THE NEW COVENANT

I) 1111 THE TIME OF THE NEVER TO BE EQUALED / SURPASSED DISTRESS OF GOD'S PEOPLE ISRAEL - ALL TWELVE TRIBES OF ISRAEL; THE REGATHERING / RESTORATION OF BOTH ISRAEL AND JUDAH TOGETHER AS ONE PEOPLE INTO A FOREVER PRESENCE AND POSSESSION OF THE ENTIRE PROMISED LAND; AND THE EXHIBITING BY THEM OF CONSISTENT GODLINESS CONSTITUTE THE KEY CONTEXT OF THE FULFILLMENT OF THE NEW COVENANT - TO THE EXCLUSION OF ALL OTHER TIMES WHICH DO NOT HAVE ALL OF THIS IN VIEW

A) 1111A (Jer 30:1-3; 31:31-34; cf. 33:1ff) The Lord Commanded Jeremiah To Write The Words Which He Had Spoken To Jeremiah In A Book - The Subject Of Which Was His Promise To Restore His People Israel And Judah To The Promised Land To Possess Forever - The Fulfillment Of The New Covenant He Would Make With Them

(Jer 30:1 NASB) '''The word which came to Jeremiah from the LORD, saying, (Jer 30:2 NASB) "Thus says the LORD, the God of Israel, 'Write all the words which I have spoken to you in a book. (Jer 30:3 NASB) For behold, days are coming,' declares the LORD, 'when I will restore the fortunes of My people Israel and Judah.' The LORD says, 'I will also bring them back to the land that I gave to their forefathers and they shall possess it.' ... (Jer 31:31 NASB) 'Behold, days are coming,' declares the LORD, 'when I will make a New Covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah, (Jer 31:32 NASB) not like the covenant which I made with their fathers in the day [of My taking] them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt, My covenant which they broke, although I was a husband to them,' declares the LORD. (Jer 31:33 NASB) But this [is] the covenant which I will make with the house of Israel after those days,' declares the LORD, 'I will put My law within them [in the sense of within their minds] and on their heart I will write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people. (Jer 31:34 NASB) They will not teach again, each man his neighbor and each man his brother, saying, 'Know the LORD,' for they will all know Me, from the least of them to the greatest of them,' declares the LORD, 'for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin I will remember no more." =

In Jer 30:1-3 the prophet Jeremiah wrote that the LORD commanded him to write a book - a book which contains all the words He had spoken to him relative to the LORD's promise to restore the fortunes of His people Israel and Judah - bringing them to the land that He gave to their forefathers which they will possess forever, (ref. 7-11) - in fulfillment of a New Covenant with them, (ref. Jer 31:31-34). Since Israel split into two kingdoms, their joining once more into one nation according to Scripture, and history so far, will not occur until the endtimes - this time for all time. So far this has not occurred. There are still millions of Jews remaining outside of the Promised Land. The Promised Land has largely remained and remains occupied and possessed by non-Jews .

Notice that in Jer 30:3, the Lord declared, "Days are coming when I will restore the fortunes of My people Israel and Judah. I will also bring them back to the land that I gave to their forefathers and they shall possess it." In view of the phrases in Jer 30:3 rendered "the days are coming," and "My people Israel and Judah," Jer 30:1-3 is a clear and unequivocal statement of the permanent / forever return to and possession of the promised land by all of the tribes of Israel and Judah. The passage does does not indicate periods of restoration followed by periods of dispersion for each of the kingdoms joined or separately until the final and permanent restoration is effected for all of Israel and Judah together once more as one people, as some contend.

Although the word rendered "days" is usually plural in this context, no passage on this subject indicates such progressive periods of restoration. Previous and subsequent references in Jeremiah have the same plural "days" or "day" clearly referring to eschatological / end times when both Israel and Judah together are as one people in an everlasting kingdom, (cf. 3:16-18; 30:4-9; 16:14-21; 23:5-8; 31:23-40) occupying and in possession of the entire Promised Land , i.e., the timeframe of the Everlasting Kingdom with both Israel and Judah as one people in view.

Since both the Northern Kingdom of Israel, and the Southern Kingdom of Judah are in view in Jer 30:1-3, ("My people Israel and Judah"); and since the time is described in Jer 30:7 as, "for the day is great, there is none like it; and it is the time of Jacob's distress" which indicates that the distress in view will never be equaled or exceeded, (ref. Dan. 12:1; Matt. 24:15-22); then this time can only refer to the end time when both Kingdoms will be once more joined together as one people forever to occupy and possess the entire Promised Land only after such unexcelled distress occurs in history as a one time event - the time of Jacob's trouble, (cf. Jer 30:7).

Since Abraham there have been great times of distress amongst the Jewish people - one greater than the other, only to be excelled by yet another; but none have occurred which has excelled all the others and at the same time followed by Israel and Judah being regathered into the Promised Land - the entire Promised Land to experience unsurpassed, everlasting peace and prosperity, (ref. Dan. 12:1; Matt. 24:15-22).

So it is evident that the LORD commanded Jeremiah to write these hopeful prophecies in a book in order to provide a permanent record for generations to come to read to assure God's chosen people that He would be faithful to His promise of their eternal destiny - an assurance of their eternal destiny as one people together forever especially during the times when God's people were being disciplined for unfaithfulness and were dispersed from the land under captivity.

This is the fulfillment of the New Covenant the LORD made with His people Israel as corroborated by what is stipulated in Jer 30:1-31:40 - the key verses being Jer 31:31-34:

1) [Jer 31:31-34]:

(Jer 31:31 NASB) " 'Behold, days are coming,' declares the LORD, 'when I will make a New Covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah,

(Jer 31:32 NASB) not like the covenant which I made with their fathers in the day [of My taking] them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt, My covenant which they broke, although I was a husband to them,' declares the LORD.

(Jer 31:33 NASB) But this [is] the covenant which I will make with the house of Israel after those days,' declares the LORD, 'I will put My law within them [in the sense of within their minds] and on their heart I will write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people.

(Jer 31:34 NASB) They will not teach again, each man his neighbor and each man his brother, saying, 'Know the LORD,' for they will all know Me, from the least of them to the greatest of them,' declares the LORD, 'for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin I will remember no more."

B) 1111B (Jer 30:4-31:40) The Time Of The Never To Be Equaled / Surpassed Distress Of God's People - All Twelve Tribes Of Israel; The Regathering / Restoration Of Both Israel And Judah Together As One People Into A Forever Presence And Possession Of The Entire Promised Land; And The Exhibiting By Them Of Consistent Godliness Constitute The Key Context Of The Fulfillment Of The New Covenant - To The Exclusion Of All Other Times Which Do Not Have All Of This In View

(Jer 30:4 NASB) Now these are the words which the LORD spoke concerning Israel and concerning Judah:

(Jer 30:5 NASB) For thus says the LORD, 'I have heard a sound of terror, Of dread, and there is no peace.

(Jer 30:6 NASB) Ask now, and see If a male can give birth. Why do I see every man With his hands on his loins, as a woman in childbirth? And why have all faces turned pale?

(Jer 30:7 NASB) Alas! for that day is great, There is none like it; And it is the time of Jacob's distress, But he will be saved from it.

[Since both the Northern Kingdom of Israel, and the Southern Kingdom of Judah are in view in Jer 30:1-3, ("My people Israel and Judah"); and since the time is described in Jer 30:7 as, "for the day is great, there is none like it; and it is the time of Jacob's distress" which indicates that the distress in view will never be equaled or exceeded, (ref. Dan. 12:1; Matt. 24:15-22); then this time can only refer to the end time when both Kingdoms will be once more joined together as one people forever to occupy and possess the entire Promised Land only after such unexcelled distress occurs in history as a one time event.

Since Abraham there have been great times of distress amongst the Jewish people - one greater than the other, only to be excelled by yet another; but none have occurred which has excelled all the others and at the same time followed by Israel and Judah being regathered into the Promised Land - the entire Promised Land to experience unsurpassed, everlasting peace and prosperity, (ref. Dan. 12:1; Matt. 24:15-22). And at no time was Israel acting in a consistently godly manner - without sin - corroborating that the LORD had fulfilled His New Covenant with them, (ref. Jer 31:31-34; Ezek 36:27; 27:23).

So it is evident that the LORD commanded Jeremiah to write these hopeful prophecies in a book in order to provide a permanent record for generations to come to read to assure God's chosen people that He would be faithful to His promise of their eternal destiny - an assurance of their eternal destiny as one people together forever especially during the times when God's people were being disciplined for unfaithfulness and were dispersed from the land under captivity.

[BKC]:

['''30:4-7. The return of Israel and Judah to the land will be preceded by a time of national distress. Cries of fear and terror will be heard among these captives instead of cries of peace. Jeremiah compared the anguish of men clutching themselves in fear to a woman in labor (cf. 4:31; 6:24; 13:21; 22:23; 49:24; 50:43). The coming calamity will be so awful that none will be like it in comparison. Jeremiah characterized it as a time of trouble. Yet all will not be lost because God guaranteed that the nation will be saved out of it. God will rescue His people in the midst of their distress.

To what "time of trouble" was Jeremiah referring? Some have felt that he was pointing to the coming fall of Judah to Babylon or to the later fall of Babylon to Medo-Persia. However, in both of these periods the Northern Kingdom of Israel was not affected. It had already gone into captivity (in 722 B.C.). A better solution is to see Jeremiah referring to the still-future Tribulation period when the surviving remnant of Israel and Judah will experience a time of unparalleled tribulation / persecution (Dan. 9:27; 12:1; Matt. 24:15-22) - a time of Jacob's trouble, (Jer 30:7). [According to later Scripture], the period will end when Christ appears to rescue His elect (Rom. 11:26) and establish His kingdom (Matt. 24:30-31; 25:31-46; Rev.  19:11-21; 20:4-6).'''

[EXPOSITOR'S]:

4-6 Here the prophet speaks of the whole nation over which David and Solomon ruled (v. 4). Strangely, some see in these verses only the political upheavals that finally destroyed the Babylonian power and liberated the Jews. Such a view does not do justice to the eschatological direction of the passage. Jeremiah is stating that before the just-mentioned promise of restoration can be fulfilled, the nation must be severely disciplined, but not to the extent of final calamity. The words "fear" and "terror" (v. 5) not only point to war in contrast with peace but, as will presently be seen, have further implications. The awful terror that will come can be compared only with the travail of a mother in childbirth (v. 6), a figure of extreme distress (cf. 4:31; 6:24; 13:21; 22:23; 49:24; 50:43).

7 Interpretations of this verse differ widely. These are that the passage is referring to (1) the immediate situation, (2) the whole period of the Captivity, and (3) the time of tribulation in the end time before Israel's final restoration. Whatever their stance, most expositors favor either (1) or (3). Those who hold the first view understand "that day" (vv. 7-8) to mean the day of the capture of Babylon, with emphasis on the terror caused by the approach of Cyrus. It is not readily clear why such a situation would be so horrendous for God's people. Actually, Cyrus would be considered their liberator from those who took them captive. In the light of the immediate context and what follows, the preferable position is to assume that the reference is to the Day of the Lord. "That day" was not one immediately at hand. It is not the day of the destruction of Jerusalem but the day of God's comprehensive judgment. ... v. 7 speaks of Jacob's trouble, not Babylon's. The prophetic Scriptures are replete with references to this unique time of Jacob's distress; e.g., "There is none like it" (cf. Matt 24:21 with the earlier prediction in Dan 12:1; cf. also 46:10; Isa 2:12-21; 13:6; 34:1-8; Ezek 30:3; Joel 1:15; 2:1-2, 11; Amos 5:18-20; Mic 1:2-5; Zeph 1:2-3:8; Zech 14:1-8, 12-15 among others). Notice that the travail will issue in both physical and spiritual deliverance (cf. Zech 12:10-13:1) and that liberation will be such that never again will Israel be enslaved by any nation. This could never be said of any deliverance to this present hour; it must refer to eschatological times.

(Jer 30:8 NASB) It shall come about on that day,' declares the LORD of hosts, 'that I will break his yoke from off their neck and will tear off their bonds; and strangers will no longer make them their slaves.

(Jer 30:9 NASB) But they shall serve the LORD their God and David their king, whom I will raise up for them.

1) [Compare Hos 3:5]:

(Hos 3:5 NASB) "Afterward the sons of Israel will return [Jer 50:4-5] and seek the LORD their God [Jer 30:9; Ezek 34:23-24; 37:21-25] and David their king; and they will come trembling to the LORD and to His goodness in the last days."

2) [Compare Exek 34:23-24; 37:1-25]:

(Ezek 34:23 NASB) "Then I will set over them one shepherd, My servant David, and he will feed them; he will feed them himself and be their shepherd.

(Ezek 34:24 NASB) And I, the LORD, will be their God, and My servant David will be prince among them; I the LORD have spoken."

(Ezek 37:21 NASB) '''Say to them, "Thus says the Lord GOD, 'Behold, I will take the sons of Israel from among the nations where they have gone, and I will gather them from every side and bring them into their own land;

(Ezek 37:22 NASB) and I will make them one nation in the land, on the mountains of Israel; and one king will be king for all of them; and they will no longer be two nations and no longer be divided into two kingdoms.

(Ezek 37:23 NASB) They will no longer defile themselves with their idols, or with their detestable things, or with any of their transgressions [Ezek 36:28-29]; but I will deliver them from all their dwelling places in which they have sinned, and will cleanse them. And they will be My people, and I will be their God.

(Ezek 37:24 NASB) My servant David will be king over them, and they will all have one shepherd; and they will walk in My ordinances and keep My statutes and observe them.

(Ezek 37:25 NASB) They will live on the land that I gave to Jacob My servant, in which your fathers lived; and they will live on it, they, and their sons and their sons' sons, forever; and David My servant will be their prince forever."

Jesus Christ is never actually called “David” in the Bible. He is called the Son of David, the Seed of David, and the Root and Offspring of David, but never just “David.” Furthermore in Hosea 3:5 and several other Old Testament passages (Ezekiel 34:23-24; 37:21-25)

The Lord is clearly distinguished from this individual called “David.” In other words, in these passages there is reference to “the LORD” and also to this individual named “David.” If “David” is a reference to Christ, this distinction would not be made since Jesus Christ is Lord.

The Bible suggests that there will be several rulers in the Millennium who rule under the Lordship of the Messiah. Since Jesus Christ will be “King of Kings, and Lord of Lords” (Revelation 19:16), He will be in authority over all those who rule in the Kingdom Age. Moreover, Isaiah 32:1 says, “Behold, a king [meaning Jesus Christ] shall reign in righteousness, and princes shall rule in judgment.” The Messiah will rule with princes under Him. Supportive of this is Matthew 19:28 where the Lord Jesus Christ says, “ye which have followed me, in the regeneration when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.”

It seems best to conclude that in the Kingdom Age David will rule with others, all subordinate to the Lord Jesus Christ. This will be preceded by an outpouring of the Holy Spirit leading to Israel’s conversion, as described in Zechariah 12:10: And I will pour upon the house of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit of grace and of supplications: and they shall look upon me whom they have pierced, and they shall mourn for him]

(Jer 30:10 NASB) Fear not, O Jacob My servant,' declares the LORD, 'And do not be dismayed, O Israel; For behold, I will save you from afar And your offspring from the land of their captivity. And Jacob will return and will be quiet and at ease, And no one will make him afraid.

(Jer 30:11 NASB) For I am with you,' declares the LORD, 'to save you; For I will destroy completely all the nations where I have scattered you, Only I will not destroy you completely. But I will chasten you justly And will by no means leave you unpunished. "

[BKC]:

['''30:8-9. When God comes to rescue the nation, He will break the yoke of bondage He had placed on her neck. This deliverance did not come when the false prophets predicted it would (cf. 28:2, 10-11, 14), but God said it will come eventually (in that day). Instead of serving foreign powers the nation will once again serve the LORD. The people will also submit to the authority of David their king whom God will raise up for them. Many scholars view this as a reference to Christ who is from the line of David.

[EXPOSITOR'S]:

30:10-11. God's promise of restoration was designed to give Israel hope. She had no need to fear or be dismayed because God promised to save her out of a distant place. No country would be too far away for God to reach and rescue His people. When He brings them back to the land they will have the peace and security that was absent in Jeremiah's day (cf. 8:11). God will completely destroy the nations where Israel and Judah had been scattered. Though He would discipline Israel and Judah, He assured them that He would never completely destroy them. Any judgment would be mingled with justice (cf. 10:24; 46:28) so that the punishment for His Chosen People would not be overly severe.'''

[EXPOSITOR'S]:

8-9 Only in the most preliminary way may "the yoke" (v. 8) refer to bondage to Nebuchadnezzar; what is meant is total liberation from all foreign oppressors. This can be effected only by the glorious intervention of Israel's messianic King (cf. Ezek 34:23; Hos 3:5). After the yoke of foreign rule has been broken, the benevolent yoke of their King will be gladly assumed by the godly in Israel and Judah (cf. Matt 11:28-30). ...

10-11 This passage closes with promises of return, peace, freedom, and permanence. The nation is referred to as Jacob, God's servant, a title of honor (v. 10; cf. Isa 41:8; 44:1-2). God's people are to be regathered from all the lands of their dispersion. The picture of quiet and ease is that of sheep lying undisturbed in their pastures (so Driver). Now Jeremiah makes a telling distinction between the fate of God's people and that of their oppressors: the oppressors may be removed finally from the scene of history, but God's people never (v. 11; cf. 4:27; 5:10, 18; 46:28). This is not partiality on God's part, for he will not overlook his people's sins. They can no more sin with impunity than any other persons or nation. The Lord must chasten them and he will do so with justice, not capriciously. It is no wonder that Isaiah refers to Israel (i.e., Israel and Judah) as an eternal nation; for whereas Ammon, Assyria, Edom, Moab, and others no longer exist, Israel is present throughout the world, even though in the divine chastening of dispersion.

Notes 9 The force of the prophecy ‏דָּוִד מַלְכָּם‎ (dawid malkam, "David their king") is best understood as a contrast ("instead") tithe burdensome yoke (in v. 8 the pronominal suffix ‏ֹו‎ [o, "his"] in ‏עֻלֹּו‎ [ullo, "his yoke"] is to be taken as collective for all oppressors). Since the promise in v. 8 is also unlimited as to time ‏וְלֹא‎... ‏עֹוד‎ (welo... od, "no longer")—the compelling conclusion is that fulfillment must be sought in eschatological times. Notice that (1) service is involved, (2) God and the people's king are to be served equally, and (3) the promised monarch is God's gift to his people. Is the king here literally David or the ideal (messianic) King as in Ezek 37:24? The Targum (Schocken ed.) reads in Jer 30:9 ‏מְשִׁיחָא בַר דּוִד מַלְכֶּהֹון‎ (mesiha bar dawid malkehon, "Messiah, Son of David their king").]

(Jer 30:12 NASB) For thus says the LORD, 'Your wound is incurable And your injury is serious.

(Jer 30:13 NASB) There is no one to plead your cause; No healing for your sore, No recovery for you.

(Jer 30:14 NASB) All your lovers have forgotten you, They do not seek you; For I have wounded you with the wound of an enemy, With the punishment of a cruel one, Because your iniquity is great And your sins are numerous.

(Jer 30:15 NASB) Why do you cry out over your injury? Your pain is incurable. Because your iniquity is great And your sins are numerous, I have done these things to you.

(Jer 30:16 NASB) Therefore all who devour you will be devoured; And all your adversaries, every one of them, will go into captivity; And those who plunder you will be for plunder, And all who prey upon you I will give for prey.

(Jer 30:17 NASB) For I will restore you to health And I will heal you of your wounds,' declares the LORD, 'Because they have called you an outcast, saying: 'It is Zion; no one cares for her.' '''

[BKC]:

[30:12-15. Israel's condition was critical. Her wound appeared incurable (cf. comments on 6:14), and no one was available to provide a remedy for her sore. The allies in whom the nation had placed such great hope had forgotten her. Even God had struck her as an enemy and punished her because of her guilt.

30:16-17. Israel's condition appeared hopeless, but God promised to reverse her misfortunes. Those who were devouring the nation would themselves be devoured by God. He would send her enemies... into exile and plunder those who sought to make spoil of her. At the same time God promised to restore Israel to spiritual health. He would intervene for His outcast people.]

[EXPOSITOR'S]:

12-15 Jeremiah now turns to the serious condition of Israel. His purpose is to show that her punishment was well deserved. The pronouns in v. 12 are in the feminine, referring to the nation. Her wounds were, apart from God, incurable—literally, "It is ill with your bruise" (cf. 10:19; 14:17; 15:18). Doubtless, the wounds are those she has received from her enemies because of her flagrant sins. Because God's people have transgressed so grievously (v. 14), no one can defend them (v. 13); moreover, there is no hope of their recovery. Jeremiah mingles his figures of speech: he sees Israel as a defendant in a lawsuit and as one suffering from a fatal wound. All her antagonists have the upper hand as they accuse her before God. The first clause of v. 13 reflects the legal process. Then Jeremiah shifts to medicine (v. 15). What made her trial the harder to bear was that Israel's allies had left her in the lurch. Her punishment clearly stemmed from the Lord because sin was at the root of all her calamities. Furthermore, she had no right to complain of her punishment since she amply deserved it.

16-17 The prophet goes on to contrast Israel's mistreatment by her supposed lovers with the Lord's actions on her behalf. Because his people have undergone judgment and have acknowledged their guilt, God pronounces retaliation in kind on their enemies (v. 16). It is the principle of measure for measure, the well-known lex talionis. The future blessings begin with judgments on Israel's oppressors. God will heal her and afflict her enemies. The Babylonians who devoured the nation will in turn be devoured by the Medes and Persians. So it has been throughout redemption history: those who have treated God's people ill have to reckon with God as avenger (cf. Gen 12:1-3). Again, the promise of restored health (v. 17) precedes any action the Lord may take against Israel's foes. In their contempt, the enemies of God's nation called her an outcast, for whom no one cared. The figure is that of a woman put away by her husband (cf. Isa 62:4). Why did the Lord consider this treatment of his nation so great an offense? Because the words and actions of the enemies revealed their disregard of God and his expressed purpose for his people. Ultimately, calling them an outcast impugned God's faithfulness to his elect people]

(Jer 30:18 NASB) Thus says the LORD, 'Behold, I will restore the fortunes of the tents of Jacob And have compassion on his dwelling places; And the city will be rebuilt on its ruin, And the palace will stand on its rightful place.

(Jer 30:19 NASB) From them will proceed thanksgiving And the voice of those who celebrate; And I will multiply them and they will not be diminished; I will also honor them and they will not be insignificant.

(Jer 30:20 NASB) Their children also will be as formerly, And their congregation shall be established before Me; And I will punish all their oppressors.

(Jer 30:21 NASB) Their leader shall be one of them, And their ruler shall come forth from their midst; And I will bring him near and he shall approach Me; For who would dare to risk his life to approach Me?' declares the LORD.

(Jer 30:22 NASB) You shall be My people, And I will be your God.'''

[BKC]:

['''30:18-22. God's restoration will involve a physical rebuilding. (Restore Judah's fortunes is mentioned also in 32:44; 33:11, 26; cf. Deut. 30:3.) The city of Jerusalem will be rebuilt on her ruins, including the king's palace. The festive sound of rejoicing that had been silenced by Babylon (cf. Jer. 7:34; 16:19; 25:10) will once again be heard in the city, and God will increase Judah numerically (cf. Deut. 30:5). The nation will be secured and established before God, and He will punish anyone who tries to oppress her. The leader of Israel will again be one of their own instead of some foreign despot (cf. Jer. 30:9). This ruler will come close to God as the LORD brings him into His service. Only at that future date when the city, its inhabitants, and their ruler have been restored to God will someone be able to declare that Israel is God's people and that He is her God. This ideal relationship between Israel and her God was expressed several times in the Old Testament (cf. Lev.  26:12; Deut. 7:6; 26:16-19; Jer. 7:23; 11:4; 24:7; 31:1, 33; Ezek. 11:20; 14:11; 34:30; 36:28; 37:23, 27; Hosea 2:23; Zech. 8:8; 13:9). Israel will finally experience the relationship with God that He had always intended.'''

[EXPOSITOR'S]:

18-20 Days of rich blessing are ahead. Here we have details of the nation's restoration. These verses deal with Jerusalem rebuilt, repopulated, and governed by a native prince responsive to the Lord. It also shows us the nation experiencing the blessings of renewed fellowship with the Lord. The "tents" and "dwellings" (v. 18), now desolate, do not refer to the people's temporary housing in Babylon (contra JFB) but to the wretched condition of their houses in their homeland. Jerusalem will be rebuilt on its original location. The word "ruins" is the well-known term ten ("tell," "mound," "heap"), now used by Arabs for the ruined mounds of Palestine, the remains of ancient cities. Jerusalem and its buildings are probably intended. There are those who understand "palace" to refer to the "temple," but the meaning is that the city will be settled by a king, with all that pertains to such a residence (so Streane). Furthermore, along with material prosperity will come joy and honor so long denied the people (v. 19). Out of the city and palace will flow praise and merriment. Instead of degradation and insignificance, the people will grow in numbers and in the esteem of the nations as the Lord honors them. The children of Jacob (v. 20) will enjoy prosperity like that in the heyday of the monarchy under David and Solomon. The congregation—the people as a whole - will be established under God's oversight.

21-22 Embedded in this passage so full of promise is one of the most beautiful of the messianic predictions in the OT. First, the nation will be blessed by a native, not a foreign, ruler (v. 21). This was surely a prophecy of strong consolation in view of the nation's imminent subservience to a foreign power. The coming ruler will not be an exotic plant but will come from native soil (cf. Zech 6:12). Second, he will have the privilege of approach to God. Usage in the OT shows that this means priestly position and ministry (cf. Ps 110:4; Zech 6:13). The verbs convey this. The ruler will need no mediator. Thus he will be greater than even David and Solomon. Like Melchizedek he will have a dual role. No man can take to himself the office of priesthood (cf. Heb 5:4). In fact, it was dangerous for even a king to do so (cf. Jeroboam in 1 Kings 12:26-33; 13:1-6; and Uzziah in 2 Chronicles 26:16-20). In order to emphasize the importance of access to God, Jeremiah by a rhetorical question shows that it is no light thing to approach God. This was permitted only to the priests and, on the Day of Atonement, only to the high priest. The question implies a negative answer. Here is a reiteration of the promise to restore the Davidic line (cf. v. 9). Because there is no reference here to a king, some have strangely proposed that v. 21 indicates the abrogation of the Davidic kingship (so Payne Smith). But in the light of both this context and OT prophecy as a whole, this position cannot possibly be maintained. The Targum, though interpretative, is correct in its rendering "Messiah shall be revealed to them out of their own midst." And no one would "devote himself [lit., `has been surety for his heart'] to be so close" to God on his own initiative. Immediately (v. 22) Jeremiah turns to the result of Messiah's ministry—viz., the old covenant is renewed. The nation will be restored to the position of fellowship and worship that God intended for her. The people will be seen to be God's people, not only de jure, but de facto.

Notes 18 The Hebrew ‏תֵּל‎ (tel, "mound" of a ruined city) corresponds to the Arabic tell. New towns in the Near East were frequently built on the ruins of the previous settlements. Notice how tel (tell) formed a part of place names: Tel Aviv (Ezek 3:15), Tell el-Amarna (in Egypt), Tel Assar (2 Kings 19:12), Tel Melah, and Tel Harsha (Ezra 2:59)]

(Jer 30:23 NASB) Behold, the tempest of the LORD! Wrath has gone forth, A sweeping tempest; It will burst on the head of the wicked.

(Jer 30:24 NASB) The fierce anger of the LORD will not turn back Until He has performed and until He has accomplished The intent of His heart; In the latter days you will understand this.'''

[BKC]:

[30:23-24 Jeremiah repeated, with minor variations, the same words he had written in 23:19-20. Before God's blessing can be experienced He must judge sin. His wrath will burst out against the wicked. Though these words applied to false prophets in 23:19-20, Jeremiah may have been using them here to refer to God's judgment on the wicked nations who opposed Israel (cf. 30:16-20). God's fierce anger that had been poured out on Judah would not turn back till it also extended to the other nations of the earth.'''

(Jer 31:1 NASB) " 'At that time,' declares the LORD, 'I will be the God of all the families of Israel, and they shall be My people.' [Jer 30:22; Gen 17:7-8; Isa 41:10; Ro 11:26-28]

31:1. This verse should be linked with the statements in 30:23-24. It explains the results of God's judgment on the earth and also serves to introduce the section on national restoration which follows. God promised that when He will judge the world for its sins He will also restore all Israel to Himself. All the clans, not just the tribe of Judah, will be known as God's people (cf. 30:22)."

