REPENTANCE AS DEFINED IN GOD'S WORD

I) THE GREEK WORDS METANOEO (VERB) AND METANOIA (NOUN) RENDERED "TO REPENT" AND "REPENTANCE" MEAN A CHANGE OF THE MIND. THEY DO NOT INCLUDE OTHER SPHERES OF ACTIVITY OUTSIDE OF THE MIND, SUCH AS A CHANGE OF BEHAVIOR, WITHOUT OTHER WORDS PRESENT IN THE TEXT AT HAND TO DESIGNATE THIS

The Greek words metanoeo (verb) and metanoia (noun) rendered to repent and repentance come from the combination of the Greek words meta meaning 'after', implying change and the Greek word noeo meaning the mind. They literally mean an 'after thought,' in the sense of a rethinking. The implication here is a change of mind - a change in the direction of thought - from one thing to another which things are mutually exclusive from one another. Furthermore, the sphere of this word is limited to within the mind. Other spheres of activity such as a change of behavior are not in view relative to the word repent, as some contend. These other activities require other words to be present in the text at hand which designate changes outside of the sphere of the mind.

A) [Compare 2 Tim 2:24-25]:

(2 Tim 2:24 NKJV) "And a servant of the LORD must not quarrel but be gentle to all, able to teach, patient,

(2 Tim 2:25 NKJV) in humility correcting those who are in opposition, if God perhaps will grant them repentance, so that they may know the truth."

(v. 25) Those who oppose him he must gently instruct, in the hope that God will grant them repentance [metanoian] leading them to a knowledge of the truth."

Notice that author Paul indicates that a servant of the Lord, a pastor/teacher is to gently instruct in the Word of God, (v. 4:2), those who oppose him in the hope that God will grant them repentance, i.e., a change of mind which leads to a knowledge, i.e., an acceptance, belief in the truth of God's Word being taught. So repentance = metanoian here is not a feeling of regret, or an action of some kind, but simply a change of mind from opposing, i.e., rejecting or disbelieving truths from God's Word to a knowledge and acceptance of them, i.e., belief in them. From disbelief to belief. When one believes in a statement which is taught in Scripture, one turns from doubt or unbelief to faith in that statement.

II) REPENTANCE RELATIVE TO FORGIVENESS OF SINS UNTO ETERNAL LIFE IN THE ETERNAL KINGDOM OF GOD MEANS TO CHANGE THE MIND - TO TURN FROM A BELIEF SYSTEM WHICH IS NOT SOLELY IN CHRIST ALONE TO ONE WHICH IS

In order to repent, i.e., turn to Christ alone for forgiveness of sins which means that you believe that He alone can and will forgive you, you must turn from your rejection of Him - from the belief that your must commit to change your behavior to godly works; or from the belief that your sins are something you yourself can and will deal with in your own way and not in God's way. So instead of rejecting faith alone in Christ alone you turn to faith placed in Him alone as Savior to completely and forever forgive you of all of your sins. That is God's way of dealing with your sins. That is what the Bible defines as 'repentance for the forgiveness of sins' which is unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God.

A) The Old Testament Prophets, John The Baptist And His Disciples, And The LORD Jesus Christ And His Disciples Before His Ascension Preached To Israel, "Repent For The Kingdom Of God Is At Hand" - In The Sense Of Believing In The Coming Messiah / Savior In Order For Them To Receive Forgiveness Of Sins Unto Eternal Life In The Eternal Kingdom Of God, Which Would Commence Should All Israel Believe. The Context Of This Repentance Unto Forgiveness Of Sins Did Not Include Producing Fruit, I.E., Doing Godly Works, Such As Water Baptism; Nor Did It Include A Committment To Do Godly Works, As Some Contend

Note that it was the forerunner of Jesus, John the Baptist who would "prepare the way for the Lord [making] straight paths for Him," (Mt 3:3; Isa 40:3). By commanding all Israel to "Repent for the Kingdom of God is at hand," (Mt 3:2), John was stating that in his time the coming of the Christ - the Messiah - to bring His Eternal Kingdom into the world was imminent should all of Israel repent / believe in Him for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in that Kingdom. And thereafter and in the same manner preached Jesus and His disciples before His Ascension, (Mt 4:12, 17; Mk 1:14-15). It was John the Baptist who declared Who Jesus was: "Behold the Lamb of God Who takes away the sins of the world," (Jn 1:29) - as testified to in Old Testament Scripture, (Isa 53:4-5; cf. Acts 10:43). And it was John the Baptist who preached that "one must believe in Jesus," (Acts 19:4). Hence the word rendered "repent" when preached by the Old Testament prophets, John the Baptist and his disciples, and Jesus and His disciples before His Ascension signified that one must believe in Christ as Messiah "for the forgiveness of sins," (Joel 2:15 ; Isa 9:6; 53:1-17; Acts 10:43; Acts 19:4; Mk 1:4, 14-15; Mt 4:12, 17) in order to gain eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God.

1) [Compare Mk 1:14-15]:

(Mk 1:14 NKJV) "Now after John was put in prison, Jesus came to Galilee, preaching the gospel of the Kingdom of God,

(Mk 1:15 NKJV) and saying, 'The time is fulfilled, and the Kingdom of God is at hand. Repent, and believe in the gospel.'

Furthermore, John the Baptist and his disciples, and Jesus and His disciples before His Ascension commanded those who believed in Jesus to demonstrate this change to faith in Him by a "baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins" - a water baptism symbolic of their having expressed a moment of faith alone in Jesus Christ, their Messiah / Savior alone unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, (Acts 2:38; 3:19; 19:4; Mk 1:4).

Baptisms and ceremonial washings from Old Testament times were symbolic of something - not actual, (Ex 30:17-21; Dt 21:1-9; Heb 9:9-10). For example, one kind of water baptism was a ritual symbolizing conversion to Judaism. Pagans who became proselytes to Judaism would, through self-baptism, make a public demonstration to symbolize their decision to convert to Judaism and identify themselves with the people of God - the people of Israel.

2) [Compare Ex 30:17-21]:

(Ex 30:17 NKJV) "Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,

(Ex 30:18 NKJV) 'You shall also make a laver of bronze, with its base also of bronze, for washing. You shall put it between the tabernacle of meeting and the altar. And you shall put water in it,

(Ex 30:19 NKJV) for Aaron and his sons shall wash their hands and their feet in water from it.

(Ex 30:20 NKJV) When they go into the tabernacle of meeting, or when they come near the altar to minister, to burn an offering made by fire to the LORD, they shall wash with water, lest they die.

(Ex 30:21 NKJV) So they shall wash their hands and their feet, lest they die. And it shall be a statute forever to them - to him and his descendants throughout their generations.' "

3) [Compare Dt 21:1-9]:

(Dt 21:1 NKJV) "If anyone is found slain, lying in the field in the land which the LORD your God is giving you to possess, and it is not known who killed him,

(Dt 21:2 NKJV) then your elders and your judges shall to out and measure the distance from the slain man to the surrounding cities.

(Dt 21:3 NKJV) And it shall be that the elders of the city nearest to the slain man will take a heifer which has not been worked and which has not pulled with a yoke.

(Dt 21:4 NKJV) The elders of that city shall bring the heifer down to a valley with flowing water, which is neither plowed nor sown, and they shall break the heifer's neck there in the valley.

(Dt 21:5 NKJV) Then the priests, the sons of Levi, shall come near, for the LORD your God has chosen them to minister to Him and to bless in the name of the LORD; by their word every controversy and every assault shall be settled.

(Dt 21:6 NKJV)And all the elders of that city nearest to the slain man shall wash their hands over the heifer whose neck was broken in the valley.

(Dt 21:7 NKJV) Then they shall answer and say, 'Our hands have not shed this blood, nor have our eyes seen it.

(Dt 21:8 NKJV) Provide atonement, O LORD, for Your people Israel, whom You have redeemed, and do not lay innocent blood to the charge of Your people Israel.' And atonement shall be provided on their behalf for the blood.

(Dt 21:9 NKJV) So You shall put away the guilt of innocent blood from among you when you do what is right in the sight of the LORD."

4) [Compare Heb 9:9-10]:

(Heb 9:9 NKJV) "It was symbolic for the present time in which both gifts and sacrifices are offered which cannot make him who performed the service perfect in regard to the conscience -

(Heb 9:10 NKJV) concerned only with foods and drinks, various washings [Greek, "baptismois" = baptisms], and fleshly ordinances imposed until the time of reformation."

The Greek plural noun, "baptismois" rendered "washings," in the NKJV comes from the root word "baptisma" from which we get the English word "baptism." It is used in Heb 9:10 to describe ceremonial washings - an item is to be immersed in water, and the water is shaken off to signify a ritual purification.

Similarly, when an Israelite underwent the baptism of repentance of John the Baptist and his disciples; and Jesus and His disciples before His Ascension, it was a symbolic water baptism / immersion to symbolize ones having repented / believed in Christ for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God; as well as a public statment of ones identification with National Israel and her Messiah / Savior for the purpose of the commencement of His Kingdom should all of Israel repent and believe in Him.

And in Mt 3:1-8, which follows, John the Baptist indicated that repentance was not the same as producing fruit. They are two separate things. The words rendered "repentance" and "repent" relative to the eternal forgiveness of sins have in view a moment of faith alone in Christ alone - a mental acceptance of our LORD's provision for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. So when John the Baptist spoke to many of the Pharisees and Sadducees saying, "Who warned you to flee from the wrath to come? Therefore bear fruits worthy of repentance" in Mt 3:7-8, he was declaring to individuals who should have already expressed repentance / faith in Christ to secure the gift of eternal life, to produce fruit, i.e., godly behavior in keeping with that repentance:

5) [Compare Mt 3:1-8]:

(Mt 3:1 NKJV) '''In those days John the Baptist came preaching in the wilderness of Judea,

(Mt 3:2 NKJV) and saying, "Repent, for the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand!"

[The Greek conjunction "gar" which is rendered "for" in the phrase "Repent, for the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand" is a causal particle which introduces the reason why all of Israel must repent / believe in Jesus as LORD and Christ / Messiah Who is to come to provide an atoning sacrifice for the sins of the whole world, (cf. Mt 3:3; Isa 40:3-5), unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of Heaven. And that reason is so that the LORD would commence His Eternal Kingdom of heaven upon the earth, i.e., the Eternal Kingdom of God - with all of a generation of His chosen people Israel having trusted in Him to be the Kingdom's ruling nation on the earth. However the Jews at the time of John the Baptist did not all repent / believe. So the Eternal Kingdom did not then commence]

(Mt 3:3 YLT) for this is he who was spoken of by Isaiah the prophet, saying, "A voice of one crying [out] in the wilderness, 'Prepare... the way of the LORD, straight make... His paths.' " (cf. Isa 40:3 )

(Mt 3:4 NKJV) Now John himself was clothed in camel's hair, with a leather belt around his waist; and his food was locusts and wild honey.

(Mt 3:5 NKJV) Then Jerusalem, all Judea, and all the region around the Jordan went out to him

(Mt 3:6 NKJV) and were baptized by him in the Jordan, confessing their sins.

[So as each Israelite trusted in Christ as Messiah/Savior unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of Heaven, the Kingdom of God was declared at hand should all Israel believe. All of this was in conjunction with the Messiah's arrival as the Lamb of God Who takes away the sins of the world, (Jn 1:29). Whereupon the Israelite believer was to confess his sins - not to receive eternal forgiveness, for he was already forgiven unto eternal life - but in order to receive temporal forgiveness to restore his temporal fellowship with God, so that the individual would be prepared spiritually before being water baptized, (Ps 32:1-5; Pr 28:13; cf. 1 Jn 1:9) . Then he was water baptized by John in the Jordan River. This water baptism was declared as a baptism of repentance, symbolic of one having changed one’s mind from not believing to a moment of faith alone in Christ alone as Messiah/Savior unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, (Acts 19:4). This baptism was also symbolic of the Israelite believer's identification with national Israel and our Lord and His Eternal Kingdom which was to have been ushered in, had all Israel accepted Him as Messiah. In view of the fact that the Kingdom did not commence in John's time, John's declaration, "The Kingdom of God is at hand" was nevertheless not in error because it was Israel which had failed once more to respond to the LORD's command for national repentance - leaving the door open for a future generation of Israel who will all respond by a moment of faith alone in Christ alone as Messiah / Savior unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, (cf. Zech 12:10-14). Hence the time of the commencement of the Eternal Kingdom of God remained imminent / ready to immediately begin - whenever all of a generation of Israel chose to believe - until Christ's Ascension, (cf. Acts 3:19-21)]

(Mt 3:7 NKJV) But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming to his baptism, he said to them, "Brood of vipers! Who warned you to flee from the wrath to come?

[Notice that the arrival of the Eternal Kingdom of Heaven will begin with God's wrath upon unbelievers - those presently alive who have chosen not to repent / believe.]

(Mt 3:8 NKJV) Therefore bear fruits worthy of repentance."

So the point is clearly made that producing fruit, i.e., godly works and repentance unto forgiveness of sins unto eternal life are two different things. One repents, i.e., changes ones mind and believes in the coming Messiah, Jesus Christ for forgiveness of sins so as to gain an eternally secure entrance into the Eternal Kingdom of Heaven by a moment of faith alone in Christ alone. And after that has been done, one is commanded to choose daily in ones temporal life to bear fruit, i.e., godly behavior, out of duty and gratitude for being saved unto eternal life solely by the grace of God . So the command in verse 8 is to produce fruit, i.e., to change the behavior in keeping with the change of mind - the repentance from unbelief to belief in the Messiah / Savior. Evidently the many Pharisees and Sadducees that John was addressing had neither produced godly fruit nor repented / believed in Christ.

6) [Compare Acts 19:4]:

(Acts 19:4 NKJV) "Then Paul said, 'John [the Baptist] indeed baptized with a baptism of repentance, saying to the people [Israel] that they should believe on Him Who would come after him, that is, on Christ Jesus."

Notice that Paul indicated that John's baptism of repentance signified that one had expressed a moment of faith alone in Christ Jesus for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. Absent in this passage was any stipulation of committment to godly behavior required for receiving eternal life. Furthermore, Paul indicated that John the Baptist largely addressed the people of Israel, (cf. Acts 19:4).

7) [Compare Jn 1:29-31]:

(Jn 1:29 NKJV) '''[On] the next day John [the Baptist] [sees] Jesus coming toward him and [says], "[Behold], the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world!

(Jn 1:30 NKJV) This is He of Whom I said, 'After me comes a Man Who is preferred before me, for He was before me.'

[John the Baptist made an astounding announcement about Jesus. He indicated that although Jesus came after him in the sense that Jesus added to Himself His Humanity and was born after John himself was born; nevertheless John stated, "After me comes a Man Who is preferred before me, for He was before me," in the sense that Jesus was Pre-eminent to John because He "was before him" in the sense of His Eternal Pre-eminent Pre-existence as Diety - the Son of God]

(Jn 1:31 NKJV) I did not know Him; but that He should be revealed to Israel, therefore I came baptizing with water."

