen. I must bring them also. They too will listen to my voice, and there shall be one flock and one shepherd."

The following passage indicates that there are those who will go to destruction, denying the Lord Who bought them out of that destruction - thus indicating that the Father must indeed draw men unto Himself in order for them to be saved:

3) [2 Pet 2:1]:

(v. 1) "But there were also false prophets among the people, just as there will be false teachers among you. They will secretly introduce destructive heresies, even denying the sovereign Lord Who bought them - bringing swift destruction on themselves."

This verse says that "the sovereign Lord...bought them", i.e., redeemed them by what he did on the cross, (cp. Gal 3:13-14). It is saying that the great redeeming work of Christ extends to false prophets and teachers and all men who deny the "Lord Who bought them" [i.e., men who never trusted in Him for salvation], meaning that He made provision for their salvation. But those false teachers are never saved because they never chose to believe in Christ as Savior, they instead "bring swift destruction on themselves" by denying Christ.

[So those who have brought 'swift destruction on themselves' were not given by the Father to the Son, nor drawn by the Father to the Son]

Since every man has already been purchased out of the condition of condemnation, and the only thing remaining for them to do is to accept salvation by faith alone in Christ alone,

and since man of his own accord cannot because he will not accept the sole condition of faith alone in Christ alone unto eternal life, (Ro 8:7-8), then it surely must take God Himself to bring an individual to Himself unto eternal life through His sovereign electing process without violating that individual's volition, but rather by drawing him in the sense of persuading him to exercise that volition toward faith in Christ.

4) [Compare Ro 8:7-8]:

****** EXCERPT FROM ROMANS 8 ******

[Ro 8:7-8]:

(v. 8:7 ASV) "because the mind of the flesh is enmity against God; for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can it be:

(v. 8:8 ASV) and they that are in the flesh cannot please God."

THE CRUX OF THE MATTER OF WHY THE LAW IS POWERLESS TO FULFILL ITS RIGHTEOUS REQUIREMENT IN MANKIND IS WITHIN THE NATURE OF MAN HIMSELF: THE UNBELIEVER'S MINDSET IS 'OF THE FLESH' - ENSLAVED TO HIS SIN NATURE AND AT ENMITY AGAINST GOD. THE UNBELIEVER CHOOSES AGAINST BEING SUBJECT TO THE LAW OF GOD, NOR CAN HE BE SUBJECT TO IT BECAUSE HE CANNOT BRING HIMSELF TO CHOOSE TO DO SO

(v. 8:3 YLT) "For what the Law was not able to do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God, His own Son having sent in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, did condemn ...sin in the flesh. (v. 8:4 NASB) so that the requirement of the Law might be fulfilled in us, who do not walk according to [the] flesh but according to [the] Spirit. (v. 8:5 YLT) For those who are according to [the] flesh, the things of the flesh do mind; and those according to [the] Spirit, the things of the Spirit. (v. 8:6 YLT) for the mind of the flesh [is] death, and the mind of the Spirit - life and peace (v. 8:7 ASV) because the mind of the flesh is enmity against God; for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can it be: (v. 8:8 ASV) and they that are in the flesh cannot please God." =

The crux of the matter of why the Law was powerless to fulfill its righteous requirement in mankind, (cf. Ro 8:3-4), is within the nature of man himself. "The mind of the flesh," in verse 8:7, is a description of the unbeliever's mind being enslaved to the flesh, i.e., the sin nature. The unbeliever is thereby at enmity, i.e., having an irreconciliable hatred and hostility against God. The unbeliever willfully rejects being subject to the law of God, to the standard of His righteousness, and does evil instead. The unbeliever's will is so entrenched in his evil mentality and corresponding ways, that he finds himself unable to choose to subject himself to the righteous law of God. It is totally abhorent to him.

ALTHOUGH AN UNBELIEVER CANNOT PLEASE GOD WITH ANYTHING GODLY IN HIS LIFESTYLE, HE CAN EXPRESS A MOMENT OF FAITH ALONE IN CHRIST ALONE. BELIEVING IN SOMETHING IS NOT A LIFESTYLE ACTIVITY

(v. 8:5 YLT) "For those who are according to [the] flesh, the things of the flesh do mind; and those according to [the] Spirit, the things of the Spirit. (v. 8:6 YLT) for the mind of the flesh [is] death, and the mind of the Spirit - life and peace (v. 8:7 ASV) because the mind of the flesh is enmity against God; for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can it be: (v. 8:8 ASV) and they that are in the flesh cannot please God."