[EXPOSITOR'S]:

23-24 Before there can be blessing, judgment must be meted out to the guilty. Such a passage as this is inserted at this point lest the careless be given false security in their sins. In spite of promises of hope, God's moral purposes always remain the same. The last two verses of this chapter repeat 23:19-20. God is behind the judgment to be executed by Nebuchadnezzar. Jeremiah uses the figure of a sudden storm (v. 23) to describe it. The Lord does his work of redemption by his power displayed in judgment. The blessings Jeremiah has been speaking of are only for the godly. The reference to "the days to come" (v. 24) appears to point to a time after the judgment has passed."

(Jer 31:1 NASB) " 'At that time,' declares the LORD, 'I will be the God of all the families of Israel, and they shall be My people.' [Jer 30:22; Gen 17:7-8; Isa 41:10; Ro 11:26-28]

[EXPOSITOR'S]:

"In chapter 30 the restoration of Judah is foretold; here that of Israel is predicted. The messages of hope and restoration, it will be recalled, carry through chapter 33. The dominant themes in this chapter are the restoration of God's people and the New Covenant. The whole nation is addressed in v. 11, then the Ten Tribes in vv. 2-22, then Judah in vv. 23-26, then both Israel and Judah in vv. 27-40.

Verse 1 of this chapter is v. 25 of chapter 30 in the MT, while v.  2 of this chapter is 31:1 in the MT. The time reference with which the verse begins refers to the "days to come" of 30:24, that is, the Messianic Age. Although vv. 1-6 deal primarily with the northern kingdom, the designation "clans of Israel" must be allowed to comprehend the Twelve Tribes in light of the promise to the whole nation in 30:22]

(Jer 31:2 NASB) Thus [has said] the LORD, '[A]  people who survived [lit., the survivors of] the sword [Nu 14:20]  [will have] found grace in the wilderness, when [I will come to give him (a people) rest] - Israel' [Ex 33:14; Nu 10:33; Dt 1:33; Jos 1:13]

(Jer 31:3 NASB) the LORD appeared to him [lit., "me" in the MT. The LXX* has "him" in the sense of the people of Israel, masc. sing.] from far away. 'I have loved you with an everlasting love [Dt 4:37; 7:8; Mal 1:2]; therefore, I have continued to extend faithful love to you.'

*(Jer 38:3 LXX) "The LORD appeared to him from afar, saying, 'I have loved thee with an everlasting love: therefore have I drawn thee in compassion."

(Jer 31:4  NASB) Again I will build you and you will be rebuilt, O virgin of Israel! [2 Ki 19:21; Jer 30:18] Again you will take up [or be adorned with] your tambourines, and go forth to the dances of the merrymakers. [Jer 24:6; 33:7; 30:19]

(Jer 31:5 NKJV) You shall yet plant vines [Ps 107:37; Isa 65:21; Ezek 28:26; Amos 9:14] on the mountains of Samaria; [Jer 33:13; 50:19] the planters shall plant and eat them as ordinary [i.e., common] food [Isa 37:30; Am 9:14].

(Jer 31:6 NKJV) For there shall be a day When the watchmen [Isa 52:8; 56:10] will cry on Mount Ephraim, 'Arise, and let us go up to Zion, to the LORD our God.' [Isa 2:3; Jer 31:12; 50:4, 5; Dt 33:19; Mic 4:2]

(Jer 31:7 NASB) For thus says the LORD, 'Sing aloud with gladness for Jacob, [the nation Israel, northern kingdom, (Jer 46:28)] And shout among the chief [lit., head] [Dt 26:19; 28:13; Isa 61:9; Amos 6:1]; proclaim, give praise and say, 'O LORD, save Your people, [Ps 28:9], the remnant of Israel [Ps 14:7; Jer 20:13; Isa 37:31; Jer 23:3].

(Jer 31:8 NASB) Behold, I am bringing them from the north country [Jer 3:18; 23:8], and I will gather them [Dt 30:4; Is 43:6; Ezek 34:13] from the remote parts of the earth, among them the blind [Isa 42:16] and the lame, [Isa 40:11; Ezek 34:16; Mic 4:6] the woman with child and she who is in labor with child, together; a great company [lit., assembly], the will return here.

(Jer 31:9 YLT) [Ps 125:5; Jer 50:4] With weeping they come in, and with supplications I bring them, I cause them to go by streams of waters, [Isa 43:20; 49:10] on a straight path in which] - they stumble not in it, [Isa 63:13] for I have been to Israel for a father, [Isa 64:8; Jer 3:4, 19] and Ephraim [Israel - Northern Kingdom] - My first born is he [Ex 4:22].

(Jer 31:10 NASB) Hear the word of the LORD, O nations, and declare in the coastlands afar off, [Isa 66:19, Jer 25:22], and say 'He who scattered Israel will [Jer 50:19] gather him and keep him as a shepherd keeps his flock [Isa 40:11; Ezek 34:12].

(Jer 31:11 NASB) For the LORD has ransomed Jacob and redeemed him [Isa 44:23; 48:20; Jer 15:21; 50:34] from the hand of him who was stronger than he. [Ps 142:6]

(Jer 31:12 HOLMAN) They will [have] come [in] and [have shouted] for joy [Jer 31:6-7; Ezek 17:23] on the heights of Zion; they will be [have been] radiant with joy [Isa 2:2; Mic 4:1] because of the LORD's goodness, because of the grain, the new wine, the fresh oil, and because of the young of the flocks and herds [Hos 2:22; Joel 3:18; Jer 31:24; 33:12-13]. Their life will [have been] like an irrigated garden, [Isa 58:11] and they will no longer grow weak [from hunger] [Isa 35:10; 60:20; 65:19; Jn 16:22; Rev 21:4].

(Jer 31:13 NASB) Then the virgin will rejoice in the dance, [Jud 21:21; Ps 30:11; Zech 8:4-5], and the young men and the old, together, for I will [have turned] their mourning into joy [Isa 61:3] and will [have comforted] them and [have given] them joy for their sorrow [Isa 51:11].

(Jer 31:14 NASB) I will fill [lit., saturate] the soul of the priests with abundance [lit., abundance], and My people will be satisfied with My goodness [Jer 50:19],' declares the LORD.

(Jer 31:15 NASB) Thus says the LORD, 'A voice is heard in Ramah, [Mt 2:18; Jos 18:25; Jud 4:5; Isa 10:29; Jer 40:1], lamentation and bitter weeping. Rachel is weeping for her children; She refuses to be comforted for her children, because they are no more [Gen 37:35; Ps 77:2; Gen 5:24; 42:13, 36; Jer 10:20].

(Jer 31:16 NASB) Thus [has declared] the LORD, 'Restrain your voice from weeping and your eyes from tears; [Isa 25:8; 30:19; Ruth 2:12; Heb 6:10] for your work will be rewarded,' declares the LORD, 'And they will return from the land of the enemy.' [Jer 30:3; Ezek 11:17]

(Jer 31:17 NASB) 'There is hope for your future,' declares the LORD, 'And your children will return to their own territory. [Jer 29:11]'

(Jer 31:18 NASB) I have surely heard Ephraim grieving [Jer 3:21], 'You have chastised me [Job 5:17; Ps 94:12], and I was chastised, like an untrained calf [lit., bull calf] [Hos 4:16]; bring me back that I may be restored, [Ps 80:3, 7, 19; Jer 17:14; Lam 5:21; Acts 3:26] for you are the LORD my God.

(Jer 31:19 HOLMAN) [For after my turning back],[Ezek 21:12; Lk 18:13] I [have] repented; after [my knowing], I struck my thigh [in grief]. I [have been] [Jer 3:25] ashamed and also humiliated because I bore the disgrace of my youth.

(Jer 31:20 HOLMAN) Isn't Ephraim a precious son to Me, a delightful child? [Hos 11:8] Whenever I speak against him, I certainly still think about him. Therefore, My inner being yearns for him [Gen 43:30; Jud 10:16; Isa 63:15; Hos 11:8]; I will truly have compassion on him. [This is] the LORD's declaration.

(Jer 31:21 NKJV) Set up signposts [2 Kgs 23:17; Ezek 39:15], Make landmarks [Jer 50:5]; set your heart [mind] toward the highway, the way in which you went [Isa 48:20; 52:11]. Turn back, O virgin of Israel, turn back to these your cities.

(Jer 31:22 NASB) How long will you go here and there, O [Jer 3:6; 49:4] faithless daughter? For the LORD has created a new thing in the earth - a woman will encompass a man.

(Jer 31:23 YLT) Thus [has said] the LORD of hosts, God of Israel, '[Again] they will say this word in the land of Judah and in its cities [Jer 30:18; 32:44], in My turning [them] back [from] their captivity, 'The LORD bless you, [Isa 1:26; Jer 50:7] O [abode] of righteousness, and holy mountain [Ps 48:1; 87:1; Zech 8:3]!

(Jer 31:24 NASB) [And] Judah and all its cities will [Jer 31:12; Exek 36:10; Zech 8:4-8] dwell together in it, the farmer and they who go about with flocks [Jer 31:12; Ezek 36:10; Zech 8:4-8].

(Jer 31:25 NASB) For I [have satisfied] the weary [soul] and everyone who languishes [in despair] [I have filled]. [Ps 107;9; Jer 31:12, 14; Mt 5:6; Jn 4:14]

(Jer 31:26 NKJV) After this I awoke and looked around, and my sleep was sweet to me [Zech 3:1; Prov 3:24].

(Jer 31:27 NASB) Behold, days are coming,' declares the LORD, 'when I will sow the house of Israel and the house of Judah [in the sense of prosperity] with the seed of man and and with the seed of beast. [Ezek 36:9, 11; Hos 2:23]

(Jer 31:28 NASB) As I have watched over them to pluck up, to break down, to over throw, to destroy and to bring disaster, [Jer 44:27; Dan 9:14; Jer 1:10; 18:7] so I will watch over them to build and to plant, [Jer 24:6],' declares the LORD.

(Jer 31:29 NASB) In those days they will not say again [Lam 5:7; Ezek 18:2] [in the sense of 'it will never again be said']: The fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the children's teeth are set on edge [Ezek 18:2].

(Jer 31:30 NASB) But everyone will die for his own iniquity; each man who eats the sour grapes [wild grapes], his teeth will be set on edge [in the sense of dulled], [Dt 24:16; Isa 3:11; Ezek 18:4, 20]

(Jer 31:31 NASB) [Jer 31:31-34; Jer 32:40; 33:14; Dt 10:1-10; Lk 22:20; 1 Cor 11:25; 2 Cor 3:6; Heb 8:8-12; 10:16, 17; Ezek 36:24-33; 37:24-28] 'Behold, days are coming,' declares the LORD, 'when I will make a New Covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah,

(Jer 31:32 NASB) not like the covenant which I made with their fathers in the day [of My taking] them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt, [Ex 19:5; 24:6-8; Dt 5:2, 3; Dt 1:31; Isa 63:12; Jer 11:7, 8] My covenant which they broke, although I was a husband to them,' declares the LORD.

(Jer 31:33 NASB) But this [is] the covenant [Jer 32:40; Heb 10:16] which I will make with the house of Israel after those days,' declares the LORD, [Ps 40:8; 2 Cor 3:3] 'I will put My law within them [in the sense of within their minds] and on their heart I will write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people [Jer 24:7; 30:22; 32:38].

(Jer 31:34 NASB) They will not teach again [1 Thes 4:9; 1 Jn 2:27], each man his neighbor and each man his brother, saying, 'Know the LORD,' for they will all know Me [Isa 11:9; 54:13; Jer 24:7; Hab 2:14; Jn 6:45; 1 Jn 2:20], from the least of them to the greatest of them,' declares the LORD, 'for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin I will remember no more [Jer 33:8; 50:20; Mic 7:17; Ro 11:27; Isa 43:25; Heb 10:17].

(Jer 31:35 NASB) Thus says the LORD, [Gen 1:14-18; Dt 4:19; Ps 19:1-6; 136:7-9] Who gives the sun for light by day, ... the [statutes / ordinances] of the moon and the stars for light by night, Who [Isa 51:15] stirs up the sea so that its waves roar [Jer 10:16; 32:18; 50:34], the LORD of hosts is His name:

(Jer 31:36 NASB) [Ps 89:36, 37; 148:6; Isa 54:9, 10; Jer 33:20-26] 'If [these statutes / ordinances] depart from before Me,' declares the LORD, 'Then the offspring of Israel also will cease from being a nation before Me forever [lit., all the days]. [Amos 9:8-9]'

(Jer 31:37 NASB) Thus [says] the LORD [Isa 40:12; Jer 33:22]; 'If the heavens above can be measured, and the foundations of the earth searched out below, then I will also cast off all the [descendants] of Israel for all that they have done,' [says] the LORD [Jer 33:24-26; Ro 11:2-5, 26-27].

(Jer 31:38 NASB) 'Behold days are coming,' declares the LORD, 'when the city will be rebuilt for the LORD [Jer 30:18; 31:4] from the Tower of Hanael [Neh 3:1; 12:39; Zech 14:10] to the Corner Gate [2 Kg 14:13; 2 Chr 26:9].

(Jer 31:39 NASB) The measuring line will go out farther straight ahead to the hill Gareb; then it will turn to Goah [Zech 2:1].

(Jer 31:40 NASB) And the whole valley of the dead bodies and of the ashes, and all the fields as far as the brook Kidron [2 Sam 15:23; 2 Kg 23:6, 12; Jn 18:1], to the corner of the Horse Gate toward the east [2 Kg 11:16; 2 Chr 23:15; Neh 3:28], shall be holy to the LORD; it will not be plucked up or overthrown anymore forever.' "

C) 1111C [Ezek 36:16-37:28]:

1) 1111C1 (Ezek 36:16-21) The People of Israel's Dispersion Was Caused By Their Defiling Their Own Land By Their Ways And Their Deeds

(Ezek 36:16 NASB) '''''Then the word of the LORD came to me saying,

(Ezek 36:17 NASB) ''''Son of man, when the house of Israel was living in their own land, they defiled it by their ways and their deeds; their way before Me was like the uncleanness of a woman in her impurity.'''' '''''

[(vv. 16-17) The word of the LORD came to the prophet Ezekiel whom the LORD has repeatedly called son of man emphasizing Ezekiel's humanity , as opposed to "The Son of Man," with the definite article emphasizing  Jesus' unique Diety and His Humanity together .

The LORD through the prophet Ezekiel reviewed Israel's past history, in the sense of all the people of God - all twelve tribes, (cf. Ezek 37:15-23). Past history that had brought their dispersion upon them among the nations of the world. Ezekiel 36:16-21 is also a review of their unfaithfulness while they were living in their own sacred land. They defiled the land by their ways and deeds - by their disobedience of the Mosaic Law. Their way before the LORD was like a woman's menstrual impurity: just as the Mosaic regulations regarded a woman as "unclean" during her period, so the sinful behavior of the people of Israel had made the nation "unclean," (cf. Lev 15:19-23). And the land was polluted because of the sinfulness of the people who had lived in it.

Ezekiel had already spelled out the details of Israel's past sins in Ezek 11:1-21; 22:1ff  - especially that of Jerusalem and Judah, echoing the warnings of God to Moses about this very thing, (cf. Lev 18:25ff). Israel's two major crimes were (1) bloodshed, which was brought among her own people through infanticide, intrigue, violence and selfishness, and (2) idolatry, which pervaded the people's lives and drew them continually away from the LORD, (v. 18). Even when scattered among other nations they continued to profane God's holy name]

(Ezek 36:18 NASB) "Therefore I poured out My wrath on them for the blood which they had shed on the land, because they had defiled it with their idols.

(Ezek 36:19 NASB) Also I scattered them among the nations and they were dispersed throughout the lands. According to their ways and their deeds I judged them."

[(vv. 18-19) Therefore in view of Israel's chronic unfaithfulness, the LORD poured out His wrath on them for the blood which they had shed on the land, because they had defiled it with their idols - the two were evidently connected with one another. He scattered them throughout the nations, dispersed them throughout foreign lands, having judged them according to their deeds. Israel's persistent disobedience of the Law would result in her discipline, wherein the LORD had sown Israel like a seed throughout the countries of that day, (cf. Dt 29:1-30:10). So before dwelling on Israel's future cleansing, Ezekiel reminded the exiles of their past sin which caused their repeated judgment. God scattered His people among the nations of the world, dispersing them throughout the lands so that they might learn the importance of following His ways. But in the next two verses it is evident that His key concern was for His holy name.

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(Ezek 36:20 NASB) '''When they came to the nations where they went, they profaned My holy name, because it was said of them, "These are the people of the LORD; yet they have come out of His land."

(Ezek 36:21 NASB) But I had concern for My holy name, which the house of Israel had profaned among the nations where they went." '''

[(vv. 20-21) In His disciplining of the people of Israel, the LORD risked impugning His holy name. A nation in ancient times was uniquely tied to its land. If a people were forced off their land, whether by conquest, famine, disease, or any other reason, this demonstrated that their god was not sufficiently strong enough to protect and care for them. Relative to the people of Israel being restored to the Promised Land, it was God's holy name which was at stake. The "name" of God refers to the representation of His character, sovereignty and power. Profaning God's holy name was one of the LORD's accusations against Judah made through His prophet Ezekiel, (cf. 20:29). The phrase rendered "My holy name" comes from Leviticus, where the regulations of God's Law were meant to keep God's name holy, set Him apart to Righteousness, to authenticate His Sovereignty and to prevent His name from becoming polluted or profaned by the actions of His people, (cf. Lev 20:3; 22:3; 22:32). Nevertheless the people of Israel did repeatedly profane the LORD's holy name by violating God's Law even while in the nations in which they were dispersed, (v. 21). Israel's spiritual rebellion and subsequent moral degeneration caused God's holy name to be impugned among the Gentile peoples who surrounded Israel and Judah. If Israel and Judah were the people of the LORD, it was thought that He must not be able to protect them because they were repeatedly being taken off into exile. It was concluded that He was a weak God. It was said by those who were of the nations, "These are the people of the LORD; yet they have come out of His land," implying that those in the nations of the world knew to some extent about the LORD of the Hebrews and the land that He reserved for His people, especially in view of their Exodus from Egypt and God's enablement of their conquering and occupation of the Promised Land. Thereafter, and despite the inevitable loss of reputation, God did scatter Israel among the nations a number of times for their unfaithfulness. So the world perceived that Israel's God was weak. And thereby the name of the LORD was profaned throughout the world all the more because of the way Israel behaved even where they resided outside of their land amongst the nations; and her population remains largely dispersed over the world outside of the Promised Land to this day]

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2) 1111C2 (Ezek 36:22-24) The People Of Israel Will Forever Be Returned To Their Own Land - The Promised Land - For The Sake Of God's Holy Name.

Note That Israel Is Not To Be Confused Here With Members Of The Church Whom The Latter Have Not Been Promised By God To Receive Land He Promised To Give Their Forefathers

(Ezek 36:22 NASB) ''''Therefore say to the house of Israel, '''Thus says the Lord GOD, "It is not for your sake, O house of Israel, that I am about to act, but for My holy name, which you have profaned among the nations where you went.

(Ezek 36:23 NASB) I will vindicate the holiness of My great name which has been profaned among the nations, which you have profaned in their midst. Then the nations will know that I am the LORD," declares the Lord GOD, "when I prove Myself holy among you in their sight.

(Ezek 36:24 NASB) For I will take you from the nations, gather you from all the lands and bring you into your own land." '''

[(v. 22) For the sake of His Holy Name, God will act in the sense that He will remove His people Israel from the nations where they have been scattered. He will gather them and bring them back to their land, the land of Canaan - the Promised Land, (v. 24), which had been promised to their forefathers in the Abrahamic covenant (cf. 11:17), despite their unfaithfulness.

Note that Israel is not to be confused here with members of the Church whom the latter have not been promised by God to receive land He promised to give their forefathers.

This implies that the LORD has made provision for the forgiveness of their sins so that God's Justice would be satisfied, His Righteousness confirmed in those who trusted in Him for their deliverance unto the eternal Promised Land - as implied in His covenant to Abraham, and in the New Covenant, (v. 24; cf Ezek 36:25-28; Jer 31:31-34).

The promise that God made about the Promised Land was first made to Abraham, the Patriarch of God's chosen people, Israel, (Gen 12:1-4), whereupon when Abraham believed in God's promise it was accounted to Abraham as Righteousness unto the everlasting life which was required in order for the promise to Abram / Abraham to be fulfilled within himself and with his descendants through Isaac and Jacob - through the faith that Abraham expressed unto righteousness, (Gen 15:4-21 ; cf. Gen 13:14-18; 17:6; 2 Sam 7:12-16). God's covenant with Abraham was then confirmed to his son Isaac, (Gen 26:2-3), and then to Isaac's son Jacob (Gen 28:13-15), Abraham's grandson. The Promised Land was described in terms of the territory from the River of Egypt to the Euphrates River (Exodus 23:31).

a) [Gen 12:1-4; 15:18-21; 26:2-3; 28:13; Ex 23:31]:

(Gen 12:1 NASB) '''Now the LORD said to Abram, "Go forth from your country, And from your relatives And from your father's house, To the land which I will show you;

(Gen 12:2 NASB) And I will make you a great nation, And I will bless you, And make your name great; And so you shall be a blessing;

(Gen 12:3 NASB) And I will bless those who bless you, And the one who curses you I will curse. And in you all the families of the earth will be blessed."

(Gen 12:4 NASB) So Abram went forth as the LORD had spoken to him; and Lot went with him. Now Abram was seventy-five years old when he departed from Haran.'''

Gen 15:18 NASB) '''On that day the LORD made a covenant with Abram, saying, "To your descendants I have given this land, From the river of Egypt as far as the great river, the river Euphrates:

(Gen 15:19 NASB) the Kenite and the Kenizzite and the Kadmonite

(Gen 15:20 NASB) and the Hittite and the Perizzite and the Rephaim

(Gen 15:21 NASB) and the Amorite and the Canaanite and the Girgashite and the Jebusite." '''

(Gen 26:2 NASB) '''The LORD appeared to him and said, "Do not go down to Egypt; stay in the land of which I shall tell you.

(Gen 26:3 NASB) Sojourn in this land and I will be with you and bless you, for to you and to your descendants I will give all these lands, and I will establish the oath which I swore to your father Abraham." '''

(Gen 28:13 NASB) '''And behold, the LORD stood above it and said, "I am the LORD, the God of your father Abraham and the God of Isaac; the land on which you lie, I will give it to you and to your descendants." '''

(Ex 23:31 NASB) "I will fix your boundary from the Red Sea to the sea of the Philistines, and from the wilderness to the River Euphrates; for I will deliver the inhabitants of the land into your hand, and you will drive them out before you."

2 cont.) 1111C2 (Ezek 36:22-24 cont.) The People Of Israel Will Be Returned To The Promised Land For The Sake Of God's Holy Name.

Note That Israel Is Not To Be Confused Here With Members Of The Church Whom The Latter Have Not Been Promised By God To Receive Land He Promised To Give To Their Forefathers, (cont.)

(Ezek 36:22 NASB) '''Therefore say to the house of Israel, '''Thus says the Lord GOD, "It is not for your sake, O house of Israel, that I am about to act, but for My holy name, which you have profaned among the nations where you went.

(Ezek 36:23 NASB) I will vindicate the holiness of My great name which has been profaned among the nations, which you have profaned in their midst. Then the nations will know that I am the LORD," declares the Lord GOD, "when I prove Myself holy among you in their sight.

(Ezek 36:24 NASB) For I will take you from the nations, gather you from all the lands and bring you into your own land." '''

[(vv. 23-24) Therefore, in order that the holiness of His great name might be vindicated before the nations of the world who thought that the LORD - the God of Israel - could not protect His people and keep them safe within their land, the LORD would restore the people of Israel to their land, but not because of anything that they might do.

In ancient times one's name and person were equivalent; a name represented the person. Through Israel's rebellion against God, the people had defamed God's Person. Therefore, not only would His covenant faithfulness be displayed when He restored Israel to her land, but He would vindicate Himself in the sense of bringing back His Honor and sanctifying His Holy Name and Person throughout the world. And this will be through His supernatural regathering of that generation of Israel at that time. They evidently will all trust in His salvation / deliverance / restoration at the moment when He comes upon the earth in His Second Coming, having already made provision for the forgiveness of the sins of all mankind as the Seed of Abraham  - the Kinsman Redeemer. It will not be through anything that Israel will do . God's Righteousness will not be impugned because it was the Seed of Abraham Who has paid for the unrighteousness of Israel and all of mankind so that Israel and all mankind might have the opportunity to share in the blessings of the New Covenant in the Eternal Kingdom of God - each according to the plan of God as stipulated in the New Covenant, (vv. 25-27; cf. Jer 31:31-34; Ezek 11:14-20; chs 36-37; Isa 49:1-13; Romans ch 11 and many more). Then the nations will know that the God of Israel is Glorified, Just, Righteous, Holy, Almighty, Loving, etc. - the only true God.

So out of concern for His holy name which the house of Israel had profaned among the nations, the LORD commanded Ezekiel to say that it is not for the sake of Israel that the LORD is about to act, but for His Holy Name which the people of Israel has profaned even while among the nations where they were dispersed. The LORD will vindicate the Holiness of His Holy Name which Israel profaned. Then the nations will know that He is the LORD when He has proved Himself Holy among those nations in their sight, i.e., by their experiencing His Justice, Holiness, Almighty Power, Righteousness, Mercy - evidently all of this through the fulfillment of the New Covenant, (cf. Jer 31:31-34; Ezekiel chapters 11 & 37).

Note that God foretold of Israel's restoration after the Exile through Moses when Moses restated the Mosaic / Palestinian Covenant on the plains of Moab, (Deut 29:1-30:10). And God spoke of this through Ezekiel in Ezek 11:14-20 and once more in 36:24-28, and in chapter 37, as well as through the prophets Jeremiah in 30:4-31:40; and Isaiah in chapter 49]

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3) 1111C3 (Ezek 36:25-27) [After The Generation / A Remnant Of His People Israel Chosen By God Who Will Have Survived Unprecedented Distress / Tribulation - A Time Of Jacob's Trouble - Has Been Permanently Restored And Begins To Occupy And Possess The Promised Land Forever

- Israel Not To Be Confused Here With Members Of The Church Whom The Latter Have Not Been Promised By God To Receive Land He Promised To Give To Their Forefathers -

The LORD Will Unilaterally Cleanse His People From All Of Their Sins Without His People Having To Repent Of Any Sin. Each One Of The Generation Of The People Of Israel In View At That Time Will Have Exercised A Moment Of Faith Alone In The Messiah / Savior /Redeemer Alone For Salvation / Deliverance Unto The Eternal Kingdom Of God Forever In The Promised Land As Abraham Their Father Did. And The Lord Will Put His Spirit Within Each Of Them To Enable Them All To Constantly Live Godly Lives In Obedience To His Statutes And Ordinances - Without Sin]:

(Ezek 36:25 NASB) "Then I will sprinkle clean water on you, and you will be clean; I will cleanse you from all your filthiness and from all your idols.

(Ezek 36:26 NASB) Moreover, I will give you a new heart and put a new spirit within you; and I will remove the heart of stone from your flesh and give you a heart of flesh.

(Ezek 36:27 NASB) I will put My Spirit within you and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you will be careful to observe My ordinances."

  [(v. 25) After the LORD gathers a particular generation / a remnant of His people Israel chosen by God who will have survived unprecedented distress / tribulation - a time of Jacob's trouble, (Jer 30:7; Dan 12:1), (Isa 10:20-23 ) which He chose from among the nations - from where they were dispersed, He will permanently restore them into their own land - the land promised to their forefathers, (Ezek 36:24).

Note that Israel is not to be confused here with members of the Church whom the latter have not been promised by God to receive land He promised to their forefathers.

So God will sprinkle clean water on them to cleanse them from their filthiness and idols, i.e., from their sins, especially idol worship.

The people of Israel’s idolatrous ways had polluted the land (see 22:24; 24:13). They had proven themselves to be spiritually filthy and impure (see 22:15; 24:11, 13; 36:17). Thus, God had expelled them from the land. But now the promise is of a people washed of their sins and cleansed of their idolatry.

The concept of sprinkling the clean water of cleansing to make an individual ceremonially clean appears in Scripture. For example, it was to be done to Levitical priests to purify them as part of a symbolic ritual which would represent the actual work of God in the spiritual realm of purifying them from all their temporal sins:

a) [Compare Nu 8:5-7]:

(Nu 8:5 NIV) "The LORD said to Moses:

(Nu 8:6 NIV) 'Take the Levites from among the other Israelites and make them ceremonially clean.

(Nu 8:7 NIV) To purify them, do this: Sprinkle the water of cleansing on them; then have them shave their whole bodies and wash their clothes, and so purify themselves' "

Since the concept of sprinkling clean physical water over all of Israel would not literally wash away her sins, nor even clean away all of her external filthiness, then the phrase "sprinkle clean water" must be figurative, and represent an actual spiritual cleansing - the work of God, (the Holy Spirit), in the spiritual realm.