Note that John baptized with water those of Israel who repented / believed in the coming Messiah for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God to symbolically identify themselves with Christ, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world and His atoning sacrifice for their sins. Furthermore, John the Baptist's baptisms were part of his mission as forerunner to the coming Messiah Jesus Christ. He announced His arrival and revealed Him to the people of Israel. This is especially significant to those of Israel who chose to believe in their Messiah for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. For their baptism symbolized their identification with their Messiah / Savior and their entrance into His Eternal Kingdom. That Kingdom was to have commenced had all of that generation of Israel expressed a moment of faith in Him, (Mt 1:4; Zech 12:10-14).

8) [Compare Mk 1:4, 14-15]:

(Mk 1:4 NKJV) "John came baptizing in the wilderness and preaching a baptism of repentance for remission [forgiveness] of sins."

(Mk 1:14 NKJV) "Now after John was put in prison, Jesus came to Galilee, preaching the gospel of the Kingdom of God,

(Mk 1:15 NKJV) and saying, 'The time is fulfilled, and the Kingdom of God is at hand. Repent, and believe in the gospel.' "

Notice the phrase rendered "Repent, and believe in the gospel" - repent in the sense of changing your mind and believing in Jesus Christ for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God.

9) [Compare Mt 4:12, 17]:

(Mt 4:12 YLT) "And Jesus having heard that John was delivered up [in the sense of arrested and put in prison], He withdrew to Galilee."

(Mt 4:17 NKJV) "From that time Jesus began to preach and to say, 'Repent, for the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand.' "

Notice that just as John the Baptist came baptizing in the wilderness and preaching a baptism of repentance for remission [forgiveness] of sins, (Mk 1:4), so after John was put in prison, Jesus came to Galilee, preaching the same gospel of the Kingdom of God, (Mk 1:14; Mt 4:12). For Jesus was saying, "The time is fulfilled [in the sense of whatever was required to take place had taken place], and the Kingdom of God is at hand, [in the sense that its commencement was imminent]. Repent and believe in the gospel,' " (Mk 1:16; Mt 4:17). In other words, had all of those to whom Jesus and John the Baptist were speaking - to all of a generation of Israel - repented in the sense of changing their minds to believe in Jesus Christ for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, then the Eternal Kingdom of God would have commenced then and there!

But thereafter - after Christ's Ascension and after Peter's address to the Jews in Acts chapter 2 - heaven would receive the LORD "until the times of restoration of all things;" i.e., until a future time when the Eternal Kingdom of God would commence upon all of a future generation of Israel repenting / believing in Christ, (Acts 3:19-21).

B) In The Case Of The Message Of The Gospel After Christ's Ascension, Beginning With The Apostle Peter, The Greek Word "Metanoeo" ("Metanoesate") Rendered "Repent" Continued To Signify A Change From Not Believing To Believing Alone In Jesus Christ (Now Having Been Revealed In His Resurrected Humanity To The World) As LORD And Christ / The Messiah For Forgiveness Of Sins Unto Eternal Life In The Eternal Kingdom Of God; Which Kingdom Would Commence Should All Of That Generation Of Israel Believe. Plus In This Time There Was Begun The Reception Of The Gift Of The Indwelling Holy Spirit In All Who Believed - Jew And Gentile Alike. But Sometime After His Address To The Jews In Acts Chapter 2, Peter Indicated That Heaven Must Receive Jesus Christ, The Holy One, Until The Times Of Restoration Of All Things, I.E., Until A Future Time When The Eternal Kingdom Of God Would Commence Upon All Of A Future Generation Of Israel Repenting / Believing In Christ

1) [Compare Acts 2:36-38]:

(Acts 2:36 NKJV) '''[Peter declared] "Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly that God has made this Jesus, Whom you crucified, both LORD and Christ [in the sense of the promised Messiah / Savior]." (Acts 2:37 YLT) And having heard, they were pricked to the heart; they say also to Peter, and to the rest of the apostles, "What shall we do, men, brethren? (Acts 2:38 HOLMAN) "And Peter said to them, "Repent [plural] (and [let each one of you] be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ, [singular = after being forgiven],) for the forgiveness of your sins [plural]. And you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit [plural - as a result of the water baptism].." =

a) Peter's Answer To The Jews' Question Of What They Should Do Relative To Jesus Christ Being Their LORD And Christ, Their Messiah / Savior, Was To Repent In The Sense Of Changing Their Minds To Believe In Him For Forgiveness Of Sins Unto Eternal Life In The Eternal Kingdom Of God; Which Kingdom Would Commence Should All Of That Generation Of Israel Believe. Whereupon They Were To Be Water Baptized Symbolizing This And By Water Baptism The Jews In This Transition Period To The Church Age Were To Receive The Gift Of The Holy Spirit, (Later By Faith Alone). Absent Is Any Exhortation To Behave Better Or Feel Remorse Or Commit To A Holy Lifestyle

(Acts 2:36 NKJV) '''[Peter declared] "Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly that God has made this Jesus, Whom you crucified, both LORD and Christ [in the sense of the promised Messiah / Savior]." (Acts 2:37 YLT) And having heard, they were pricked to the heart; they say also to Peter, and to the rest of the apostles, "What shall we do, men, brethren? (Acts 2:38 HOLMAN) "And Peter said to them, "Repent [plural] (and [let each one of you] be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ, [singular = after being forgiven],) for the forgiveness of your sins [plural]. And you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit [plural - as a result of the water baptism].." ''' =

Having presented his case so convincingly to the crowd of Jews in Jerusalem for Jesus being the Christ - the Messiah, and corroborating it with Scripture - David's testimony in Psalms 16 & 110 - the Apostle Peter concluded, "Therefore let all the house of Israel," (notice once more that Peter was addressing Jews) "know assuredly that God has made this Jesus, Whom you [Jews] crucified, both LORD [Greek, "kurion" in the sense of being God] and Christ [Greek, "Christon" in the sense of the Messiah, God's Annointed One from Israel Who was to rule over the Eternal Kingdom of God; these two titles referring to the Deity and Humanity, respectively of the Son of God, Jesus Christ, respectively], (Isa 7:14; 9:6-7 ). The Greek verb "epoiEsen" rendered "has made" does not signify that God fabricated Jesus into being LORD and Christ at that moment in time. Rather, it is saying that Jesus was declared by God to be both LORD - referring to His Diety as the Eternal Son of God; and Christ in the sense of having fulfilled the requirement in His Humanity of being an atoning sacrifice for the sins of the whole world; which declaration was evidenced by God's having raised Him from the dead and ascended Him into glory at His right hand in heaven. Notice that convincing and convicting fellow Jews in the sense of getting them to change their minds and believe that "Jesus Whom you crucified, [was] both LORD and Christ" unto forgiveness of sins and eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God was Peter's message. For Peter was declaring the imminent fulfillment of the prophecy in Joel 2:28-32, (Acts 2:16-21), in the sense of the commencement of the Eternal Kingdom of God upon the earth should all of that generation of Israel call upon the name of the LORD to be saved in the sense of repenting unto trusting in Jesus as LORD and Christ for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God and the gift of the Holy Spirit.

Not in view was an exhortation to behave better or feel remorse or commit to a holy lifestyle, as some contend. Note that the Greek word "Christon" rendered "Christ" in the NKJV is the Greek word which means "Messiah," referring to the Messiah of the Jews and the world as detailed in the books of the Old Testament, (cf. Isa 7:14; 9:6-7 ); (Acts 2:36).

So the Jews having heard what Peter so convincingly had to say to this point, "were pricked to the heart," in the sense that they felt remorse. The Greek phrase "katenugEsan tE kardia," rendered "they were pricked to the heart" in the YLT was descriptive of their feelings. It connoted a sharp pain associated with great anxiety and devastating remorse. The implication is that many of the Jews present to hear Peter's sermon had painfully realized that their Messiah - the One promised to sit on the throne of David to commence and rule the Eternal Kingdom of God had been crucified by them - evidently, in their minds, destroying their chance to enter into the Kingdom. Whereupon they said to Peter and the rest of the apostles, 'What shall we do, men, brethren?' implying that they had believed that Jesus was both LORD and Christ, but not in Him for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. There was no evidence up through verse 37 that anyone in the crowd had believed in Jesus for forgiveness of sins, such as having received the gift of the indwelling Holy Spirit as demonstrated by speaking in tongues. For Peter's answer in verse 38 implied that they had not yet received forgiveness of sins or the gift of the Holy Spirit. Note that Peter had previously addressed the crowd as brethren in the sense of being fellow Israelites as opposed to fellow believers: "Men of Judea and Jerusalem, (v. 14); "Men, Israelites," (v. 22); "Brethren" in connection with their "Patriarch David," (v. 29); hence they were brethren Israelites who had not yet become "brethren" in the sense of fellow believers, as some contend, (Acts 2:22-37).

Peter then said to them in Acts 2:38, (Acts 2:38 HOLMAN) "And Peter said to them, "Repent [plural] (and [let each one of you] be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ, [singular = after being forgiven],) for the forgiveness of your sins [plural]. And you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit [plural - as a result of the water baptism].." The message of those who preceded Peter when he gave his message in Acts chapter 2, namely the prophets of the Old Testament, (cf. Acts 3:21; 10:43 ), John the Baptist and his disciples followed by Jesus and His disciples before His Ascension - one of whom was Peter - was "Repent for the Kingdom of God is at hand," implying repentance / a moment of faith alone in the Messiah alone unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. Peter's message in Acts chapter 2 was essentially the same relative to the reception of eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God - including the imminency of the commencement of the Eternal Kingdom of God should all Israel repent / believe. For Peter's referral to Joel's account of the arrival of the Day of the LORD in Joel 2:12-32 - the time when the LORD would come to establish His Eternal Kingdom of God - set the tone of imminency of that commencement to the time when Peter began to address the Jews in Jerusalem, just as Joel had done, in his time, centuries earlier. Note that the water baptism was now declared to be "in the name of Jesus Christ" - His Humanity having now been revealed to the world; and His atoning sacrifice for the sins of the whole world now completed as promised. Hence the phrase "in the name of Jesus Christ" signified that one had called upon the name of Jesus Christ - the LORD - to be saved in the sense of having trusted in Him for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, (Acts 2:21; Joel 2:32). Furthermore, there was the addition of the gift - the baptism - of the indwelling Holy Spirit within each believer. Note that the inclusion of Gentiles in Peter's message of the gospel was nothing new, (Isa 49:6, 56:7, 57:19; Joel 2:28; Mal 1:11; cf. Acts 2:39, 10:24-48, 22:21). Although the prophets of the Old Testament largely addressed Israel, the promise of eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God always included Gentiles, (Isa 49:6, 56:7, 57:19; Joel 2:28; Mal 1:11). And although accounts of John the Baptist were limited to his ministry to Israel, there is no indication that he excluded Gentiles, (cf. Acts 19:4). Furthermore, Acts 1:8 speaks of the disciples of Jesus carrying the gospel to the end of the earth which implies the inclusion of all mankind. And finally, although our LORD began sending His disciples to the "lost sheep of the house of Israel," He expanded His ministry, instructing the disciples to carry His message to Gentiles - which included Peter, (Mt 10:5-18; Lk 7:1-10).

Although the imminency of the commencement of the Eternal Kingdom of God should all of a generation of Israel repent / believe was in view in Acts chapter 2, it was no longer in view at the time of Peter's address in Acts chapter 3. For Peter then stipulated that heaven would receive the LORD "until the times of restoration of all things," (Acts 3:21) ..

The Greek word "metanoEsate," from the root word "metanoeo," is rendered "repent" in Acts 2:38. It comes from the combination of the Greek words meta meaning 'after,' implying change; and the Greek word noeo meaning the mind, the understanding = literally, an 'after thought.' Hence it is a rethinking or a change of mind. The sphere of this word is therefore limited to a change within the mind. Other kinds and spheres of activity, such as a change of lifestyle, are not in view in Acts 2:38, . These other activities require other words which are not present in the text at hand which designate changes outside of the sphere of the mind. For Peter's sermon was all about Who Jesus was. It wasn't about the Jews taking some kind of action, such as behaving in a godly manner, or feeling remorse, or making a committment to behave better. For Peter did not indicate that the Jews were to "produce fruit" in order to receive forgiveness of sins unto eternal life and the gift of the Holy Spirit - they were only commanded to repent / believe. Even when John the Baptist command many pharisees and sadducees to "Bear fruits worthy of repentance," he implied that this was to be done after forgiveness of sins unto eternal life had been eternally secured via a moment of repentance unto faith alone in Christ alone, (Mt 3:8 ). So the Greek word "metanoEsate," second person plural imperative / command form of the Greek word "metanoeo," appears in Acts 2:38, conveying a command to the people of Israel - as well as Gentiles, (Acts 2:39; 10:24-48; 22:21) - to change their minds from not believing to believing alone in the Messiah, Jesus Christ alone for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God and the reception of the gift of the indwelling Holy Spirit. (Water baptism resulted for the Jews only during the transition period only with the gift of the Holy Spirit). Note that from the time of Peter's message in Acts chapter 3, Peter indicated that heaven must receive [aorist middle voice] Jesus Christ the Holy One until the times of restoration of all things, i.e., until a future time when the Eternal Kingdom of God would commence upon all of a future generation of Israel repenting / believing in Christ:

i) [Compare Acts 3:11-21]:

(Acts 3:11 NKJV) "Now as the lame man who was healed held on to Peter and John, all the people ran together to them in the porch which is called Solomon's, greatly amazed.

(Acts 3:12 NKJV) So when Peter saw it, he responded to the people: 'Men of Israel, why do you marvel at this? Or why look so intently at us, as though by our own power or godliness we had made this man walk?

(Acts 3:13 NKJV) The God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, the God of our fathers, glorified His Servant Jesus, Whom you delivered up and denied in the presence of Pilate, when he was determined to let Him go.

(Acts 3:14 NKJV) But you denied the Holy One and the Just, and asked for a murderer to be granted to you,

(Acts 3:15 NKJV) and killed the Prince of life, Whom God raised from the dead, of which we are witnesses.

(Acts 3:16 NKJV) And His [Jesus'] name, through faith in His name, has made this man strong, whom you see and know. Yes, the faith which comes through Him has given him [the healed, formerly lame man] this perfect soundness in the presence of you all.

(Acts 3:17 NKJV) Yet now, brethren, [Peter is referring here to fellow Jews] I know that you did it in ignorance, as did also your rulers.

(Acts 3:18 NKJV) But those things which God foretold by the mouth of all His prophets

(Acts 3:19 HOLMAN) Therefore repent and turn ...[to Christ in faith, (v. 16)], so that your sins may be blotted out, that seasons of refreshing may come from the presence of the LORD,

[In Acts 3:19a, Peter is offering to Israel and to Gentiles, i.e., all mankind, (Acts 2:39, 10:24-48, 22:21), the opportunity to "Repent and turn... [to faith in Christ] so that [their] sins may be blotted out." The Apostle is saying to change the mind from not trusting in Jesus Christ as ones Messiah/Savior to believing in His name, i.e., His capacity to provide one with eternal forgiveness of sins. The phrase rendered "so that your sins may be blotted out," signifies to be forgiven of ones sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, (cf. Acts 2:38; 10:43). And Peter preached in Acts 3:19b that "seasons of refreshing may come from the presence of the LORD," i.e., that one believes in Jesus Christ for forgiveness so that they will enter that Eternal Kingdom of God when it commences and everything is restored. On the other hand, the timeframe for the commencement had changed, for Peter declared in the next two verses that heaven must receive [aorist middle voice] Jesus Christ until the times of restoration of all things. Hence the commencement of the Eternal Kingdom of God was not imminent at the time of Peter's message. But when that time comes, God will send His Son, Jesus Christ to rule His Eternal Kingdom forever]:

(Acts 3:20 NKJV) and that He [God the Father] may send Jesus Christ, Who was preached to you before,

(Acts 3:21 NKJV) Whom heaven must receive until the times of restoration of all things, which God has spoken by the mouth of all His holy prophets since the world began, (Isa 49:6, 56:7, 57:19; Joel 2:28; Mal 1:11)."