Although an unbeliever cannot please God with anything godly in his lifestyle, he can express a moment of faith alone in Christ alone. Believing in something is not a lifestyle activity.

The phrase "They that are in the flesh" in Ro 8:8 is describing in this context the individual who is characteristically and always enslaved to his sin nature, i.e., the unbeliever, not the believer. It goes on to say that the unbeliever cannot please God with his lifestyle. This is not to say that the unbeliever cannot choose to trust alone in Christ alone in order to be justified and receive the righteousness of God and eternal life, (Ro 3:20-24) - which would please God, since believing is not a lifestyle activity and other passages indicate that it is a possibility with the unbeliever.

[Compare Ro 3:21-24]:

(v. 3:21 NIV) "But now a righteousness from God, apart from law, has been made known, to which the Law and the Prophets testify.

(v. 3:22 NIV) This righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. There is no difference,

(v. 3:23 NIV) for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God,

(v. 3:24 NIV) and are justified freely by His grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus."

Notice that this passage stipulates that those who are not yet believers, i.e., those who are of the flesh and cannot please God, (Ro 8:5-8), receive a righteousness from God, i.e., are justified freely by God's grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus through faith, (Ro 3:22), which implies that unbelievers can and do exercise such faith and by this do please God. The expression of faith in Christ which justifies an unbeliever is outside of the realm of lifestyle, which is what is in view in verse 8:8: a lifestyle of the unbeliever which is totally occupied with and dominated by the sin nature and thereby producing a lifestyle which is unable to please God. The nature of believing in something in order to be saved from ones own evil doing cannot be construed to be a godly behavior, for one is not proactively doing something godly when one trusts in Christ for salvation but only passively accepting God's work, not their own, in order to be saved. So although the exercise of saving faith would certainly please God, it is an action defined by God as within the bounds of His grace, (cf. Ro 3:24), i.e., unmerited favor and not within the realm of godly or ungodly behavior. Hence the exercise of saving faith is a passive and neutral activity which all men of sufficient cognitive ability have the capacity to exercise.

****** END OF EXCERPT FROM ROMANS 8 ******

5) [Compare 2 Cor 4:3-4]:

"The god of this age has blinded the minds of unbelievers, so that they cannot see the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ, Who is the image of God."

Notice that while one is an unbeliever one is blinded to the gospel - helpless and hopeless - unable to please God through faith in His Son.

Since all men before they become believers have sinful minds, are controlled by the sinful nature all of the time and are blinded to the gospel, they therefore cannot please God with faith in His Son unto salvation,

then no one solely of his own accord can be saved.

6) [Compare Jn 12:37-40]:

(v. 37) '''Even after Jesus had done all these miraculous signs in their presence, they still would not believe in him.

(v. 38) This was to fulfill the word of Isaiah the prophet: "Lord, who has believed our message and to whom has the arm of the Lord been revealed?"

(v. 39) For this reason they could not believe, because, as Isaiah says elsewhere:

(v. 40) "He has blinded their eyes and deadened their hearts, so they can neither see with their eyes, nor understand with their hearts, nor turn--and I would heal them." '''

a) INDIVIDUALS WHO WOULD NOT BELIEVE IN JESUS CHRIST GOD MADE IT SO THEY COULD NOT BELIEVE

[BKC, op. cit., pp. 319-320]:

"12:37. John from the beginning of his Gospel (1:11) had sounded the theme of national unbelief. John now explained tht in spite of all Jesus' miraculous sings (sEmeia), they still would not belive in Him. Their unbelief was irrational, as sin always is.

12:38. The Jews' national, irrational unbelief had been predicted by Isaiah the prophet. The clearest Old Testament passage concerning the suffering Servant (Isa 53:1-12) began by stating that Israel would not perceive God's revelation in and through the Servant. Who has believed our message and seen His arm...revealed? implies that only a few have believed (quoting Isa 53:1).