Note that for God to cleanse anyone of internal filthiness, i.e., of all of ones sins, it is implied that God must make payment for them through His Personal atonement for them, as He would be the only One Who would be qualified for that - given the sin nature of all of humanity. This cleansing will be through the LORD's fulfillment of the New Covenant in them which includes faith in what the LORD promised Abraham and his Seed, (Who is Christ ), when Abraham believed. So likewise will each one of the chosen generation / a remnant of His people Israel - chosen by God, who will have survived unprecedented distress / tribulation, a time of Jacob's trouble, (Jer 30:7; Dan 12:1) - receive that fulfillment through a moment alone of faith alone in the Seed of Abraham alone - the One Who was to come, as Abraham their father did to fullfill God's covenant with him - the Messiah  (v. 26; cf. Ezek 11:1-20 ; Gen 22:18 / Gal 3:16 ; Jer 31:31-34 ). In view is God's Servant, born of a woman, the Redeemer of Israel, the Holy One Of Israel Who is both God and Man: Isa 49:1-13  and Isa 9:6-7 , Who is further described in Isa 52:10-53:12 as the Servant of the LORD Who has brought salvation through His atonement for the sins of all mankind. He is the Redeemer of all mankind .

So the phrase rendered "Then I will sprinkle clean water on you" in Ezek 36:25 refers to and symbolizes God's actual cleansing of His people of their sins through His personal forgiveness by His sacrificial blood as symbolized under the Mosaic Law covenant of sin offerings for the cleansing of sins, (ref. Lev 14:1-35). He will cleanse that generation / a remnant of His people Israel chosen by God who will have survived unprecedented distress / tribulation - a time of Jacob's trouble, (Jer 30:7; Dan 12:1) - those of Israel who will all have believed as Abraham their father believed in the Seed of Abraham, (Isa 10:20-23 ), Who is Christ, (Gen 22:18 / Gal 3:16 ). He will cleanse His people unilaterally of all their sins and idolatry that has defiled them (cf. Ezek 11:1-20 below).

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b) [Compare Ezek 11:1-20]:

(Ezek 11:1 NASB) '''Moreover, the Spirit lifted me up and brought me to the east gate of the LORD'S house which faced eastward. And behold, there were twenty-five men at the entrance of the gate, and among them I saw Jaazaniah son of Azzur and Pelatiah son of Benaiah, leaders of the people.

(Ezek 11:2 NASB) He said to me, "Son of man, these are the men who devise iniquity and give evil advice in this city, 

(Ezek 11:3 NASB) who say, 'The time is not near to build houses. This city is the pot and we are the flesh.' 

(Ezek 11:4 NASB) "Therefore, prophesy against them, son of man, prophesy!" 

(Ezek 11:5 NASB) Then the Spirit of the LORD fell upon me, and He said to me, "Say, 'Thus says the LORD, "So you think, house of Israel, for I know your thoughts. 

(Ezek 11:6 NASB) "You have multiplied your slain in this city, filling its streets with them." 

(Ezek 11:7 NASB) 'Therefore, thus says the Lord GOD, "Your slain whom you have laid in the midst of the city are the flesh and this city is the pot; but I will bring you out of it. 

(Ezek 11:8 NASB) "You have feared a sword; so I will bring a sword upon you," the Lord GOD declares. 

(Ezek 11:9 NASB) "And I will bring you out of the midst of the city and deliver you into the hands of strangers and execute judgments against you.

(Ezek 11:10 NASB) "You will fall by the sword. I will judge you to the border of Israel; so you shall know that I am the LORD. 

(Ezek 11:11 NASB) "This city will not be a pot for you, nor will you be flesh in the midst of it, but I will judge you to the border of Israel. 

(Ezek 11:12 NASB) "Thus you will know that I am the LORD; for you have not walked in My statutes nor have you executed My ordinances, but have acted according to the ordinances of the nations around you."'" 

(Ezek 11:13 NASB) Now it came about as I prophesied, that Pelatiah son of Benaiah died. Then I fell on my face and cried out with a loud voice and said, "Alas, Lord GOD! Will You bring the remnant of Israel to a complete end?"

  [(Ezek 11:1-13) The evil rulers of Jerusalem will be judged by the LORD for their evil deeds. They will fall by the sword. Evidently the sword of Babylon, as their invasion of Jerusalem was historically imminent. Ezekiel pleads with the LORD, "Will you bring the remnant of Israel to a complete end?" The next section which follows is the answer of the LORD]

Ezek 11:14 NASB) ''''Then the word of the LORD came to me, saying,

(Ezek 11:15 NASB) '''Son of man, your brothers, your relatives, your fellow exiles and the whole house of Israel, all of them, are those to whom the inhabitants of Jerusalem have said, "Go far from the LORD; this land has been given us as a possession."

(Ezek 11:16 NASB) Therefore say, "Thus says the Lord GOD, 'Though I had removed them far away among the nations and though I had scattered them among the countries, yet I was a sanctuary for them a little while in the countries where they had gone.' "

(Ezek 11:17 NASB) Therefore say, "Thus says the Lord GOD, 'I will gather you from the peoples and assemble you out of the countries among which you have been scattered, and I will give you the land of Israel.' "

(Ezek 11:18 NASB) When they come there, they will remove all its detestable things and all its abominations from it. 

(Ezek 11:19 NASB) And I will give them one heart, and put a new spirit within them. And I will take the heart of stone out of their flesh and give them a heart of flesh, 

(Ezek 11:20 NASB) that they may  walk in My statutes and keep My ordinances and do them. Then they will be My people, and I shall be their God." ''' ''''

  [(Ezek 11:14-20) The LORD's answer to Ezekiel's question, "Alas, Lord GOD! Will You bring the remnant of Israel to a complete end?" was that the surviving remnant would not be destroyed so that a future generation of Israelites would not be there to inherit the Promised Land. There would be a coming judgment of the people who remained in Jerusalem, but a remnant would be preserved - comprised of those dispersed and / or in captivity, not of those who remained in Jerusalem. Whereupon God promised to restore all of the remnant - all of the survivors of a future generation of descendants of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob - God's chosen people who would go through unprecedented distress / tribulation - a time of Jacob's Trouble, (Jer 30:7; Dan 12:1), to the land He promised to their forefathers forever, (cf. Isa 10:20-23 ).

******

i) [Compare Isa 10:20-23]:

(Isa 10:20 NASB) "Now in that day the remnant of Israel, and those of the house of Jacob who have escaped, will never again rely on the one who struck them, but will truly rely on the LORD, the Holy One of Israel.

(Isa 10:21 NASB) A remnant will return, the remnant of Jacob, to the mighty God.

(Isa 10:22 NASB) For though your people, O Israel, may be like the sand of the sea, Only a remnant within them will return; A destruction is determined, overflowing with righteousness.

(Isa 10:23 NASB) For a complete destruction, one that is decreed, the Lord GOD of hosts will execute in the midst of the whole land."

  [Ezek 11:14-20 (cont.)] So God will give a new heart to all of a generation / a remnant of His people Israel chosen by God who will have survived unprecedented distress / tribulation - a time of Jacob's Trouble, (Jer 30:7). And He will put a new human spirit within them as well. He will take the heart of stone out of their flesh and give them a heart of flesh. They will walk in His statutes and keep His ordinances and do them. Then they will be His people, and He will be their God, (Ezek 11:1-20).

****** This is the fulfillment of the New Covenant as stipulated in Jer 31:31-34:

ii) [Jer 31:31-34]:

(Jer 31:31 NASB) " 'Behold, days are coming,' declares the LORD, 'when I will make a New Covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah,

(Jer 31:32 NASB) not like the covenant which I made with their fathers in the day [of My taking] them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt, My covenant which they broke, although I was a husband to them,' declares the LORD.

(Jer 31:33 NASB) But this [is] the covenant which I will make with the house of Israel after those days,' declares the LORD, 'I will put My law within them [in the sense of within their minds] and on their heart I will write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people.

(Jer 31:34 NASB) They will not teach again, each man his neighbor and each man his brother, saying, 'Know the LORD,' for they will all know Me, from the least of them to the greatest of them,' declares the LORD, 'for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin I will remember no more.' "

  [(Jer 31:31-34) This passage defines the New Covenant in which the LORD will unilaterally fulfill with the house of Israel and the house of Judah after He has brought them together and restored them forever to occupy and possess the land He promised to their forefathers, (Jer 30:3). He will put His Law within them, He will write it on their hearts. He will be their God and they will be His people - forever. They will all know Him. There will be no need to be taught of Him. He will forgive their iniquity, and their sin He will remember no more. And the LORD will put His Spirit within them and cause them to walk in His statutes, and they will be careful to observe His ordinances - they will live godly lives without sin.

******

Note that for God to cleanse anyone of internal filthiness, i.e., of all of ones sins, it is implied that God must make payment for them through His Personal atonement for them, as He would be the only One Who would be qualified for that - given the sin nature of all of humanity. This cleansing will be through the LORD's fulfillment of the New Covenant in them which includes faith in what the LORD promised Abraham and his Seed, (Who is Christ ), when Abraham believed. So likewise will each one of the chosen generation / a remnant of His people Israel - chosen by God, who will have survived unprecedented distress / tribulation, a time of Jacob's trouble, (Jer 30:7; Dan 12:1) - receive that fulfillment through a moment alone of faith alone in the Seed of Abraham alone - the One Who was to come, as Abraham their father did to fullfill God's covenant with him - the Messiah  (Ezek 36:26; cf. Ezek 11:1-20 ; Gen 22:18 / Gal 3:16 ; Jer 31:31-34 ). In view is God's Servant, born of a woman, the Redeemer of Israel, the Holy One Of Israel Who is both God and Man: Isa 49:1-13  and Isa 9:6-7 , Who is further described in Isa 52:10-53:12 as the Servant of the LORD Who has brought salvation through His atonement for the sins of all mankind. He is the Redeemer of all mankind .

3 cont.) 1111C3 (Ezek 36:25-27 cont.) [After The Generation / A Remnant Of His People Israel Chosen By God Who Will Have Survived Unprecedented Distress / Tribulation - A Time Of Jacob's Trouble - Has Been Permanently Restored And Begins To Occupy And Possess The Promised Land Forever

- Israel Not To Be Confused Here With Members Of The Church Whom The Latter Have Not Been Promised By God To Receive Land He Promised To Give To Their Forefathers -

The LORD Will Unilaterally Cleanse His People From All Of Their Sins Without His People Having To Repent Of Any Sin. Each One Of The Generation Of The People Of Israel In View At That Time Will Have Exercised A Moment Of Faith Alone In The Messiah / Savior /Redeemer Alone For Salvation / Deliverance Unto The Eternal Kingdom Of God Forever In The Promised Land As Abraham Their Father Did. And The Lord Will Put His Spirit Within Each Of Them To Enable Them All To Constantly Live Godly Lives In Obedience To His Statutes And Ordinances - Without Sin, (cont.)]:

(Ezek 36:25 NASB) "Then I will sprinkle clean water on you, and you will be clean; I will cleanse you from all your filthiness and from all your idols.

(Ezek 36:26 NASB) Moreover, I will give you a new heart and put a new spirit within you; and I will remove the heart of stone from your flesh and give you a heart of flesh.

(Ezek 36:27 NASB) I will put My Spirit within you and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you will be careful to observe My ordinances."

  [(v. 26) So in addition to the work of God stipulated in v. 25 which is figuratively referred to as "sprinkling clean water," of actually cleansing them from all their filthiness - their sinfulness - and their idols; God foretold in v. 26 that He will provide His chosen generation / a remnant of His people Israel chosen by God who will have survived unprecedented distress / tribulation - a time of Jacob's trouble, (ref. Jer 30:7; Dan 12:1; Isa 10:20-23 ), with a new heart and a newborn human spirit within them implying a spiritual regeneration or new birth with a capacity to walk in His statutes and be careful to observe His ordinances, i.e., sinless perfection, (v. 27) - a new nature that will make them righteous all the time, (v. 27; cf Jer 31:31-34 ). For He will remove the heart of stone from their flesh and give them a heart of flesh so then they may walk in His statutes and keep His ordinances and do them. Then they will be His people, and He shall be their God, (cf. Ezek 11:1-20 ).

The word rendered "heart" here does not refer to the physical heart, but to the minds and attitudes of every Israelite being redirected toward a willingness and capacity to love and be obedient to God. The term "heart of stone" in the phrase "I will take the heart of stone out of your flesh" refers to the Israelites' attitude of coldness, hardness and consequent deliberate distancing from God resulting in their repeated unfaithfulness in the past throughout centuries of time. The work of God in providing Israel with a "new heart," i.e., a "heart of flesh" refers to God's work of enabling Israel to be faithful, obedient and close to God. The phrase rendered "I will put a new spirit within you" refers to God providing all of His chosen generation of Israel with newborn human spirits; i.e., a spiritual birth of all of that generation / a remnant of His people Israel chosen by God who will have survived unprecedented distress / tribulation - a time of Jacob's trouble, (ref. Jer 30:7; Dan 12:1).

God's unilateral cleansing of all of the sins of His chosen generation of His people Israel - a remnant that will survive the time of Jacob's trouble, an unparalleled distress and tribulation for Israel, (Jer 30:7; Dan 12:1), His provision of a new heart / capacity to be godly all the time - without sin, a new human spirit and the indwelling Holy Spirit unto godliness within each individual of that generation of His people, Israel will all be through the LORD's fulfillment of the New Covenant in them - each one of that generation.

Each and every one of that generation will express in that future time a moment of faith in the Seed of Abraham, the One to come - the Messiah  - as Abraham their father did to fulfill the Abrahamic Covenant for himself; Ezek 11:1-20 ; Gen 22:18 / Gal 3:16 ; Jer 31:31-34 ); God's Servant, born of a woman, the Redeemer of Israel, the Holy One Of Israel, God and Man: Isa 49:1-13 followed by 9:6-7 , Who is further described in Isa 52:10-53:12 as the Servant of the LORD Who has brought salvation through His atonement for the sins of all mankind. He is the Redeemer of all mankind ;  Who will make atonement for sins in His blood, (cf. Heb 9:11-22). 

For without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness of sins:

c) [Compare Lev 17:11]:

(Lev 17:11 NASB) "For the life of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it to you on the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood by reason of the life that makes atonement." (cf. Heb 9:22)]

(Ezek 36:27 NASB) "I will put My Spirit within you and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you will be careful to observe My ordinances."

  [(v. 27) In the fulfillment of the New Covenant in a particular generation of God's chosen people Israel - a remnant of His people Israel chosen by God who will have survived unprecedented distress / tribulation - a time of Jacob's trouble, (ref. Jer 30:7; Dan 12:1; Isa 10:20-23 ), will receive God's Holy Spirit Who will enable them all to live godly lives - without sin, (cf. Ezek 11:1-20 ; 37:14; 39:29; Jer 31:31-34 ; Joel 2:28-29 ). They will all walk in God's statutes and be careful to observe His ordinances - they will live godly lives without sin. Ezek 11:20b and 36:28 go on to say, 'and then they [those of Israel] will be His people, and He shall be their God,' (cf. Heb 8:6-10:39). God's law will be written on the heart of those living under the New Covenant, so that they will not need to be taught, nor lack in obedience or godliness, (ref. Jer 31:31-34 ). The New Covenant will replace the Mosaic covenant, but not by eliminating righteous and godly stipulations that describe how to live a godly life; but by providing within each Israelite the capacity to walk in God's statutes and be careful to observe His ordinances - a capacity to be godly all the time - without sin. The New Covenant will provide complete and total forgiveness of sin once and for all and the Holy Spirit's indwelling unto godly living - without sin - for God's chosen people forevermore]

Some contend that this passage points to the coming fall of Judah to Babylon or to the later fall of Babylon to Medo-Persia. However, in both of these periods the Northern Kingdom of Israel was not affected. It had already gone into captivity (in 722 B.C.). A better solution is the still-future Tribulation period when Israel and Judah will experience a time of unparalleled persecution / tribulation, (ref. Dan. 12:1; Matt. 24:15-22) - a time of Jacob's trouble, (Jer 30:7); followed by when Christ, the Son of Man appears to rescue His elect, gather them from the ends of the earth to inherit the Eternal Kingdom that was prepared for them forever, (Ro 11:26; Mt 24:30-31; 25:31-46; Rev 19:11-21; 20:4-6).

(1) At no time have all of Israel and Judah been gathered together from all over the world after unprecedented tribulation, (Jer 30:7), and brought back into the Promised Land since they had divided into two kingdoms and were dispersed, (Ezek 36:24);

(2) At no time was all of Israel and Judah declared cleansed from all of their filthiness (sins) and idols, (Ezek 36:25);

(3) At no time was all of Israel and Judah given a new heart, a new human spirit and the indwelling Spirit of God so that they could and would walk in God's statutes and be careful to keep His ordinances - without sin, (Ezek 36:26-27);

And all of this forever, no interruptions and starting overs in view, as some contend to include 'partial' or 'near' fulfillments of the New Covenant, Abrahamic Covenant, Davidic Covenant or Palestinian Covenant.

Therefore, the various so called 'near' or 'partial' fulfillments -  returns of some of Israel, but not all, to some parts but not all of the Promised Land; and the several rebuildings of the Temple cannot and do not constitute near or partial fulfillments of the promises that comprise the New Covenant, Abrahamic Covenant, Davidic Covenant, Palestinian Covenant, especially in the light of subsequent conquerings, captivities, dispersements and destructions of the Temples - such as in AD 70, and some of the population of Israel occupying a part of the Promised Land in 1948 albeit not without constant conflict from surrounding nations, as some contend. And none of which is forever. On the other hand, each partial return, each rebuilding of the Temple signifies that God is at work giving yet another generation of His chosen people an opportunity for them to demonstrate that they are ready to have the New Covenant fufilled in them through unanimous faith in their Redeemer. So far all of a generation of Israel have not expressed that faith. Scripture has recorded the messages of Jesus Christ, the Holy One of Israel; John the Baptist, Peter when they each called upon all of a generation of Israel to, "Repent for the Kingdom of God is at hand," i.e., believe in the Redeemer of Israel, Jesus Christ for the fulfillment of the New Covenant, personally eternal life for them, which the Eternal Kingdom of God will commence upon the unanimous faith of a generation of Israel .

4) 1111C4 (Ezek 36:28-32) [Under the New Covenant, The People Of Israel

- Not To Be Confused With Members Of The Church Whom The Latter Have Not Been Promised By God To Receive Land He Promised To Their Forefathers -

Will Live Forever In The Promised Land And Be God's People And He Will Be Their God And They Will Have Unprecedented Everlasting Prosperity]

(Ezek 36:28 NASB) "You will live in the land that I gave to your forefathers; so you will be My people, and I will be your God."

  [(v. 28) The generation of the people - the surviving remnant of Israel, chosen by God, which will have survived unprecedented distress / tribulation - a time of Jacob's trouble, (ref. Jer 30:7; Dan 12:1; Isa 10:20-23   will brought into and possess the Promised Land forever - the land the LORD gave to their forefathers continues to be in view in Ezek 26:28.

Note that Israel is not to be confused here with members of the Church whom the latter have not been promised by God to receive land He promised to their forefathers.

So the generation of the people of Israel - the surviving remnant chosen by God - will all be unilaterally cleansed of all their sins by God, regenerated and given a new heart of flesh and a newborn human spirit, indwelt by the Holy Spirit to enable them to live sinless, godly lives, (ref. Ezek 36:24-27), will experience a productive and plentiful land without precedent, (ref. Ezek 36:1-15; 28-38 ). The epitome of the Mosaic covenant for Israel and the Lord that previous generations of Israel failed to experience - with the fulfillment of the New Covenant that replaced the old one - this generation of Israel would experience as a forever reality: Israel will be God's people and He will be their God]

(Ezek 36:29 NASB) "Moreover, I will save you from all your uncleanness; and I will call for the grain and multiply it, and I will not bring a famine on you.'

  [(v. 29) Moreover, the LORD will save this generation of His chosen people from all their uncleanness - especially in the sense of delivering them from the self-destructive effects of their own uncleanness / their sinfulness, (cf. v. 24); and He will call for the grain and multiply it, and will not ever bring a famine on them]

(Ezek 36:30 NASB) I will multiply the fruit of the tree and the produce of the field, so that you will not receive again the disgrace of famine among the nations."

  [(v. 30) And the LORD will multiply the fruit of the tree and the produce of the field, so that they will not receive again the disgrace of famine among the nations]

  [(vv. 28-30) Implied in vv. 28-30 is the timeframe of forevermore. For the LORD states that He will save this generation of His people from all their uncleanness, i.e., total and complete forgiveness of all of their sins. Implied is salvation unto eternal life, as well as temporal deliverance from distress and captivity. The phrases which end each verse: (v. 28b), "so you will be My people, and I will be your God," (v. 29b), "I will not bring a famine on you," (v. 30b), "so that you will not receive again the disgrace of famine among the nations," have an everlasting timeframe in view.

The LORD will multiply their crops of grain, the fruit of the tree, and the produce of the field. No longer will the people of Israel experience famine - a disgrace among the nations brought upon them by the LORD evidently due to their unfaithfulness while the nations surrounding them prospered - a reference to their past especially when they retreated from the Promised Land to Egypt and suffered years of captivity and disgrace there ]

(Ezek 36:31 NASB) "Then you will remember your evil ways and your deeds that were not good, and you will loathe yourselves in your own sight for your iniquities and your abominations.

(Ezek 36:32 NASB) I am not doing this for your sake," declares the Lord GOD, "let it be known to you. Be ashamed and confounded for your ways, O house of Israel!"

  [(v. 31) As a result of the unilateral action by the LORD upon a chosen generation / that remnant of Israel chosen by God which will survive the unparalleled distress / tribulation - the time of "Jacob's trouble," (ref. Jer 30:7; Dan 12:1); that generation of the people of Israel will experience being transformed into a faithful people to Him forever, be provided with unparalleled prosperity and complete occupancy and forever possession of the Promised Land that their forefathers departed from as stipulated in vv. 25-30. They will remember their evil ways and deeds, and loathe themselves in their own sight for their past iniquities and abominations. They will reflect upon God's grace and their former ways and will realize that they did not deserve this marvelous grace of God toward them.

So God will not save Israel for her own sake - because of anything she merited - but to vindicate and magnify His Holy Name, (cf. Ezek 36:22-23 ). The nations surrounding the land of Israel will know that it was the LORD Who rebuilt the ruined places and planted that which was desolate, and increased Israel's population and the numbers of their flocks - so that they will know that He is the LORD, (ref. vv. 32-38) - the holiness of His great name will be vindicated, (v. 23).

God's unilateral cleansing of all of the sins of His chosen generation / a remnant of His people Israel who have survived unprecedented distress / tribulation - a time of Jacob's trouble, (ref. Jer 30:7; Dan 12:1), His provision of a new heart / capacity to be godly all the time - without sin, a new human spirit and the indwelling Holy Spirit unto godliness within each individual of that generation of His people, Israel will be through the LORD's fulfillment of the New Covenant in them - each one of that generation.

Each and every one of that generation will express in that future time a moment of faith in the Seed of Abraham - the One to come - the Messiah ; Ezek 11:1-20 ; Gen 22:18 / Gal 3:16 ; Jer 31:31-34 ); God's Servant, born of a woman, the Redeemer of Israel, the Holy One Of Israel, God and Man: Isa 49:1-13 followed by 9:6-7 , Who is further described in Isa 52:10-53:12 as the Servant of the LORD Who has brought salvation through His atonement for the sins of all mankind. He is the Redeemer of all mankind , Who will make atonement for sins in His blood, (cf. Heb 9:11-22). For without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness of sins, (Lev 17:11)]

(Ezek 36:32 NASB) "I am not doing this for your sake," declares the Lord GOD, "let it be known to you. Be ashamed and confounded for your ways, O house of Israel!"

  [(v. 32) And in verse 32 the LORD said that He was not doing this for their sake - but for the sake of restoring His holy name which had been profaned by His people Israel in and out of the land promised to their forefathers, (cf. Ezek 36:20-21 ). He said let it be known to them that they should be ashamed and confounded in their ways, "O house of Israel!" A chosen generation of the forever united houses of Judah and Israel of God's chosen people.

Note that Israel is not to be confused here with members of the Church whom the latter have not been promised by God to receive land He promised to their forefathers.

The nations will observe this marvelous transformation in Israel and see the Lord as the only gracious and loving God, for Israel was not deserving of restoration (v. 32b). The LORD will vindicate the holiness of His great name:

a) [Compare Ezek 36:22-23]:

(Ezek 36:22 NASB) ''''Therefore say to the house of Israel, '''Thus says the Lord GOD, "It is not for your sake, O house of Israel, that I am about to act, but for My holy name, which you have profaned among the nations where you went.

(Ezek 36:23 NASB) I will vindicate the holiness of My great name which has been profaned among the nations, which you have profaned in their midst. Then the nations will know that I am the LORD," declares the Lord GOD, "when I prove Myself holy among you in their sight.''' '''']

(Ezek 36:33 NASB) '''Thus says the Lord GOD, "On the day that I cleanse you from all your iniquities, I will cause the cities to be inhabited, and the waste places will be rebuilt.

(Ezek 36:34 NASB) The desolate land will be cultivated instead of being a desolation in the sight of everyone who passes by.

(Ezek 36:35 NASB) They will say, 'This desolate land has become like the garden of Eden; and the waste, desolate and ruined cities are fortified and inhabited.'

(Ezek 36:36 NASB) Then the nations that are left round about you will know that I, the LORD, have rebuilt the ruined places and planted that which was desolate; I, the LORD, have spoken and will do it." '''

  [(vv. 33-36) Whereupon the LORD God said that on the day that He cleanses the people of Israel from all of their iniquities; He will cause the cities of their Promised Land to be inhabited, and the waste places to be rebuilt, and the desolate land to be cultivated instead of it being a desolation in the sight of everyone who passes by. Notice that first comes the cleansing of the people, then the prosperity. So the nations surrounding the people of Israel - the Promised Land that they occupy and possess will say, 'This desolate land has become like the garden of Eden; and the waste desolate and ruined cities are fortified and inhabited.' Then the LORD said that the nations that surround the people of Israel - which implies that they too have experienced the sifting of God's judgment and grace - they will know that He - by His grace - has rebuilt the ruined places and planted that which was desolate. "I, the LORD, says have spoken and will do it."]

(Ezek 36:37 NASB) '''''Thus says the Lord GOD, ''''This also I will let the house of Israel ask Me to do for them: I will increase their men like a flock.

(Ezek 36:38 NASB) Like the flock for sacrifices, like the flock at Jerusalem during her appointed feasts, so will the waste cities be filled with flocks of men. Then they will know that I am the LORD.''''

  [(vv. 37-38) And finally, the LORD gave a message to Ezekiel to declare to the house of Israel: the LORD said that He will let the house of Israel ask Him to do the following for them: to increase their number like a flock increases in number - like He had increased the flocks at Jerusalem for the sacrifices and the appointed feasts which He had provided for them in the past. So the number of the people of Israel will increase and fill the waste cities around Jerusalem in the manner that a flock is increased. And for this they will know that He is the LORD: By this the world will come know that He is not a weak god, but that He is the only God Who does exactly what He says He will do - He is the Just, Sovereign, Righteous, and Almighty and Only God. And that generation of Israel, the chosen remnant, will know that they are His people, and He is the LORD, their God - forever!

Note that the stipulations of God's restoration of Israel in Ezek chs 11, 15, 36-37, Jer chs 30-31, Isa chs 49, 51, etc. have not been yet been fulfilled - even partially. Since the time when Israel first divided into two kingdoms, the entire populations of Israel from the Northern Kingdom, Israel; and the Southern Kingdom, Judah were never reunited in the Promised Land, (Ezek 36:22-24); nor were they ever cleansed from all of their sins and idols, nor did they all receive a new heart, a new human spirit, nor the Spirit of God in them in order to walk in God's statutes and be careful to observe His ordinances in sinless perfection; nor was unparalleled prosperity experienced in the Promised Land by them, (Ezek 36:25-38). And all these stipulations are to be final, uninterrupted and everlasting. Therefore to date there has never been any kind of fulfillment of the New Covenant - full, partial, near or temporary or otherwise, as some contend.

So it cannot be concluded that the passages on the restoration of Israel and Judah relative to the fulfillment of the New Covenant have in view the return of a relatively small number of Israelites from Jerusalem to Canaan under Zerubbabel, Ezra and Nehemiah which return was neither sufficiently peaceful, nor sufficiently godly nor sufficiently productive nor everlasting to be the fufillment of the New Covenant. But they do refer to a final, everlasting and complete restoration of all - the entire population of a generation  of Israel and Judah together under the Holy One of Israel, the Redeemer of Israel Who is both God and Man, the  Messiah - the Seed of Abraham in the Everlasting Kingdom of God . So the details of Israel's everlasting reestablishment on her land set forth in all of these passages stipulated above did not occur in the returns under Zerubbabel, Ezra, and Nehemiah.