So Peter indicated to his audience of Jews that God, (the Father, v. 18), will send His Son Jesus Christ to the earth to commence the Eternal Kingdom of God - a message which, Peter declared, was repeatedly preached to the Jews and to all mankind since the world began, (Isa 49:6, 56:7, 57:19; Joel 2:28; Mal 1:11). But for the present time, Peter declared in verse 21, heaven must receive [aorist middle voice] Him "until the times of restoration of all things, which God has spoken by the mouth of all His holy prophets since the world began."

So our Lord Jesus Christ will come to earth to commence His Eternal Kingdom rule when it is time. And at the moment of His Second Coming all of a generation of Israel will recognize and trust in her Messiah as a result of God's enablement and Israel's subsequent response of faith, (cf. Zech 12:10-14). The phrases "that seasons of refreshing may come from the presence of the LORD," in Acts 3:19; and "until the times of restoration of all things," in Acts 3:21 refer to the commencement of the Eternal Kingdom of God.

Note that water baptism is not included in this passage, indicating that it is not essential in order to have 'your sins blotted out,' i.e., receiving forgiveness of ones sins unto eternal life.

ii) [Compare Acts 2:41-44]:

(Acts 2:41 NKJV) "Then those who gladly received his [Peter's] word [i.e., believed in Christ as Messiah/Savior, see v. 44 below] were baptized; and that day about three thousand souls were added to them. So then, those who had received his [Peter's] word [i.e., believed in Christ as Messiah/Savior, see v. 44 below] were baptized; and there were added [to the number of those being saved unto eternal life] that day about three thousand souls.

(Acts 2:42 YLT) And they were continuing steadfastly in the teaching of the apostles, and the fellowship, and the breaking of the bread, and the prayers.

(Acts 2:43 NKJV) Then fear came upon every soul, and many wonders and signs were done through the apostles.

[This was a demonstration of the work of the Holy Spirit within the disciples and through them, authenticating their testimony about believing in Jesus Christ for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God]

(Acts 2:44 NKJV) Now all who believed were together, and had all things in common."

Notice that Acts 2:41-44 confirm that the word rendered "repent" in Acts 2:38 means believing in Jesus Christ for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. The words do not say, 'Now all those who turned from their sins... or confessed their sins,' they say "Now all those who believed were together," i.e., those who exercised a moment of faith alone in Christ alone for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. This was corroborated by the Apostle Paul in Acts chapter 19:

iii) [Compare Acts 19:4]:

(Acts 19:4 NKJV) "Then Paul said, 'John [the Baptist] indeed baptized with a baptism of repentance, saying to the people [Israel] that they should believe on Him Who would come after him, that is, on Christ Jesus."

Notice that Paul indicated that John's baptism of repentance signified that one had expressed a moment of faith alone in Christ Jesus for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. Absent in this passage was any stipulation of committment to godly behavior required for receiving eternal life. Furthermore, Paul indicated that John the Baptist largely addressed the people of Israel, (cf. Acts 19:4).

b) Peter's Answer To The Jews' Question Of What They Should Do Relative To Jesus Christ Being Their LORD And Christ, Their Messiah / Savior, Included Being Water Baptized - But To Symbolize And Not To Be Part Of Repentance As Some Contend; Nor To Be Causative Of Being Forgiven Of Ones Sins Unto Eternal Life In The Eternal Kingdom Of God. On The Other Hand During The Transition To The Church Age, Water Baptism For The Jews Who Believed Was To Be Causative Of Receiving The Gift Of The Indwelling Holy Spirit

(Acts 2:36 NKJV) '''[Peter declared] "Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly that God has made this Jesus, Whom you crucified, both LORD and Christ [in the sense of the promised Messiah / Savior]." (Acts 2:37 YLT) And having heard, they were pricked to the heart; they say also to Peter, and to the rest of the apostles, "What shall we do, men, brethren? (Acts 2:38 HOLMAN) (Acts 2:38 HOLMAN) "And Peter said to them, "Repent [plural] (and [let each one of you] be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ, [singular = after being forgiven],) for the forgiveness of your sins [plural]. And you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit [plural - as a result of the water baptism].." ''' =

When Peter answered the question posed by the Jews in Acts 2:37, "What shall we do?" His answer was "Repent and let each one of you be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ, for the forgiveness of your sins. And you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit," (Acts 2:38). As with all passages in Scripture, especially those which are crucial to the understanding of the gospel, such as the cause and effect statement of Acts 2:38; one must examine them in accordance with the normative rules of language, context and logic in order to establish their meaning . First of all, the baptism in view cannot be concluded to be part of the repentance, as some contend. For the responses, "repent," and "let each one of you be baptized," are stipulated as two separate actions to be taken - one not being part of the other. Secondly, the repentance is limited by the context to a moment of faith alone in Christ alone for forgiveness of sins - strictly a mental activity, hence apart from any other kind of human doing; thus excluding water baptism.

So in the transition from the period of the Law to the economy of Jew and Gentile joined together in Christ, the first Jews to be part of the new dispensation of the church, each one was to repent / change his mind to believing in Jesus as LORD and Christ unto forgiveness of sins unto eternal life; whereupon each one of those Jewish believers in the beginning of this period was to be water baptized to symbolize their forgiveness of sins unto eternal life and as a result of that water baptism, they would receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.

Since baptisms and ceremonial washings from Old Testament times were symbolic of something - not actual, (Ex 30:17-21; Dt 21:1-9; Heb 9:9-10)...................................

i) [Compare Heb 9:9-10]:

(Heb 9:9 NKJV) "It was symbolic for the present time in which both gifts and sacrifices are offered which cannot make him who performed the service perfect in regard to the conscience -

(Heb 9:10 NKJV) concerned only with foods and drinks, various washings [Greek, "baptismois" = baptisms], and fleshly ordinances imposed until the time of reformation."

The Greek plural noun, "baptismois" rendered "washings," in the NKJV comes from the root word "baptisma" from which we get the English word "baptism." It is used in Heb 9:10 to describe ceremonial washings - an item is to be immersed in water, and the water is shaken off to signify a ritual purification.

For example, one kind of water baptism was a ritual symbolizing conversion to Judaism: Pagans who became proselytes to Judaism would, through self-administered water baptism, make a public demonstration to symbolize their decision to convert to Judaism and identify themselves with the people of God - the people of Israel.

.................................... so in the same way, when an Israelite underwent the baptism of repentance of John the Baptist and his disciples; and Jesus and His disciples before His Ascension; and after our LORD's Ascension, when Jews and Gentiles underwent the baptisms of Peter and the rest of the disciples of Jesus, it was always a symbolic water baptism / immersion to symbolize ones having repented / believed in Christ for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. Furthermore, before the Apostle Peter's sermon in Acts chapter 3, when the message was preached to Israel to repent for the Eternal Kingdom of God was at hand, the water baptisms which were administered were also symbolic of all Israel entering into the Eternal Kingdom of God. And had all of national Israel believed in her Messiah, that Kingdom would have then commenced.

On the other hand, the message beginning with Peter's sermon in Acts chapter 2 also included the reception of the gift of the indwelling Holy Spirit for each Jewish believer upon his being water baptized, (Acts 2:38-39). This additional  gift - the baptism of the indwelling Holy Spirit within each believer was for all who believed. For Jewish believers during the transition period from the age of the Law to the age of the Church, this gift was to be as a result of water baptism. Gentiles would receive the Holy Spirit upon the moment of repentance / belief, (cf. Acts 10:43-48  ); Samaritan believers via the laying on of hands by one of the Apostles, (Acts 8:12-17 ; Jewish believers under the preaching of John the Baptist via a second water baptism in the name of Jesus Christ followed by the laying on of hands, (Acts 19:1-6  ). Thereafter, when the transition period was over, all were to receive the Spirit at the moment of faith, (Eph 1:13-14  ).

On the other hand, the message given sometime after the Apostle Peter's sermon in Acts chapter 2, did not include the Kingdom of God being at hand; rather the Apostle Peter stipulated that heaven would receive the LORD until a future time of restoration, (Acts 3:21).

ii) [Compare Acts 2:38 Interlinear]

"PEtros dE pros autous, MetanoEsate kai ..baptisthEtO ....hekastos ...humOn

"Peter ..and to ...them, ...Repent ...........and let be baptized each [one]..of you

epi tO onomati .IEsou Christou, eis aphesin ..........................tOn ..hamartiOn humOn,

in ..the name of Jesus Christ, ....for remission [forgiveness] of the sins ..............your,

kai .lEmpsesthe .......tEn dOrean tou ......hagiou pneumatos."

and you will receive the .gift ........of the Holy ....Spirit."

The Greek word "Metanoesate" which is rendered "Repent," is plural and therefore goes with the plural phrases

"eis aphesin ..........................tOn ...hamartiOn humOn,

"for remission [forgiveness] of the sins ............your, [plural]

kai .lEmpsesthe .....................tEn dOrean tou .....hagiou pneumatos."

and you [plural] will receive the .gift ........of the Holy ....Spirit."

The construction of the Greek text as shown above indicates that repentance unto a moment of faith alone in Christ alone is the sole causative factor in order to receive forgiveness of sins unto eternal life and the gift of the Holy Spirit. For the phrase which is rendered "and let be baptized each [one] of you" is singular and stands out as parenthetical amongst the plural clauses. This implies that it is not causative to forgiveness of sins or the reception of the Holy Spirit. For the logical sequence of events in verse 38 due to the order of words and the parenthetical, singular phrase set apart from the rest of the verse's plural phrases must be repentance unto believing in Christ, resulting in forgiveness of sins and the reception of the Holy Spirit, followed by each one who has repented being water baptized, implying that the water baptism is symbolic and not causative of forgiveness of sins. Whereupon the symbolic water baptism resulted in the reception of the Holy Spirit for the Jewish believers in this transitional period alone. This sequence is corroborated in verse 41 and elsewhere in the Book of Acts.

Since it is evident that Peter, as a disciple of Jesus and most likely of John the Baptist before Him, (Jn 1:35-42), was carrying forth the message of Jesus and John the Baptist; then Peter's statement of the gospel in Acts 2:38 relative to the reception of forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God must be the same message as his predecessors and Jesus Himself relative to the forgiveness of sins; yet as promised by the LORD after His Ascension and foretold by John the Baptist, (Lk 3:16; Acts 1:4-5): with the addition of the reception of the gift of the Holy Spirit. Hence just as an individual who believed in the message of Jesus and John the Baptist - "Repent for the Kingdom of God is at hand," (Mt 3:2; 4:7); i.e., he expressed a moment of faith alone in the Messiah / Savior alone, resulting in forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God; whereupon each believer was water baptized to symbolize his identification with that result; so it was with the message of Peter in Acts 2:38. This is confirmed by Acts 2:41-44:

iii) [Compare Acts 2:41-44]:

(Acts 2:41 NKJV) "Then, those who had received his [Peter's] word [i.e., believed in Christ as Messiah/Savior, see v. 44 below] were baptized; and there were added [to the number of those being saved unto eternal life] that day about three thousand souls.

(Acts 2:42 YLT) And they were continuing steadfastly in the teaching of the apostles, and the fellowship, and the breaking of the bread, and the prayers.

(Acts 2:43 NKJV) Then fear came upon every soul, and many wonders and signs were done through the apostles.

[This was a demonstration of the work of the Holy Spirit within the disciples and through them, authenticating their testimony about believing in Jesus Christ for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God]

(Acts 2:44 NKJV) Now all who believed were together, and had all things in common."

Notice that Acts 2:41-44 confirm that the word rendered "repent" in Acts 2:38 means believing in Jesus Christ for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. The words do not say, 'Now all those who turned from their sins... or confessed their sins,' they say "Now all those who believed were together," i.e., those who exercised a moment of faith alone in Christ alone for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God.

Furthermore, it is significant that water baptism is mentioned in verse 41 as occurring after having received Peter's word in the sense of believing in Christ for forgiveness of sins. And in verse 44, it's absence indicates that the essential and sole point is having believed in order to receive forgiveness of sins. This is corroborated when Peter once again addressed a Jewish audience on this matter:

iv) [Compare Acts 3:11-21]:

(Acts 3:11 NKJV) "Now as the lame man who was healed held on to Peter and John, all the people ran together to them in the porch which is called Solomon's, greatly amazed.

(Acts 3:12 NKJV) So when Peter saw it, he responded to the people: 'Men of Israel, why do you marvel at this? Or why look so intently at us, as though by our own power or godliness we had made this man walk?

(Acts 3:13 NKJV) The God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, the God of our fathers, glorified His Servant Jesus, Whom you delivered up and denied in the presence of Pilate, when he was determined to let Him go.

(Acts 3:14 NKJV) But you denied the Holy One and the Just, and asked for a murderer to be granted to you,

(Acts 3:15 NKJV) and killed the Prince of life, Whom God raised from the dead, of which we are witnesses.

(Acts 3:16 NKJV) And His [Jesus'] name, through faith in His name, has made this man strong, whom you see and know. Yes, the faith which comes through Him has given him [the healed, formerly lame man] this perfect soundness in the presence of you all.

(Acts 3:17 NKJV) Yet now, brethren, [Peter is referring here to fellow Jews] I know that you did it in ignorance, as did also your rulers.

(Acts 3:18 NKJV) But those things which God foretold by the mouth of all His prophets.

(Acts 3:19 HOLMAN) Therefore repent and turn ...[to Christ in faith, (v. 16)], so that your sins may be blotted out, that seasons of refreshing may come from the presence of the LORD,

[In Acts 3:19a, Peter is offering to Israel and to Gentiles, i.e., all mankind, (Acts 2:39, 10:24-48, 22:21), the opportunity to "Repent and turn... [to faith in Christ] so that [their] sins may be blotted out." The Apostle is saying to change the mind from not trusting in Jesus Christ as ones Messiah/Savior to believing in His name, i.e., His capacity to provide one with eternal forgiveness of sins. The phrase rendered "so that your sins may be blotted out," signifies to be forgiven of ones sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, (cf. Acts 2:38; 10:43). And Peter preached in Acts 3:19b that "seasons of refreshing may come from the presence of the LORD," i.e., that one believes in Jesus Christ for forgiveness so that one will enter that Eternal Kingdom of God when it commences and everything is restored. On the other hand, the timeframe for the commencement had changed, for Peter declared in the next two verses, (Acts 3:20-21), that heaven must receive [aorist middle voice] Jesus Christ until the times of restoration of all things. Hence the commencement of the Eternal Kingdom of God was not imminent at the time of Peter's message. But when that time comes, God will send His Son, Jesus Christ to rule His Eternal Kingdom forever]:

(Acts 3:20 NKJV) and that He [God the Father] may send Jesus Christ, Who was preached to you before,

(Acts 3:21 NKJV) Whom heaven must receive until the times of restoration of all things, which God has spoken by the mouth of all His holy prophets since the world began."