12:39-40. Then John again quoted from Isaiah (6:10) to explain that the nation as a whole was unable to believe. Because they constantly rejected God's revelation, He had punished them with judicial blindness and deadened... hearts. People in Jesus' day, like those in Isaiah's day, refused to believe. They 'would not believe' (John 12:37); therefore they could not believe (v. 39). Similar illustrations of God's punishing of persistent sin by hardening are common (Ex 9:12; Rom 1:24, 26, 28; 2 Thes 2:8-12).'''

G) ELECTION IS THE WORK OF GOD. IT IS NOT A MATTER OF THE INDIVIDUAL ELECTING GOD AND THEN GOD ELECTING HIM IN RESPONSE - AND NEITHER GOD'S JUSTICE NOR MAN'S FREE WILL IS IMPUGNED

Just as the coach of a team chooses those on the team who are going to play in a particular game,

his choice being dependent upon his will and not on the will of those on his team - otherwise it's not his choice at all -

and his choice not restricting the free will choice of his chosen players to play in that game;

so in a similar way God elects those of mankind who are going to be provided with the gift of faith unto salvation,

His choice being dependent upon His plan and will and not on the will of man - otherwise it is not God's choice at all -

and His choice not restricting the free will choice of His elect to believe in Christ as Savior.

If God's election were dependent upon man's choosing God first, then God's choice would not be His but man's, and God's sovereignty in this matter would be subjected to man's will.

Furthermore, just as a ballplayer's free will to choose to play the game is not overrided by the coach's choice for him to play - it's both,

in the same way, man's free will to choose to believe is not overrided by God's choice for him to believe - it's both!

[Pentecost, op. cit., pp. 139-141]

[Election]"...means 'to call out.' It has to do with selection... Election is the sovereign work of God, according to His own purpose and will, predetermined by His foreordination, in which He selects those through whom the divine purpose will be fulfilled. We refer you again to Ephesians 1:4: We were chosen, in Christ, before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before Him.

Election is the work of God. It is not a matter of the individual electing God, and then God electing him in response. We find this same truth presented in Romans where, concerning the national election of Israel, the divine principle in election was made very clear. The Apostle [Paul] says...

1) [Ro 9:10-23]:

(v. 10) "And not only this, but there was Rebekah also, when she had conceived twins by one man, our father Isaac;

(v. 11) For though the twins were not yet born, and had not done anything good or bad, in order that God's purpose according to His election [="Eklogen"] might stand, not because of works, but because of Him Who calls [="kalountos"],

[Notice that there was no merit or future actions foreseen or implicated in any way in either Jacob or Esau. God's choice was unaffected by the character or future action of either twin]

(v. 12) it was said to her, 'The older will serve the younger.'

(v. 13) Just as it is written, 'Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated.'

(v. 14) What shall we say then? There is no injustice with God, is there? May it never be!

(v. 15) For He says to Moses, 'I will have mercy on whom I have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion.'

(v. 16) So then it does not depend on the man who wills or the man who runs, but on God Who has mercy.

[Notice that God chooses one over another without impugning His justice, (v. 14).

Furthermore, that choice is solely in accordance with His will, (v. 15).

Finally, nothing in this operation is dependent upon the will of man, (v. 16).]

(v. 17) For the Scripture says to Pharaoh, 'For this very purpose I raised you up, to demonstrate My power in you, and that My name might be proclaimed throughout the whole earth.

(v. 18) So then He has mercy on whom He desires, and He hardens whom He desires.

(v. 19) You will say to me then 'Why does He still find fault? For who resists His will?'

(v. 20) On the contrary, who are you, O man, who answers back to God? The thing molded will not say to the molder, 'Why did you make me like this, 'will it? [Isa 29:16; 45:9]

(v. 21) Or does not the potter have a right over the clay, to make from the same lump a vessel for honorable use, and another for dishonor?

["dishonor" = "atimian" = "vileness" = points to those who are destined to God's eternal wrath & condemnation.

Notice that God has "a right...to make from the same lump" of the clay of lost humanity a vessel for honorable use, the elect, and another for dishonor = eternal condemnation. And this is His right, without impugning His character, especially considering that all humanity deserves eternal condemnation]

(v. 22) What if God, although willing to demonstrate His wrath and to make His power known, endured with much patience vessels of wrath prepared for destruction?

(v. 23) And He did so in order that He might make known the riches of His glory upon vessels of mercy, which He prepared beforehand for glory."