Note that Israel is not to be confused here with members of the Church whom the latter have not been promised by God to receive land He promised to their forefathers]

****** EXCERPT RE: HOSEA 2:23 ******

OR CONTINUE TO NEXT SECTION

There Will Be An Unprecedented Event In The Future: Peace, Safety And Prosperity Will Be Restored To All Human, Plant And Animal Life Throughout All The Earth. At That Time, A Future Generation Of Israelites Will Be Bethrothed Forever To The LORD, Sealed Forever In Faithfulness. The LORD Will Say To Them Whose Ancient Israelite Descendants Were Unfaithful And Hence Not His People, 'You Are My People' And They Shall Say, 'You Are My God!'

[Hos 2:14-23]:

(Hos 2:14 NIV) ''' " 'Therefore I am now going to allure her; I will lead her into the desert and speak tenderly to her.

(Hos 2:15 NIV) There I will give her back her vineyards, and will make the Valley of Achor a door of hope. There she will sing as in the days of her youth, as in the day she came up out of Egypt.

(Hos 2:16 NKJV) "And it shall be, in that day," says the LORD," That you will call Me 'My Husband,' And no longer call Me 'My Master,'

(Hos 2:17 NKJV) For I will take from her mouth the names of the Baals, And they shall be remembered by their name no more.

(Hos 2:18 NKJV) In that day I will make a covenant for them With the beasts of the field, With the birds of the air, And with the creeping things of the ground. Bow and sword of battle I will shatter from the earth, To make them lie down safely.

(Hos 2:19 NKJV) I will betroth you to Me forever; Yes, I will betroth you to Me In righteousness and justice, In lovingkindness and mercy;

(Hos 2:20 NKJV) I will betroth you to Me in faithfulness, And you shall know the LORD.

(Hos 2:21 NKJV) It shall come to pass in that day That I will answer," says the LORD; " I will answer the heavens, And they shall answer the earth.

(Hos 2:22 NKJV) The earth shall answer With grain, With new wine, And with oil; They shall answer Jezreel, [referring here to a valley which is identified with Israel]

(Hos 2:23 NKJV) Then I will sow her for Myself in the earth, And I will have mercy on her who had not obtained mercy; Then I will say to those who were not My people, [the Israelite descendents of the unbelieving ancient Israelites of the Northern Kingdom] ' You are My people!' And they shall say, 'You are my God! ' " '''

(cf. Ro 9:25 NKJV) "As He says also in Hosea: 'I will call them My people, who were not My people, And her beloved, who was not beloved.' " [Hos 2:23]

  [Introduction to Hosea 2:14-23. These verses portray future descendants of the ancient Israelites the latter of whom were disciplined, destroyed and have long since died. Prosperity will return due to the future descendants' becoming believers and their faith in and faithfulness toward God, (Hos 2:19-23).

In this unprecedented future time, there will be prosperity, peace, harmony and safety amongst man and animals throughout all the earth, (2:18-19). At that time, the future generation of Israelites will be betrothed forever to the LORD, sealed forever in faithfulness, (vv. 19-20). The LORD will say to them whose ancient Israelite descendants were unfaithful and hence not His people, 'You are My people' and they shall say, 'You are my God!' (2:23b).

  [(Hos 2:14) So after punishing past generations of Israelites over the centuries with discipline and destruction over the centuries for unbelief and resulting unfaithfulness, the LORD will now allure and lead the future descendant believers of those ancient unbelieving and unfaithful Israelites into the desert and speak tenderly to them.

  [(Hos 2:15) It is in verse 2:15 where it is indicated that prosperity will return. The verse declares that the LORD will give Israel back her vineyards and will make the Valley of Achor, (lit. the 'Valley of Trouble,' the site of one of Israel's past sins - of Achan's heinous act which jeopardized the success of occupying the Promised Land), a symbol of better things to come, a door of sure hope leading to repossession of the Promised Land. The verse states that Israel "will [then] sing as in the days of her youth as in the day she came up out of Egypt." This statement refers to the early days of ancient Israel's relationship with the LORD immediately after her exodus out of Egypt which has in view her eager responsiveness to the LORD in the very beginning of her relationship with the LORD and her journery in the wilderness with Him from out of captivity from Egypt. Note that the LORD views Israel here in this passage as His chosen people, comprised of those generations of Israelites who exercise trust alone in and faithfulness alone to the LORD as their God alone, (Hos 2:23), as their husband, (Hos 2:16). They are sons of the living God, (Hos 1:10). all generations of Israelites, past, present and future. Hence the phrase "In the days of her youth" in 2:15 refers to the generation of the Israelite people in their first days of their relationship with the LORD at the time of the Exodus from Egypt. The phrase, "In the days of her youth" does not limit Israel to the Exodus generation of Israelites, especially since not all the ancient Israelites coming out of Egypt were youthful. Many were not youthful or grew to be older in those days wandering in the wilderness.

  [(Hos 2:16-18) The LORD goes on to declare that a future generation of Israelites will call Him Husband instead of Father; Baal worship will be no more, (vv. 2:16-17); all animals will be at peace and harmony with one another and mankind; and wars will be no more, (v. 2:18).

  [(Hos 2:19-20) Note that the eternal time frame and character of this new kingdom of God is unprecedented. Since Israel will be forever bethrothed to God, and since an ancient betrothal involves the payment to seal the promise of the relationship; and since 2:19 stipulates that God's betrothal was "In righteousness and justice, [and] in lovingkindness and mercy," then God's bethrothal will be sealed forever by Him in His righteousness; and it will be in accordance with His justice and by His loving kindness and mercy, i.e., by the grace of God. So the future generation of Israelites in view in Hos 1:10-11; 2:14-23 will be justified = declared as having the righteousness of God unto eternal life through their faith in their Messiah-Savior Descendant by the loving kindness and mercy of God, i.e., His grace. They will know the LORD in that eternal and intimate sense, bethrothed forever to be His wife, (vv. 2:19-20).

  [(Hos 2:21-22) Furthermore, at that future time, the LORD will bring great temporal prosperity to the earth - grain, wine, oil. The prosperity will especially be brought to the "Valley of Jezreel," a valley in the Promised Land and a term identified with Israel, (vv. 2:21-22).

  [(Hos 2:23) Verse 2:23 then stipulates that the LORD will sow Israel for Himself "in the earth" [erets = lit., earth], a picture of planting her as a plant so that she will grow in her relationship with Him as His wife. He declares that He will have mercy on her where before - in ancient times - she had not obtained mercy from Him out of His disciplining her ancient descendants for turning from Him to worship Baal and for failing to acknowledge the LORD as the source of everything, (vv. 2:1-8). Now in the future, the LORD will say to those Israelite descendants of the ancients who the latter were disowned by Him and declared "not My people," "You are My people!" And those descendant Israelites will respond in turn, "You are my God!" demonstrating that they are the remnant of true and faithful believers in their generation.

88888 edit below into above 88888

[BKC, OT, cont., pp. 1383-4]:

"When Israel enters the land she will again pass through the Valley of Achor (lit., 'Valley of trouble'), the site of Achan's heinous sin which jeopardized the success of the Conquest (Josh 7). However, this time the valley will be a symbol of better things to come, a door of hope leading to repossession of the Promised Land...

2:16-17. In that day, when Israel is restored to the land, she will acknowledge the LORD as her husband. She will address Him as 's, my Husband...

2:18. Israel's return to the land will be accompanied by peace. The LORD will mediate a covenant between the nation and the animal kingdom. The harmful beasts of the field, which had earlier devoured the vines and fig trees... will no longer be hostile...

... [portraying] the Kingdom Age as one of harmony between man and animals... The LORD will also cause war (symbolized by bow and sword and battle; cf. Hosea 1:7) to cease in the land of Israel. The nation will dwell safely, free from the threat of foreign invasion. This marks the reversal of an earlier judgment (cf. 1:5) and the return of covenant blessing... where the same expressions, lie down and in safety, are used.

2:19-20. The restoration of the LORD's marriage to Israel is described in terms of a bethrothal...

It will be as though the LORD and Israel had returned to the days of courtship. Bethrothal in ancient Israel was much more binding than engagement is in contemporary Western society... At the time of the bethrothal the man would pay a price to seal the agreement... The LORD's price will consist of righteousness... justice ...love ... compassion, and faithfulness. These qualities will characterize His relationship with Israel, which will never again be disrupted (cf. Hosea 2:19)..."

Note that since the LORD is always perfectly righteous, just, loving, compassionate and faithful; then it is Israel who will now also demonstrate those personal qualities in her eternal relationship with the LORD.

[ (v. 2:19 NKJV) I will betroth you to Me forever; Yes, I will betroth you to Me In righteousness and justice, In lovingkindness and mercy;

(v. 2:20 NKJV) I will betroth you to Me in faithfulness, And you shall know the LORD.

Verses 2:19 and 2:20 refer to the end times when Israel will be betrothed as a wife to God forever, in His righteousness, justice and faithfulness. Her eternal destiny in the eternal kingdom with the LORD will be eternal by the grace of God and not through anything Israel would do.

[BKC, cont., p. 1386]:

"2:21-22. The promise of restored agricultural blessing, mentioned briefly in verse 15, is expanded here. A series of cries and responses is envisioned as different elements of the natural world are personified. Jezreel (the nation of Israel here) will cry out to the grain... wine, and oil. They in turn will respond by calling to the earth from which they are produced. The earth in turn will look to the heavens, the source of the rain which makes the soil productive. The heavens will then call to the LORD, the One Who ultimately controls the agricultural cycle. He will respond by providing the rain necessary for agricultural prosperity.

2:23. The LORD Himself is pictured as engaging in agricultural endeavors. He will plant Israel in the land ... where she will grow under His protective care. The nation called Lo-Ruhaman (not ... loved; cf 1:6) and Lo-Ammi (not My people; cf. 1:9) will [in a future generation of Israelites] experience God's compassion and will be addressed as His people. They will acknowledge that He, not Baal, is their God."

****** END OF EXCERPT RE: HOSEA 2:23 ******

5) 1111C5 (Ezek 37:1-13) The Hand Of The LORD Brought Ezekiel Out By The Spirit And He Passed Through The Valley Of Dry Bones. Whereupon The LORD Commanded Ezekiel To Prophesy Causing The Bones To Come Together - The Whole House Of Israel To Come To Life That They May Know That He Is The LORD. The Bones Said "Our Bones Are Dried Up And Our Hope Has Perished. We Are Completely Cut Off." Whereupon The LORD Will Bring Them Up Out Of Their Graves And Into The Land Of Israel In The Sense Of Physical Restoration In The Promised Land And Spiritual Regeneration. Then They Will Know That He Is The LORD - When He Has Opened Up And Caused Them To Come Out Of Their Graves - His People

(Ezek 37:1 NASB) '''''The hand of the LORD was upon me, and He brought me out by the Spirit of the LORD and set me down in the middle of the valley; and it was full of bones.

(Ezek 37:2 NASB) He caused me to pass among them round about, and behold, there were very many on the surface of the valley; and lo, they were very dry.

(Ezek 37:3 NASB) He said to me, ''''Son of man, can these bones live?'''' And I answered, ''''O LORD GOD, You know.''''

  [(Introduction to chapter 37)

Ezek chapter 37 vividly illustrates via a symbollic, eschatological vision of Ezekiel provided to him by the LORD God, His promise of Israel's and Judah's everlasting reunification with one another and their everlasting restoration in the Promised Land as one nation, the people of God - the subject in chapter 36. The vision was first given by the LORD to Ezekiel to relay to the people of Judah in the light of Judah's then present condition of oppression. Judah was "dead" as a nation.The people were deprived of their land, their king and their temple. Again they had been conquered, many died, the Temple was destroyed, many were dispersed, some were taken captive into Babylon . Furthermore, Judah and the Northern Kingdom, Israel, had been divided and dispersed for so long that reunification and restoration seemed impossible. So the LORD GOD gave two visions to His prophet Ezekiel, (37:1-14 and 37:15-28), to interpert for His people Judah and to confirm the promises He made of a generation of Israel and Judah's restoration and deliverance and salvation unto eternal life in the land He promised to their forefathers. These two visions were preceeded by God's messages through Ezekiel of judgment of a generation of Israelites from Judah and especially from Jerusalem for their unfaithfulness, (cf. 4:1ff). These two visions / messages signified a new day of future blessing for a generation of God's people potentially to occur in Ezekiel's time or any time in the future provided that all of a particular generation of Israel are cleansed of their sins.This cleansing will be through the LORD's fulfillment of the New Covenant in them which includes faith in what the LORD promised Abraham and his Seed, (Who is Christ ), when Abraham believed. So likewise will each one of the chosen generation of the house of Israel receive that fulfillment through a moment of faith in the Seed of Abraham - the One to come as Abraham their father did to fullfill that covenant - the Messiah  (Ref. Ezek 36:26; see Ezek 11:1-20 ; Gen 22:18 / Gal 3:16 ; Jer 31:31-34 ). In view is a moment of faith alone in God's Servant alone Who was born of a woman, is the Redeemer of Israel, the Holy One Of Israel Who is both God and Man: Isa 49:1-13  and Isa 9:6-7 , Who is further described in Isa 52:10-53:12 as the Servant of the LORD Who has brought salvation through His atonement for the sins of all mankind. He is the Redeemer of all mankind .

And this fulfillment is portrayed in Scripture as coming to pass when a generation of all of Israel and Judah together will believe in the One Whom they pierced, the Redeemer of Israel to receive forgiveness of sins and eternal life as well as a complete and everlasting restoration in the Promised Land .

a) [Compare Zech 12:10-14]:

(Zech 12:10 NASB) "I will pour out on the house of David and on the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the Spirit of grace and of supplication, [Ezek 36:26-27 ], so that they will look on Me whom they have pierced [Isa 53:5 ] and they will mourn for Him, as one mourns for an only son, and they will weep bitterly over Him like the bitter weeping over a firstborn. 

(Zech 12:11 NASB) In that day there will be great mourning in Jerusalem, like the mourning of Hadadrimmon in the plain of Megiddo. 

(Zech 12:12 NASB) The land will mourn, every family by itself; the family of the house of David by itself and their wives by themselves; the family of the house of Nathan by itself and their wives by themselves; 

(Zech 12:13 NASB) the family of the house of Levi by itself and their wives by themselves; the family of the Shimeites by itself and their wives by themselves;

(Zech 12:14 NASB) all the families that remain, every family by itself and their wives by themselves."

88888 commentary on Zech 12:10-14 88888

5 cont.) 1111C5 (Ezek 37:1-13 cont) The Hand Of The LORD Brought Ezekiel Out By The Spirit And He Passed Through The Valley Of Dry Bones. Whereupon The LORD Commanded Ezekiel To Prophesy Causing The Bones To Come Together - The Whole House Of Israel To Come To Life That They May Know That He Is The LORD. The Bones Said "Our Bones Are Dried Up And Our Hope Has Perished. We Are Completely Cut Off." Whereupon The LORD Will Bring Them Up Out Of Their Graves And Into The Land Of Israel In The Sense Of Physical Restoration In The Promised Land And Spiritual Regeneration. Then They Will Know That He Is The LORD - When He Has Opened Up And Caused Them To Come Out Of Their Graves - His People, (cont.)

(Ezek 37:1 NASB) '''''The hand of the LORD was upon me, and He brought me out by the Spirit of the LORD and set me down in the middle of the valley; and it was full of bones.

(Ezek 37:2 NASB) He caused me to pass among them round about, and behold, there were very many on the surface of the valley; and lo, they were very dry.

(Ezek 37:3 NASB) He said to me, ''''Son of man, can these bones live?'''' And I answered, ''''O LORD GOD, You know.''''

  [(Introduction to chapter 37, cont.)

So Ezekiel under God's direction, started a new phase of the prophet's ministry after the fall of Judah / Jerusalem in 586 B.C. What was needed was a message of hope. God had not reneged on His promises of the New Covenant to a generation of His people. His rejection of the generations of the tribes of the Northern Kingdom which were dispersed earlier and remain dispersed today, and of the generations of the tribes of the Southern Kingdom which included Judah was not to be permanent. He had sent approximately 50,000 of a generation of His people Judah into exile, and dispersed the rest of the tribes of Judah so that they might be disciplined for their sinful rebellion so that which ever of that number that were sent to Babylon that survived the captivity might choose to return and would do so in faith in the fulfillment of the New Covenant - their deliverance / eternal salvation through God's Servant, the Redeemer of Israel and of all mankind . Faith in the Redeemer was evidently not expressed by every one of a generation of the people of Israel. For the fulfillment of the New Covenant did not occur within that generation of Israel relative to their returning to the Promised Land from throughout the world when Judah returned to rebuild Jerusalem. And when they did, they ran into ongoing trouble from the people who had settled there, and they were indolent in rebuilding the Temple, .

Since the time when Israel first divided into two kingdoms, the entire populations of Israel from the Northern Kingdom, Israel; and the Southern Kingdom, Judah to this day have never been reunited in the Promised Land - even temporarily, (Ezek 36:22-24); nor were they ever cleansed from all of their sins and idols, nor did they all receive a new heart, a new human spirit, nor the Spirit of God in them in order to walk in God's statutes and be careful to observe His ordinances in sinless perfection; nor was unparalleled prosperity experienced in the Promised Land by them, (Ezek 36:25-38). And all these stipulations are to be final, uninterrupted and everlasting. Therefore to date there has never been any kind of fulfillment of the New Covenant - full, partial, near or temporary or otherwise, as some contend - even in 1948 when thousands had come from Europe and elsewhere to occupy a small portion of the Promised Land. 

Nevertheless, the small number of that generation of Judah who were freed by God to return to Jerusalem to begin to rebuild it met with ongoing trouble, as indicated throughout the books of Ezra, Nehemiah, Zechariah, etc. (). God stressed the fact of His sovereign power, capacity and willingness to unilaterally carry out these remarkable and gracious promises in the New Covenant. Their fulfillment depended upon Him alone, not on anything Israel might do, or circumstances, provided all of a generation of Israel and Judah believed alone in the Holy One of Israel, the Redeemer of Israel, God's Servant   alone for that fulfillment.

Ezek 37:1-10 comprise a description of the first vision which God gave His prophet Ezekiel on this matter followed by the interpretation in verses 11-14:

(Ezek 37:1 NASB) '''''The hand of the LORD was upon me, and He brought me out by the Spirit of the LORD and set me down in the middle of the valley; and it was full of bones.

(Ezek 37:2 NASB) He caused me to pass among them round about, and behold, there were very many on the surface of the valley; and lo, they were very dry.

(Ezek 37:3 NASB) He said to me, ''''Son of man, can these bones live?'''' And I answered, ''''O LORD GOD, You know.''''

  [(vv. 1-3) In Ezek 37:1-3, the hand of the LORD brought the prophet Ezekiel out by the Spirit of the LORD and set him down in the middle of a valley full of many dry bones - very dry bones. The phrase rendered "the hand of the LORD" is a metaphor for God's power, which is further emphasized by the phrase "by the Spirit of the LORD," i.e., by the power of God the Holy Spirit. It was a symbollic vision of future events regarding God's chosen people Israel - their future restoration in the Promised Land, while the Judean exiles remained in oppressive captivity. The vision was of Ezekiel being passed among the bones round about. First, God caused the prophet to walk throughout the valley to see the bones. There were bones on the surface of the valley. There were many - enough for an exceedingly great army, (v. 10). And they were very dry, evidently bleached and baked under the hot sun. There was no rotting flesh left on them - just dry bones. These images conveyed a completely devastated / dead situation with no possibility of revival / restoration as God has promised, (Ezek 36). Circumstances appeared hopeless.

Consequently, in verse 3, the LORD God asked Ezekiel, "Son of man, can these bones live?" The expression rendered "son of man" is a common Semitic way of indicating an individual man, (cf. Ps 4:2; 57:4; 58:1; 144:3; Jer 49:18, 33; 50:40; 51:43 and about 90 times in the Book of Ezekiel - as opposed to the term the Son of Man ). The question was a rhetorical one - the situation was clearly hopeless. No natural ability could bring the bones back to life. And it was Almighty God Who asked the question in that light, and it was He alone Who has the power to fulfill what He has already promised to do, (ref. Ezek 36:22ff ). Ezekiel's answer implied that he did not know, deferring to God's omniscience, and he answered, "O LORD God, [Heb. "ǎdōāny yehwih] you know." ]

(Ezek 37:4 NASB) Again He said to me, ''''Prophesy over these bones and say to them, '''O dry bones, hear the word of the LORD.'''

(Ezek 37:5 NASB) Thus says the Lord GOD to these bones, '''Behold, I will cause breath to enter you that you may come to life.

(Ezek 37:6 NASB) I will put sinews on you, make flesh grow back on you, cover you with skin and put breath in you that you may come alive; and you will know that I am the LORD.''' ''''

  [(vv. 4-6) Whereupon Ezekiel was commanded to prophesy over the bones to "hear the word of the LORD." And the LORD spoke, "Behold, I will cause breath to enter you that you may come to life. I will put sinews on you, make flesh grow back on you, cover you with skin and put breath in you that you may come alive; and you will know that I am the LORD." The commands of the LORD God were given to Ezekiel to prophesy this message: to predict that in the future - speaking to the bones in the vision which evidently are symbollic of a future generation of Israel - a generation of a people which has long been dead to God as His chosen people "will come to life" in the sense of a particular generation being His people once again and forever, (cf. Hos 2:14-23 ; cf. Ro 9:25). The prophet Ezekiel was to state that it will be the LORD God alone Who will put sinews, i.e., muscles and flesh on that set of bones - that generation of Israel in the future - and put breath in them that they may come to life in the sense of a physical and spiritual life connected forever with the LORD so that they will know that He is the LORD, implying that their faith in Him to fulfill His promises in the New Covenant has been expressed by all of them, (cf. Ezek 36:24-27 )

(Ezek 37:7 NASB) So I prophesied as I was commanded; and as I prophesied, there was a noise, and behold, a rattling; and the bones came together, bone to its bone.

(Ezek 37:8 NASB) And I looked, and behold, sinews were on them, and flesh grew and skin covered them; but there was no breath in them.

  [(vv. 7-8) As Ezekiel prophesied, there was a noise, a rattling, and the bones came together, with sinews, implying that the bones were not previously connected. Flesh and skin covered them; but there was no breath in them - they were still physically and spiritually dead]

(Ezek 37:9 NASB) Then He said to me, ''''Prophesy to the breath, prophesy, son of man, and say to the breath, '''Thus says the Lord GOD, "Come from the four winds, O breath, and breathe on these slain, that they come to life." ''' ''''

(Ezek 37:10 NASB) So I prophesied as He commanded me, and the breath came into them, and they came to life and stood on their feet, an exceedingly great army.

  [(vv. 9-10) Ezekiel was then given the words to prophesy to the breath. And the breath came into the bones. The bones came to life and stood on their feet - an exceedingly great army. The vision of the recovery of the bones to form live human bodies into an exceedingly great army pictured a generation of Israel's ultimate national restoration. The breath that came into them that brought them to life was evidently a physical life and a spiritual birth as well, (ref. Ezek 36:24-28 )]

(Ezek 37:11 NASB) Then He said to me, ''''Son of man, these bones are the whole house of Israel; behold, they say, ''''Our bones are dried up and our hope has perished. We are completely cut off.''' ''''

  [(v. 11) Verses 11-13 provide the LORD's interpretation of His vision which He gave to Ezekiel, (ref. vv. 1-10). In verse 1 the LORD pronounced to Ezekiel, "Son of man, these bones are the whole house of Israel; behold, they say, 'Our bones are dried up and our hope has perished. We are completely cut off.' " So the LORD said that the vision was about the nation Israel, i.e., "the whole house of Israel," in the sense of the whole of the Hebrew people - Israel and Judah together - most of whom at that time were dispersed or in captivity. And they were completely cut off from God - from His blessings.

This is as opposed to members of the Church who some contend have replaced Israel as God's people which the Church is actually not in view in this passage at all.

And the LORD told Ezekiel that "the whole house of Israel" despairingly complained, "Our bones are dried up and our hope [for deliverance] has perished. We are completely cut off." In actuality they were like what they appeared to be in the vision: unburied skeletons / bones so dry that they appeared to have been dead for a very long time - implying that the nation Israel had been dead to God for a very long time - no longer His people. So the bones were without capacity / hope for deliverance. Hope that was destroyed in the flames of Babylon's attack]

(Ezek 37:12 NASB) ''''Therefore prophesy and say to them, '''Thus says the Lord GOD, "Behold, I will open your graves and cause you to come up out of your graves, My people; and I will bring you into the land of Israel.''' ''''

  [(v. 12) So the LORD commanded Ezekiel to prophesy and say to the resurrected bones, "Thus says the LORD God, 'Behold, I will open your graves and cause you to come out of your graves, My people; and I will bring you into the land of Israel.' " So in His vision to Ezekiel, graves appeared to be open and God's people were brought to life and came up out of them. God stipulated He will bring them up out of their graves of captivity - places of exile such as in Babylon "into the land of Israel." The vision showed that Israel's new life in the Promised Land depended solely upon God's Almighty Power, His Promises / His Word; and not upon outward circumstances, nor anyone else]

(Ezek 37:13 NASB) ''''Then you will know that I am the LORD, when I have opened your graves and caused you to come up out of your graves, My people.''''

  [(v. 13) Whereupon in verse 13 it says, "Then you will know that I am the LORD when I have opened your graves and caused you to come up out of your graves, My people." Priority number one is God's Holy Name, (cf. Ezek 36:20-23). God will vindicate His Holy Name. He will indeed open up their graves and cause them to rise up in life and come out of them, i.e., He will reunite His people, move them up and out of their captivity and restore their Land to them forever, forgive and deliver them from sin and enable them to live godly lives forever - without sin. His people will surely know that He is the LORD]

6) 1111C6 (Ezek 37:14) The LORD Will Put His Spirit Within His People - That Generation Of Israel Whom He Has Chosen To Be His People - And They Will Come To Life, And He Will Place Them In Their Own Land. Then They Will Know That He, The LORD, Has Spoken And Done It

(Ezek 37:14 NASB) I will put My Spirit within you and you will come to life, and I will place you on your own land. Then you will know that I, the LORD, have spoken and done it,''' declares the LORD.''''

  [(v. 14) And the means by which this will be done by the LORD: He will put His Spirit in them and cause them to come to life, and He will place them on their own land. Then they will know that He, the LORD, has spoken and done it]

****** EXCERPT FROM EZEKIEL 36 ******

OR CONTINUE TO NEXT SECTION

(Ezek 36:22-24 cont.) The People Of Israel Will Be Returned To The Promised Land For The Sake Of God's Holy Name.

Note That Israel Is Not To Be Confused Here With Members Of The Church Whom The Latter Have Not Been Promised By God To Receive Land He Promised To Give To Their Forefathers, (cont.)

(Ezek 36:22 NASB) '''Therefore say to the house of Israel, '''Thus says the Lord GOD, "It is not for your sake, O house of Israel, that I am about to act, but for My holy name, which you have profaned among the nations where you went.

(Ezek 36:23 NASB) I will vindicate the holiness of My great name which has been profaned among the nations, which you have profaned in their midst. Then the nations will know that I am the LORD," declares the Lord GOD, "when I prove Myself holy among you in their sight.

(Ezek 36:24 NASB) For I will take you from the nations, gather you from all the lands and bring you into your own land." '''

[(vv. 23-24) Therefore, in order that the holiness of His great name might be vindicated before the nations of the world who thought that the LORD - the God of Israel - could not protect His people and keep them safe within their land, the LORD would restore the people of Israel to their land, but not because of anything that they might do.

In ancient times one's name and person were equivalent; a name represented the person. Through Israel's rebellion against God, the people had defamed God's Person. Therefore, not only would His covenant faithfulness be displayed when He restored Israel to her land, but He would vindicate Himself in the sense of bringing back His honor and sanctifying His name and Person throughout the world. And this will be through His supernatural regathering of that generation of Israel at that time. They evidently will all trust in His salvation / deliverance / restoration at the moment when He comes upon the earth in His Second Coming, having already made provision for the forgiveness of their sins of all makind as the the Seed of Abraham  - the Kinsman Redeemer. It will not be through anything that Israel will do . God's Righteousness will not be impugned because it was the Seed of Abraham Who has paid for the unrighteousness of Israel and all of mankind so that Israel and all mankind might have the opportunity to share in the blessings of the New Covenant in the Eternal Kingdom of God - each according to the plan of God as stipulated in the New Covenant, (vv. 25-27; cf. Jer 31:31-34; Ezek 11:14-20; chs 36-37; Isa 49:1-13; Romans ch 11 and many more). Then the nations will know that the God of Israel is Glorified, Just, Righteous, Holy, Almighty, Loving, etc. - the only true God.