[So Peter indicated to his audience of Jews that God, (the Father, v. 18), will send His Son Jesus Christ to the earth; Who, Peter reminded, was repeatedly preached to the Jews and to all mankind since the world began. But for the present time, Peter declared in verse 21, heaven must receive [aorist middle voice] Him "until the times of restoration of all things, which God has spoken by the mouth of all His holy prophets since the world began."

So our Lord Jesus Christ will come to earth to commence His Eternal Kingdom rule when it is time. And at the moment of His Second Coming all of a generation of Israel will recognize and trust in her Messiah as a result of God's enablement and Israel's subsequent response of faith, (cf. Zech 12:10-14). The phrases "that seasons of refreshing may come from the presence of the LORD," in verse 19; and "until the times of restoration of all things," in verse 21 refer to the commencement of the Eternal Kingdom of God.

Note that water baptism is not included in this passage, indicating that it is not essential in order to have 'your sins blotted out,' i.e., receiving forgiveness of ones sins unto eternal life.

v) [Compare Acts 5:30-32]:

(Acts 5:30 NKJV) [Peter said, v. 29)] "The God of our fathers raised up Jesus Whom you [Jewish rulers, (vv. 22-28)] murdered by hanging on a tree.

(Acts 5:31 NKJV) Him God has exalted to His right hand to be Prince and Savior, to give repentance to Israel and forgiveness of sins.

(Acts 5:32 NKJV) And we are His witnesses to these things, and so also is the Holy Spirit Whom God has given to those who obey Him."

Notice that Peter declared that repentance was given to Israel in the sense of all Israelites being given the opportunity to repent / believe unto forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the eternal Kingdom of God. Furthermore, Peter adds that the Holy Spirit was also given to those who obeyed God in the sense of repenting unto faith in His Son unto eternal life. Any reference to water baptism is not in view relative to the result of receiving forgiveness of sins and the gift of the Holy Spirit.

In Acts chapter 10, Peter addresses the Gentiles with the same message he has been preaching relative to forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God:

vi) [Compare Acts 10:34-47]:

(Acts 10:34 NKJV) "Then Peter opened his mouth and said: 'In truth I perceive that God shows no partiality [relative to whom the forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God applies, i.e., it applies to everyone - Jew and Gentile alike].

(Acts 10:35 NKJV) But in every nation whoever fears Him and works righteousness is accepted by Him.

[The phrase rendered "But in every nation, i.e., Jew and Gentile alike, whoever fears Him and works righteousness is accepted by Him," in the sense of whoever of every nation of mankind believes in Jesus Christ for forgiveness of sins, (Acts 10:43), unto the reception of the Righteousness of Christ, is accepted by God in the sense of having eternal life and entering the Eternal Kingdom of God]

(Acts 10:36 NKJV) The word which God sent to the children of Israel, preaching peace through Jesus Christ - He is Lord of all -

(Acts 10:37 NKJV) that word you know, which was proclaimed throughout all Judea, and began from Galilee after the baptism which John preached:

(Acts 10:38 NKJV) how God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Spirit and with power, who went about doing good and healing all who were oppressed by the devil, for God was with Him.

(Acts 10:39 NKJV) And we are witnesses of all things which He did both in the land of the Jews and in Jerusalem, whom they killed by hanging on a tree.

(Acts 10:40 NKJV) Him God raised up on the third day, and showed Him openly,

(Acts 10:41 NKJV) not to all the people, but to witnesses chosen before by God, even to us who ate and drank with Him after He arose from the dead.

(Acts 10:42 NKJV) And He commanded us to preach to the people, and to testify that it is He [Jesus Christ] Who was ordained by God to be Judge of the living and the dead.

(Acts 10:43 NKJV) To Him [Jesus Christ] all the prophets witness that, through His name, whoever believes in Him will receive remission of sins.'

[Notice that the Old Testament prophets indicated that with a moment of faith alone in the Christ / the Messiah / Savior alone, one will receive remission, i.e., forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God ]

(Acts 10:44 NKJV) While Peter was still speaking these words, the Holy Spirit fell upon all those who heard the word.

[This implies that those that heard Peter's words evidently believed in Jesus Christ for forgiveness of sins in the Eternal Kingdom of God - Gentiles included, (cf. Acts 2:39), whereupon they received the gift of the Holy Spirit]

(Acts 10:45 NKJV) And those of the circumcision [Jews] who believed were astonished, as many as came with Peter, because the gift of the Holy Spirit had been poured out on the Gentiles also.

[Note that the phrases rendered "the Holy Spirit fell upon," (v. 10:44), and "the gift of the Holy Spirit had been poured out on," (v. 10:45), are saying the same thing - that they had been baptized by the Holy Spirit. Notice that this occurred when they believed - both Jews and Gentiles - before they were water baptized]:

(Acts 10:46 NKJV) For they heard them speak with tongues and magnify God. Then Peter answered,

(Acts 10:47 NKJV) 'Can anyone forbid water, that these should not be baptized who have received the Holy Spirit just as we have?' "

Notice that Gentiles in this timeframe, i.e., after the LORD's Ascension, received the gift of the Holy Spirit as well as forgiveness of sins unto eternal life when they believed, i.e., when they repented in the sense of changing their minds from not believing to believing in Christ providing forgiveness of sins through His atoning sacrifice - no water baptism, no change of behavior - simply a moment of faith alone in Christ alone. Thereafter as verses 46-47 indicate, water baptism is to be administered, evidently to symbolize ones forgiveness through a moment of faith alone in Christ alone. For at the moment of faith alone in Christ alone for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life, and before they were water baptized, those Gentiles that exercised a moment of faith immediately exemplified having been baptized with the Holy Spirit with speaking with tongues and magnifiying God; corroborating their water baptism was symbolic and not contributory toward their reception of forgiveness of sins or the gift of the Holy Spirit. Hence the result of forgiveness of sins unto eternal life and the reception of the indwelling of the gift of the Holy Spirit both came when the Gentiles believed; and not when they were water baptized. And at this time forward, the Apostle Peter indicated, (Acts 3:19-21), that heaven must receive [aorist middle voice] Jesus Christ, the Holy One until the times of restoration of all things, i.e., God set apart the commencement of the restoration of all things - the Eternal Kingdom of God - to commence at a future time.

All of this is further corroborated by the Apostle Paul:

2) [Compare Acts 13:13-39]:

(Acts 13:13 NKJV) '''Now when Paul and his party set sail from Paphos, they came to Perga in Pamphylia; and John, [John Mark] departing from them, returned to Jerusalem.

(Acts 13:14 NKJV) But when they departed from Perga, they came to Antioch in Pisidia, and went into the synagogue on the Sabbath day and sat down.

(Acts 13:15 NKJV) And after the reading of the Law and the Prophets, the rulers of the synagogue sent to them, saying, "Men and brethren, if you have any word of exhortation for the people, say on."

(Acts 13:16 NKJV) Then Paul stood up, and motioning with his hand said, 'Men of Israel, and you who fear God, listen:

[Note that Paul addressed the people at a meeting in the synagogue at Antioch. They consisted primarily of Jews whom he stipulated as "Men of Israel." Furthermore, he included in his opening address those that "fear God" - evidently Gentiles who were also there at the Synagogue service. Paul's address began with a short history of how "the God of this people Israel chose our fathers, and exalted the people when they dwelt as strangers in the land of Egypt." From Egypt, Paul recounted the 40 years of the people of Israel in the wilderness, and the battle for the land of Canaan, and the 150 years of the rule of the Judges until Samuel the prophet; and thereafter Saul, the first King of Israel. And then Paul continued with King David, a man after God's own heart. And finally, the arrival of Jesus, the Savior of Israel through the seed of David, (vv. 16-23)]

(Acts 13:17 NKJV) The God of this people Israel chose our fathers, and exalted the people when they dwelt as strangers in the land of Egypt, and with an uplifted arm He brought them out of it.

(Acts 13:18 NKJV) Now for a time of about forty years He put up with their ways in the wilderness.

(Acts 13:19 NKJV) And when He had destroyed seven nations in the land of Canaan, He distributed their land to them by allotment.

(Acts 13:20 NKJV) After that He gave them judges for about four hundred and fifty years, until Samuel the prophet.

(Acts 13:21 NKJV) And afterward they asked for a king; so God gave them Saul the son of Kish, a man of the tribe of Benjamin, for forty years.

(Acts 13:22 NKJV) And when He had removed him, He raised up for them David as king, to whom also He gave testimony and said, 'I have found David the son of Jesse, a man after My own heart, who will do all My will.'

(Acts 13:23 NKJV) From this man's [David's, (v. 22)] seed, according to the promise, God raised up for Israel a Savior - Jesus -

(Acts 13:24 NKJV) after John had first preached, before His coming, the baptism of repentance to all the people of Israel.

[Paul declared that, before the coming of Jesus Christ in His Humanity to fulfill His mission to be the atoning sacrifice for the sins of the whole world, (cf. Acts 13:26-39), John the Baptist preached a baptism of repentance to all the people of Israel. He preached to Israel of national repentance for forgiveness of sins through a moment of faith alone in the Christ / the Messiah alone unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, (cf. Acts 13:39) - whereupon each Israelite believer was to be water baptized by John, symbolizing the Israelite believer's identification with and appropriation of Christ's provision of forgiveness of sins; whereupon the Kingdom would commence should all the people of Israel repent / believe ]

(Acts 13:25 NKJV) And as John was finishing his course, he said, 'Who do you think I am? I am not He, but behold, there comes One after me, the sandals of whose feet I am not worthy to loose.'

(Acts 13:26 NKJV) Men and brethren, sons of the family of Abraham, and those among you who fear God, to you the word of this salvation has been sent.

(Acts 13:27 NKJV) For those who dwell in Jerusalem, and their rulers, because they did not know Him, nor even the voices of the Prophets which are read every Sabbath, have fulfilled them in condemning Him.

(Acts 13:28 NKJV) And though they found no cause for death in Him, they asked Pilate that He should be put to death.

(Acts 13:29 NKJV) Now when they had fulfilled all that was written concerning Him, they took Him down from the tree and laid Him in a tomb.

(Acts 13:30 NKJV) But God raised Him from the dead.

(Acts 13:31 NKJV) He was seen for many days by those who came up with Him from Galilee to Jerusalem, who are His witnesses to the people.

(Acts 13:32 NKJV) And we declare to you [good news - the gospel] - that promise which was made to the fathers.

[The good news, Paul declared, was "that promise which was made to the fathers," of the people of Israel of a Messiah / Savior which Paul stipulated was fulfilled in Jesus of forgiveness of sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God through faith in His atoning sacrifice.

(Acts 13:33 NKJV) God has fulfilled this for us their children, in that He has raised up Jesus. As it is also written in the second Psalm: 'You are My Son, Today I have begotten You.'

[The phrase "You are My son" in Ps 2:7, comes from the Davidic Covenant (2 Sam 7:14). It is appropriated in Psalm 2 to show the legitimate God ordained right of the king to rule. The phrase 'Today I have begotten You' refers to the day of one being Anointed / Chosen by God to be king of Israel, i.e., the day of the coronation of the king, and his adoption as a son of God into the family of God in an eternal life familial relationship with God. It is implied that the Anointed king of Israel, being declared to be a son of God, has the reception of eternal life and will receive an eternal kingdom inheritance to rule the nations to the ends of the earth in the future eternal kingdom, (Ps 2:8). This also implies that the rebellion of the nations of the world toward the LORD and His Anointed, will finally be put down.

In view of the lack of complete fulfillment of the prophecies in verses 1 through 9, through king David or any king after him so far, the context must jump out of the time of David to a future King of Israel, "the Anointed One, "the Christ," from the Greek, "ho Christos," Who will inherit the nations of the world, and the ends of the earth, evidently as an eternal inheritance and possession, (Ps 2:8). So the Future Anointed of God, "the Christ," will meet the enraged nations, peoples, kings and rulers of the world in conflict and "break them with a rod of iron" and "dash them to pieces like a potter's vessel," despite the warning of the LORD through the Psalmist in verses 10-12, "Now therefore, be wise, O kings; Be instructed, you judges of the earth. Serve the LORD with fear, And rejoice with trembling. Kiss the Son, lest He be angry, And you perish in the way, When His wrath is kindled but a little. Blessed are all those who put their trust in Him." Notice that individual's throughout the world are blessed when they put their trust in the Anointed One of the LORD = "the Christ." This Anointed One is far more than a temporal king of Israel; for throughout the world one may trust in Him to be blessed. No temporal king can say or do that. Nor can the wrath of a king over all the nations of the earth be so powerful unless He is God Himself. ]

(Acts 13:34 NKJV) And that He raised Him from the dead, no more to return to corruption, He has spoken thus: 'I will give you the sure mercies of David.'

(Acts 13:35 NKJV) Therefore He also says in another Psalm: 'You will not allow Your Holy One to see corruption.'

(Acts 13:36 NKJV) For David, after he had served his own generation by the will of God, fell asleep, was buried with his fathers, and saw corruption;

(Acts 13:37 NKJV) but He Whom God raised up saw no corruption.

[In the same way - with the same interpretation - that Peter in Acts chapter 2 referred to this phrase in Psalms 16, . so does the Apostle Paul. The message of Psalm 16 as conveyed by Paul is that the Holy One of Israel, Jesus Christ Himself, did not experience corruption of His physical Human body in death; but once it was placed in the tomb, and sealed up, it was evidently immediately raised from the dead]

(Acts 13:38 NKJV) Therefore let it be known to you, brethren, that through this Man is preached to you the forgiveness of sins;

(Acts 13:39 NKJV ) and by Him everyone who believes is justified from all things from which you could not be justified by the Law of Moses."

[Since the phrase rendered "is justified" means "is declared absolutely righteous in God's sight" .implies being forgiven of ones sins - without which no one can be righteous; then the meaning of the phrase rendered "a baptism of repentance" in Acts 13:24 is clearly a water baptism symbolizing having expressed a moment of faith alone in Christ alone to be justified, hence forgiveness of ones sins for eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God - the good news / the gospel that Paul was speaking about in verse 32. Notice that it indeed is a moment of faith alone in Christ alone due to Paul's last statement in this section of chapter 13, "from which you could not be justified by the Law of Moses." For if keeping the Law of Moses is of no effect toward justification, then no amount or any kind of works such as water baptism - before, during or after receiving forgiveness of sins unto eternal life through a moment of faith alone in Christ alone - could ever be contributory to gaining eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God]

3) [Compare Acts 26:12-18]:

(Acts 26:12 NKJV) "While thus occupied, as I [Paul] journeyed to Damascus with authority and commission from the chief priests,

(Acts 26:13 NKJV) at midday, O king, [Agrippe: Paul was recounting his encounter with the risen Jesus Christ on the road to Damascus], along the road I saw a light from heaven, brighter than the sun shinning around me and those who journeyed with me.

(Acts 26:14 NKJV) And when we all had fallen to the ground, I heard a voice speaking to me and saying in the Hebrew language, 'Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting Me? It is hard for you to kick against the goads.'