[Pentecost, cont.]:

"This passage is very important to understanding of the doctrine of election. You will notice that God [alone] is the One doing the electing; further, election was based upon the sovereign will of God [and not man's]. It was not God's response to good or evil in the one elected, for this election took place while the twins [Jacob and Esau] were in the womb of their mother, before either had done good or evil as the basis for His election or rejection. Election was to fulfill the purpose to God. God's foreordained plan was the reason for God's election of Jacob. God has separated unto Himself those through whom His program would be fulfilled."

H) ELECTION SEPARATES FROM AMONG MEN, ALL OF WHOM ARE UNDER CONDEMNATION, SOME TO FULFILL GOD'S PURPOSE OF SALVATION BY GRACE AND SOME TO FULFILL HIS PURPOSE OF DESTRUCTION

1) [Ro 9:10-23]:

(v. 10) "And not only this, but there was Rebekah also, when she had conceived twins by one man, our father Isaac;

(v. 11) For though the twins were not yet born, and had not done anything good or bad, in order that God's purpose according to His choice might stand, not because of works, but because of Him Who calls,

(v. 12) it was said to her, 'The Older will serve the younger.'

(v. 13) Just as it is written, 'Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated.'

(v. 14) What shall we say then? There is no injustice with God, is there? May it never be!

(v. 15) For He says to Moses, 'I will have mercy on whom I have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion.'

(v. 16) So then it does not depend on the man who wills or the man who runs, but on God Who has mercy.

(v. 17) For the Scripture says to Pharaoh, 'For this very purpose I raised you up, to demonstrate My power in you, and that My name might be proclaimed throughout the whole earth.

(v. 18) So then He has mercy on whom He desires, and He hardens whom He desires.

(v. 19) You will say to me then 'Why does He still find fault? For who resists His will?'

(v. 20) On the contrary, who are you, O man, who answers back to God? The thing molded will not say to the molder, 'Why did you make me like this, 'will it? [Isa 29:16; 45:9]

(v. 21) Or does not the potter have a right over the clay, to make from the same lump on vessel for honorable use, and another for dishonor?

["dishonor" = "atimian" = "vileness" = points to those who are destined to God's eternal wrath & condemnation]:

(v. 22) What if God, although willing to demonstrate His wrath and to make His power known, endured with much patience vessels of wrath prepared for destruction?

(v. 23) And He did so in order that He might make known the riches of His glory upon vessels of mercy, which He prepared beforehand for glory"

[Pentecost, op. cit., pp. 139-141]:

"Observe that when God elects, God elects out of men who were lost. Election does not separate some unto heaven and some unto hell. Election separates from among men, all of whom are under condemnation, some to fulfill God's purpose and program. Election is of grace because all men were under the curse and the wrath of God. God, to fulfill His predetermined, foreordained, decreed program, has selected those instruments He chooses to use by which that purpose and program should should come to fulfillment. That any man should have been elected by God is a manifestation of the infinite grace of an infinite God."

[For none selected is deserving anything but eternal condemnation]

I) THE ELECT WILL INEVITABLY TRUST IN CHRIST AS SAVIOR UNTO ETERNAL LIFE AND THE NON-ELECT WILL NOT

1) THE ELECT WILL INEVITABLY TRUST IN CHRIST AS SAVIOR UNTO ETERNAL LIFE

a) [Compare Romans 8:28-30]:

(v. 28) "And we know that in all things God works for the good of those who love him, who have been called according to His purpose.

(v. 29) For those God foreknew He also predestined to be conformed to the likeness of his Son, that He might be the Firstborn among many brothers.

(v. 30) And those He predestined, He also called; those He called, He also justified; those He justified, He also glorified."

Notice that God foreknew therefore He predestined and thus He called, i.e., "EkalEsE" = "elected", resulting in justification and glorification. Man's free will decision to believe or not believe unto eternal life is not in this equation. From man's point of view it is, (Jn 3:16; Ro 3:22-24), but not from God's point of view.

2) THE NON-ELECT WILL INEVITABLY NOT BELIEVE

a) [Compare 1 Peter 2:7-8]:

(v. 7) "Now to you who believe, this stone is precious. But to those who do not believe, 'The stone the builders rejected has become the capstone,'

(v. 8) and, 'A stone that causes men to stumble and a rock that makes them fall.' They stumble because they disobey the message--which is also what they were destined for."