So out of concern for His holy name which the house of Israel had profaned among the nations, the LORD commanded Ezekiel to say that it is not for the sake of Israel that the LORD is about to act, but for His holy name which the people of Israel has profaned among the nations where they were dispersed. The LORD will vindicate the holiness of His great name which Israel profaned among the nations while in their midst. Then the nations will know that He is the LORD when He has proved Himself holy among those nations in their sight, i.e., by their experiencing His Justice, Holiness, Almighty Power, Righteousness & Mercy - evidently through the fulfillment of the New Covenant, (cf. Jer 31:31-34; Ezekiel chapters 11, 36 & 37).

Note that God foretold of Israel's restoration after the Exile through Moses when Moses restated the Mosaic / Palestinian Covenant on the plains of Moab, (Deut 29:1-30:10). And God spoke of this through Ezekiel in Ezek 11:14-20 and once more in 36:24-28, and in chapter 37, as well as through the prophets Jeremiah in 30:4-31:40; and Isaiah in chapter 49]

(Ezek 36:25-27) [After The Generation / A Remnant Of His People Israel Chosen By God Who Will Have Survived Unprecedented Distress / Tribulation - A Time Of Jacob's Trouble - Has Been Permanently Restored And Begins To Occupy And Possess The Promised Land Forever

- Israel Not To Be Confused Here With Members Of The Church Whom The Latter Have Not Been Promised By God To Receive Land He Promised To Give To Their Forefathers -

The LORD Will Unilaterally Cleanse His People From All Of Their Sins Without His People Having To Repent Of Any Sin. Each One Of The Generation Of The People Of Israel In View At That Time Will Have Exercised A Moment Of Faith Alone In The Messiah / Savior /Redeemer Alone For Salvation / Deliverance Unto The Eternal Kingdom Of God Forever In The Promised Land As Abraham Their Father Did. And The Lord Will Put His Spirit Within Each Of Them To Enable Them All To Constantly Live Godly Lives In Obedience To His Statutes And Ordinances - Without Sin]:

(Ezek 36:25 NASB) "Then I will sprinkle clean water on you, and you will be clean; I will cleanse you from all your filthiness and from all your idols.

(Ezek 36:26 NASB) Moreover, I will give you a new heart and put a new spirit within you; and I will remove the heart of stone from your flesh and give you a heart of flesh.

(Ezek 36:27 NASB) I will put My Spirit within you and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you will be careful to observe My ordinances."

  [(v. 25) After the LORD gathers a particular generation / a remnant of His people Israel chosen by God who will have survived unprecedented distress / tribulation - a time of Jacob's trouble, (Jer 30:7; Dan 12:1; Isa 10:20-23 ) which He chose from among the nations, He will permanently restore her into her own land - the land promised to her forefathers, (Ezek 36:24).

Note that Israel is not to be confused here with members of the Church whom the latter have not been promised by God to receive land He promised to their forefathers.

So God will sprinkle clean water on her to cleanse her from her filthiness and idols, i.e., from her sins, especially idol worship.

The people of Israel’s idolatrous ways had polluted the land (see 22:24; 24:13). They had proven themselves to be spiritually filthy and impure (see 22:15; 24:11, 13; 36:17). Thus, God had expelled them from the land. But now the promise is of a people washed of their sins and cleansed of their idolatry.

The concept of sprinkling the clean water of cleansing to make an individual ceremonially clean appears in Scripture. For example, it was to be done to Levitical priests to purify them as part of a symbolic ritual which would represent the actual work of God in the spiritual realm of purifying them from all their temporal sins:

[Compare Nu 8:5-7]:

(Nu 8:5 NIV) "The LORD said to Moses:

(Nu 8:6 NIV) 'Take the Levites from among the other Israelites and make them ceremonially clean.

(Nu 8:7 NIV) To purify them, do this: Sprinkle the water of cleansing on them; then have them shave their whole bodies and wash their clothes, and so purify themselves' "

Since the concept of sprinkling clean physical water over all of Israel would not literally wash away her sins, nor even clean away all of her external filthiness, then the phrase "sprinkle clean water" must be figurative, and represent an actual spiritual cleansing - the work of God, (the Holy Spirit), in the spiritual realm.

Note that for God to cleanse anyone of internal filthiness, i.e., of all of ones sins, it is implied that God must make payment for them through His Personal atonement for them, as He would be the only One Who would be qualified for that - given the sin nature of all of humanity. This cleansing will be through the LORD's fulfillment of the New Covenant in them which includes faith in what the LORD promised Abraham and his Seed, (Who is Christ ), when Abraham believed. So likewise will each one of the chosen generation / a remnant of His people Israel - chosen by God, who will have survived unprecedented distress / tribulation, a time of Jacob's trouble, (Jer 30:7; Dan 12:1) - receive that fulfillment through a moment alone of faith alone in the Seed of Abraham alone - the One Who was to come, as Abraham their father did to fullfill God's covenant with him - the Messiah  (v. 26; cf. Ezek 11:1-20 ; Gen 22:18 / Gal 3:16 ; Jer 31:31-34 ). In view is God's Servant, born of a woman, the Redeemer of Israel, the Holy One Of Israel Who is both God and Man: Isa 49:1-13  and Isa 9:6-7 , Who is further described in Isa 52:10-53:12 as the Servant of the LORD Who has brought salvation through His atonement for the sins of all mankind. He is the Redeemer of all mankind .

So the phrase rendered "Then I will sprinkle clean water on you" in Ezek 36:25 refers to and symbolizes God's actual cleansing of His people of their sins through His personal forgiveness by His sacrificial blood as symbolized under the Mosaic Law covenant of sin offerings for the cleansing of sins, (ref. Lev 14:1-35). He will cleanse that generation / a remnant of His people Israel chosen by God who will have survived unprecedented distress / tribulation - a time of Jacob's trouble, (Jer 30:7; Dan 12:1) - those of Israel who will all have believed as Abraham their father believed in the Seed of Abraham, (Isa 10:20-23 ), Who is Christ, (Gen 22:18 / Gal 3:16 ). He will cleanse His people unilaterally of all their sins and idolatry that has defiled them (cf. Ezek 11:1-20 below).

******

[Compare Ezek 11:1-20]:

(Ezek 11:1 NASB) '''Moreover, the Spirit lifted me up and brought me to the east gate of the LORD'S house which faced eastward. And behold, there were twenty-five men at the entrance of the gate, and among them I saw Jaazaniah son of Azzur and Pelatiah son of Benaiah, leaders of the people.

(Ezek 11:2 NASB) He said to me, "Son of man, these are the men who devise iniquity and give evil advice in this city, 

(Ezek 11:3 NASB) who say, 'The time is not near to build houses. This city is the pot and we are the flesh.' 

(Ezek 11:4 NASB) "Therefore, prophesy against them, son of man, prophesy!" 

(Ezek 11:5 NASB) Then the Spirit of the LORD fell upon me, and He said to me, "Say, 'Thus says the LORD, "So you think, house of Israel, for I know your thoughts. 

(Ezek 11:6 NASB) "You have multiplied your slain in this city, filling its streets with them." 

(Ezek 11:7 NASB) 'Therefore, thus says the Lord GOD, "Your slain whom you have laid in the midst of the city are the flesh and this city is the pot; but I will bring you out of it. 

(Ezek 11:8 NASB) "You have feared a sword; so I will bring a sword upon you," the Lord GOD declares. 

(Ezek 11:9 NASB) "And I will bring you out of the midst of the city and deliver you into the hands of strangers and execute judgments against you.

(Ezek 11:10 NASB) "You will fall by the sword. I will judge you to the border of Israel; so you shall know that I am the LORD. 

(Ezek 11:11 NASB) "This city will not be a pot for you, nor will you be flesh in the midst of it, but I will judge you to the border of Israel. 

(Ezek 11:12 NASB) "Thus you will know that I am the LORD; for you have not walked in My statutes nor have you executed My ordinances, but have acted according to the ordinances of the nations around you."'" 

(Ezek 11:13 NASB) Now it came about as I prophesied, that Pelatiah son of Benaiah died. Then I fell on my face and cried out with a loud voice and said, "Alas, Lord GOD! Will You bring the remnant of Israel to a complete end?"

  [(Ezek 11:1-13) The evil rulers of Jerusalem will be judged by the LORD for their evil deeds. They will fall by the sword. Evidently the sword of Babylon, as their invasion of Jerusalem was historically imminent. Ezekiel pleads with the LORD, "Will you bring the remnant of Israel to a complete end?" The next section which follows is the answer of the LORD]

Ezek 11:14 NASB) ''''Then the word of the LORD came to me, saying,

(Ezek 11:15 NASB) '''Son of man, your brothers, your relatives, your fellow exiles and the whole house of Israel, all of them, are those to whom the inhabitants of Jerusalem have said, "Go far from the LORD; this land has been given us as a possession."

(Ezek 11:16 NASB) Therefore say, "Thus says the Lord GOD, 'Though I had removed them far away among the nations and though I had scattered them among the countries, yet I was a sanctuary for them a little while in the countries where they had gone.' "

(Ezek 11:17 NASB) Therefore say, "Thus says the Lord GOD, 'I will gather you from the peoples and assemble you out of the countries among which you have been scattered, and I will give you the land of Israel.' "

(Ezek 11:18 NASB) When they come there, they will remove all its detestable things and all its abominations from it. 

(Ezek 11:19 NASB) And I will give them one heart, and put a new spirit within them. And I will take the heart of stone out of their flesh and give them a heart of flesh, 

(Ezek 11:20 NASB) that they may walk in My statutes and keep My ordinances and do them. Then they will be My people, and I shall be their God." ''' ''''

  [(Ezek 11:14-20) The LORD's answer to Ezekiel's question, "Alas, Lord GOD! Will You bring the remnant of Israel to a complete end?" was that the surviving remnant would not be destroyed so that a future generation of Israelites would not be there to inherit the Promised Land. There would be a coming judgment of the people who remained in Jerusalem, but a remnant would be preserved - comprised of those dispersed and / or in captivity, not of those who remained in Jerusalem. Whereupon God promised to restore all of the remnant - all of the survivors of a future generation of descendants of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob - God's chosen people through unprecedented distress / tribulation - a time of Jacob's Trouble, (Jer 30:7; Dan 12:1), to the land He promised to their forefathers forever, (cf. Isa 10:20-23 ).

******

[Compare Isa 10:20-23]:

(Isa 10:20 NASB) "Now in that day the remnant of Israel, and those of the house of Jacob who have escaped, will never again rely on the one who struck them, but will truly rely on the LORD, the Holy One of Israel.

(Isa 10:21 NASB) A remnant will return, the remnant of Jacob, to the mighty God.

(Isa 10:22 NASB) For though your people, O Israel, may be like the sand of the sea, Only a remnant within them will return; A destruction is determined, overflowing with righteousness.

(Isa 10:23 NASB) For a complete destruction, one that is decreed, the Lord GOD of hosts will execute in the midst of the whole land."

  [Ezek 11:14-20 (cont.)] So God will give all of a generation / a remnant of His people Israel chosen by God who will have survived unprecedented distress / tribulation - a time of Jacob's trouble - one heart, and put a new human spirit within them. And He will take the heart of stone out of their flesh and give them a heart of flesh. They will walk in His statutes and keep His ordinances and do them. Then they will be His people, and He will be their God, (Ezek 11:1-20).

****** This is the fulfillment of the New Covenant as stipulated in Jer 31:31-34:

[Jer 31:31-34]:

(Jer 31:31 NASB) " 'Behold, days are coming,' declares the LORD, 'when I will make a New Covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah,

(Jer 31:32 NASB) not like the covenant which I made with their fathers in the day [of My taking] them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt, My covenant which they broke, although I was a husband to them,' declares the LORD.

(Jer 31:33 NASB) But this [is] the covenant which I will make with the house of Israel after those days,' declares the LORD, 'I will put My law within them [in the sense of within their minds] and on their heart I will write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people.

(Jer 31:34 NASB) They will not teach again, each man his neighbor and each man his brother, saying, 'Know the LORD,' for they will all know Me, from the least of them to the greatest of them,' declares the LORD, 'for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin I will remember no more.' "

  [(Jer 31:31-34) This passage defines the New Covenant in which the LORD will unilaterally fulfill with the house of Israel and the house of Judah after He has brought them together and restored them forever to occupy and possess the land He promised to their forefathers, (Jer 30:3). He will put His Law within them, He will write it on their hearts. He will be their God and they will be His people - forever. They will all know Him. There will be no need to be taught of Him. He will forgive their iniquity and their sin He will remember no more. And the LORD will put His Spirit within them and cause them to walk in His statutes, and they will be careful to observe His ordinances - they will live godly lives without sin.

Note that for God to cleanse anyone of internal filthiness, i.e., of all of ones sins, it is implied that God must make payment for them through His Personal atonement for them, as He would be the only One Who would be qualified for that - given the sin nature of all of humanity. This cleansing will be through the LORD's fulfillment of the New Covenant in them which includes faith in what the LORD promised Abraham and his Seed, (Who is Christ ), when Abraham believed. So likewise will each one of the chosen generation / a remnant of His people Israel - chosen by God, who will have survived unprecedented distress / tribulation, a time of Jacob's trouble, (Jer 30:7; Dan 12:1) - receive that fulfillment through a moment alone of faith alone in the Seed of Abraham alone - the One Who was to come, as Abraham their father did to fullfill God's covenant with him - the Messiah  (v. 26; cf. Ezek 11:1-20 ; Gen 22:18 / Gal 3:16 ; Jer 31:31-34 ). In view is God's Servant, born of a woman, the Redeemer of Israel, the Holy One Of Israel Who is both God and Man: Isa 49:1-13 and Isa 9:6-7 , Who is further described in Isa 52:10-53:12 as the Servant of the LORD Who has brought salvation through His atonement for the sins of all mankind. He is the Redeemer of all mankind .

(Ezek 36:25-27 cont.) [After The Generation / A Remnant Of His People Israel Chosen By God Who Will Have Survived Unprecedented Distress / Tribulation - A Time Of Jacob's Trouble - Has Been Permanently Restored And Begins To Occupy And Possess The Promised Land Forever

- Israel Not To Be Confused Here With Members Of The Church Whom The Latter Have Not Been Promised By God To Receive Land He Promised To Give To Their Forefathers -

The LORD Will Unilaterally Cleanse His People From All Of Their Sins Without His People Having To Repent Of Any Sin. Each One Of The Generation Of The People Of Israel In View At That Time Will Have Exercised A Moment Of Faith Alone In The Messiah / Savior /Redeemer Alone For Salvation / Deliverance Unto The Eternal Kingdom Of God Forever In The Promised Land As Abraham Their Father Did. And The Lord Will Put His Spirit Within Each Of Them To Enable Them All To Constantly Live Godly Lives In Obedience To His Statutes And Ordinances - Without Sin, (cont.)]:

(Ezek 36:25 NASB) "Then I will sprinkle clean water on you, and you will be clean; I will cleanse you from all your filthiness and from all your idols.

(Ezek 36:26 NASB) Moreover, I will give you a new heart and put a new spirit within you; and I will remove the heart of stone from your flesh and give you a heart of flesh.

(Ezek 36:27 NASB) I will put My Spirit within you and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you will be careful to observe My ordinances."

  [(v. 26) So in addition to the work of God stipulated in v. 25 which is figuratively referred to as "sprinkling clean water," of actually cleansing them from all their filthiness - their sinfulness - and their idols; God foretold in v. 26 that He will provide His chosen generation / a remnant of His people Israel chosen by God who will have survived unprecedented distress / tribulation - a time of Jacob's trouble, (ref. Jer 30:7; Dan 12:1; Isa 10:20-23 ), with a new heart and a newborn human spirit within them implying a spiritual regeneration or new birth with a capacity to walk in His statutes and be careful to observe His ordinances, i.e., sinless perfection, (v. 27) - a new nature that will make them righteous all the time, (v. 27; cf Jer 31:31-34 ). For He will remove the heart of stone from their flesh and give them a heart of flesh so then they may walk in His statutes and keep His ordinances and do them. Then they will be His people, and He shall be their God, (cf. Ezek 11:1-20 ).

The word rendered "heart" here does not refer to the physical heart, but to the minds and attitudes of every Israelite being redirected toward a willingness and capacity to love and be obedient to God. The term "heart of stone" in the phrase "I will take the heart of stone out of your flesh" refers to the Israelites' attitude of coldness, hardness and consequent deliberate distancing from God resulting in their repeated unfaithfulness in the past throughout centuries of time. The work of God in providing Israel with a "new heart," i.e., a "heart of flesh" refers to God's work of enabling Israel to be faithful, obedient and close to God. The phrase rendered "I will put a new spirit within you" refers to God providing all of His chosen generation of Israel with newborn human spirits; i.e., a spiritual birth of all of that generation / a remnant of His people Israel chosen by God who will have survived unprecedented distress / tribulation - a time of Jacob's trouble, (ref. Jer 30:7; Dan 12:1).

God's unilateral cleansing of all of the sins of His chosen generation of His people Israel - a remnant that will survive the time of Jacob's trouble, an unparalleled distress and tribulation for Israel, (Jer 30:7; Dan 12:1), His provision of a new heart / capacity to be godly all the time - without sin, a new human spirit and the indwelling Holy Spirit unto godliness within each individual of that generation of His people, Israel will all be through the LORD's fulfillment of the New Covenant in them - each one of that generation.

Each and every one in that generation will express in that future time a moment of faith in the Seed of Abraham, the One to come - the Messiah  - as Abraham their father did to fulfill the Abrahamic Covenant for himself; Ezek 11:1-20 ; Gen 22:18 / Gal 3:16 ; Jer 31:31-34 ); God's Servant, born of a woman, the Redeemer of Israel, the Holy One Of Israel, God and Man: Isa 49:1-13 followed by 9:6-7 , Who will make atonement for sins in His blood, (cf. Heb 9:11-22).

For without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness of sins:

[Compare Lev 17:11]:

(Lev 17:11 NASB) "For the life of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it to you on the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood by reason of the life that makes atonement." (cf. Heb 9:22)]

(Ezek 36:27 NASB) "I will put My Spirit within you and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you will be careful to observe My ordinances."

  [(v. 27) In the fulfillment of the New Covenant in a particular generation of God's chosen people Israel - a remnant of His people Israel chosen by God who will have survived unprecedented distress / tribulation - a time of Jacob's trouble, (ref. Jer 30:7; Dan 12:1; Isa 10:20-23 ), will receive God's Holy Spirit Who will enable them all to live godly lives - without sin, (cf. Ezek 11:1-20 ; 37:14; 39:29; Jer 31:31-34 ; Joel 2:28-29 ). They will all walk in God's statutes and be careful to observe His ordinances - they will live godly lives without sin. Ezek 11:20b and 36:28 go on to say, 'and then they [those of Israel] will be His people, and He shall be their God,' (cf. Heb 8:6-10:39). God's law will be written on the heart of those living under the New Covenant, so that they will not need to be taught, nor lack in obedience or godliness, (ref. Jer 31:31-34 ). The New Covenant will replace the Mosaic covenant, but not by eliminating righteous and godly stipulations that describe how to live a godly life; but by providing within each Israelite the capacity to walk in God's statutes and be careful to observe His ordinances - without sin. The New Covenant will provide complete and total forgiveness of sin once and for all and the Holy Spirit's indwelling unto godly living - without sin - for God's chosen people forevermore]

Some contend that this passage points to the coming fall of Judah to Babylon or to the later fall of Babylon to Medo-Persia. However, in both of these periods the Northern Kingdom of Israel was not affected. It had already gone into captivity (in 722 B.C.). A better solution is the still-future Tribulation period when Israel and Judah will experience a time of unparalleled persecution / tribulation, (ref. Dan. 12:1; Matt. 24:15-22) - a time of Jacob's trouble, (Jer 30:7); followed by when Christ, the Son of Man appears to rescue His elect, gather them from the ends of the earth to inherit the Eternal Kingdom that was prepared for them forever, (Ro 11:26; Mt 24:30-31; 25:31-46; Rev 19:11-21; 20:4-6).

(1) At no time have all of Israel and Judah been gathered together from all over the world after unprecedented tribulation, (Jer 30:7), and brought back into the Promised Land since they had divided into two kingdoms and were dispersed, (Ezek 36:24);

(2) At no time was all of Israel and Judah declared cleansed from all of their filthiness (sins) and idols, (Ezek 36:25);

(3) At no time was all of Israel and Judah given a new heart, a new human spirit and the indwelling Spirit of God so that they could and would walk in God's statutes and be careful to keep His ordinances - without sin, (Ezek 36:26-27);

And all of this forever, no interruptions and starting overs in view, as some contend to include 'partial' or 'near' fulfillments of the New Covenant, Abrahamic Covenant, Davidic Covenant or Palestinian Covenant.

Therefore, the various so called 'near' or 'partial' fulfillments -  returns of some of Israel, but not all, to some parts but not all of the Promised Land; and the several rebuildings of the Temple cannot and do not constitute near or partial fulfillments of the promises that comprise the New Covenant, Abrahamic Covenant, Davidic Covenant, Palestinian Covenant, especially in the light of subsequent conquerings, captivities, dispersements and destructions of the Temples - such as in AD 70, and some of the population of Israel occupying a part of the Promised Land in 1948 albeit not without constant conflict from surrounding nations, as some contend. And none of which is forever. On the other hand, each partial return, each rebuilding of the Temple signifies that God is at work giving yet another generation of His chosen people an opportunity for them to demonstrate that they are ready to have the New Covenant fufilled in them through unanimous faith in their Redeemer. So far all of a generation of Israel have not expressed that faith. Scripture has recorded the messages of Jesus Christ, the Holy One of Israel; John the Baptist, Peter when they each called upon all of a generation of Israel to, "Repent for the Kingdom of God is at hand," i.e., believe in the Redeemer of Israel, Jesus Christ for the fulfillment of the New Covenant, personally eternal life for them, which the Eternal Kingdom of God will commence upon the unanimous faith of a generation of Israel .

****** END OF EXCERPT FROM EZEKIEL 36 ******

******
(Ezek 37:15 NASB)
'''''The word of the LORD came again to me saying,

(Ezek 37:16 NASB) ''''And you, son of man, take for yourself one stick and write on it, '''For Judah and for the sons of Israel, his companions;''' then take another stick and write on it, '''For Joseph, the stick of Ephraim and all the house of Israel, his companions.''' ''''

  [(vv. 15-16) Once again, the word of the LORD came to Ezekiel, saying to the son of man, Ezekiel, take one stick and write upon it, "For Judah and for the sons of Israel, his companions," referring to the Southern Kingdom of Judah, (cf. v. 19). And then take another stick and write upon it, "For Joseph, the stick of Ephraim and all the house of Israel, his companions," referring to the Northern Kingdom of Israel, sometimes referred to as Ephraim, the tribe of Joseph, the dominant tribe of that Kingdom, (cf. v. 19)]

(Ezek 37:17 NASB) ''''Then join them for yourself one to another into one stick, that they may become one in your hand.

(Ezek 37:18 NASB) When the sons of your people speak to you saying, '''Will you not declare to us what you mean by these?''' ''''

  (vv. 17-18) Then Ezekiel was told to join the two sticks into one stick so that they may become one in his hand. This vision was to be relayed evidently in some kind of physical demonstration so that when the sons of Israel hear / see it, they will ask "Will you not declare to us what you mean by these?" ''' ''''

(Ezek 37:19 NASB) ''''say to them, '''Thus says the Lord GOD, "Behold, I will take the stick of Joseph, which is in the hand of Ephraim, and the tribes of Israel, his companions; and I will put them with it, with the stick of Judah, and make them one stick, and they will be one in My hand.

(Ezek 37:20 NASB) The sticks on which you write will be in your hand before their eyes." ''' ''''

  (vv. 19-20) And the LORD told Ezekiel to say to them, "Thus says the Lord GOD, 'Behold, I will take the stick of Joseph, which is in the hand of Ephraim, and the tribes of Israel, his companions; and I will put them with it, with the stick of Judah, and make them one stick, and they will be one in My hand.' "]

(Ezek 37:21 NASB) ''''Say to them, '''Thus says the Lord GOD, "Behold, I will take the sons of Israel from among the nations where they have gone, and I will gather them from every side and bring them into their own land;

(Ezek 37:22 NASB) and I will make them one nation in the land, on the mountains of Israel; and one king will be king for all of them; and they will no longer be two nations and no longer be divided into two kingdoms." ''' ''''

  [(vv. 21-22) Verse 22 summarizes what the vision of the valley of dry bones coming to life, being raised them from the dead - the whole house of Israel - to dwell in the land of Israel portrays. And this will all be accomplished by what was stipulated in Ezek 37:14:

a) [Ezek 37:14 NASB]:

" 'I [the LORD] will put My Spirit within you and you will come to life, and I will place you on your own land. Then you will know that I, the LORD, have spoken and done it,' declares the LORD,"

Whereupon in Ezek 37:21 the LORD emphasized to Ezekiel that the sticks on which he writes will be in his hand before their eyes. So He repeated to Ezekiel, "Say to them, 'Thus says '''Thus says the Lord GOD, "Behold, I will take the sons of Israel from among the nations where they have gone, and I will gather them from every side and bring them into their own land; and I will make them one nation in the land, on the mountains of Israel; and one king will be king for all of them; and they will no longer be two nations and no longer be divided into two kingdoms.' " - relative to the valley of dry bones coming to life, being raised them from the dead - the whole house of Israel - to dwell in the land of Israel, by the means of that which verse 14 stipulated]

(Ezek 37:23 NASB) They will no longer defile themselves with their idols, or with their detestable things, or with any of their transgressions; but I will deliver them from all their dwelling places in which they have sinned, and will cleanse them. And they will be My people, and I will be their God."

  [The MT's ‏מֹושְׁבֹתֵיהֶם‎ (mosebotehem, "their dwellings") is changed to ‏מְשׁוּבֹתֵיהֶם‎ (mesubotehem, "their backsliding") in the LXX and in Symmachus (so NIV). The metathesis of the letters ‏ו‎ (w) and ‏שׁ‎ (s) could likely be a scribal error. The context favors "their backsliding."]

(Ezek 37:24 NASB) "My servant David will be king over them, and they will all have one shepherd; and they will walk in My ordinances and keep My statutes and observe them.

(Ezek 37:25 NASB) They will live on the land that I gave to Jacob My servant, in which your fathers lived; and they will live on it, they, and their sons and their sons' sons, forever; and David My servant will be their prince forever.

(Ezek 37:26 NASB) I will make a covenant of peace with them; it will be an everlasting covenant with them. And I will place them and multiply them, and will set My sanctuary in their midst forever.

(Ezek 37:27 NASB) My dwelling place also will be with them; and I will be their God, and they will be My people.

(Ezek 37:28 NASB) And the nations will know that I am the LORD who sanctifies Israel, when My sanctuary is in their midst forever." ''' '''' '''''

II) 2222 THE NEW COVENANT DEFINED

A) 2222A (Jer 31:31-40) The New Covenant Is With The Houses Of Israel And Judah. It Is Not Like The Covenant Of The Law Which They Broke. The LORD Will Put His Law Within Them And Write It On Their Hearts. They Will All Know The LORD, And Not Have To Be Taught To Know Him. Their Iniquity Will Be Forgiven. The LORD Will Forever Be Their God, And They Forever Shall Be His People. Jerusalem Will Be Rebuilt And Remain A Holy City. All Of This Forevermore

(Jer 31:31 NASB) "[Jer 31:31-34; Jer 32:40; 33:14; Dt 10:1-10; Lk 22:20; 1 Cor 11:25; 2 Cor 3:6; Heb 8:8-12; 10:16, 17; Ezek 36:24-33; 37:24-28] 'Behold, days are coming,' declares the LORD, 'when I will make a New Covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah,"

[BKC]:

"31:1. This verse should be linked with the statements in 30:23-24. It explains the results of God's judgment on the earth and also serves to introduce the section on national restoration which follows. God promised that when He will judge the world for its sins He will also restore all Israel to Himself. All the clans, not just the tribe of Judah, will be known as God's people (cf. 30:22)."