(Acts 26:15 NKJV) So I said, 'Who are You, LORD? And He said, 'I am Jesus, Whom you are persecuting.

(Acts 26:16 NKJV) But rise and stand on your feet; for I have appeared to you for this purpose, to make you a minister and a witness both of the things which you have seen and of the things which I will yet reveal to you.

(Acts 26:17 NKJV) I will deliver you [Paul, (v. 14)] from the Jewish people, as well as from the Gentiles, to whom I now send you,

(Acts 26:18 NKJV) to open their eyes, in order to turn them from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan to God, [i.e., repent] that they may receive forgiveness of sins and an inheritance among those who are sanctified by faith in Me [Jesus Christ, (v. 15)].' "

Notice that forgiveness of sins was via a moment of repentance unto faith alone in Christ alone, and not dependent upon being water baptized.

III) SINCE BELIEVING IN CHRIST, TURNING TO GOD AND REPENTING RELATIVE TO FORGIVENESS OF SINS ALL RESULT IN FORGIVENESS OF SINS, THEN THEY ARE SYNONYMOUS, IN EFFECT, TWO SIDES OF THE SAME COIN

A) REPENTANCE AND BELIEF RELATIVE TO SALVATION ARE TWO SIDES OF THE SAME COIN - A CHANGE OF MIND FROM NOT BELIEVING TO BELIEVING

[Pentecost, "Things Which Make Sound Doctrine," pp. 63-64]:

"Scripture establishes that salvation is a one step by faith in Christ as Personal Savior process. It is not by repentance and then faith. Scripture establishes that faith and the repentance that it refers to are synonymous. According to Scripture, repentance with respect to salvation is hearing the truth of the gospel and changing one's mind about believing it. So in effect, repentance and belief are two sides of the same coin. One does not believe in the gospel of salvation unless one has changed one's mind............. [i.e., repented = "metanoeo"] .........from not believing it to believing it.

What part, then does the change of mind, or repentance, have in salvation? We would suggest to you from the Word of God that repentance is included in believing. It is not a separate act which conditions salvation, but rather it is included in believing; for when one believes a fact, he turns from doubt or unbelief to faith in that revealed truth."

1) [Compare 1 Thes 1:8-10]:

(v. 8) "The Lord's message [of the gospel of salvation, (v. 5)] rang out from you not only in Macedonia and Achaia - your faith in God has become known everywhere. Therefore we do n ot need to say anything about it,

[Notice the phrase 'faith in God' here is indicated as a direct result of turning 'from idols', (v. 9)]:

(v. 9) for they themselves report what kind of reception you gave us. They tell how you turned to God from idols to serve the living and true God,

(v. 10) and to wait for His Son from heaven, Whom He raised from the dead - Jesus, Who rescues us from the coming wrath."

So turning 'to God from idols' and 'waiting for', i.e., trusting in 'His Son' from heaven results in being rescued 'from the coming wrath' = the message of the gospel, (v. 5).

[Pentecost, cont.]:

"...Paul said, '...ye turned to God from idols...', This is one act. There are not two acts herein - only one; but the one involved the other. Notice, very carefully, what Paul said and what he did not say. Paul did not say, 'Ye turned from idols to God.' Had Paul stated it that way, two acts would have been involved: ye turned from idols - Act Number One; ye turned to God - Act Number Two. If there were two acts here, you could terminate the process in the middle. For instance, a man could turn from idols, and stop there, without turning to God. And so, the Apostle is not saying that you took two steps. Rather, Paul said, 'You turned to God from idols - that is one act. The turning to God involved the abandonment of the idols, but it all is one act."

Just as one repents of breaking the commandment, 'Do not covet', (Ex 20:17), by changing ones mind from an attitude of coveting to one of not coveting;

in the same way, one repents unto forgiveness of sins by changing ones mind from an attituce of not believing to believing alone in Christ alone to save one from ones sins - unto eternal life.

One changes one's mind about not believing the gospel and then what happens is that one believes - two sides of the same coin. An unbeliever who has repented from disbelief of the gospel of salvation is now a believer.

2) [Compare Acts 10:43]:

"All the prophets testify about Him [Jesus Christ, v. 39] that everyone who believes in Him receives forgiveness of sins through His name."

3) [Compare Acts 3:18-19]:

(v. 18) But this is how God fulfilled what he had foretold through all the prophets, saying that His Christ would suffer.

(v. 19) Repent, then, and turn to God

[= turn to faith in His Christ Who suffered for you, (v. 18)],

so that your sins may be wiped out, that times of refreshing may come from the Lord."

4) [Compare Acts 2:38]:

"Peter replied, 'Repent [plural] [= change your mind about believing that Jesus is both Lord and Christ, (v. 36)]

(and [let each one of you] be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ, [singular = after being forgiven],) for the forgiveness of your sins [plural]. And you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit [plural - as a result of the water baptism]."

B) THE WORD 'FAITH' CAN BE USED IN PLACE OF 'REPENTANCE' RELATIVE TO SALVATION UNTO ETERNAL LIFE WITH NO CHANGE OF MEANING

Repentance relative to truths from Scripture is a change of mind toward the revealed truth of the Word of God. Previously a man disbelieved the revealed truth; and he has changed his mind and now accepts or believes the revealed truth, so that faith and repentance can be used interchangeably, relative to salvation unto eternal life.

There are a number of references we could cite to show that repentance is often used as a synonym for faith. In these passages you could eliminate the word 'repentance' and substitute the word 'faith' and it would not change the truth of the Word at all.

1) [Compare 2 Pet 3:9]:

"The Lord is not slow in keeping His promise, as some understand slowness. He is patient with you, not wanting anyone to perish, but everyone to come to repentance [= faith]."

2) [Acts 2:37-38]:

(v. 37) "When the people heard this, they were cut to the heart and said to Peter and the other apostles, 'Brothers, what shall we do?'

(v. 38) "Peter replied, 'Repent [plural]

[= believe that Jesus is both Lord and Christ, (v. 36)]

and let each one of you [singular] be baptized [singular = after being forgiven and Holy Spirit received], in the name of Jesus Christ, for the forgiveness of your [plural] sins. And you [plural] will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.' "

3) [Compare Acts 3:18-19]:

(v. 18) But this is how God fulfilled what he had foretold through all the prophets, saying that His Christ would suffer.

(v. 19) Repent, then, and turn to God

[= turn to faith in Christ Who suffered for you, (v. 18)],

so that your sins may be wiped out, that times of refreshing may come from the Lord."

"Repent, then, and turn to God" [=Believe in Christ Who suffered for you, (v. 18)] so that your sins may be wiped out"

Note that the specifics of the belief in God that will wipe out ones sins is to believe in His Christ Who suffered for you for those sins, (v. 18). So when one is commanded to repent, the precise end result is that one will change their mind and turn to God, believing in His Son Who suffered for one, (v. 18); i.e, for forgiveness of sins through His name, (Acts 10:43). Notice also that baptism does not appear in this passage indicating that it is not essential for forgiveness of sins, merely symbolic.

4) [Compare 2 Cor 7:10]:

"Godly sorrow brings repentance [= faith] that leads to salvation and leaves no regret, but worldly sorrow brings death."

5) [Compare Mk 1:15]:

(v. 14) "After John was put in prison, Jesus went into Galilee, proclaiming the good news of God.

(v. 15) 'The time has come,' he said. 'The kingdom of God is near. Repent and believe the good news!' "

"Repent and believe" = "believe". Notice that without the word 'repent' we have less of an emphasis on changing the mind. But even with just the command to believe, there is the assumption of a change of mind, a repentance. For one would not command one to believe in the gospel if there was not an assumption that one did not believe in it in the first place and needed to repent from that disbelief and believe!

6) [Compare 2 Tim 2:24-25]:

(v. 24) "And the Lord's servant must not quarrel; instead, he must be kind to everyone, able to teach, not resentful.

(v. 25) Those who oppose him he must gently instruct, in the hope that God will grant them repentance [metanoian] leading them to a knowledge of the truth."

"in the hope that God will grant them repentance" = [faith] leading to a knowledge of the truth"

IV) SINCE REPENT AND BELIEVE RE: SALVATION ARE SYNONYMOUS AND SINCE BELIEVING IN THE SON IS SYNONYMOUS WITH ACCEPTING THE TESTIMONY OF GOD ABOUT HIS SON, I.E. A MENTAL ASSENT THEN REPENTING UNTO SALVATION IS A MENTAL ASSENT

A) BELIEVING UNTO SALVATION = A SIMPLE MENTAL ASSENT IN THE TRUTH OF THE GOSPEL

1) FAITH BELIEVE TRUST DEFINED

a) ENGLISH DICTIONARY DEFINITION OF FAITH

i) Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary:

ftp://ftp.uga.edu/pub/misc/webster/

faith \Faith\, n.

1. Belief; the assent of the mind to the truth of what is declared by another, resting solely and implicitly on his authority and veracity; reliance on testimony.

2. The assent of the mind to the statement or proposition of another, on the ground of the manifest truth of what he utters; firm and earnest belief, on probable evidence of any kind, especially in regard to important moral truth. Faith, that is, fidelity, -- the fealty of the finite will and understanding to the reason.

believe \Be*lieve

\, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Believed; p. pr. & vb. n. Believing.]

To exercise belief in; to credit upon the authority or testimony of another; to be persuaded of the truth of, upon evidence furnished by reasons, arguments, and deductions of the mind, or by circumstances other than personal knowledge; to regard or accept as true; to place confidence in; to think; to consider; as, to believe a person, a statement, or a doctrine. "

trust \Trust\, v. t.

1. To place confidence in; to rely on, to confide, or repose faith, in; as, we can not trust those who have deceived us. I will never trust his word after. --Shak. He that trusts every one without reserve will at last be deceived. --Johnson.

2. To give credence to; to believe; to credit. Trust me, you look well. --Shak.

3. To hope confidently; to believe; -- usually with a phrase or infinitive clause as the object. I trust to come unto you, and speak face to face. --2 John 12. We trust we have a good conscience. --Heb. xiii. 18.

4. to show confidence in a person by intrusting (him) with something.

Syn: Confidence; belief; faith; hope; expectation"

b) NT GREEK DICTIONARY DEFINITION OF FAITH

[The New Analytical Greek Lexicon which is a dictionary of the koine Greek language of the Bible, (Wesley J. Perschbacher, Editor, Hendrickson Publishers, Peabody, Ma; 1992, p. 329), states as the meaning of the word pisteuo which is translated believe in the English Bible translations as follows]:

"(4100)... [pisteuo] 1 pers. sg. pres. act. indic., fut... [pisteuso] ...to believe, give credit to, Mark 1:15; 16:13; Luke 24:25; intrns. to believe, have a mental persuasion, Matt. 8:13; 9:28; James 2:19; to believe, be of opinion, Rom. 14:2; in N.T. [pisteuein en, eis] to believe in or on, Matt. 18:6; 27:42; John 3:15, 16, 18; absol. to believe, be a believer in the religion of Christ, Acts 2:44; 4:4, 32; 13:48; trans. to intrust, commit to the charge or power of, Luke 16:11; John 2:24; pass. to be intrusted with, Rom. 3:2; 1 Cor. 9:17"

Note that the Greek word used in the Bible which is translated into forms of the verb 'to believe' is also defined according to the Greek dictionary to mean a trust in the information presented, i.e., a mental assent - devoid of additional actions on the part of an individual other than the mental agreement.

c) SCRIPTURE DEFINES SAVING FAITH AS A MENTAL ASSENT TO THE TESTIMONY OF GOD ABOUT HIS SON

The Word of God confirms that forms of the verb to believe when used in passages concerning how an individual receives eternal life is defined as an acceptance - a mere mental assent - of the testimony of God:

i) [Compare 1 John 5:9-13]:

(v. 9) "We accept man's testimony, but God's testimony is greater because it is the testimony of God, which He has given about His Son.

[Accepting the testimony of God about His Son is presented here as an agreement that what God is saying about His Son is true - mere mental assent. The next verse then defines accepting the testimony of God as believing]:

(v. 10) Anyone who believes in the Son of God has this testimony in his heart..........

["has this testimony in his heart" = in his mind, scripture equates the heart and mind, (ref., Lk 24:25; Lk 24:45; Ro 14:5)].

Anyone who believes that the Son will provide eternal life for him has this testimony in his heart such that it is a part of the mental understanding of his mind that he is now saved unto eternal life]

(v. 10 cont.) .....Anyone who does not believe God has made Him out to be a liar, because he has not believed the testimony God has given about His Son.

[So to be saved one must believe in the testimony of God about His Son. The verb believe is herein defined relative to salvation unto eternal life as a mental assent, an acceptance, that what God says about His Son is true. Nothing else is required here in order to receive eternal life such as demonstrating this faith by some kind of action or emotion like regret or remorse]

(v. 11) And this is the testimony: God has given us eternal life, and this life is in His Son.

[i.e., if you want eternal life: trust in God's Son to provide it for you]:

(v. 12) He who has the Son has life..........

[He who believes in God's testimony about His Son - a mental assent that the Son will provide eternal life for him if he merely believes in the Son doing this has eternal life, (v.10)]....

(v. 12 cont.) ...he who does not have the Son of God does not have life."

[To have the Son means to believe that He will provide eternal life for you. To not have the Son is to not take God at His Word that the Son alone will provide eternal life for you. So if you believe what God testifies to, then you will therefore have eternal life because God says so. God being Who He is, He will deliver.

And then John writes further that an individual can know that he is saved unto eternal life at the very moment of his mental assent]:

(v. 13) I write these things to you who believe in the name of the Son of God so that you many know that you have eternal life."

So, taking God at His Word about eternal life through His Son provides assurance that you do now possess the gift of life everlasting in heaven never to lose it.

V) REPENTANCE UNTO SALVATION DOES NOT INCLUDE AN EMOTIONAL RESPONSE OF ANY KIND - SUCH AS FEELING SORRY OR GUILTY

A) ANOTHER GREEK WORD WHICH MEANS REGRET IS NOT STIPULATED ANYWHERE IN SCRIPTURE AS A REQUIREMENT TO BE SAVED

The word which is translated "repent" in Scripture relative to salvation and truths from God's Word does not refer to feeling sorry for one's sins.

There is another Greek word in Scripture, "metamelomai", which is often rendered "repent" in English, and means to feel sorry, to experience remorse, to regret.

[Vine's Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words, W.E. Vine, Revell Publishing, Old Tappan, New Jersey, 1981, p. 280]:

"meta = to change, melO = to care for... signifying to regret, (Mt 21:29, 32; 27:3; 2 Cor 7:8 twice; Heb 7:21)."

None of this family of words is ever stipulated as what one must do to have eternal life.

1) [Compare Heb 7:21]:

"But He [Jesus Christ, (v. 14)] became a priest with an oath when God said to him:

"The Lord has sworn and will not change His mind: 'You are a priest forever.' "

"[He] will not change His mind" = "ou metamellomai" = lit., 'He will not regret [it]'

2) [Compare Mt 21:29, 32]:

(v. 29) " 'I will not,' he answered, but later he changed his mind and went."