Notice that those who disobey, i.e., refuse to believe the message of the gospel and thereby stumble were destined, i.e., decreed for this to happen by God. All individuals have this incapacity to obey the message of the Gospel, (Ro 8:7) - elect and non-elect alike and therefore all individuals stumble over the message of faith alone in Christ alone, the Stumbling Block until some, (the elect), are provided with God's election work where they are drawn to the Son by the Father, (Jn 6:44), the veil hiding an understanding of the gospel is taken away, (2 Cor 3:16; 4:3-4), and they are provided with the gift of faith, (Phil 1:29); at which time they inevitably trust alone in Christ alone of their own volition and are saved - as decreed by God from the foundation of the universe, (Ro 8:28-30).

b) [Compare Ro 9:19-22]:

(v. 19) "One of you will say to me: 'Then why does God still blame us? For who resists his will?'

(v. 20) But who are you, O man, to talk back to God? "Shall what is formed say to him who formed it, 'Why did you make me like this?'

(v. 21) Does not the potter have the right to make out of the same lump of clay some pottery for noble purposes and some for dishonor"?

["dishonor" = "atimian" = "vileness" = points to those who are destined to God's eternal wrath & condemnation]:

(v. 22) What if God, choosing to show His wrath and make His power known, bore with great patience the objects of His wrath--prepared for destruction?"

Notice that those who are destined for the Lake of Fire were made 'out of the same lump of clay' of humanity 'for dishonor', i.e., for the purpose of condemnation, (v. 21). They were 'prepared for destruction', (v. 22). Although they indeed do have the opportunity to believe and be saved, (Jn 3:16), they evidently were not elect so they are on their own as to the choice to trust in Christ or not. They were thus created for 'dishonor' and 'prepared for destruction', such that they inevitably will 'disobey the message' of the gospel, i.e, choose of their own volition to never trust in Christ as Savior and suffer eternal condemnation.

V) PREDESTINATION = THAT END WHICH IS DETERMINED BEFOREHAND BY GOD TO WHICH THOSE WHO HAVE BEEN ELECTED ARE SET APART AS PART OF GOD'S OVERALL AND FOREORDAINED PLAN

God predestined each aspect of His overall and foreordained plan for the universe to a predetermined end which includes the predestinated yet free will choices of each individual man and angel who ever lived.

[Pentecost, op. cit., pp. 141-143]

"The next word following election is 'predestination,' which means determine beforehand.' This has to do with the end to which those who have been elected are set apart. This word, when used in Scripture, is always qualified by a statement of the end or the aim in view. In Ephesians 1:4-5 we read...

A) [Eph 1:4-5, 11]:

(v. 4) "For He [God the Father, (v. 3a)] chose us [believers, (v. 1)] in Him [i.e., to be in Christ - to be saved, (v. 3b)] before the creation of the world to be holy and blameless in His sight, in love...

(v. 5) [in love, (v. 4c)], having predestinated us to adoption as sons [i.e., as children] through Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the kind intention of His will."

"...He predestinated us - and what was the end, or the aim? The adoption of [us as] children. Notice it again in verse 11:

(v. 11) In Him we were also chosen having been predestinated according to the plan of Him Who works out everything in conformity with the purpose of His will"

Predestinated - for what end? To obtain an inheritance. See it in Romans 8:29:

B) [Ro 8:29]:

"For those God foreknew He also predestined to be conformed to the likeness of His Son, that He might be the Firstborn among many brothers."

'For whom He did foreknow, He also did predestinate [and what was the end?] to be conformed to the image of His Son...'

Or we see it again in 1 Corinthians 2:7 where we were predestinated unto glory. The Apostle [Paul] says:

C) [1 Cor 2:7]:

"No, we speak of God's secret wisdom, a wisdom that has been hidden and which God ordained before the world unto our glory."

From these Scriptures we would emphasize again the important fact that when predestination is used in the Scriptures it determines the end, or the goal in view, for those whom God has elected unto Himself. I find no place in Scripture where it is said that we were predestinated to faith, that we were predestinated to belief, or that we were predestinated to accept Christ. No, we were predestinated for glory. We were predestinated unto sonship or inheritance."

On the other hand whomever God predestinates and elects inevitably believe of his own volition.

D) [Compare Jn 3:16]:

"For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life."