[EXPOSITOR'S]:

"31 This mountain-peak OT passage stands in a real sense as the climax of Jeremiah's teaching. Every one of its phrases and clauses is vital. Jeremiah wrote the passage while he was shut up in the court of the guard. The passage begins with the attention-arresting "Behold" (hinreh, so KJV, RSV et al.; untranslated in NIV). The words "the time is coming" have already been used by Jeremiah; they are an eschatological formula that places the prophecy in messianic times in the Day of the Lord, the consummation period of the nation's history (cf. v.27). The promise relates to a "New Covenant" and is a prediction of a radical change in God's economy (i.e., his dealing with humanity). Thus when Jeremiah foretold a New Covenant, by implication the Mosaic covenant became the old one (cf. Heb. 8:13). Moreover, the New Covenant is an eternal one. National covenants do not die because of old age. The old covenant spoke of a great physical deliverance from Egypt through the blood of lambs and the power of God; the New Covenant proclaims a great spiritual deliverance from sin and death through the efficacious blood of the Lamb of God and the power of God. The Passover Feast memorialized the first, the Lord's Supper memorializes the second.

Jeremiah explicitly presents the parties to the covenant: the Lord, the house of Israel, and the house of Judah. Notice that the covenant brings to mind the cleavage of the nation into two kingdoms, but notice also that both parts of the nation are included. The whole covenant is for the whole nation. Significantly, the New Covenant will be with God's chosen people, as was the old. It could not be made with the church because no former (old) covenant had been made with her (so Ironside Prophecy and Lamentations of Jeremiah).

Does this mean that believers today have no part in this New Covenant? Surely not, for the same death of Christ that implemented the New Covenant for Israel does so for all sinners for all time. The testimony of the entire NT is too clear on this point to be misunderstood. Because Israel rejected the covenant in the first advent, Gentiles availed themselves of its provisions (cf. Rom 9:30-33); and Israel will yet ratify it at the climax of her history (cf. Zech 12:10-13:1). Thus it is correct to say that all believers in Christ are by virtue of this covenant grafted into the stock of Abraham (cf. Rom 11:16-24).

Does this mean that another covenant needs to be made for either Israel or Gentiles? Obviously not, since both share redemption by faith in the blood of the New Covenant. Writing to Hebrews of his time, and there were believing Hebrews among them, the writer of the Epistle to the Hebrews makes clear how the New Covenant now avails for both (cf. Heb 8; see also Eph 3:1-7). Does this mean that all the blessings promised Israel may now be appropriated by believers? Does this efface the distinction between Israel and the church? The answer to these questions is a resounding no! The NT is careful to state in each instance what elements in the blessings promised Israel may be transferred to the common enjoyment of Israel and the church. It is neither warranted nor in harmony with Scripture to go beyond this.

Some ask how the New Covenant can apply to the church when it was to be negotiated with Israel and Judah. The historical argument is insurmountable: when the New Covenant was inaugurated (see the gospel accounts), there was no church, nor could there be until the resurrection of Christ (cf. Eph 1:22-23). Furthermore, although Jeremiah 31 does not state it, the making of the New Covenant was inextricably bound up with the crucifixion of Christ for all mankind. When Israel refused to enter into the covenant (cf. Isa 53:1-12 ; Matt 22:1-10; Luke 14:15-23), God having but one way of salvation for all ages of history, the offer of redemption (the procuring means of the covenant) went out to all people. Although the church is not explicitly seen in the OT, the salvation of non-Jews is predicted more than once (cf. Isa 49:1-7, esp. v.6). It is the new truth of the NT that redeemed Jews and Gentiles (the "new man" of Eph 2:15) constitute the church of this age. Salvation is possible only through the death of Christ, and this is the basis of the New Covenant. All sinful mankind is thus in view in this covenant. Finally, Israel as a nation will ratify the covenant after the "full number of the Gentiles has come in" (Rom 11:25-27)."

(Jer 31:32 NASB) not like the covenant which I made with their fathers in the day [of My taking] them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt, [Ex 19:5; 24:6-8; Dt 5:2, 3; Dt 1:31; Isa 63:12; Jer 11:7, 8] My covenant which they broke, although I was a husband to them,' declares the LORD.

[EXPOSITOR'S]:

"32 Jeremiah points out in this verse that the New Covenant is built on the fact of Israel's failure under the old covenant. Because the old covenant was a legal one ("If you do... I will do"), it was incumbent on both parties to the covenant (contract) to maintain its provisions. This Israel did not do, for the people broke the first commandment before Moses descended from Sinai. Jeremiah does not repudiate or depreciate the Mosaic covenant any more than Paul does (cf. Rom 7:12; 8:3-4). The fault lay with the people and their sin; they broke the covenant. Thus the New Covenant must supersede the old. If the old covenant had not been broken, then what need was there for the ministry of Jeremiah or any of the OT prophets? All were commissioned by God to call the nation to repent of her transgressions of the Mosaic Law (cf. v.32; 11:10; 32:40; Ezek 37:26). The day when the covenant was made with the "forefathers" refers to the whole period of the Exodus (cf. 7:22). "I took them by the hand" is a tender nuance of paternal love and concern (cf. Hos 11:3-4). The blame for breaking the covenant rested wholly on Israel and Judah, for there was no fault in God; he had ever been as faithful to them as a faithful husband to his wife. This marriage relationship was the very basis on which God expected obedience to and fidelity in the covenant."

Notes 32 The translation "I was a husband to them" (NIV, NASB; "I was their husband," RSV) is paralleled in practically all the English versions. However, NEB translates "I was patient with them" (on what basis is not clear), and AmT renders "I had to reject them." Why the great disparity? The Hebrew verb ‏בָּעַל‎ (baal, "to marry, rule over") with its noun baal ("owner," "lord," "husband") is well known in Semitic languages and in Hebrew of different periods. The variant reading comes from the LXX, which rendered the verb with ἠμέλησα (emelesa, "to neglect, be unconcerned about, disregard"), a translation followed by the Syrian. By altering the Hebrew from ‏בָּעַלְתִּי‎ (baalti, "I was a husband") to ‏גָּעַלְתִּי‎ (gaalti, "I abhorred, loathed"), the meaning is achieved. What complicates the matter is that the LXX is quoted word for word in Heb 8:9. A translation of "abhorred" is too strong for the Greek word. It must be pointed out that in Jer 3:14 the LXX has "I will be your lord [i.e., `husband']." In 31:32 the Syrian agrees with the LXX, but in 3:14 it translates "I have pleasure in you." The Vulgate is more consistent, having in 3:14 ego vir vester and in 31:32 ego dominatus sum eorum. Most scholars see no need for emendation since the MT is satisfactory. It is altogether likely that the Greek translators of the LXX had another Hebrew word in their text. The NT Greek text (UBS, Nestle et al.) follows the LXX because it does no violence to the sense of the passage or the purpose of the sacred writer."

(Jer 31:33 NASB) But this [is] the covenant [Jer 32:40; Heb 10:16] which I will make with the house of Israel after those days,' declares the LORD, [Ps 40:8; 2 Cor 3:3] 'I will put My law within them [in the sense of within their minds] and on their heart I will write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people [Jer 24:7; 30:22; 32:38].

[EXPOSITOR'S]:

"33 Once more Jeremiah stresses the nature of the covenant as a national, not an individual, covenant. The parties to it are the same as those in v.31. The time factor is again stated; it is "after that time"—i.e., after the return from exile. Instead of changing his covenant relationship to his people because they broke the covenant, in his grace God finds a way whereby they will not break the New Covenant. How can this be done? God will write the law within them; on their heart he will inscribe it. The old covenant had been engraved in stone. The New Covenant will include a revolutionary change in will, heart, and conscience. It will be an internal rather than an external covenant. Here is a contrast to the writing on the tables of stone (cf. Exod 19:3-8; 24:3-8; 31:18; Deut 4:13; 29:1-29; 2 Cor 3:3). The law now becomes a principle of life (cf. Rom 8:1-4). It will become part of the nature of God's people; it will be instinctive. The core of the New Covenant is God's gift of a new heart (cf. Ezek 36:25-27). Herein lies the sufficient motivation for obeying God's law. Basic to obedience is inner knowledge of God's will coupled with an enablement to perform it, all founded on the assurance that sins are forgiven. Permanence is also a feature of this covenant (cf. vv. 35-37). Since the inward dynamic was absent in the old covenant, it could not be effective. There must be an inner force, a new power.

Some have claimed that there is nothing in this passage to suggest that the New Covenant would differ in character from the old (so Freedman). On the contrary, the entire transaction implies the new birth set forth in the gospel. The regenerate spirit is the source of all godly action. The "heart" includes man's emotional, ethical, and intellectual life (so Peake). The goal of the covenant is that relation between God and his people that was repeatedly emphasized from Abraham's time on. In this connection it is instructive to examine once more Ezekiel's doctrine of the new heart (cf. Ezek 11:19; 18:31; 36:26) and John's doctrine of regeneration (cf. John 1:10-13; 3:1-16).

Is it not strange, however, that so many believers today yearn for laws and rules, putting themselves under the economy of the old covenant, which Jeremiah, Christ, and the apostles warned was not capable of fulfillment? No wonder the New Covenant is a missionary message for the world! Its nature is individual, internal, and universal. The reason Jeremiah emphasized the national factor (cf. vv.31-33) was that he wanted to stress the origin of the covenant and to sharpen the contrast between the New Covenant and the old covenant, which was made with Israel only at Sinai."

(Jer 31:34 NASB) They will not teach again [1 Thes 4:9; 1 Jn 2:27], each man his neighbor and each man his brother, saying, 'Know the LORD,' for they will all know Me [Isa 11:9; 54:13; Jer 24:7; Hab 2:14; Jn 6:45; 1 Jn 2:20], from the least of them to the greatest of them,' declares the LORD, 'for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin I will remember no more [Jer 33:8; 50:20; Mic 7:17; Ro 11:27; Isa 43:25; Heb 10:17].'

[EXPOSITOR'S]:

"34 One of the grand features of the New Covenant is that it affords a clear apprehension of God and his will by believers without human mediation. God will he known instinctively and his will performed spontaneously (cf. Isa 54:13; John 6:45). Experience of God will be direct, not dependent on external instruction. The knowledge spoken of is not theoretical knowledge transmitted by religious instruction. It is rather knowledge of God based on a heart experience of divine grace and imparted by the Holy Spirit with assurance that the believer has been received into the family of God through the forgiveness of sins (so KD). This knowledge does not militate against or render unnecessary religious instruction. (See the NT teaching concerning teachers in 1 Cor 12:28-29 and Eph 4:11-12.) There will be direct access to God for both Jew and Gentile. A vital feature of the old covenant was human mediation (cf. Exod 20:19). In the new one there is immediate access to God through Christ, our High Priest (cf. Heb 4:16; 10:19-22). The firsthand knowledge of God will be completely fulfilled in the coming kingdom (so Cunliffe-Jones). For the present it does not mean that every believer will he self-sufficient and independent of others. But it does indicate that all will have their own experience of God without resort to others. "The least of them" is very broad in meaning and includes "the least" in intellectual ability, in influence or position, in moral capacity—all are included in the comprehensive scope of the phrase.

Finally, the climax of this wonderful section comes in the revelation that the basis of the New Covenant is forgiveness of sin. Thus gratitude for forgiveness will issue in spontaneous obedience. The New Covenant does not envision sinlessness but forgiveness of sin resulting in restoration of fellowship with God. The foundation of the New Covenant (after which the NT itself is named) is the absolute and complete forgiveness of all sins. Notice that the covenant shoves no dependence on law, temple, sacrifices, ark, human priesthood, nation, or country. The old covenant did not, could not, and was never intended to save anyone. The last clause of v.34 states that what grace forgives, divine omniscience forgets. In summary, the enunciation of the New Covenant, which differs so much from the old, focuses on its permanence and its sustaining principle that evokes gratitude for the forgiveness of sin. The overarching emotion is love, not fear. The goal in both covenants is the same (so Peake): "I will be their God, and they will be my people" (cf. v.33 with Exod 29:45; Lev 26:12):"

(Jer 31:35 NASB) Thus says the LORD, [Gen 1:14-18; Dt 4:19; Ps 19:1-6; 136:7-9] Who gives the sun for light by day, ... the [statutes / ordinances] of the moon and the stars for light by night, Who [Isa 51:15] stirs up the sea so that its waves roar [Jer 10:16; 32:18; 50:34], the LORD of hosts is His name:

(Jer 31:36 NASB) [Ps 89:36, 37; 148:6; Isa 54:9, 10; Jer 33:20-26] 'If [these statutes / ordinances] depart from before Me,' declares the LORD, 'Then the offspring of Israel also will cease from being a nation before Me forever [lit., all the days]. [Amos 9:8-9]'

(Jer 31:37 NASB) Thus [says] the LORD [Isa 40:12; Jer 33:22]; 'If the heavens above can be measured, and the foundations of the earth searched out below, then I will also cast off all the [descendants] of Israel for all that they have done,' [says] the LORD [Jer 33:24-26; Ro 11:2-5, 26-27].

[BKC]:

"31:31-37. In addition to a new beginning God promised to make a New Covenant with His people. This New Covenant was expressly for the house of Israel (the Northern Kingdom) and the house of Judah (the Southern Kingdom). It would not be like the covenant God had made with Israel's forefathers at the time of the Exodus because that covenant had been broken by the people (cf. 11:1-8). The earlier covenant God referred to was the Mosaic Covenant contained in the Books of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. Twice God had announced a series of punishments or "curses" that would be invoked on those who violated His Law (Lev. 26; Deut. 28). The final judgment would be a physical deportation from the land of Israel. With the destruction of Jerusalem in 586 b.c. this final "curse" was completed. God had set a holy standard of conduct before the people, but because of their sinful hearts they could not keep those standards. A change was needed.

God's New Covenant will involve an internalization of His Law. He will put His Law in their minds and on their hearts, not just on stones (Ex. 34:1). There will be no need to exhort people to know the Lord because they will already all know God (cf. Isa. 11:9; Hab. 2:14). God's New Covenant will give Israel the inner ability to obey His righteous standards and thus to enjoy His blessings. Ezekiel indicated that this change will result from God's bestowal of the Holy Spirit on these believers (cf. Ezek. 36:24-32). In Old Testament times the Holy Spirit did not universally indwell all believers. Thus one different aspect of the New Covenant is the indwelling of the Holy Spirit in all believers (cf. Joel 2:28-32). A second aspect of the New Covenant will be God's provision for sin. The sins of the people resulted in the curses of the Old Covenant. However, as part of the New Covenant God will forgive Israel's wickedness and remember their sins no more. But how could a holy God overlook sin? The answer is that God did not "overlook" sin—its penalty was paid for by a Substitute (cf. Isa. 53:4-6). In the Upper Room Christ announced that the New Covenant was to be inaugurated through the shedding of His blood (cf. Matt. 26:27-28; Luke 22:20). Forgiveness of sin would be part of the New Covenant only because God provided a Substitute to pay the penalty required of man.

To underscore Israel's permanence because of this New Covenant, God compared her existence to that of the heavens and the earth. As God had appointed the sun to shine by day and the moon and stars to shine by night (cf. Gen. 1:14-19), so He had appointed Israel as His chosen nation. It would take a feat as fabulous as making these natural decrees vanish from nature to make Israel... cease to be a nation. The power God displayed in creating the universe was the power that He exercises in preserving Israel as a nation. Throughout history people have tried in vain to destroy Israel, but none have succeeded—and none ever will. How is the church related to the New Covenant? Is the New Covenant being fulfilled in the church today? Ultimately the New Covenant will find its complete fulfillment during the Millennium when Israel is restored to her God. The New Covenant was made with Israel (Jer. 31:31, 33) just as the Mosaic Covenant had been (v. 32). One key element of the New Covenant is the preservation of Israel as a nation (vv. 35-37). However, though the ultimate fulfillment of this covenant awaits the millennial reign of Christ, the church today is participating in some of the benefits of that covenant. The covenant was inaugurated at Christ's death (Matt. 26:27-28; Luke 22:20), and the church, by her union with Christ, is sharing in many of the spiritual blessings promised to Israel (cf. Rom. 11:11-27; Eph. 2:11-22) including the New Covenant (2 Cor. 3:6; Heb. 8:6-13; 9:15; 12:22-24). But though the church's participation in the New Covenant is real, it is not the ultimate fulfillment of God's promise. The fact that believers today enjoy the spiritual blessings of the New Covenant (forgiveness of sins and the indwelling Holy Spirit) does not mean that spiritual and physical blessings will not be realized by Israel. That still awaits the day when Israel will acknowledge her sin and turn to the Messiah for forgiveness (Zech. 12:10-13:1). Some Bible scholars, however, take a slightly different view. They see one covenant (a covenant of grace), which God will apply to Israel in the Millennium and is now applying to the church in this present age. In both views the New Covenant is made possible by the blood of Christ."

[EXPOSITOR'S]:

"35-37 Of what value is an eternal covenant if certain parties to it are limited in life span'? But such is not the case with the New Covenant, for it is made with an eternal people. The permanence of the nation is illustrated from the fixed arrangements in nature (v.35). The survival of Israel through the centuries can be explained only on supernatural grounds (v.36; cf. 33:20, 25). Scripture knows no greater guarantee for the validity and permanence of the covenant than that stated here. As unchangeable as the laws of nature is God's covenant with the deathless nation. The concept of nation carries with it geographical location, government, and other ethnic features to be fully realized in the end time. In short, it is utterly impossible that Israel should cease to be a nation before God (v.37). National existence is assured, regardless of how God may have to deal with individuals in the nation. God regards his promises rather than their demerits."

(Jer 31:38 NASB) 'Behold days are coming,' declares the LORD, 'when the city will be rebuilt for the LORD [Jer 30:18; 31:4] from the Tower of Hanael [Neh 3:1; 12:39; Zech 14:10] to the Corner Gate [2 Kg 14:13; 2 Chr 26:9].

(Jer 31:39 NASB) The measuring line will go out farther straight ahead to the hill Gareb; then it will turn to Goah [Zech 2:1].

(Jer 31:40 NASB) And the whole valley of the dead bodies and of the ashes, and all the fields as far as teh brook Kidron [2 Sam 15:23; 2 Kg 23:6, 12; Jn 18:1], to the corner of the Horse Gate toward the east [2 Kg 11:16; 2 Chr 23:15; Neh 3:28], shall be holy to the LORD; it will not be plucked up or overthrown anymore forever.' "

[BKC]:

"31:38-40. The third aspect of God's new relationship will be the establishment of a new city for His people. Jerusalem, the city that symbolizes God's relationship with His people, was destroyed by Babylon. But even before that event took place God promised that the city will be rebuilt. The Tower of Hananel was at the northeast corner of the city (cf. Neh. 3:1; 12:39; Zech. 14:10) and the Corner Gate was probably located on the northwest corner of the city (cf. 2 Kings 14:13; 2 Chron. 26:9; Zech. 14:10). Thus the northern wall will be restored. The locations of the hill of Gareb and Goah are unknown; but since Jeremiah 31:38 described the northern boundary and verse 40 describes the southern and eastern boundaries it may be assumed that Gareb and Goah detail the western boundary of the city. Perhaps Gareb referred to the hill west of the Tyropeon Valley that is today called Mount Zion. The southwestern and southern boundary will be the valley in which dead bodies and ashes are thrown. This is the Hinnom Valley (cf. 7:30-34; 19:1-6). The eastern boundary is the terraces out to the Kidron Valley. This boundary would extend to the corner of the Horse Gate on the southeast tip of the city, where the Kidron Valley and Hinnom Valley unite.

God described two characteristics of this new city. First, it will be holy to the Lord (cf. Zech. 14:20-21). The city and its inhabitants will be set apart to God who will dwell in her midst (Ezek. 48:35). Second, the city will no more be uprooted or demolished. The ravages of war will not be experienced in this new city. These verses were not fulfilled after the Babylonian Captivity ended. Since the postexilic period provides clear evidence that holiness was not a primary characteristic of the people in Jerusalem and Judah (cf. Mal. 1:6-14), so the city was destroyed again in a.d. 70 by the Romans. These promises (Jer. 31:31-40) await their future fulfillment during the Millennium."

[BKC]:

"38-40 The same eschatological formula—"The days are coming"—that has pervaded this chapter is reiterated once more (v.38). Since a literal nation must have an actual geographical location in which to reside, it is now revealed that the capital Jerusalem, will be rebuilt and expanded—yes, the very city that Jeremiah was before long to see destroyed by the Chaldean army. This disclosure is not an anticlimax, as some suggest. A renewed covenant demands a renewed Jerusalem. It will be greatly enlarged and permanently settled. The rebuilding is not for themselves or for secular purposes but for the glory of the Lord. It will be dedicated and separated to him (cf. v.40).

The rebuilding of the city will encompass the four corners of the capital (cf. Zech 14:10). The Tower of Hananel was the northeast corner of the city (cf. Neh 3:1; 12:39; Zech 14:10). The Corner Gate probably refers to the one at the northwest corner of the city wall (cf. 2 Kings 14:13; 2 Chronicles 26:9). The locations of Gareb and Goah are unknown (v.39); conjecture places Gareb on the western side of Jerusalem and Goah toward the Valley of Hinnom on the south. There are no clues to the sites. The valley of the corpses and ashes (v.40) is generally understood to be the Valley of Hinnom (cf. 7:31). It has been suggested that the fields are quarries. The Kidron flows east of Jerusalem (cf. 2 Sam 15:23). The Horse Gate is apparently at the southeast corner of the temple courts (so Bewer; cf. Neh 3:28 with 2 Kings 11:16; 2 Chronicles 23:15). Thus even the polluted areas would be sanctified to the Lord. In strong language the section closes with the affirmation that the city will be invincible forever. A permanent nation calls for a permanent capital. The rebuilding of the city envisioned here cannot be that effected in Nehemiah's day because (1) the contextual considerations demand the end time for Israel (cf. "days are coming" [vv. 27, 31]) and (2) the temple rebuilt by Zerubbabel was thrown down thereafter and again destroyed (cf. Matt 24:1-2; Luke 21:20-24). Finally, in the broader context of prophecy, this passage will not permit an interpretation that applies it to a spiritual, heavenly, or symbolic Jerusalem. If that were possible, why is it so full of literal detail?"

B) 2222B (Ezek 36:24-38) The LORD Will Gather All The People Of Israel From Among The Nations, Bring Them Into Their Own Land, Cleanse Them From All Filthiness And Idols, Put His Spirit In Them And Cause Them To Walk In His Statutes. They Will Live In The Land, And Be The People Of The LORD, And He Will Be Their God - Living In Guaranteed Prosperity Unlike The Other Nations, Cleansed From All Iniquities, Ruined Cities Fortified And Inhabited, Waste Places And Desolate Lands Rebuilt And Cultivated To A Garden Of Eden, The Population Of Israel Will Increase Like A Flock - So That All Will Know That 'I Am The LORD.'

(Ezek 36:24 NASB) "For I will take you from the nations, gather you from all the lands and bring you into your own land [Isa 43:5-6; Ezek 34:13; 37:21].

(Ezek 36:25 NASB) Then I will sprinkle clean water on you, and you will be clean; I will cleanse you from all your filthiness and from all your idols.

[God foretold that after He took Israel from among the nations and brought her into her own land, (Ez 36:24); He would sprinkle clean water on her to cleanse her from her filthiness and idols, i.e., from her sins, especially idol worship. Since the concept of sprinkling clean physical water over all of Israel would not wash away her sins, nor even clean away all of her external filthiness, then the phrase "sprinkle clean water" must be figurative, and represent a spiritual cleansing - the work of God, (the Holy Spirit), in the spiritual realm.

Note that for God to cleanse anyone of internal filthiness, i.e., of all of ones sins, it is implied that God must make payment for them through His Personal atonement for them, as He would be the only One Who would be qualified for that - given the sin nature of all of humanity. This cleansing will be through the LORD's fulfillment of the New Covenant in them which includes faith in what the LORD promised Abraham and his Seed, (Who is Christ ), when Abraham believed. So likewise will each one of the chosen generation / a remnant of His people Israel - chosen by God, who will have survived unprecedented distress / tribulation, a time of Jacob's trouble, (Jer 30:7; Dan 12:1) - receive that fulfillment through a moment alone of faith alone in the Seed of Abraham alone - the One Who was to come, as Abraham their father did to fullfill God's covenant with him - the Messiah  (v. 26; cf. Ezek 11:1-20 ; Gen 22:18 / Gal 3:16 ; Jer 31:31-34 ). In view is God's Servant, born of a woman, the Redeemer of Israel, the Holy One Of Israel Who is both God and Man: Isa 49:1-13 and Isa 9:6-7 , Who is further described in Isa 52:10-53:12 as the Servant of the LORD Who has brought salvation through His atonement for the sins of all mankind. He is the Redeemer of all mankind .

The concept of sprinkling the water of cleansing to make an individual ceremonially clean appears in Scripture. For example, it was to be done to Levitical priests to purify them as part of a symbolic ritual which would represent the actual work of God in the spiritual realm of purifying them from all their sins.

1) 2222B1 [Compare Nu 8:5-7]:

(Nu 8:5 NIV) "The LORD said to Moses: 

(Nu 8:6 NIV) 'Take the Levites from among the other Israelites and make them ceremonially clean. 

(Nu 8:7 NIV) To purify them, do this: Sprinkle the water of cleansing on them; then have them shave their whole bodies and wash their clothes, and so purify themselves' "

Furthermore, as part of the work of God which is figuratively referred to as "sprinkling clean water," God foretold that He would provide all Israelites with a new heart and a newborn human spirit. The word heart here does not refer to the physical heart but to the minds and attitudes of every Israelite being redirected toward a willingness to love and be obedient to God. The term "heart of stone" in the phrase "I will take the heart of stone out of your flesh" refers to Israel's attitude of coldness, hardness and consequent deliberate distancing from God. The work of God in providing Israel with a "new heart," i.e., a "heart of flesh" refers to God's work of enabling Israel to be faithful, obedient and close to God. The phrase "I will ...put a new spirit within you" refers to God providing all of Israel with newborn human spirits; i.e., a spiritual birth of all Israel - becoming born again from above. Note that this is done by God as part of His work of sprinkling clean water on Israel in her spiritual cleansing, (Ez 36:25)]:

(Ezek 36:26 NASB) Moreover, I will give you a new heart and put a new spirit within you; and I will remove the heart of stone from your flesh and give you a heart of flesh.

(Ezek 36:27 NASB) I will put My Spirit within you and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you will be careful to observe My ordinances.

[In verse 27, God further explains that He will put His Spirit - the Holy Spirit - to indwell all Israelites and enable them each to willingly choose to walk in His statutes and keep His judgments]

(Ezek 36:28 NASB) You will live in the land that I gave to your forefathers; so you will be My people, and I will be your God. 

(Ezek 36:29 NASB) Moreover, I will save you from all your uncleanness; and I will call for the grain and multiply it, and I will not bring a famine on you.

(Ezek 36:30 NASB) I will multiply the fruit of the tree and the produce of the field, so that you will not receive again the disgrace of famine among the nations. 

(Ezek 36:31 NASB) Then you will remember your evil ways and your deeds that were not good, and you will loathe yourselves in your own sight for your iniquities and your abominations. 

(Ezek 36:32 NASB) I am not doing this for your sake," declares the Lord GOD, "let it be known to you. Be ashamed and confounded for your ways, O house of Israel!"

(Ezek 36:33 NASB) Thus says the Lord GOD, "On the day that I cleanse you from all your iniquities, I will cause the cities to be inhabited, and the waste places will be rebuilt. 

(Ezek 36:34 NASB) The desolate land will be cultivated instead of being a desolation in the sight of everyone who passes by.

(Ezek 36:35 NASB) They will say, 'This desolate land has become like the garden of Eden; and the waste, desolate and ruined cities are fortified and inhabited.' 

(Ezek 36:36 NASB) Then the nations that are left round about you will know that I, the LORD, have rebuilt the ruined places and planted that which was desolate; I, the LORD, have spoken and will do it."

(Ezek 36:37 NASB) Thus says the Lord GOD, "This also I will let the house of Israel ask Me to do for them: I will increase their men like a flock. 

(Ezek 36:38 NASB) Like the flock for sacrifices, like the flock at Jerusalem during her appointed feasts, so will the waste cities be filled with flocks of men. Then they will know that I am the LORD.' "

III) 3333 THE PROVISION OF A MESSIAH / SAVIOR OF THE WORLD: ISRAEL'S REGATHERING UNTO EVERLASTING RESTORATION, THE ETERNAL SALVATION FOR ALL MANKIND IN THE EVERLASTING KINGDOM OF GOD, AND INNUMERABLE OTHER BLESSINGS HAVE BEEN AND WILL BE PROVIDED FOR BY A SERVANT OF THE LORD, GOD AND MAN, SAVIOR, REDEEMER WHO WAS GIVEN AS A COVENANT TO THE PEOPLE OF ISRAEL WHICH THE LORD PROMISED

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A) 3333A (Isa 9:6-7) For A Future Generation, The Gloom And Distress Upon Israel Would Be No More - As When At First The LORD Treated With Contempt The Lands Of Zebulun And Naphtali, And Afterward More Heavily Oppressed Them Through Assyrian Invasion. The People Of Israel Who In Past Generations Walked In Darkness Would See A Great Light From The LORD Shining Upon Them. The Nation Would Be Multiplied And The LORD Would Increase Their Joy - Like The Rejoicing At Harvest Time Or When Men Divide The Spoils. In The Manner That The LORD Supernaturally Provided Victory For Gideon And Israel Over The Midianites, So There Would Be An End To Oppression And War: For Unto Israel A Child Would Be Born. To His People Israel The LORD Would Give A Son - His Son. The Government Would Be upon His Shoulder; And His Name Would Be Called Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince Of Peace. And Of The Increase Of His Government And Peace There Would Be No End. He Would Rule His Kingdom And The World From The Throne Of David - Establishing Judgment And Justice Forever. All Of This Would Be Accomplished Through The Zeal Of The LORD of Hosts

(Isa 8:16 NKJV) '''[Isaiah said to] Bind up the testimony, Seal up the law among my disciples.