"he changed his mind" = "metamelEtheis" = lit., 'regretting it'

(v. 32) "For John came to you to show you the way of righteousness, and you did not believe him, but the tax collectors and the prostitutes did. And even after you saw this, you did not repent and believe him."

"you did not repent" = "ou metemelEthEte" = lit., 'you did not regret [it]'

3) [Compare Mt 27:3]:

"When Judas, who had betrayed him, saw that Jesus was condemned, he was seized with remorse and returned the thirty silver coins to the chief priests and the elders."

"he was seized with remorse" = "metamelEtheis" = lit., 'feeling regret'

So repent in the Bible relative to salvation means to change one's mind from not trusting in to trusting alone in Christ alone to provide the remedy for one's sins. It does not mean to feel sorry or regretful. The other repent which means a feeling of sorrow or regret may or may not accompany one's decision to repent = change the mind and trust in Christ as Savior, but this feeling is not part of the Biblical repenting for eternal life.

So repentance = believing unto eternal life does not require any emotional reaction in order for it to occur. One may simply change one's mind about a particular truth from God's Word and believe it without any accompanying emotions at all. Consider the little child who comes to a saving knowledge of Jesus Christ. How much sorrow can a 6 or 7 year old have for his or her sins in order that he receive the gift of eternal life from a gracious God?

[Pentecost, op. cit., pp. 62-72]:

"The doctrine [of repentance] has suffered tremendously from an erroneous concept held by most men, for when the word 'repent' is used it brings to the mind of the average individual the thought of sorrow for sin. He pictures one down whose face course tears of remorse, and from whose lips come promises of change and a vow never to fall into the same sins again. And this sorrow for sins is usually called 'repentance.' But there could be nothing further from the concept of the Word of God than the idea that repentance means sorrow for sins. From the Word of God we discover that the word translated 'repent' means 'a change of mind.' It means, literally, 'a turning about'; not so much a physical turning about as a mental turning around, a change of course, a change of direction [in thinking], a change of attitude. This is the concept in the word. Now, such a change of mind as the Scripture enjoins when it speaks of repentance may produce a sorrow for sin, but it will be the result after one has seen his sin in the light of the holiness of God and has changed his attitude toward it. If we were to be honest with ourselves we would have to confess that most so-called repentance is not sorrow for sin at all, but sorrow for getting caught in our sin. Such a sorrow is not repentance, and we will miss the important teaching of the Word of God, repentance is a change of mind. It is in 2 Corinthians 7:8-10 that the Apostle speaks at some length concerning repentance in relationship to the believer. You will recall the background. Paul had written earlier, in a very strong tone, concerning sin in the life of the assembly. He had been somewhat distressed as to what reception his strong language would receive. He wrote,

4) [Compare 2 Cor 7:8-10]:

(v. 8) " 'Even if I caused you sorrow by my letter, I do not regret it - Though I did regret it - I see that my letter hurt you, but only for a little while -

["I do not regret it" = (Gk), "ou metamelomai" = 'I do not feel sorry about it.'

"Though I did regret it" = (Gk), "metemelomEn" = "I did regret it"

This is a different verb form from metanoia in both phrases. They signify an emotional response not a change of mind.]

(v. 9) yet now I am happy, not because you were made sorry, but because your sorrow led you to repentance.

["repentance" = (Gk), "metanoian" = repentance, a change of mind. Notice that the godly sorrow that led to repentance = change of mind. Sorrow is depicted here as an occurrence within the Corinthians which led to the repentance]

(v. 10) Godly sorrow brings repentance [metanoian = repentance = change of the mind] that leads to salvation and leaves no regret, but worldly sorrow brings death."

Note that this is not a statement that every one must experience godly sorrow in order to come to repentance/saving faith, rather it distinguishes between godly sorrow when it does occur which leads to repentance/faith as opposed to worldy sorrow which does not. It leads to death. Certainly, this does not rule out the possibility that one can come to repentance/faith without having to experience godly sorrow. Other passages indicate that one simply believes without any particular emotional response and one is saved unto eternal life, (Ref. Jn 3:16).

[Pentecost, cont.]

"Here the Apostle is showing the relationship between sorrow and repentance, and he says that a godly sorrow - that is, a sorrow that is produced because the child of God views his sin as God views it - will lead to a change of mind toward that sin. What he loved, he now hates; what he grasped after, he now repudiates; what governed and controlled his life and became the goal of his life, he now abandons, so that as he confesses his sin he receives forgiveness from God"

Paul shows that sorrow in this particular circumstance in the life of a number of believers in Corinth led to repentance - to a change of mind about certain specific sins in their lives. Hence, Paul shows that sorrow is not identical with repentance.

B) EMOTIONAL REACTION IS A CONTRIBUTION ON THE PART OF THE INDIVIDUAL = A WORK WHICH IF CONSIDERED PART OF WHAT ONE MUST DO TO BE SAVED CANCELS OUT SALVATION BY GOD'S GRACE GIFT

1) [Compare Eph 2:8-9]:

(v. 8) "For it is by grace you have been saved, through faith--and this not from yourselves, it is the gift of God -

(v. 9) not by works, so that no one can boast."

2) [Compare Ro 10:14-17, 11:6]:

(v. 14) "How, then, can they call on the one they have not believed in? And how can they believe in the one of whom they have not heard? And how can they hear without someone preaching to them?

(v. 15) And how can they preach unless they are sent? As it is written, 'How beautiful are the feet of those who bring good news!'

(v. 16) But not all the Israelites accepted the good news. For Isaiah says, 'Lord, who has believed our message?'

(v. 17) Consequently, faith comes from hearing the message, and the message is heard through the word of Christ.

(v. 11:6) And if [the gospel of salvation is] by grace, then it is no longer by works; if it were, grace would no longer be grace."

C) FEAR, TERROR, GODLY SORROW, REMORSE AND OTHER EMOTIONS MAY OR MAY NOT LEAD TO REPENTANCE, I.E., SAVING FAITH, BUT THEY ARE NOT REPENTANCE ITSELF NOR A REQUIREMENT TO BE SAVED

1) [Acts 16:29-31]:

(v. 29) "The jailer called for lights, rushed in and fell trembling before Paul and Silas [having faced suicide or being executed for letting prisoners escape, (vv. 27-28), and ending up in the Lake of Fire].

(v. 30) He [the jailer] then brought them [the prisoners who remained in the jail instead of escaping] out and asked, 'Sirs, what must I do to be saved?'

(v. 31) They [Paul and Silas] replied, 'Believe in the Lord Jesus, and you will be saved - you and [when they believe] your household."

Notice that the jailer was in terror of going to Hell which led him to be open to what Paul told him he must do to be saved from that. Having believed he was indeed saved, but not because he was terrified, but because he believed. Furthermore, notice that there was nothing in this passage that indicates he felt any remorse, sorrow or regret for his sins. It was the terror in this case that led him to change his mind and believe.

2) [Mt 21:32]:

"For John came to you to show you the way of righteousness, and you did not believe him, but the tax collectors and the prostitutes did. And even after you saw this, you did not repent and believe him."

"you did not repent" = "ou metemelEthEte" = 'you did not regret [it]'

Notice that an emotional reaction of repentance = regret was supposed to have led to belief but it was not part of the belief itself.

3) [Compare 2 Cor 7:8-11]:

(v. 8) "Even if I caused you sorrow by my letter, I do not regret it. Though I did regret it--I see that my letter hurt you, but only for a little while -

(v. 9) yet now I am happy, not because you were made sorry, but because your sorrow led you to repentance. For you became sorrowful as God intended and so were not harmed in any way by us.

(v. 10) Godly sorrow brings repentance that leads to salvation and leaves no regret, but worldly sorrow brings death.

(v. 11) See what this godly sorrow has produced in you: what earnestness, what eagerness to clear yourselves, what indignation, what alarm, what longing, what concern, what readiness to see justice done. At every point you have proved yourselves to be innocent in this matter."

Notice that the godly sorrow indicated above was not part of the repentance/change of mind but led to it and other responses as well.

4) [Compare Jn 6:70-71; 13:27; Mt 27:3-5; Jn 17:12]:

(Jn 6:70) "Then Jesus replied, 'Have I not chosen you, the Twelve? Yet one of you is a devil!'

(Jn 6:71) (He meant Judas, the son of Simon Iscariot, who, though one of the Twelve, was later to betray him.)"

(Jn 13:27) "As soon as Judas took the bread, Satan entered into him."

(Mt 27:3) "When Judas, who had betrayed him, saw that Jesus was condemned, he was seized with remorse and returned the thirty silver coins to the chief priests and the elders.

(Mt 27:4) 'I have sinned,' he said, 'for I have betrayed innocent blood.' 'What is that to us?' they replied. 'That's your responsibility.' "

(Mt 27:5) "So Judas threw the money into the temple and left. Then he went away and hanged himself."

(Jn 17:12) "While I [Jesus] was with them [the disciples], I protected them and kept them safe by that name You gave Me. None has been lost except the one [Judas Iscariot] doomed to destruction so that Scripture would be fulfilled."

Notice that Judas was filled with Satan, he was of the devil, certainly not a born again believer; and he was doomed to destruction, (Jn 17:12). He became filled with remorse for the sin of betrayal of our Lord and hanged himself. His emotion of remorse did not result in repentance leading to salvation, but rather destruction, (Jn 17:12).

5) [Compare John chapter 3]:

Throughout this chapter our Lord tells Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews, what he must do to be born again and have eternal life. There is no mention of any requirement in this chapter and for that matter in the entire gospel of John for man to do to be born again other than to believe in the Son being given for him, (Jn 3:14-18). Emotional responses, commitment of some kind, deeds of any kind are not in view any place in John. As a matter of fact, any of the repent family of words does not even appear in John, even if that word did represent something more than simple mental assent belief, (and it does not).

6) [Compare Jn 11:21-28]:

(v. 21) " 'Lord,' Martha said to Jesus, 'if you had been here, my brother would not have died.

(v. 22) But I know that even now God will give you whatever you ask.'

(v. 23) Jesus said to her, 'Your brother will rise again.'

(v. 24) Martha answered, 'I know he will rise again in the resurrection at the last day.'

(v. 25) Jesus said to her, 'I am the resurrection and the life. He who believes in me will live, even though he dies;

(v. 26) and whoever lives and believes in me will never die. Do you believe this?'

(v. 27) 'Yes, Lord,' she told him, 'I believe that you are the Christ, the Son of God, who was to come into the world.'

[Notice that there is no indication of any emotional response, commitment to behave better, etc. Martha exercised a simple mental assent moment of belief in 'the Christ, the Son of God, Who has to come into the world.' which is sufficient to save her unto eternal life, (cf 1 Jn 5:1)]

(v. 28) And after she had said this, she went back and called her sister Mary aside. 'The Teacher is here,' she said, 'and is asking for you.' "

D) EVEN IF SORROW, GOOD BEHAVIOR OR A COMMITMENT TO TURN FROM SIN WERE REQUIRED THESE BEING NECESSARILY GODLY ACTS - ALL SUCH ACTS BY AN UNBELIEVER ARE DISQUALIFIED AS FILTHY RAGS AND UNACCEPTABLE TO GOD

1) [Compare Isa 64:4-6]:

(v. 4) "Since ancient times no one has heard, no ear has perceived, no eye has seen any God besides you, who acts on behalf of those who wait for him.

(v. 5) You come to the help of those who gladly do right, who remember your ways. But when we continued to sin against them, you were angry. How then can we be saved?

(v. 6) All of us have become like one who is unclean, and all our righteous acts are like filthy rags; we all shrivel up like a leaf, and like the wind our sins sweep us away."

Notice that all of our righteous acts including water baptism, feelings of sorrow, commitment to behave better are as filthy rags before God - even if perceived as divinely inspired; and they are excluded by Scripture from what a man must do to be saved, (Eph 2:8-9; Ro 4:4-5; 11:6).

No one can please God with any such actions who is under the control of the sin nature which includes all mankind, even believers before they get saved:

2) [Compare Ro 8:5-8]:

(v. 5) "Those who live according to the sinful nature have their minds set on what that nature desires; but those who live in accordance with the Spirit have their minds set on what the Spirit desires.

(v. 6) The mind of sinful man is death, but the mind controlled by the Spirit is life and peace;

(v. 7) the sinful mind is hostile to God. It does not submit to God's law, nor can it do so

(v. 8) Those controlled by the sinful nature [all unbelievers] cannot please God [with any deeds or emotional reactions toward salvation]."

3) [Compare Titus 3:4-5]:

(v. 4) "But when the kindness and love of God our Savior appeared,

(v. 5) He saved us, not because of righteous things we had done, but because of His mercy. He saved us through the washing of rebirth and renewal by the Holy Spirit."

So even if an individual were to express some kind of righteous emotion, or commitment or deed, that would not be the basis of how he is to be saved. Such actions are simply not required, not in view, even excluded, (Ephesians 2:8-9):

4) [Ephesians 2:8-9]:

(v. 8) "For it is by grace you have been saved, through faith--and this not from yourselves, it is the gift of God--

(v. 9) not by works, so that no one can boast."

VI) TURNING FROM SIN &TURNING FROM IDOLS RELATIVE TO SALVATION MEANS TO TURN TO GOD AND TRUST IN HIS PLAN THROUGH FAITH ALONE IN HIS SON ALONE - IT DOES NOT HAVE SOME KIND OF ACTION OR EMOTIONAL RESPONSE IN VIEW

Repent = "metanoeo" comes from the combination of the Greek words meta meaning to change and the Greek word noeo meaning the mind, the understanding. The sphere of this word is therefore limited to within the mind. Other kinds and spheres of activity are not in view.

[Vine's Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words, W.E. Vine, Revell Publishing, Old Tappan, New Jersey, 1981, pp. 279-280), states]:

"metanoeo... lit. to perceive afterwards (meta, after, implying change, noeo, to perceive; [comes from the Greek noun] nous, the mind, the seat of moral reflection), in contrast to pronoeo, to perceive beforehand, hence signifies to change one's mind or purpose..."

A change in behavior such as behaving better, or an emotional response such as regret or sorrow may result from a change in mind but such is an added concept and must therefore be part of an additional expression of words. Therefore metanoeo in and of itself does not include a change of behavior or some expression of emotions.

Therefore the phrase 'turn from sin' or 'turn from idols' relative to the word repent = "metanoeo" cannot be anything other than an activity which is restricted to within the mind. Turning from sin relative to salvation therefore is a mental adjustment in which one turns from thinking that one does not have a sin problem...

(Some consider themselves relatively more moral than others and therefore God doesn't have a problem with them. There are 'worse' offenders than themselves. Others state that they are not doing anything so seriously wrong that God should be concerned about them. They're doing the best that they can and that's all they think that God expects. Still others feel that their sins are something that they themselves can and will deal with - often with a system of works which includes water baptism, church going, asking for forgiveness, improving behavior, etc., etc. And still others who are born into a family such as being a descendant of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, think that God will automatically favor them because of this).

...to the attitude that they are helpless and hopeless sinners before God and must turn to God's mercy for forgiveness through faith alone in His Son alone:

A) [Compare Titus 3:5]:

"He saved us, not on the basis of deeds which we have done in righteousness, but according to His mercy, by the washing of regeneration and renewing by the Holy Spirit."