E) [Compare Acts 13:48]:

"When the Gentiles heard this, they were glad and honored the word of the Lord; and all who were appointed for eternal life believed. "

VI) CALLED = TO BE SUMMONED FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE FOREKNOWN BY GOD BECAUSE GOD PREDESTINATED THEM TO BE CALLED AS A RESULT OF HIS FOREORDAINED PURPOSE AND PROGRAM

[Pentecost, op. cit., pp. 141-143]

The word 'predestination' is logically followed by the word 'called,' which is to be understood in its normal designation in which God summons those whom He has foreknown, those whom He has elected, those whom He has predestinated, unto Himself. The call of God to the elect of God - who have been predestinated unto glory - is the consummating act of God's foreordination. God sees to it that His purpose will be accomplished. Those whom He has chosen for Himself will be brought to Himself, that His foreknown and predetermined program might be brought to consummation. The Apostle, in Romans 8:30, said...

A) [Ro 8:29-30]:

(v. 29) "For those God foreknew He also predestinated to be conformed to the likeness of His Son, that He might be the Firstborn among many brothers.

(v. 30) And those He predestinated, He also called; those He called, He also justified; those He justified, He also glorified."

The call, then, is a summons to Himself, because they have been predestined unto glory by His foreordained purpose and program, [cf. Jn 6:37, 44].

God's call is not a call to the human will, asking the human will, unaided by divine grace, to respond. God's call is also God's enablement; and God, Who issues the call, imparts the power through the ministry of the Holy Spirit to respond to that call, so that the sinner who is dead, who is without life, who us under condemnation and judgment, may hear God's call; and although he has no power in himself because he is dead, and no desire to respond because God has been put out of his life, he is enabled by the Holy Spirit to respond to the gracious invitation: 'Whosoever will may come.' Christ made it very clear that the call was part of God's purpose and program, for in John 6:44...

B) [Jn 6:37, 44, 65]:

(v. 37) "All that the Father gives Me will come to Me, and whoever comes to Me I will never drive away."

(v. 44) "No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws him, and I will raise him up at the last day."

(v. 65) "He went on to say, 'This is why I told you that no one can come to me unless the Father has enabled him.' "

And the drawing and enablement of the Father is the call of the Father to those who have been elected by God's grace, to those who have been predestinated or set apart unto glory, to those who God had foreknown would be the instruments to accomplish His foreordained purpose, which is settled and sure by the eternal and unchangeable decree of God.

C) [Phil 1:29]:

"For it has been granted to you on behalf of Christ not only to believe on him, but also to suffer for Him."

The context indicates that the grant to believe on behalf of Christ is a cause of the believer coming to a saving faith in Christ. The non elect are not granted the gift of faith on behalf of Christ, otherwise the verse would have no significance for Paul to mention to believers. Furthermore, if all are granted to believe on behalf of Christ then all would believe and be saved, which is not the case according to Scripture.

Thus unbelievers are exclusively under their own auspices to believe in Christ as Savior or not believe.

Since all who believe are elect which Phil 1:29 is addressing;

and since God only grants to the elect the gift of faith unto salvation;

and since one can only come to saving faith in Christ with this gift of faith

and since God decrees all things, not the least of which is this gift of faith unto salvation to the elect only

then God decrees those who will believe unto salvation and those who will not.

This believing or non-believing nevertheless is by personal volition of the individual.

If it were any other way - such as God discovering through His omniscience who will choose believe in Christ as Savior unto salvation and who will not, then man would be sharing in the sovereignty of God at least on this issue which would make God less than absolutely omnipotent, being dependent upon man's choice to believe or not believe after which God then discovers this and then decrees those who are to be elect.

VII) THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE SINNER IS TO BELIEVE ON THE LORD JESUS CHRIST AND BE SAVED, OF HIS OWN VOLITION

[Pentecost, cont.]:

"Does this mean that the sinner has no responsibility? Far from it, for Christ has died for the sins of the world. Christ has made a propitiation, or a covering over, for the sins of the world:"

A) [1 Jn 2:2]:

"He is the atoning sacrifice for our [believers', (v. 2:1)] sins, and not only for ours but also for the sins of the whole world."

Our Lord said:

B) [Jn 3:16]:

"For God so loved the world, that He gave His one and only Son, that whosoever believes in Him shall not perish, but have everlasting life"

The 'whosoever' is unlimited. While only those whom God has called will respond to God's call, yet God's invitation is extended to all men.