(Isa 8:17 YLT) And I have waited for [the LORD], Who is hiding His face from the house of Jacob, And I have looked for Him.

(Isa 8:18 NKJV) Here am I and the children whom the Lord has given me! [We] are for signs and wonders in Israel From the Lord of hosts, Who dwells in Mount Zion.

(Isa 8:19 NKJV) And when they say to you, 'Seek those who are mediums and wizards, who whisper and mutter,' should not a people seek their God? [Should they seek] the dead on behalf of the living?

(Isa 8:20 NKJV) To the law and to the testimony! If they [are not speaking] according to this word, it is because [there is] no light in them.

(Isa 8:21 NKJV) They will pass through it hard-pressed and hungry; and it shall happen, when they are hungry, that they will be enraged and curse their king and their God, and look upward. (

Isa 8:22 NKJV) Then they will look to the earth, and see trouble and darkness, gloom of anguish; and [they will be] driven into darkness.

(Isa 9:1 NKJV) Nevertheless the [darkness] will not be upon her who is distressed As when at first He [the LORD] [treated with contempt] The land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, And afterward more heavily oppressed her, By the way of the sea, beyond the Jordan, In Galilee of the Gentiles.

(Isa 9:2 NKJV) The people who [who are walking] in darkness Have seen a great light; Those who dwelt [are dwelling] in the land of the shadow of death, Upon them a light has shined.

(Isa 9:3 KJV) [You have] multiplied the nation, [have you] not increased the joy? They [rejoice] before [You] according to the joy in harvest, and as men rejoice [to divide] the spoil.

(Isa 9:4 NKJV) For You have broken the yoke of his burden And the staff of his shoulder, The rod of his oppressor, As in the day of Midian.

(Isa 9:5 HOLMAN) [For the warrior's trampling sandle] and the garments [rolled in the blood of battle] will be burned as fuel for the fire.

(Isa 9:6 NKJV) For unto us [Israel, Isa 1:1, 8:18] a Child is born, Unto us a Son is given; And the government will be upon His shoulder. And His name will be called Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.

(Isa 9:7 NKJV) Of the increase of His government and peace There will be no end, Upon the throne of David and over His kingdom, To order it and establish it with judgment and justice From that time forward, even forever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this." =

In the Masoretic Text of the Hebrew Bible, Isaiah chapter 8 ends with the verse which most translated versions have indicated as Isa 9:1. In that verse, the ancient Israelite tribal allotments of Zebulun and Naphtali - the lands of Zebulun and Naphtali - which refer to the northern portion of Israel were caused by the LORD to be oppressed and then invaded by Assyria and annexed by Tiglath-pileser III in 733-732 B.C. This included Galilee. The phrase rendered ''The way of the sea" refers to Sharon or Philistia. It describes a major international highway running through this region. This is the only time this phrase appears in Scripture, but it appears often in Assyrian and Egyptian records. The invading Assyrian soldiers took that route when they invaded the Northern Kingdom. The phrase rendered "Galilee of the Gentiles" refers to the area of Gilead and southeast Syria, when it was under Gentile domination. The Assyrians carved out three provinces for themselves from these areas in three campaigns. These lands were the first to feel the distress caused by Assyrian invasion. But there will be a time when darkness of oppression will not be upon Israel, (Isa 9:1).

Past tenses in Isa 9:2 continue to speak of future events, such that the future was described by the prophet as having already occurred. Light stands for God's blessings, presence, and revelation - all characterized by His absolute Righteousness, (cf. Isa 2:5). The phrase rendered "shadow of death," means the darkness of separation from the fellowship of God and His Righteousness. Past generations of the people of Israel had been walking in darkness for centuries; but a future generation of them would see a great light, which the passage will indicate is embodied in His incarnate Son, (Isa 9:2-7).

In the future the LORD will multiply the number of His people. Their joy will be increased as those who rejoiced at harvest time or as men of battle who rejoiced in dividing the spoils of war. In view of the context, Isa 9:3b is best rendered, "[You have] multiplied the nation, [have you] not increased the joy? They [rejoice] before [You] according to the joy in harvest, and as men rejoice [to divide] the spoil," (Isa 9:3).

And the reason for joy being brought upon the Israelites is that the LORD will finally break the yoke of oppression upon His people. For generations, God's chosen people, the Israelites had been dwelling in the land of the shadow of death, (Isa 9:2), experiencing invasions by such as Egypt, Assyria and Babylon. The phrases rendered "the yoke of his burden," "the staff of his shoulder" and "the rod of his oppressor" in Isa 9:4 refer to the oppression of the people of Israel. The word rendered "yoke" referred to that which controlled and caused a burden upon Israel, "the staff" to that which struck the shoulder in punishment, "the rod" to that which oppressed them; and the word rendered "his" to the agent of the LORD used to discipline His people, such as Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, etc.

1) 3333A1 [Compare Isa 10:24-27]:

(Isa 10:24 NKJV) "Therefore thus says the LORD God of hosts: 'O My people, who dwell in Zion, do not be afraid of the Assyrian. He shall strike you with a rod and lift up his staff against you, in the manner of Egypt.

(Isa 10:25 NKJV) For yet a very little while and the indignation will cease, as will My anger in their destruction.'

(Isa 10:26 NKJV) And the LORD of hosts will stir up a scourge for him like the slaughter of Midian at the rock of Oreb; as His rod was on the sea, so will He lift it up in the manner of Egypt.

(Isa 10:27 NKJV) It shall come to pass in that day that his burden will be taken away from your [Israel's] shoulder, And his yoke from your neck, and the yoke will be destroyed because of the anointing oil"

The breaking of oppression which the LORD imposed upon Israel to discipline her was paralleled to "The day of Midian" which referred to the miraculous defeat of the Midianites by Gideon brought about supernaturally by the LORD, (Isa 9:4; cf. Jud 1:7).

A cont.) 3333A (Isa 9:6-7) For A Future Generation, The Gloom And Distress Upon Israel Would Be No More - As When At First The LORD Treated With Contempt The Lands Of Zebulun And Naphtali, And Afterward More Heavily Oppressed Them Through Assyrian Invasion. The People Of Israel Who In Past Generations Walked In Darkness Would See A Great Light From The LORD Shining Upon Them. The Nation Would Be Multiplied And The LORD Would Increase Their Joy - Like The Rejoicing At Harvest Time Or When Men Divide The Spoils. In The Manner That The LORD Supernaturally Provided Victory For Gideon And Israel Over The Midianites, So There Would Be An End To Oppression And War: For Unto Israel A Child Would Be Born. To His People Israel The LORD Would Give A Son - His Son. The Government Would Be upon His Shoulder; And His Name Would Be Called Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince Of Peace. And Of The Increase Of His Government And Peace There Would Be No End. He Would Rule His Kingdom And The World From The Throne Of David - Establishing Judgment And Justice Forever. All Of This Would Be Accomplished Through The Zeal Of The LORD of Hosts, (cont.)

(Isa 8:16 NKJV) '''[Isaiah said to] Bind up the testimony, Seal up the law among my disciples. (Isa 8:17 YLT) And I have waited for [the LORD], Who is hiding His face from the house of Jacob, And I have looked for Him. (Isa 8:18 NKJV) Here am I and the children whom the Lord has given me! [We] are for signs and wonders in Israel From the Lord of hosts, Who dwells in Mount Zion. (Isa 8:19 NKJV) And when they say to you, 'Seek those who are mediums and wizards, who whisper and mutter,' should not a people seek their God? [Should they seek] the dead on behalf of the living? (Isa 8:20 NKJV) To the law and to the testimony! If they [are not speaking] according to this word, it is because [there is] no light in them. (Isa 8:21 NKJV) They will pass through it hard-pressed and hungry; and it shall happen, when they are hungry, that they will be enraged and curse their king and their God, and look upward. (Isa 8:22 NKJV) Then they will look to the earth, and see trouble and darkness, gloom of anguish; and [they will be] driven into darkness. (Isa 9:1 NKJV) Nevertheless the [darkness] will not be upon her who is distressed As when at first He [the LORD] [treated with contempt] The land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, And afterward more heavily oppressed her, By the way of the sea, beyond the Jordan, In Galilee of the Gentiles. (Isa 9:2 NKJV) The people who [who are walking] in darkness Have seen a great light; Those who dwelt [are dwelling] in the land of the shadow of death, Upon them a light has shined. (Isa 9:3 KJV) [You have] multiplied the nation, [have you] not increased the joy? They [rejoice] before [You] according to the joy in harvest, and as men rejoice [to divide] the spoil. (Isa 9:4 NKJV) For You have broken the yoke of his burden And the staff of his shoulder, The rod of his oppressor, As in the day of Midian. (Isa 9:5 HOLMAN) [For the warrior's trampling sandle] and the garments [rolled in the blood of battle] will be burned as fuel for the fire. (Isa 9:6 NKJV) For unto us [Israel, Isa 1:1, 8:18] a Child is born, Unto us a Son is given; And the government will be upon His shoulder. And His name will be called Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace. (Isa 9:7 NKJV) Of the increase of His government and peace There will be no end, Upon the throne of David and over His kingdom, To order it and establish it with judgment and justice From that time forward, even forever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this," (cont.) =

The passage in Isaiah chapter 9 goes on to explain that the sandles of the soldier and the garments rolled in blood, (a tactic of war to frighten enemies in an impending battle), would be burned, i.e., the implements of warfare would be destroyed. So the darkness of war will be no more, (Isa 9:5).

Isaiah 9:6-7 explained why the people of Israel would be delivered from its generations of darkness: It would be accomplished through One Who would be born of Israel:

(Isa 9:6 NKJV) "For unto us [Israel, Isa 1:1, 8:18] a Child is born, Unto us a Son is given; And the government will be upon His shoulder. And His name will be called Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace. (Isa 9:7 NKJV) Of the increase of His government and peace There will be no end, Upon the throne of David and over His kingdom, To order it and establish it with judgment and justice From that time forward, even forever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this."

Since it is the LORD Who gives children to man; and since a child was born to Israel, a Son given; then this implied that the LORD had given His Son to be born as a child of Israel - an Israelite - the Son adding Humanity to His eternal essence of Deity. Whereupon, the passage declared that His name would be called Mighty God, Everlasting Father, implying Diety as well as Perfect Humanity. The first person plural "us" referring to Israel in the phrase rendered, "For unto us [Israel, Isa 1:1, 8:18] a Child is born, Unto us a Son is given," in the NKJV, implies a link to the passage of the virgin birth in Isa 7:14:

2) 3333A2 [Compare Isa 7:14 ]:

(Isa 7:14 NKJV) "Therefore the LORD Himself will give you [plural] a sign: 'Behold, [a] virgin shall conceive and bear a Son, and shall call His name Immanuel,' [which means God is with us]."

The phrase rendered "the Government will be on His shoulder" referred to the ensign of office worn upon the shoulder to signify the One Who had the position of ruling the nation, (cf. Isa 22:22-23). Then verse 6 declared, "And His name will be called Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace;" "Wonderful" in the sense of being a marvelous, wondrous being; "Counselor," in the sense of having the godly wisdom to convey to others; "Mighty God," in the sense of being Almighty God; "Everlasting Father," in the sense of being Everlasting God; "Prince of Peace," in the sense of being the One Who will bring to Israel and the world, everlasting peace. The Hebrew text of Isaiah 9:6 rendered "Mighty God" cannot be describing a mighty god as opposed to Almighty God, for Isaiah later indicates that besides Almighty God, there is no other [God] , (cf. Isa 43:10; 45:5). All of the terms in Isa 9:6c are unequivocally descriptive only of the human Israelite child, and not anyone else or any other nation but Israel.

So just as Gideon defeated Midian through the supernatural work of the LORD, (Isa 9:4); so the LORD will lead His people from spiritual darkness into light supernaturally - this time through His Son, the Child born unto the nation Israel. Through Him, there will be everlasting peace for all mankind, (Isa 9:6).

For Isaiah 9:7 said that the increase of His government and peace will be without end. He will sit upon the throne of David and rule over His kingdom and through that kindgom, the world. He will keep order and establish His judgment forever. The phrase rendered "Upon the throne of David" indicates that the God Man will be a Jew and Ruler of Israel. He will rule with an eternal rule of peace and absolute justice. And the zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this, in the sense that it is God Himself alone Who will accomplish this, (Isa 9:7) - the sign of the fulfillment of the New Covenant.

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B) 3333B (Isa 49:1-3) The LORD's Servant To All Mankind Declared Himself To Mankind Through The Prophet Isaiah. He Was Born Of A Woman, Called By The LORD From The Womb, Equipped To Pronounce Judgment Upon All Mankind, Protected And Hidden By The LORD Until His Time, Named "Israel" - An Individual Not A Group Of Israelites, As Some Contend - In Whom The LORD Will Manifest His Glory

(Isa 49:1 NKJV) '''[Isaiah writes that the LORD's Servant has said] "Listen, O coastlands, to Me, And take heed, you peoples from afar! The LORD has called Me from the womb; From the [womb] of My mother He has made mention of My name.

(Isa 49:2 NKJV) And He [makes] My mouth like a sharp sword; In the shadow of His hand He has hidden Me, And [the LORD] [makes] Me a polished (lit., purified) shaft; In His quiver He has hidden Me.

(Isa 49:3 NKJV) And He [the LORD] [says] to Me, 'You are My Servant, O Israel, In Whom I [manifest My glory].' " ''' =

Chapter 49 begins with a command by the LORD's Servant to the peoples of the world - from the "coastlands" referring to the nations of peoples living on coastlands to those "peoples from afar" expressions which overall convey the concept of all the peoples of the world - evidently including Gentiles as well as Jews - to listen to One Who has been called by "Yahweh," the LORD God to be the LORD's Servant. The message of the LORD's Servant is being conveyed through the prophet Isaiah. It is evident from the phrase in the first verse, "The LORD has called Me from the womb; From the [womb] of My mother He has made mention of My name," that this Servant was to be born a Human being in the future because it is implied that the Servant had not yet made His presence in the world known up to that time; and the promises that are made relative to the Servant are indicated as future ones. The Servant is both identified with and yet distinguished from Israel throughout chapter 49 in the first and third person singular; hence neither the nation Israel nor a remnant of Israelites is in view - as some have contended, (Isa 49:1).

The next verse indicates that the LORD's Servant's mouth was made "like a sharp sword" - a weapon which would bring sharp judgment upon men with the words that He would speak. The phrase, "In the shadow of His hand He has hidden Me," indicates that the LORD God would provide protection and concealment for His Servant until it was time for the Servant to bring that judgment upon all mankind. The next phrase, "And [the LORD] [makes] Me a polished (lit., purified) shaft" refers to the Servant as a polished (lit., purified) arrow shaft conveying the Servant wielding judgment upon mankind. The word rendered "polished (lit., purified)" conveys no defects in order to make the path of the arrow true, in the sense that the Servant is to be without sin - His judgment therefore being True and Righteous - which disqualifies Israel as being the Servant, as some contend. The arrow is stipulated as hidden in the LORD's quiver implying that the Servant will be secure and hidden until judgment time, (Isa 49:2).

The Servant then said that the LORD said to Him, "You are My Servant, O Israel, In Whom I [manifest My glory]." The LORD God named the Servant, "Israel," implying a single individual and indicated that in Him would the LORD God manifest His glory. Although neither the nation Israel nor a remnant of Israelites is in view, as some contend; He is portrayed as the perfect expression as an individual of what God intended all Israel to be like. The Servant is characterized as sinless - unlike the nation Israel or the remnant. In the following chapters, the LORD's Servant is taught, He suffers, He is vindicated, and He imparts God's truth to others, who are judged by their attitude toward Him. There is not, in fact, in these chapters a single expression necessitating or even suggesting that the servant is a group rather than an individual. Moreover, in chapter 53, His work is unique, for none other in the OT, either within or outside Isaiah, dies as an atoning sacrifice for human sins, (Isa 49:3).

C) 3333C (Isa 49:4-5) The LORD's Servant Declared His Labor In Vain, His Strength Spent; Yet He Declared That His Reward Was With The LORD, His Work With "My God." The Servant Then Declared That The LORD Who Formed Him From The Womb - Confirming His Humanity - To Be The LORD's Servant To Bring The Tribes Of Jacob (All Israel) Back To Him. The Servant Of The LORD - An Individual Person Chosen By The LORD "Shall Be Glorified In The Eyes Of The LORD, And My God Shall Have Been My Strength."

(Isa 49:4 NKJV) ''' "Then I said, 'I have labored in vain, I have spent my strength for nothing and in vain; Yet surely My just reward is with the LORD, And My work with My God.

(Isa 49:5 NKJV) [Whereupon the Servant declared] And now the LORD ... Who formed Me from the womb to be His Servant, To bring Jacob [Israel] back to Him [has said that], Israel will be gathered to Him [the LORD], and I [the Servant] shall be [glorified] in the eyes of the LORD, And My God [shall have been] My strength' " ''' =

Then the Servant of the LORD declared, "I have labored in vain, I have spent My strength for nothing and in vain," in the sense that His mission to bring Israel to repent unto faith in the LORD would at first be in vain. His strength would be spent, implying the physical end of Himself. So the Servant would be rejected at first and then killed. Yet in all of this He declared, "Yet surely My just reward is with the LORD, And My work with My God," implying His trust in the LORD's plan through Him would finally be fulfilled. Note that the Humanity of the LORD's Servant as opposed to His Diety is in view in this chapter. Other chapters in Isaiah reveal that the Servant would be vindicated (50:8) and He would be rewarded after His death (53:8) and be resurrected unto His just reward, (53:10). For the Servant finished with, "Yet surely My just reward is with the LORD, And My work with My God," (Isa 49:4).

Verse 5 has the Servant of the LORD relaying the message that the LORD gave to Him: [The Servant declared] "And now the LORD ... Who formed Me from the womb to be His Servant, To bring Jacob [Israel] back to Him [has said that], Israel will be gathered to Him [the LORD], and I [the Servant] shall be [glorified] in the eyes of the LORD, And My God [shall have been] My strength." Notice that the Servant is once again defined as one single individual formed by the LORD in the womb - an individual Human being but without sin and with a supernatural mission - the Righteous One, (Isa 53:9, 11). The success of the Servant's mission which includes bringing Jacob, i.e., the tribes of Jacob - the people of Israel, back to the LORD is further confirmed. Since the mission of "Israel," the Servant of the LORD, was to gather Israel back to the LORD then the Servant could not be the people of Israel - for they are sinful, but an individual named "Israel," - the Righteous One who is without sin, (Isa 53:9, 11) Since none of this had occurred up to this time, then all of this was to have been accomplished in the future. The Servant therefore declared: "And I shall be glorified in the eyes of the LORD, and My God shall have been My strength," in the sense that the Servant of the LORD in His Humanity would complete His mission via the strength - the power of the LORD, (Isa 49:5).

D) 3333D (Isa 49:6-7) The LORD Declared That Not Only Was His Servant To Raise Up The Tribes Of Jacob - To Restore All Israel - But The Servant Was To Be A Revelation To All Mankind Of The LORD And Of His Salvation. The LORD, The Redeemer, The Holy One Of Israel, Had Said To His Servant - To The Abhorred One Of The Gentiles, To The Servant Of The Rulers Of The World: "Kings Will See, And Princes Will Rise Up To Bow Down To The Servant Because Of The LORD God Who Is Faithful. Isaiah Wrote To The Servant, "The LORD Chose You" To Restore Israel And Provide Eternal Salvation To All Mankind

(Isa 49:6 NKJV) ''' "Indeed He [the LORD] says, 'It is too small a thing that You should be My Servant To raise up the tribes of Jacob, And to restore the preserved ones of Israel; I will also give You as a Light to the Gentiles, That You should be My salvation to the ends of the earth.' "

(Isa 49:7 CBL Interlinear) [Isaiah writes of the LORD]: Thus [has said] Yahweh [the LORD], the Redeemer of Israel, His [Israel's] Holy One; to the despised One [the LORD's chosen Servant]; [the LORD has said] to the abhorred One [the chosen Servant] of the nations [the Gentiles], to the Servant of rulers [of the world], [all speaking of the LORD's chosen Servant - the LORD said to Him]: "Kings, they will see, and princes, they will rise up; and they will bow down because of Yahweh [the LORD] Who is faithful - the Holy One of Israel; And [Isaiah wrote] "He [the LORD] chose You" [to be His Servant - to provide salvation to all mankind unto everlasting life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, ref. vv. 8-13].''' = 

And then the LORD declared to His Servant relative to the scope of His mission: "It is too small a thing that You should be My Servant To raise up the tribes of Jacob, And to restore the preserved ones of Israel; I will also give You as a Light to the Gentiles, That You should be My salvation to the ends of the earth." So the Servant shall not only be the Instrument by which the tribes of Jacob, i.e., of Israel - those whose physical lives at the time of the regathering have been preserved - will be gathered back to the LORD God, but also their salvation and the salvation of the Gentiles as well - to all mankind - for the LORD declared that He will give His Servant "As a light to the Gentiles," in the sense of providing revelation of the truth to all mankind about the LORD God, especially His salvation unto everlasting life in the Eternal Kingdom of God through His Servant, (ref. vv. 8-13).

Note that this had been the LORD's message all along - that salvation was to be provided for all mankind through a Descendant of Eve ; and that Descendant would descend from Abraham ; and that Descendant would be the LORD's chosen Servant as testified to in the words of the LORD given to the Prophet Isaiah, (Isa 49:6).

Isaiah reports what the LORD (Yahweh) had conveyed to him: that the LORD, the Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel had said to His chosen Servant, His Servant of rulers [of the world] - His Servant Who would become the despised One and the abhorred One of the Gentiles - the LORD said to His Servant: 'Kings, they will see, and princes, they will rise up to acknowledge; and then they all will bow down to the LORD's chosen One because of the LORD - the Holy One of Israel - is faithful - the Holy One of Israel.' And Isaiah wrote about the LORD relative to His Servant, 'He chose You' [to accomplish this mission to fulfill the day of salvation for all mankind which it is implied the Servant of the LORD would successfully fulfill, (cf. v. 9)], (Isa 49:7).

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E) 3333E (Isa 49:8) In The Time Decreed By The LORD For Effecting His Eternal Plan Of The Regathering Of Israel To Himself, The Restoration Of The Earth And The Provision Of Salvation Unto Eternal Life For All Mankind; The LORD Declared To His Chosen Servant That He Will Have Answered Him, Helped Him, Preserved Him And Given Him As A Covenant To Israel His People To Restore The Earth Forever - Especially Israel's Promised Land Inheritance

(Isa 49:8 CBL Interlinear) ''' Thus the LORD has said [to His Servant], "In the time of favor [in the sense of in the acceptable time] I will have answered You, and in the day of salvation I will have helped You; I will have preserved You and I will give You as a covenant to the people to raise up [in the sense of to restore] the earth, to inherit the desolate inheritances." ''' =

In Isa 49:8, Isaiah reports that the LORD, speaking to His Servant said, "Thus the LORD has said, 'In the time of favor...' - the time decreed by God for effecting His eternal plan of the regathering of Israel to the LORD, the eternal restoration of the earth, and the provision of eternal salvation for all those of mankind who choose to believe in the LORD's Servant for that unto the Eternal Kingdom of God.

'I will have answered You,' - in the sense of the LORD having answered His Servant's concerns which the Servant expressed in verse 4, ('I have labored in vain, I have spent my strength for nothing and in vain'), referring to the Servant's point of view that He had failed in His Human lifetime to restore Israel and the earth, and to gather His people to Himself as well as the world.

And the LORD's answer to His Servant which would be given "In the time of favor' was as follows:

'And in the day of salvation I will have helped You;

'I will have preserved You' - in the sense of preserving His Human life, (via resurrection unto a glorified body).

'and I will give You as a covenant to the people,' to fulfill God's covenant promises to Israel, (cf. Isa 42:6), to raise up [in the sense of restore] the earth, and to inherit the desolate inheritances' - in the sense of the Servant fulfilling the LORD's covenant with His people Israel to restore all things of the earth forever - especially the inheritances promised to them which had become desolate - the Promised Land, (Isa 49:8).

F) 3333F (Isa 49:9-13) The Lord's Chosen Servant Will Command All Israelites To Return From Captivity To The Promised Land As Well As All Mankind From Throughout The World To Go Before Him - To Experience Unprecedented Prosperity. No One Will Ever Suffer Hunger, Thirst, Scorching Winds, Or Heat Of The Sun - An Eternally Beneficient Worldwide Climate And Topography Is In View. People From All Over The World Will Come To Receive Blessings From And The Salvation Of The LORD. The LORD Declares For The Heavens To Sing, The Earth To Be Joyful, The Mountains To Sing Because He Will Have Had Mercy On His Afflicted - Referring To Israel. The Everlasting Kingdom Of God Is In View!

(Isa 49:9 NKJV) ''' "That You may say to the prisoners, 'Go forth,' To those who are in darkness, 'Show yourselves.' They shall feed along the roads, And their pastures shall be on all desolate heights.

(Isa 49:10 NKJV) They shall neither hunger nor thirst, Neither [scorching wind] nor sun shall strike them [down]; For He Who has mercy on them will lead them, Even by the springs of water He will guide them.

(Isa 49:11 NKJV) I will make each of My mountains a road, And My highways shall be elevated.

(Isa 49:12 NKJV) Surely these shall come from afar; Look! Those from the north and the west, And these from the land of Sinim.

(Isa 49:13 NKJV) Sing, O heavens! Be joyful, O earth! And break out in singing, O mountains! For the LORD has comforted His people, And will have mercy on His afflicted." ''' =

'That You may say to the prisoners,' - those Israelites in captivity...

'Go forth' - in the sense of commanding them, and all mankind, to go forth from all over the world to the land of Israel, evidently to return to the Promised Land to be gathered there before the LORD's chosen Servant.

'To those who are in darkness,' - darkness in the sense of those who are Gentiles who needed the Light of God's revelation about Himself and His salvation - which is in His chosen Servant, (Isa 49:6) ...

'Show yourselves. They shall feed along the roads, And their pastures shall be on all desolate heights' in the sense of the LORD providing food even along the roads, and pastures on high ground, formerly desolate heights which would be restored - all implying unprecedented and eternal prosperity, (Isa 49:8-9).

The LORD continued to expound upon the time of "the salvation to the ends of the earth," (ref. v. 6): "They shall neither hunger nor thirst - [no more hunger or thirst anywhere on the Earth, implying major and eternal changes in the Earth's topography, climate, etc.]. Neither [scorching wind] nor sun shall strike them [down] - implying a worldwide beneficent climate]. For He Who has mercy on them will lead them, Even by the springs of water He will guide them. I will make each of My mountains a road, And My highways shall be elevated - [implying major restoration and beneficent changes to the Earth's topography that are everlasting in nature]. Surely these shall come from afar; Look! Those from the north and the west, And these from the land of Sinim - [implying coming to Israel to receive the blessings and the salvation of the LORD, (ref. Isa 49:5), corroborating that salvation is for all peoples]

Note that the country named Sinim is implied as very remote from Israel, yet known in Israel, suggesting Persia or some other country from afar.

In verse 13, the LORD declares for the heavens to sing, the earth to be joyful, the mountains to sing because He will have comforted His people, and will have had mercy on His afflicted - referring to Israel, (Isa 49:10-13). Note that the Everlasting Kingdom of God is in view - a sign of the fulfillment of the New Covenant!]

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G) 3333G (Isa 52:10, 13-15) The LORD's Servant - His Holy Arm Will Bring Salvation To All Mankind. This Servant Of God Acts Wisely. He Has Been Greatly Exalted, Yet His Appearance Was Inhumanly Disfigured. Some Will Choose To Believe In Him For Salvation And He Will Cleanse Their Sins Implying His Personal Atonement For All Of Mankind So That They May Make That Choice. So The Arm Of The LORD Has Evidently Been Revealed To All Mankind - Jews And Gentiles Alike. Most Will Not Chose To Hear About Him

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(Isa 52:10 NKJV) "The LORD has made bare His Holy Arm In the eyes of all the nations; And all the ends of the earth shall see The Salvation of our God."