B) [Compare 1 Thes 1:9]:

"For they themselves [believers from other parts of the world, (v. 8)] report about us what kind of a reception we had with you, and how you turned to God from idols to serve a living and true God."

[Pentecost, op. cit., p. 71]:

"[The] word 'turning' gives us this basic concept that we have been considering [relative to the meaning of the word 'repent' unto eternal life in the New Testament].

There was a change in attitude, a change of mind....

[For example, the people of Thessalonica to whom Paul preached had known no God but idols]

Then Paul came to them to present the truth of God. They turned from their idols to believe the truth that had been revealed, and the Apostle says that the act gave them salvation...

In the passage, the change of mind was not the precursory step to salvation. It is not the first of several steps to salvation. It is not a prerequisite for salvation. Rather, salvation depends upon believing, and believing involves repudiating the false teaching that one espoused, and holding to the revealed truth of the Word of God. From Scripture, then, we see that salvation is predicated upon faith. Faith involves the repudiation, or turning from all falsehood, from every false basis of salvation, from every false hope, and turning to accept from God the gift of salvation through His Son. But salvation is not dependent upon the work of repentance; rather, it depends upon the faith that involves repentance......

The one who turns to God accepts God's judgment upon sin, accepts the fact of his need of a Saviour, accepts the fact of his guilt, accepts the fact of his lostness apart from Christ, accepts the fact of his helplessness. He turns from all self-righteousness in which he trusted, turns from his own works, turns from his church as a means of dispensing salvation, and [in this one time process of turning, he] turns to the Lord Jesus Christ, accepts the fact of God's judgment upon sin and sinners, and by faith receives Jesus Christ as the One Who is judged for him [all of this in the one time process of turning - of changing his mind - of repenting."

VII) TO TRUST ALONE IN CHRIST ALONE AS SAVIOR IMPLIES THAT YOU HAVE A SIN PROBLEM WITH GOD AND NEED A SAVIOR - SO A FORMAL ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF ONE'S SIN PROBLEM WITH GOD IS NOT ADDITIONALLY NECESSARY TO THE FAITH PLACED IN CHRIST AS SAVIOR

Objectors insist that simply advising one to trust in Christ to have eternal life, receive forgiveness of sins is not enough. They insist that a formal acknowledgment of conviction of ones sins or acknowledging that one is a lost sinner and has a sin problem with God is also required. Such passages as Jn 3:14-18; 5:24; 6:29, 47; Acts 10:43; 16:31; Eph 2:8-9 they say are not sufficient to provide what a man must do to be saved because they only tell one to trust alone in Christ alone unto eternal life.

However, when one does trust alone in Christ alone to receive eternal life/ avoid condemnation/ receive forgiveness of sins, there is necessarily inherent in this moment of trusting alone in Christ alone a perception that one needs to be saved from ones sins - that one indeed does have a sin problem with God and is a lost sinner. Objectors to this should ask the question, 'Why would one trust alone in Christ alone to have eternal life with God and avoid condemnation for one's sins in the Lake of Fire if they did not think they had a sin problem, a condemnation problem with God? So a formal acknowledgment of this is redundant and adds to what Scripture asks one to do to have eternal life: 'Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ and you will be saved', (Acts 16:31a). There is no passage in Scripture that stipulates that a formal acknowledgment of one's lost condition is required in order to qualify for eternal life.

Notice that the idea of a formal acknowledgment of sins and condemnation and lostness is not addressed by our Lord in His conversation with Nicodemus in John chapter 3 either: He simply told Nicodemus that in order to enter the kingdom of God he must be born again, (vv. 3, 5) via a moment of believing in the Son being given for him, (vv. 14-18) and if he does not he will remain under condemnation, (v. 18b).

VIII) REPENTANCE FOR THE FORGIVENESS OF SINS UNTO ETERNAL LIFE DOES NOT INCLUDE MAKING JESUS LORD OF ONES LIFE, NOR FOLLOWING JESUS NOR DECIDING TO NOT ENTERTAIN SIN IN ONES LIFE

A) REPENTANCE FOR THE FORGIVENESS OF SINS UNTO ETERNAL LIFE DOES NOT INCLUDE MAKING JESUS THE LORD OF ONES LIFE

The issue being salvation unto eternal life, then making Jesus Lord of one's life is not in view. Making Jesus Christ the Lord of one's life infers that you act in accordance with His Lordship on a moment to moment basis. It is a lifelong process, a task for the already saved individual, not a task one must do in order to be saved.

Furthermore, Jesus Christ is Lord of all whether or not one is saved - that is why He is constantly addressed as Lord throughout Scripture.

Finally, once one expresses faith alone in Christ alone unto eternal life, then Jesus Christ becomes Lord of that born again individual in a special way as a child in the family of God, (Jn 1:12), whether he knows it, likes it, desires it, acts like it or not. Now begins the lifelong process of growing into the image of Christ, i.e., making Jesus Christ the Lord of ones life - but there are no guarantees, and apparently, most will fall far short in this lifelong endeavor.

1) [Compare Acts 2:36-38]:

(v. 36) "Therefore let all Israel be assured of this: God has made this Jesus, whom you crucified, both Lord and Christ.

[So convincing and convicting fellow Jews that 'Jesus, Whom you crucified, [is] both Lord and Christ.' was Peter's message - not in view was Peter's exhorting to behave better or feel remorse or commit to a holy lifestyle]

(v. 37) Now when they [Jews, (vv. 22, 29)] heard this, they were pierced to the heart, and said to Peter and the rest of the apostles, 'Brothers, [Jews, (vv. 22, 29)] what shall we do?'

['They were pierced to the heart', i.e., they felt remorse = the other kind of repentance = "metamelomai" which led them to the first kind of repentance: a change from not believing to faith alone in Christ/Messiah alone unto eternal life, (cf., 2 Cor 7:10). Notice Peter in the next verse tells his Jewish brothers to do the first kind of 'Repent' = "metanoEsate" = change your mind from unbelief to belief in Christ as their Lord and Christ, i.e., Messiah/Savior]:

(v. 38) Peter replied, 'Repent [plural] (and [let each one of you] be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ, [singular = after being forgiven],) for the forgiveness of your sins [plural]. And you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit [plural - as a result of the water baptism]." "

Peter exhorts his audience of fellow Jews, (v. 14, 22, 29, 36, 37), to repent = "metanoEsate" = 2nd person plural aorist imperative = a command to change their minds from not believing to believing in the Messiah Jesus Christ Whom they crucified in order to receive forgiveness of their sins [plural] and the gift of the Holy Spirit [plural]. And Peter says, 'let each one of you be water baptized' [singular] which would follow this reception of forgiveness and reception of the Holy Spirit.

Peter's command to repent does not have a change of behavior or a feeling of remorse or a commitment to our Lord in view. Peter's sermon is about Who Jesus Christ is and that the Jews crucified Him in their unbelief. His sermon is not an exhortation to the Jews to behave better or commit to Jesus Christ as Lord of their lives. Furthermore, one does not need an exposition on Who the Messiah is in order to be exhorted to behave better. Whether or not Jesus Christ is the Messiah Whom they crucified should not affect whether or not they should repent = behave better. Men should behave better no matter Who the Messiah is.

Finally, upon finishing his exposition on Who Jesus Christ is, the Jews immediately responded with a feeling of remorse, the other kind of repentance, ("metamelomai"), whereupon Peter commanded them to 'repent' ("metanoEsate") = change their minds about Who it is that you crucified and repent = believe that He is your 'Lord and Christ' unto the 'forgiveness of sins', (cf. Acts 3:17-19), and the reception of the 'gift of the Holy Spirit.' "

For a complete study on this passage in Acts chapter 2:

B) REPENTANCE FOR FORGIVENESS OF SINS UNTO ETERNAL LIFE DOES NOT INCLUDE FOLLOWING JESUS

1) [Compare Jn 1:43]:

"The next day Jesus decided to leave for Galilee. Finding Philip, he said to him, "Follow me."

The word repent implies a complete change of mind from one thing, which is mutually exclusive of/to another, and not just any and every kind of change.

In the context of following Jesus in John 1:43, the change of direction in order for it to be repentance must now exclude following anyone else and anything to do with the purpose which that implies. It must signify a complete change of mind and consequent follow through in action from following one person and direction to following a completely different person and not the former person and a completely different direction which is mutually exclusive of the other. No where in this passage does it stipulate or clearly imply to what end Philip must follow Jesus much more a complete departure from following anyone and the purpose for that following. No other passage from any other book in the bible or later passage in John can be used to force John 1:43 to say differently. It says what it says.

As a matter of fact, a number of the disciples were already following John the Baptist which direction certainly was not completely different and mutually exclusive of following Jesus Christ as John the Baptist was the forerunner and pointer to Jesus Christ who preached the same message as our Lord did. So there is not any conclusive evidence in view in this verse that Jesus is asking Philip to repent of anything.

To simply ask someone to follow one does not necessarily imply that there is repentance in view at all. To ask someone to follow one implies a new direction, but not a complete change of direction and purpose which is mutually exclusive of a current direction as the word repentance demands. Otherwise every time a verse/sentence has the words go, come, turn, stop, move, leave, etc., etc., implying a change of direction then repentance must be implied wreaking havoc with the normative rules of language, context and logic and destroying the distinctive and established definition of the word repent. Repentance would thus be found around every corner, and no longer have any meaning distinctive from so many verbs and nouns that describe human behavior.

C) REPENTANCE FOR THE FORGIVENESS OF SINS UNTO ETERNAL LIFE DOES NOT INCLUDE A DECISION NOT TO ENTERTAIN SIN NOR A COMMITMENT TO LEAD A FAITHFUL LIFE

In accordance with the normative rules of language, context and logic which is reflected in dictionaries and Scripture, faith is no more and no less than a mental acceptance of what is presented to one as true. In the context of salvation unto eternal life passages in the Bible, the content of what is presented is always the content that Jesus Christ paid the price for ones sins for the purpose of providing eternal life for one who believes in that. There is never in the content of what one is asked to believe in any passage in the bible in order to receive eternal life a request to turn from committing sin nor to make a commitment to lead a faithful life. In all salvation unto eternal life passages it is implied that one has a sin problem in the content of the salvation verse when one is asked to trust, (believe, have faith in), Jesus Christ to take care of that problem via His payment for ones sins. If one were not convinced one had a sin problem with God, then one would not believe in His one and only Son to take care of ones sin problem, would they? This is the repentance unto forgiveness of sins unto eternal life, i.e., the turning from thinking one does not have a problem with God relative to ones sins to faith alone in Christ alone to solve that problem and receive eternal life. This is what repentance unto forgiveness of sins for the reception of eternal life is referring to and NOT turning to make a commitment to be faithful or turning to make a commitment to not sin in ones life in order to receive eternal life.

RETURN TO STUDY ON SAVED BY GRACE AND THE WORD BELIEVE

OR CONTINUE STUDY OF REPENT FOR FURTHER INFORMATION

IX) THE CONCEPT OF REPENTANCE FROM THE OLD TESTAMENT POINT OF VIEW IS THE SAME AS IT IS FOR THE NEW TESTAMENT

[Pentecost, op. cit., pp. 65-68]:

"We would next like to consider the concept of repentance in the Old Testament, for it is in this portion of the Word of God that a great deal of the confusion concerning the relationship of repentance to salvation arises. For our consideration, we are including in the Old Testament Scriptures all that took place before the death of Christ, and, for the purpose of our study, even those portions of the Word addressed to Israel immediately after the death of Christ: for we believe that the concept is the same in all these portions of Scripture.

[Dr Pentecost is stating here that he is including New Testament passages which refer to Old Testament times in his treatment of the Old Testament meaning of the word repentance]:

In the first Gospel of the New Testament, you find that John the Baptist appeared suddenly on the scene in Israel with a startling announcement. He commanded and exhorted the people...

A) [Compare Mt 3:2]:

'Repent ye: for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.' "

B) [Compare Acts 19:4]:

"Paul said, 'John's baptism was a baptism of repentance. He told the people to believe in the One coming after him, that is, Jesus.' "

"repentance" = "metanoias" = a change of the mind from not believing to believing "in the One coming after him, that is, Jesus."

Since John's baptism was a baptism that signified an individual's repentance,

and since the message of John to people was to believe in Jesus Christ as Messiah/Savior thereupon he was water baptized,

then repentance here = "metanoias" = believing in Christ as Messiah/Savior.

John the Baptist "prepare[d] the way for the Lord [making] straight paths for Him", (Mt 3:3; Isa 40:3) by declaring "the Kingdom of God is near", (Mt 3:2), i.e., that the Messiah is coming now to bring His Kingdom into the world when all of Israel believes in Him. John further declared Who Jesus is:"Behold the Lamb of God Who takes away the sins of the world", (Jn 1:29), i.e., as testified to in Old Testament Scripture, (Isa 53:4-5); declaring "one must believe in Jesus", (Acts 19:4), being that Lamb of God Who takes away the sins of the world, i.e., "Repent [= believe in Christ as Messiah].. for the forgiveness of sins", (Acts 19:4; Mk 1:4) to gain entrance into this eternal Kingdom. Then John commanded those who believed in Jesus to demonstrate this change to faith in Him by a "baptism of repentance [/belief in Jesus] for the forgiveness of sins", (Acts 19:4; Mk 1:4).

Notice that baptism and washings in general were perceived by Israelites as symbolic immersions and washings and not acts which provided actual results of what they represented. This would be consistent with what the Old Testament Scripture teaches, []

So when an Israelite underwent the baptism of repentance of John the Baptist and his disciples; and Jesus and His disciples before His Ascension, it was a water baptism / immersion to symbolize ones having repented / believed in Christ for forgiveness of sins unto eterna life in the Eternal Kingdom of God; as well as each ones identification with National Israel and her Messiah / Savior for the purpose of the commencement of His Kingdom should all of Israel repent and believe in Him.

After John the Baptist announced the arrival of our Lord, and our Lord identified Himself with the believing remnant in Israel by His baptism at the hand of John, Jesus began to preach the same message that John the Baptist had been preaching:

C) [Compare Mt 4:17]:

'Jesus began to preach, and to say, ' '''Repent for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.''' '

D) [Compare Acts 13:23-24]:

This corporate repentance and individual water baptism is nothing new, for John the Baptist preached this as did our Lord Who came after John:

(v. 23) " 'From the offspring of this man [David, (v. 22)] according to promise God has brought to Israel a Savior, Jesus,

(v. 24) after John had proclaimed before His coming a baptism of repentance to all the people of Israel."

This corporate repentance of the nation Israel resulting in trusting in the coming Messiah Jesus Christ as Savior would then bring in the Kingdom, (cp Mt 3:1-3, 11).

Both John, the forerunner of the Messiah, and the Messiah called upon the nation Israel to repent. John's message, as it is recorded in the third chapter of Matthew's Gospel, was a scathing denunciation of sin and sinners. But John did not call upon them to be sorry for their sins, nor to weep tears because their sins were being uncovered. John called upon them to change their mind concerning sin, concerning righteousness, and concerning their need of a Deliverer.