If you are without Jesus Christ, there is only one thing that keeps you from Him, and that is the response of your will to the invitation which God gives when He says, 'Whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life.'...

To me the truth we have presented is one of the most comforting of all the doctrines in the word of God. We delight to know that nothing happens by chance. We are not creatures subject to circumstances, dependent upon luck. There is no such thing as 'good luck' for the child of God. An infinite, sovereign God, has foreordained every minute detail of our lives from before the foundation of the world. God has settled His purpose and His program by His unalterable decree. God foreknows exactly what will take place each moment of each day in our lives because it had been determined according to His purpose. God has elected us, not because of what we have done, but because it suited His infinite purpose. God, Who has elected us, has set us apart by predestination to share His glory forever. God, in infinite grace, called us out of night into His love, out of death into His life, and set us apart unto Himself, not because of what we are, but because it suited God's eternal, sovereign purpose so to do. Every moment of every day we are under His care because He is working all things according to the counsel of His own will, so that we might be found unto the praise of the glory of His grace. In this confidence we rest.'

VIII) THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE BELIEVER: TO WALK IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE SOVEREIGN WILL OF GOD

Furthermore, in accordance with Mt 22:14, all believers are called to be faithful Christians but only those whom God has chosen = lit., 'called out' will walk faithfully with the Lord:

A) [Mt 22:14]:

(v. 14) "For many are invited but few are chosen."

"invited" = "kletoi" = called

"chosen" = "ekletoi" = called out.

Notice the prefix ek = out, signifying something more than "kletoi" or "called". This is especially emphasized by the contrast between the words "many" and "few" and the conclusion of the parable in which one of the many who were called was cast out of the banquet, (vv. 1-13), for being unfaithful, which is attended by the relatively few faithful believers who were chosen or called out. So all men of all ages are called i.e., invited to attend the Lord's wedding banquet; but God's sovereign calling out of those who will remain encompasses only a few.

Without God's election unto eternal life, (ref. Ro 8:30), man will inevitably choose to reject Christ as Savior of his own finite free will. Thus he will opt out of the kingdom of heaven entirely as well as the wedding banquet, destiny to be the Lake of Fire.

And in accordance with God's varying degrees of election and calling of believers unto faithful service, believers will serve the Lord of their own volition, some will qualify in faithfulness to be permitted to remain in the banquet and receive numerous rewards in heaven but many will not.

B) [Compare Acts 9:15-16]:

(v. 15) "But the Lord said to him [Ananias, (v. 13)] 'Go, for he [Paul] is a chosen instrument of Mine, to bear My name before the Gentiles and kings and the sons of Israel;

(v. 16) for I will show him how much he must suffer for My name's sake."

C) [Compare Jn 15:16]:

"You [the disciples] did not choose Me, but I chose you, and appointed you, that you should go and bear fruit..."

D) [Compare Eph 2:10]:

"For we [believers, (v. 8-9)] are His workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared beforehand, that we should walk in them."

And believers will inevitably choose of their own finite free will to be faithful in accordance with the measure of faith that God has provided for them:

E) [Compare Ro 12:3]:

"For through the grace given to me I say to every man among you not to think more highly of himself than he ought to think; but to think so as to have sound judgment, as God has allotted to each a measure of faith."

And there will be those believers who will choose not to be faithful at all:

F) [Compare 1 Cor 3:12-15]:

(v. 12) "Now if any man [i.e., any believer, (v. 11)] builds [i.e., does some kind of work, (vv. 2:10, 3:9-10)] upon the foundation [of salvation, v. 11)] with gold, silver, precious stones [or] wood, hay, straw,

(v. 13) each man's work will become evident [whether it is faithful or not] for the day will show it, because it is to be revealed with fire; and the fire itself will test the quality of each man's work.

(v. 14) If any man's work which he has built upon it remains he shall receive a reward.

[And now comes the other possibility: loss of rewards due to an unfaithful lifestyle. The believer will actually suffer loss, barely making it to heaven's shores as if he were escaping through the flames of a burning building, left with nothing but himself]:

(v. 15) If any man's work is burned up, he shall suffer loss; but he himself shall be saved, yet so as through fire."