[In other words, John called upon them to believe that they had a sin problem, to believe that they were not righteous enough to go into the kingdom, and to believe that they indeed needed a Deliverer - Jesus Christ their Messiah, Who was 'at hand' - in their presence]

The nation Israel had been delivered over to rule by the Pharisees, and Pharisaism told the people of Israel that they were righteous because they were the children of Abraham, and that God would deliver any child of Abraham from going down into the pit. Pharisaism was a system of works; if a man observed the three hundred and sixty-five negative commandments, and the two hundred and fifty positive commandments, as the Law was summarized by the Pharisees, the Pharisees assured him he was safe. Our Lord denied that there was righteousness in Pharisaism, and demanded that the people turn to God to receive righteousness from Him. In that portion we call the Sermon on the Mount, our Lord said,

E) [Compare Mt 5:20]:

'...Except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter into the kingdom of heaven.'

...These people were trusting Pharisaism for righteousness; they were trusting the Law of Moses for righteousness. Righteousness is not in Pharisaism, nor in the Law, but it is in the Messiah Who offers His righteousness to you. Men needed to change their minds about their own need. They were complacent in their self-righteousness, for the Pharisees counted themselves and their disciples as righteous before God. Our Lord and John preached to the nation that there was need for a change of mind: a change of mind concerning sin, a change of mind concerning righteousness, a change of mind concerning their need, that they might come to God to receive God's forgiveness [by trusting alone in the Messiah alone].

In Matthew 22 we find that our Lord pronounced a judgment upon the nation because the nation would not repent...

F) [Mt 22:1-7]:

(v. 1) ''' Jesus spoke to them again in parables, saying:

(v. 2) "The kingdom of heaven is like a king who prepared a wedding banquet for his son.

(v. 3) He sent his servants to those who had been invited to the banquet to tell them to come, but they refused to come.

(v. 4) Then he sent some more servants and said, 'Tell those who have been invited that I have prepared my dinner: My oxen and fattened cattle have been butchered, and everything is ready. Come to the wedding banquet.'

(v. 5) But they paid no attention and went off - one to his field, another to his business.

(v. 6) The rest seized his servants, mistreated them and killed them.

(v. 7) The king was enraged. He sent his army and destroyed those murderers and burned their city.

[Jesus came to His own, Israel and His own received Him not, (Ref. Jn 1:11). Jerusalem was burned in AD 70. The major reason for our Lord not bringing in the kingdom right then was the fact that although multitudes did truly repent =believe in the Messiah to save them into the kingdom of God, many many more Jews did not. The nation in effect did not all repent. Not even a majority repented, thus rejecting the offer of bringing in the kingdom by our Lord at that time. It was a question of the entire nation changing its mind about the Messiah Jesus Christ relative to trusting in Him and not their own righteousness and entering the kingdom, i.e., eternal life]

And the nation to whom Christ had given a call to repentance repudiated Him as God's heaven-sent Messiah, and continued to trust in their own righteousness [which is as filthy rags, Isa 64:6]. In Matthew 21:43-44 Christ said,

G) [Compare Mt 21:43-44]:

(v. 43) " 'The kingdom of God shall be taken from you, and given to a nation bringing forth the fruits thereof.

(v. 44) And whosoever shall fall on this stone shall be broken: but on whomsoever it shall fall, it will grind him to powder.' "

This was our Lord's announcement of judgment upon those who refused to repent and had rejected Him. And then, in Matthew 23:37-38 our Lord says,

H) [Compare Mt 23:37-38]:

(v. 37) " 'O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not!

(v. 38) Behold, your house is left unto you desolate.' "

Christ announced judgment upon the city of Jerusalem and upon the institutions within the city. The Temple, the priesthood, the Sanhedrin that had condemned Him - all would come under divine judgment. That judgment fell in the year A.D. 70 when Titus and his Roman legions, as the instruments of divine judgment, marched in and conquered the city, and destroyed and dispersed the people."

[Pentecost, op. cit., pp. 67-69]:

"As we come over to the Books of Acts we find frequent exhortations to repentance. Peter, preaching in Acts 2, proclaimed the resurrection of Christ, proved the resurrection from the Old Testament Scriptures, [notice that the content of the gospel is clearly proved to Peter's audience which is mostly of Jews] and concluded in verse 36

I) [Compare Acts 2:36-38]:

(v. 36) "Therefore let all Israel be assured of this: God has made this Jesus, Whom you crucified, both Lord and Christ.'

[So convincing and convicting fellow Jews that 'Jesus, Whom you crucified, [is] both Lord and Christ.' was Peter's message - not in view was Peter's exhorting to behave better or feel remorse or commit to a holy lifestyle]

(v. 37) When the people heard this, they were cut to the heart and said to Peter and the other apostles, Brothers, what shall we do?'

['They were cut to the heart', i.e., they felt remorse = the other kind of repentance = "metamelomai" which led them to the first kind of repentance: faith alone in Christ/Messiah alone unto eternal life, (2 Cor 7:10). Notice Peter in the next verse tells his Jewish brothers to do the first kind of 'Repent' = "metanoEsate" = change your mind from unbelief to belief in Christ as their Messiah/Savior]:

(v. 38) Peter replied, 'Repent [plural] and let each one of you be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ, [singular = after being forgiven and Holy Spirit received], for the forgiveness of your sins [plural]. And you [plural] will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.' "

Peter exhorts his audience of fellow Jews, (v. 14, 22, 29, 36, 37), to repent = "metanoEsate" = 2nd person plural aorist imperative = a command to change their minds from not believing to believing in the Messiah Jesus Christ Whom they crucified in order to receive forgiveness of their sins [plural] and the gift of the Holy Spirit [plural]. And Peter says, 'let each one of you be water baptized' [singular] which would follow this reception of forgiveness and reception of the Holy Spirit.

The word which is translated "Repent", ("metanoesate"), is plural and therefore goes with the plural phrase

"eis .aphesin ......ton hamartion hymon

"for forgiveness the sins ............your [plural]

Then the phrase which is translated 'let each one of you be baptized', inserted in the middle would follow this repentance in time being in the singular:

"Baptistheto ekastos .....umon"

"Be baptized each one ...of you"

"ekastos ...umon" =

"each one of you" =

"ekastos" = nom. singular masc. adj. = "each one"

"umon" = gen plural 2 pers pers pron = "of you"

So the phrase "Be baptized each one ...of you" stands out as a singular one. It is a parenthetical statement - an action which is to be taken in sequence of time, after the fact of receiving forgiveness of sins and the gift of the Spirit. It is in the third person aorist passive imperative expressing a strong wish on the part of Peter that each individual Jew (singular) should commence having water baptism done to him, (passive voice), once the entire lot of them (plural) have come to repentance, i.e., have trusted in Christ as Savior and Messiah. So the phrase about water baptism is singular emphasizing that after all the Jews (plural) in Peter's audience have repented of their (plural) disbelief and trusted in their Messiah and all (plural) have thereby been forgiven of their sins and all (plural) have received the gift of the Spirit then next in the order of things comes the parenthetical 3rd person imperative statement of letting each one (singular) be water baptized - individually identified with his personal Savior and Messiah Whom he has trusted for eternal life.

Note that Peter's audience was indeed largely Jewish and would have understood that water baptism was symbolic of something for the washings and baptisms in the Old Testament Scriptures were largely symbolic. Just as the Jews viewed John's water baptism as symbolic of their faith in the coming Messiah and His Kingdom as part of national Israel, in the same way, the water baptism commanded by Peter would be viewed as symbolic of their faith in the Messiah Who had come - but this time the message of the Kingdom was not in view, the message of the Church was.

Peter's command to repent does not have a change of behavior or a feeling of remorse in view. Peter's sermon is about Who Jesus Christ is and that the Jews crucified Him in their unbelief. One does not need an exposition on Who the Messiah is in order to be exhorted to behave better. Whether or not Jesus Christ is the Messiah Whom they crucified should not affect whether or not they should repent = behave better. Men should behave better no matter Who the Messiah is.

Finally, upon finishing his exposition on Who Jesus Christ is, the Jews immediately responded with a feeling of remorse, the other kind of repentance, ("metamelomai"), whereupon Peter commanded them to 'repent' ("metanoEsate") = change their minds about Who it is that you crucified and repent = believe that He is your 'Lord and Christ' unto the 'forgiveness of sins' and the reception of the 'gift of the Holy Spirit.'"

J) [Compare Acts 3:17-19]:

(v. 17) "Now, brothers, [Peter is referring to fellow Jews] I know that you acted in ignorance, as did your leaders.

(v. 18) But this is how God fulfilled what he had foretold through all the prophets, saying that His Christ would suffer.

(v. 19) Repent, then, and turn to God, so that your sins may be wiped out, that times of refreshing may come from the Lord."

"Repent" = "metanoEsate" = change your mind about Jesus Christ being the Messiah/Savior, i.e., trust in His name, (Acts 10:43), "so that your sins may be wiped out."

So the word which is translated "repent" in Acts 3:19 and Acts 2:38 = "metanoesate", the imperative form of the Greek verb "metanoeo", and the noun which is translated "repentance" = "metanoian" in Mt 3:11, are derived from the Greek word "metanoias". Both words mean a turn about, a deliberate change of mind resulting in a change of direction in thought, literally, to perceive afterwards.

Scripture teaches that this kind of repentance is to turn to God relative to dealing with ones sins such that one now seeks for God to remedy the situation through faith alone in Jesus Christ alone instead of whatever other way one was dealing with them.

Notice that in Acts 3:17-19 there is no mention of baptism which signifies that it is not essential for forgiveness of sins, simply symbolic.

Notice that Paul is now offering to Israel and all mankind the opportunity to repent [change one's mind from turning away from to] turn to God, i.e., turn to faith in His Christ, (v. 18), so that one's sins may be wiped out, i.e., forgiven, (Acts 2:38), and in God's appointed time, (when all Israel believes, ref. Zech 12:10-14), God will send the Christ]:

(v. 20) and that He may send the Christ, who has been appointed for you - even Jesus.

(v. 21) He must remain in heaven until the time comes for God to restore everything, as he promised long ago through His holy prophets."

So our Lord will come to commence His Kingdom rule at the moment of His Second Coming when all Israel will recognize her Messiah as a result of God's enablement and Israel's subsequent response of faith.

[Pentecost, cont.]

"Remember, our Lord and John had demanded of the nation Israel repentance (a change of mind) toward sin, toward righteousness, and toward judgment

[and thereby toward trusting in the Messiah Jesus Christ for eternal life in the kingdom, Acts 19:4].

The nation Israel refused to repent and the nation Israel came under judgment from the hand of God. No less than the Son of God had predicted the judgment that would come upon Jerusalem and upon the citizens of the land of Israel.

[Just as God's wrath had fallen on Israel and unbelieving nations in the past, so His wrath would again fall on unbelieving Israel in A.D. 70 when Jerusalem and the Temple would be destroyed, millions killed and the remaining people dispersed worldwide].

When Peter convinced the men that Jesus was Lord and Messiah, and they cried 'What must we do?' Peter said, 'Repent; that is, change your mind. Change your mind about Christ. Change your mind about the Person Who invited you to repent, but Whose invitation you rejected.' Peter was not asking for sorrow for sin - it was too late for that. He was asking them to change their minds concerning the truth that he had just presented - that Jesus is Lord and Messiah... This exhortation to repent and be baptized, although applicable throughout the [Church] age, had its peculiar and particular application to that nation [Israel], to that generation [of Jews] under divine judgment, so that [eternal and temporal] judgment might be escaped by individuals who heeded the truth Peter presented and who turned unbelief in the Person of Christ to belief, witnessing that faith, that change of mind, by separating themselves from the nation that was under judgment. .....We find much the same truth presented in Acts 3:19 where Peter once again declared the glorious truth of the resurrection of Jesus Christ:

J cont.) [Acts 3:17-21 cont.]:

(v. 19) "Repent, then, and turn to God, so that your sins may be wiped out, [so] that times of refreshing may come from the Lord."

[Pentecost, cont.]

[This verse is saying] "...repent and be converted; or change your mind and be turned around. You can visualize this very graphically if you put the Law on one side and Jesus Christ on the other. The nation Israel had turned their backs on the invitation of Jesus Christ and were marching toward the Law, trusting it for their salvation. When they stood convinced that Jesus was actually the Messiah, Peter said, 'You must change your mind and be converted, turned around, and you must begin your walk toward the Lord Jesus Christ, away from that to which you were going a moment ago.' Repent and be converted, or change your mind and be turned around, so that the seasons of refreshing may come from the Lord. Thus we find that the call to repentance was addressed to a guilty nation in covenant relationship with God, but whose responsibilities under those covenants were not being fulfilled. John and Christ invited the nation to Himself so that they might receive righteousness from Him; but before they turned to Him they must change their mind about their own righteousness, about Pharisaic righteousness, about Law righteousness, about their need for salvation. After the rejection of Israel brought Christ to the cross, He still offered that nation repentance, a change of mind, as the basis of forgiveness for sins."

X) REPENTANCE IN THE LIFE AND EXPERIENCE OF THE BELIEVER

[Pentecost, op. cit., pp. 69-72]:

"We find that repentance has its place in the life and experience of the child of God. I would like to take you into the familiar passage in 1 John 1:9, a passage to which we come again and again: 'If we confess our sins, He is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness.' You may be quick to say, 'But I don't see the word '''repentance''' there.' No, I grant you, it is not there, and yet its concept is, for the Greek word translated '''confess''' is the word which means '''to say the same thing.''' And confession is saying the same thing about our sins that God says about them. Repentance is involved in this act, for one must turn from his own evaluation of his conduct to accept God's evaluation of his conduct before he ever acknowledges that what he did was sin. And so, in the believer's experience, there is a place for repentance, a place for a change of mind, if we are to know the blessed experience of restoration to fellowship through confession of sin.

[ on fellowship with God]

It is in 2 Corinthians 7:8-10 that the Apostle speaks at some length concerning repentance in relationship to the believer. You will recall the background. Paul had written earlier, in a very strong tone, concerning sin in the life of the assembly. He had been somewhat distressed as to what reception his strong language would receive. He wrote,

A) [2 Cor 7: 8-10]:

(v. 8) " 'Even if I caused you sorrow by my letter, I do not regret it - Though I did regret it - I see that my letter hurt you, but only for a little while -

["I do not regret it" = (Gk), "ou metamelomai" = 'I do not feel sorry about it.'

"Though I did regret it" = (Gk), "metemelomEn" = "I did regret it"

This a different verb form from metanoia in both phrases. They signify an emotional response not a change of mind.]

(v. 9) yet now I am happy, not because you were made sorry, but because your sorrow led you to repentance.

["repentance" = (Gk), "metanoian" = repentance, a change of mind.]

(v. 10) Godly sorrow brings repentance [metanoian = repentance = change of the mind] that leads to salvation and leaves no regret, but worldly sorrow brings death."

[Pentecost, cont.]:

"Here the Apostle is showing the relationship between sorrow and repentance, and he says that a godly sorrow - that is, a sorrow that is produced because the child of God views his sin as God views it - will lead to a change of mind toward that sin. What he loved, he now hates; what he grasped after, he now repudiates; what governed and controlled his life and became the goal of his life, he now abandons, so that as he confesses his sin he receives forgiveness from God."

Paul shows that sorrow in this particular circumstance in the life of a number of believers in Corinth led to repentance - to a change of mind and confession of certain specific sins in their lives. And thereby the passage indicates that sorrow is not a part of or identical with repentance.

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