  [The first phrase of Isa 52:10, "The LORD has made bare His Holy Arm In the eyes of all the nations" has the sense that the LORD has revealed His Holy Arm to the eyes of all nations - for all mankind to see Him, which is corroborated in the second phrase, "And all the ends of the earth," i.e., all the nations - all mankind "shall see the Salvation of our God" - shall see the Salvation of God as embodied in the Person of the Holy Arm of the LORD. The time when this revelation of the Holy Arm of the LORD to all mankind from the ends of the earth, throughout history will see the Salvation of our God will evidently not be within the mortal lives of all mankind. For the message of Isaiah chapter 53 which follows repeatedly indicates that few will see or even become acquainted with, much less believe in the salvation of "our God" during their mortal lives. So then the only time when people from "all nations" throughout the ages from "the ends of the earth shall see the Salvation of our God, the Holy Arm of the LORD made bare in the sense of revealed to all mankind, can only be when all unbelieving people are gathered together after their mortal lives are over - at judgment.

Note that the "our" in "our God," refers to those of Israel who believe in God's plan of salvation through His Holy Arm. For it is the Jewish prophet Isaiah who has written this psalm in chapters 52-53 for Jewish believers to sing and proclaim the message of the Salvation of the LORD to the world.

As this passage continues through chapter 53, it is indicated that the Servant of the LORD, His Holy Arm, (Isa 52:13), will provide that salvation through His personal atonement for the sins of all mankind to anyone who will choose to believe in Him for it unto eternal life - Jew or Gentile, (Isa 53:1-12)]

(Isa 52:13 YLT) "[Behold], My Servant [acts] wisely, He is [exalted], and [has] been lifted up], And [has] been [greatly exalted]."

  [The LORD's Servant, portrayed as the LORD's Holy Arm of Salvation in Isa 52:10, is described in v. 13 as One Who acts wisely. God's Servant - His Holy Arm of salvation - will have the wisdom to accomplish successfully what God has sent Him to do - to provide for the availability of Salvation to all mankind through faith in Him for it, (Isa 52:10 & 53:1). The Servant's wisdom was incredibly self-denying. It meant accepting the determined will of God and willingly shouldering a burden of unimaginable suffering to make salvation possible for mankind. This evidently will result in His supreme exaltation. For there is a threefold emphatic repetition in this regard, "He is exalted, and has been lifted up and has been greatly exalted." The Servant of the LORD will be exalted as only God will be exalted - seated at the Right Hand of God, (cf. Acts 5:31; Heb 10:12).

Note that some contend that Isa 52:13 through chapter 53 refers to Israel, or to the godly remnant of Israel or to the prophet Isaiah himself as God's Servant, the Holy Arm of the LORD. But the prophet Isaiah pictures Israel as sinful, suffering because of her sins and accountable for her own sins. For that reason, Israel is neither able to pay for her own sins, nor for the sins of others, nor to provide salvation for herself, nor for all the nations of the world, (Isa 52:10). It will require a sinless, atoning sacrifice for sins, which neither Israel collectively, nor any man born of Adam is capable nor qualified to do - all men born of Adam have sinned and are constantly committing sins, (Gen 8:21; Eccl 7:20; Jer 17:9; Ps 51:5; Job 14:1-4). Even the godly remnant of believers is still sinful. Only God's Servant, His Holy Arm of salvation, the Righteous One is without sin, (cf. Isa 53:9, 11), and in His sinless perfection is qualified to be an atoning sacrifice for the sins of mankind.

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The doctrine of substitutionary atonement / payment for someone elses's sins is not a false doctrine as some contend - some even maintaining that Israel is in view as the Servant of the LORD which suffered because of the sinful persecution upon them by the Gentile nations.

For example, in Exodus 12 just prior to Israel's exodus from Egypt, God instituted the Passover observance in which the blood of the lamb of the Passover served as a substitutionary sacrifice for the Israelites' firstborn sons. The sacrifice forestalled the penalty of death for those who were within the household - especially the firstborn sins, protecting the household from divine wrath. According to v. 12, the LORD would execute judgment as He passed through the land of Egypt. Israelites who followed the instructions and applied the blood of the slaughtered lamb to the doorposts of their houses would escape that judgment, (vv. 13, 23, 27). Indeed the Israelites did escape death, (v. 30). In v. 12 it stipulates that the death of the firstborn of Egypt provided judgment against the gods of the Egyptians. Ezek 20:4-10 indicates that the Israelites participated in idolatry while in Egypt, (esp. vv. 7-8; cf Jos 24:14) - a punishment due to them for which the blood of the sacrificed lamb was substituted.

Secondly, the Book of Leviticus provides a means for sinners to be accepted and to enter God's presence through levitical sacrifices and festivals.

For example, the Day of Atonement which exceeds all others in its significance to Israel's relationship to the LORD, was the climax and crown of Israel's theology of sanctification. Its historical setting belongs to God's judgment on Nadab and Abihu (Lev 10:1-20) - a stark reminder of the holiness of God and its incompatibility with human sinfulness. Emphasis thus fell on the necessity of atonement even for the priests' own sins. If the priests were defiled, they could not mediate between the people and God. Without mediators, sinful Israelites could not approach God's presence and the Presence of God could not continue to reside in their midst. The "scapegoat" symbolized the removal of sin from the presence of God's glory in the midst of His people. The laying of hands on the head of the goat (Lev 16:21-22), outwardly depicted transference of sins from Israel to the living goat. It served as their substitute - condemned to die in the wilderness, isolated from Israel. The scapegoat carried upon it 'all the iniquities' of the Israelites, (Lev 16:22). In addition, Lev 16:24, 29-34 indicate that the entire ritual, not simply the scapegoat procedure, atones for the sins of the priests and the people. Thus the Day of Atonement anticipated the Messiah's propitiatory sacrifice in His Humanity, the actual Human substitutionary atonement for all mankind by the blood of a Human, as depicted in Isaiah 53:1ff. So God suspended the penalty in the light of sins ultimate, full removal through the Messiah's / the Servant of the LORD's perfect and complete atonement for all mankind. Suspension of the penalty applied equally to believer and unbeliever alike within Israel.

The Day of Atonement was the central observance of the levitical system. It emphasizes, more than any other observance, the holiness of God and the sinfulness of His people. For Israel the Day of Atonement provided cleansing or purification so that they might have access to the presence of the LORD. It emphasized the lack of direct access to God by anyone at any time under the Mosaic Law. Therefore, the Day of Atonement is the point of comparison with regard to the sacrificial work of the Servant of the LORD, Jesus Christ in Isa 53:1ff. The Day of Atonement expiated the nation Israel's sins, cleansed the sanctuary from the pollution caused by those sins, and removed those sins from the community.

Another example of the Hebrew word transliterated "kappEr" rendered "atonement" is that it represents the phenomenon of the 'substitute' or 'ransom,' the substance to which the sin is transferred and thereupon suspended / eliminated when the final substitutional atonement is made via a representative Perfect Human, (ref. Isa 52:13-53:12). The stituations in which this term carries this meaning include the law of census in which the ransom averts the penalty of plague when the law is violated, (Exod 30:12-16), laws regarding homicide in which death is the penalty for the crime (Num 35:31; Dt 21:1-9); the matter of the Levites guarding the sanctuary's sanctity so that there will be no wrath or plague or death on the congregation (Num 1:53; 8:19; 18:22-23 - cp. the case of Phinehas, Num 3:32 and 25:11), the inability of Babylon to ransom herself from divine judgment (Isa 47:11; cf. Ps 49), and blood's sacrificial and atoning significance (Lev 17:11). Thus the use of the term "kappEr" explicitly related to both substitution and penalty.

Then the text of Isa 52:13-53:12 describes the sufferings of the Servant of the LORD whose griefs and sorrows and transgressions are not His own. That fact appears to identify the Servant's sufferings as substitutionary (cp., v. 4, "our griefs He Himself bore, And our sorrows He carried"). The substitutionary imagery of verse 6c ("the LORD has caused the iniquity of us all to fall on Him") is drawn straight from Leviticus chapter 16. The language of Isa 53 clearly includes the penal aspect (cp. v. 5, "pierced... crushed... chastising ... scourging"). So the sufferings of the Servant of the LORD are not because of the sins of others deliberately committed upon the Servant such as the persecution by Gentile nations, as some contend. The sufferings of others were borne / carried by the Servant, (Heb. "nAsA" = borne, carried, (v. 4)is in view in Isa 52:13-53:12).

According to Scripture the LORD's Servant meets all the requirements for being a substitutionary sacrifice:

(1) identification with condemned sinners (Isa 53:8, "For the transgression of My people, to whom the stroke was due"

(2) being blameless and without any stain or spot to mar His sacrifice (Isa 53:9, "He had done no violence. Nor was there any deceit in His mouth.")

(3) and being acceptable to the LORD, (Isa 53:10, "But the LORD was pleased to crush Him, putting Him to grief ... as a guilt offering," (and not as an act by Gentiles of persecution toward Israel, as some contend).

Finally, Isa 9:6-7 and 49:1ff depict a single Human being Who is God, the Servant of the LORD, the Holy Arm of the LORD Who will be a child born to Israel: to Israel a Son will He be given, (Isa 9:6). The LORD will make Him to be a polished (lit., purified) [sinless] shaft, Who was formed by the LORD in the womb to be His Servant to bring Jacob [the people of Israel] back to the LORD, So that Israel is gathered to His Servant. The Servant will raise up the tribes of Jacob, restore the preserved ones [the remnant of believers] of Israel. And the LORD will also give His Servant as a light to the Gentiles, that He should be the Salvation of the LORD to the ends of the earth - to be the salvation of all mankind. And the LORD will give His Servant as a covenant to the people, to restore the earth, (Isa 49:1-8).

The government will be upon His shoulder. His name will be called Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace. Of the increase of His government and peace There will be no end, Upon the throne of David and over His kingdom, To order it and establish it with judgment and justice From that time forward, even forever, (ref. Isa 9:6-7 ).

And it is He Who will willingly choose to suffer completely for the propitiation of the sins of all mankind. Israel cannot and will not repent, much less atone for all of her sins, collectively or individually, as some contend. For even if Israel did not repent, repentance does not pay for sins committed in the past. One good deed does not erase a bad deed.]

G cont.) 3333G cont. (Isa 52:10, 13-15 cont.) The LORD's Servant - His Holy Arm Will Bring Salvation To All Mankind. This Servant Of God Acts Wisely. He Has Been Greatly Exalted, Yet His Appearance Was Inhumanly Disfigured. Some Will Choose To Believe In Him For Salvation And He Will Cleanse Their Sins Implying His Personal Atonement For All Of Mankind So That They May Make That Choice. So The Arm Of The LORD Has Evidently Been Revealed To All Mankind - Jews And Gentiles Alike. Most Will Not Chose To Hear About Him, (cont.)

(Isa 52:14 HCSB) "Just as many [have been astonished] at You - His appearance was so disfigured that He did not look like a man, and His form did not resemble a human being -"

  [In the first part of Isa 52:14, it states "Just as many have been astonished at You [the Servant, the Holy Arm of the LORD]," in the sense of many people seeing His visible appearance - His inhumanly, disfigured appearance, evidently a result of His being beaten during His suffering for mankind's iniquities, (Isa 52:10;  53:1-5). Consequently they will be astonished about Who He now appears to be - the Son of God exalted in His resurrected and glorified Humanity: the Servant / the Son of God in His glory on His throne in heaven. Since all mankind throughout history who have not believed in Him could not have been present at the time and place when the Servant of the LORD was performing His mission in His Humanity on earth when they might have observed Him and been astonished at His appearance - Who He is, then the afterlife of all of mankind who have not believed in Him for salvation must be in view. This would be a time of their judgment before God when He appears to them in His resurrected and glorified Humanity - the Servant / the Son of God - God in His glory on His throne in heaven. The word "many" refers to most of mankind throughout history who will not have believed in Him for salvation. Their unbelieving mindset in this passage is evidenced by their not having acknowledged Who He was and what He did for them and by their being astonished when they see Him in His resurrected glory, (cf. vv 14-15). The first phrase of Isa 52:14, "Just as many [have been astonished] at You -", is linked with "He will sprinkle many nations," of verse 15 which the latter implies that all men of all nations will be cleansed of sin, (cf. Isa 53:5-6). But many, i.e., most of humanity will not have believed in Him throughout their mortal lives. Their sins will have been washed away but they will not be personally forgiven of those sins because they had never believed in Him, considering the context in vv. 14-15. Hence they will not receive eternal life. The vast majority of people throughout history will be so irretrievably entrenched in their own religious / philosophical systems that they will not be disposed to consider much less believe in God's plan of salvation through a moment of faith in His Servant - His Holy Arm of salvation alone, whether told about Him or not, (cf. Isa 53:1). They will have lived out their lives choosing not to consider Who He is. All of mankind who have not believed in Him evidently after their mortal lives are over will have been shown in the afterlife Who He is - the Son of God in His resurrected and glorified Humanity on the throne of God in heaven - the Servant / the Holy Arm of the LORD / the Salvation of mankind. Then having discovered Who He is at judgment, it will be astonishing and devastating to them.

Among the peoples and kings of the world, He was not to be well remembered because He would have neither worldwide worldly fame nor worldly glory. His life would be a humble one - His mission was a spiritual one which required His physical execution unto death in order to physically and spiritually die for the sins of all mankind throughout the world - to the ends of the earth, (cf. Isa 49:6; 52:10). At the time of the completion of His mission, His physical appearance as a result of fulfilling His mission was described as so disfigured that he would not be recognizable as a man, pointing to being so mistreated as to cause such an extreme appearance. His devastating appearance will reveal the severity of the beating which He would receive prior to His work of redemption for the sins of mankind, i.e., His crucifixion (cf. Matt. 27:27-31; Mark 15:15-20; John 19:1f). Most who were witnesses of Him in the first century, considering His inhuman, disfigured appearance, did not believe in Who He claimed to be, nor what He claimed to have done.

Note that this verse cannot have in view the Gentile nations looking down upon Israel, the Servant, as such a disfigured race of people - so ugly that they collectively appeared to be inhuman in order to force the idea that the Servant is Israel. The millions of the Jewish and other Semitic races have a wide range of appearances that do not collectively appear to be so markedly different from other races that they might be thought of as so disfigured as to be inhuman looking. Nor is this idea supported in Scripture as the reason why the Gentile nations will be astonished when they see Israel in her exalted glory as God's chosen people at the fulfillment of the New Covenant brought about by the Servant of the LORD, the Arm of God ]

(Isa 52:15 YLT) "So [does] He sprinkle many nations. Concerning Him kings shut their mouths, For that which was not recounted to them they have seen, And that which they had not heard they have understood!"

  [Isa 52:15 continues the context of the peoples and kings of the world at judgment. Note that the Hebrew verb form transliterated "yazzeh" which has the Hiphil stem, is in the imperfect tense, masculine, singular. It is best translated "So does He sprinkle many nations" in the sense of cleansing them of their sins, (cf. Lev 4:6; 8:11: 14:7, Ez 36:25-30). The phrase "many nations," (Isa 52:15), refers to all the nations of the world - not just Israel, not just the Gentile nations, as some contend in order to force the verse to imply that the Arm of the LORD, of His salvation for mankind is Israel. It does not continue the unscriptural notion that the Gentiles being astonished at the Israel the Gentiles viewed as inhuman being God's chosen people when they enter into His Eternal Kingdom as God's chosen people in exalted glory, (Isa 52:14), that they will become startled all the more at this people whom they have persecuted so much. This is an unsubstantiated meaning of "yazzeh" which does not fit the context of this passage, for the Servant of the LORD is spoken of as not having been recounted or understood of who He is. The Servant cannot be Israel because the Gentiles have known of Israel whom they have persecuted recounted to them. Furthermore, Israel is not qualified to cleanse anyone of sins, including themselves.

So most of the peoples of the world - kings included - will be silenced because of what had not been told to them evidently in their mortal lives, for now they see Him - Who He is - for themselves - in the afterlife at judgment. And now what they had not heard about Him, they now understand. For He was considered by the world as of no import. But now - too late - they must consider the truth of the matter that He had cleansed many in the sense of all peoples of all the nations of the world of their sins, which forgiveness they had not accepted for themselves while in their mortal lives by a moment of faith in Him for that forgiveness unto eternal life.

So the kings and the peoples of the world throughout history when they see Him exalted at the right hand of God evidently in the afterlife at judgment will have their mouths collectively shut - so astonished they would be at their miscalculation of Who the Arm of the LORD is and what He had done for them - too late, evidently in the afterlife. This is not to say that any individual who might have chosen in his mortal lifetime to believe in Servant to provide salvation would not have been told Who He was during his mortal lifetime so that he would know and believe before he died. But it is implied that the vast majority of people throughout history will be so irretrievably entrenched in their own religious / philosophical systems that they will not be disposed to consider much less believe in God's plan of salvation through His Servant - His Holy Arm of salvation, whether told about Him or not, (cf. Isa 53:1)]

H) 3333H (Isa 53:1-4) Throughout History Few Will Have Believed In The Report Of Salvation Through The Arm Of The LORD Which Is Revealed To All Mankind Throughout History And At Judgment - The One Who Has Grown Up In His Humanity Before The LORD With No Stately Form Or Attractive Appearance, Despised And Forsaken - A Man Of Sorrows And Grief, Without Esteem Among Men. He Has Taken Up Mankind's Pain, Borne Our Suffering. Yet He Is Considered Punished And Afflicted By God

(Isa 53:1 NKJV) "Who has believed our report? And to whom has the Arm of the LORD been revealed?"

  [The context of Isa 52:10; 13-15 continues to be the subject in chapter 3: that of the Salvation of the LORD via the Holy Arm of the LORD which will have been seen throughout all the ends of the earth - the Servant of the LORD who will act wisely and be greatly exalted. Unbelieving mankind will have been astonished at Him at judgment - at seeing Him in His exalted glory, His appalling appearance testifying to His sacrifice which provided the sprinkling / the washing away of the sins of the world. And they will now understand with astonishment at the Servant of the LORD, as He sits before them in His exalted glory on His throne.

So with this in mind, two questions are asked in Isa 53:1, evidently by the remnant of believing Jewish messengers to whom the message was given by the LORD, "Who has believed our report?" = the message of the sacrificial death of the Servant, the Holy Arm of the LORD Who has sprinkled / cleansed of sin all mankind to provide for their salvation by individual faith; and the second question, "And to whom has the Arm of the LORD been revealed?"

The words rendered "our report" in the phrase "Who has believed our report" evidently refer to the few Jews - the remnant of believers in the Servant - who were given the message / the report of salvation through the Holy Arm = the Servant of the LORD by God - the embodiment of the power of God exhibited through His atonement for the sins of all mankind. This was the message / the report that the remnant of Jewish believers were given by God to spread throughout the world at this time in human history and throughout the age - largely through the message of the Jewish prophets such as Isaiah who is included in the phrase rendered "our report," as well as the remnant of Jewish believers for whom this psalm in Isaiah was written as an instructional song to sing in the congregation. Note that the same message that Isaiah wrote about originated with Abraham and Moses and the prophets as evidenced in Scripture; especially embodied in passages about the covenants that God made with Israel referring to the Servant, the Seed of Abraham .

When the message of chapters 52-53 is carefully considered, the first question of Isa 53:1, "Who has believed our report [i.e., our message]" implies that the Jewish believers' remnant to whom the message of the Salvation of mankind was given, laments that only a few individuals, Jew and Gentile, throughout the ages will believe in the Holy Arm of the LORD for salvation; confirming that a moment of faith in the Servant of the LORD, His Holy Arm, is the one and only essential response needed for each one to personally benefit from the Servant's atonement of mankind's sins.

It was emphasized in Isa 52:10, 13-15 that there would be nothing significant about the Servant of God, (cf. Isa 52:13), the Holy Arm of the LORD's appearance or what He does that will attract the attention of the peoples of the world to believe in Him. Whereupon the message of Isaiah in chapter 52 continues to be made and completed in chapter 53 relative to the Servant of God / the Holy Arm of the LORD making provision for the sprinkling / the cleansing of the sins of all mankind and of Him being raised up and exalted by the LORD. Each individual who chooses to "believe" (Isa 52:13-15; 53:1), in the Servant of the LORD for a personal atonement for ones sins will receive forgiveness of all of ones sins implying the reception of eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God - as opposed to the judgment of those who do not believe and are astonished when they see the Servant at their judgment.

So in consideration of the question, "Who has believed our message," author Isaiah asks another question: "And to whom has the Arm of the LORD been revealed?" This second question implies that only a few have been given the message / the report of salvation through the Holy Arm, the Servant of the LORD which first was given by the LORD to the remnant of Jews who believe in the LORD's provision of salvation through the Seed of Abraham, beginning with Abraham himself and as reported in Scripture. And only a few individuals - a remnant of Jews (Isa 10:20-23 ) and Gentiles as well, (cf. Acts 15:16-17; Mt 7:13) i.e., only a remnant of mankind throughout the ages from the time of Adam and Eve will actually choose to seek and receive this revelation / this report and believe in it. The rest of humanity will not be disposed to consider the message, much less believe in it as true. They will be astonished when they learn the truth after their mortal lives are over. They will face that truth when they see the Embodiment of that truth: the resurrected Holy Arm / the Servant of the LORD - the exalted Son of God on His throne at Judgment]

(Isa 53:2 NASB) "For He [grows] up before Him [the LORD], like a tender shoot, And like a root out of parched ground; He has no stately form or majesty That we should look upon Him, Nor appearance that we should be attracted to Him."

  [Though lamenting the fact that few people will believe (Isa 53:1), the remnant of Jewish believers will realize that nothing about the Servant's appearance would generate popularity, much less faith in His Salvation for them, (ref. Isa 53:3). Isa 52:2 which reads, "For He [grows] up before Him [the LORD] like a tender shoot, And like a root out of parched ground; He has no stately form or majesty that we should look upon Him, Nor appearance that we should be attracted to Him," indicates that the Servant is a Descendant of Jesse, David's father, (Isa 11:1). And Jesus is stipulated as being a Descendant through David . And as a root out of dry ground, that is, from an arid area symbolizing where one would not expect a large plant to grow. His physical appearance was not like a royal person of beauty and majesty which might have attracted interest among the population of the time when He was in His Humanity before the cross.

Isa 53:2 further stipulates that He would grow up before Him [the LORD] as a tender plant, i.e., coming from the line of Jesse through David ; and as a root out of dry ground, implying hardship even from His youth as He grew up in His Humanity, One Who would not amount to much in the world relative to worldly power and wealth. The words rendered "tender shoot, and like a root, ties the Servant to the earlier Messianic prophecies such as in Isa 11:1-16 which portrays the Servant, the Holy Arm of the LORD bringing about the return of the remnant of believers of Judah and Ephraim (Israel) together and back forever into the Promised Land ; and Personified as the fulfillment of the New Covenant (Isa 49:8).

So the Servant, the Holy Arm of the LORD would not amount to much until He completed His mission of providing atonement for the sins of all mankind - the Salvation of God through Him. Then there will be exaltation and glory for Him, (Ref. Isa 52:12-13). It further describes Him as having no form, nor comeliness, i.e., He would not have the stereotype of a royal person or majesty, nor beauty that one should desire Him - again having in view one Who would not be especially sought after, or viewed as amounting to much in a worldly sense.

There was nothing in His appearance, nor mighty worldly deeds, such as military feats, nor rulership of great kingdoms / empires nor accumulation of great wealth that would attract great numbers of people of the world to believe in and follow him]

(Isa 53:3 NASB) "He was despised and forsaken [= rejected] of men, A Man of sorrows and acquainted with grief; And like One from Whom men hide their face He was despised, and we did not esteem Him."

  [Isa 53:3 declares that the Arm / the Servant of the LORD would be "despised and rejected by men. A Man of sorrows and acquainted with grief." The words rendered "sorrows" refers to the sorrows of pain and suffering] and "acquainted with grief," refers to the grief of sickness and suffering. Notice that His Humanity is in view. People who were there when His Humanity was present on the earth as onlookers while He was suffering for the sins of all mankind would not look upon Him. It was if they were hiding their faces from Him - especially those who had rejected Him with great animosity and often with mockery. He was despised, people did not esteem Him - in the sense that Who He was was vehemently rejected and despised by those of His time - mostly Jews. His actual physical suffering for their iniquities is evidently in view, described as "sorrows," and "pains," or "sickness," (ref. Isa 53:5-6). People, especially those that despised Him would turn to face the other way rather than to gaze upon Him as He suffered so]

(Isa 53:4 NIV) "Surely He [has taken up] our pain and bore our suffering, yet we [have] considered him punished by God, stricken by Him, and afflicted."

  [Isa 53:4 concludes "Surely he [has taken up] our pain and [has borne] our suffering, yet we [have] considered him punished by God, stricken by Him, and afflicted" in the sense that the prophet was speaking for all mankind: that people mistakenly had considered that He was not taking up their sins but being punished for His own transgressions. He was considered having been convicted of a capital crime, considering the method of His death was designed for such offenses . The writer concludes that His suffering was not for any sins of His own, but for "our," i.e., mankind's sins, (cf. Isa 52:13-15; 53:4), described here as taking up "our" pain and bearing "our suffering." This evidently referred to the eternal pain and suffering individuals who have trusted in Him would have been subjected to had the Servant not taken it upon Himself to suffer that eternal pain for all of mankind.

This does not have in view being healed of temporal suffering and sickenesses, as some contend. It does have in view being healed of ones iniquities, i.e., ones sins; i.e., of being spiritually healed which is clear from the words, "transgressions," (vv. 5, 8); "iniquities," (vv. 5, 11); "iniquity," (v. 6); "wicked," (v. 9); "transgressors," (v. 12 twice); and "sin," (v. 12); and not healed physically as some contend. For physical healing has not been a part of the context of this passage. Believers even faithful ones still suffer physically while in their mortal bodies. On the other hand once an individual has been totally healed of sin, wherein their being no longer has the capacity to commit sins - which is not today in this age until resurrection, then physical ailments will not be an intrinsic part of ones being.]

I) 3333I (Isa 53:5-6) The Holy Arm Of The LORD, The Salvation Of Our God, His Servant Was Pierced For Mankind's Transgressions, Crushed For All Of Their Iniquities. The Chastisement For The Purpose Of Establishing Mankind's Peace With God Falls Upon Him. By His Scourging All Mankind Is Healed Spiritually From Their Sins. For All Mankind Have Gone Astray / Sinned. And The LORD Has Laid On Him The Iniquity Of All Mankind

(Isa 53:5 NASB) "But He was pierced through for our transgressions, He was crushed for our iniquities; The [chastisement] for our [peace = absence of conflict and strife with God] [falls] upon Him, And by His scourging [= stripes] we are healed."

  [The remnant of Jewish believers who were entrusted by God with the report / the message through the prophets, such as Isaiah, goes on to say in Isa 53:5 that instead of paying for His own sins (of which He had none, (ref. Isa 53:9b), "He was pierced through for our transgressions;" the prophet here  writing / speaking on behalf of all mankind, (Isa 52:10). This was evidently a literal / physical reference to being nailed to the cross, (Jn 19:18), and pierced with a Roman spear, (Jn 19:34). And "He was crushed," in the sense of physically and spiritually being destroyed unto death - for our / all mankind's iniquities - a physical and emotional destruction.

The word "peace" in the phrase rendered "The chastisement for our peace falls upon Him" signifies that the Servant, the Holy Arm of the LORD took upon Himself God's chastisement / God's punishment for mankind's ["our"] sins in order to reconcile man to God with the result of providing eternal peace between God and man - those who trust in the Servant's sacrifice for forgiveness of sins. So peace here is defined as the absence of an individual's conflict and strife with the LORD God because of unforgiven sins which place him under the eternal wrath of God. So those who will choose to trust alone in the atonement work of the Servant alone will have eternal peace with God, (ref. Isa 53:1). The peace in view is an eternal peace - a positional eternal peace wherein one is in an eternal position with God, no longer under His eternal wrath which is reserved for unbelievers. It is not necessarily a temporal experience which depends upon the believer being in fellowship with God moment to moment in his temporal life, beginning first with trusting in the Servant alone for eternal life to become a believer; and thereafter through confession of sins and consequent faithfulness as David wrote about, (Ps 32:1-11 ).

The phrase rendered, "And by His scourging, [i.e., stripes] we are healed," indicates that the Servant of the LORD would be severely whipped - scourged - as part of the punishment He would suffer for the sins of mankind.

The phrase has in view being healed of ones iniquities, i.e., ones sins; i.e., of being spiritually healed which is clear from the words,  "transgressions," (vv. 5, 8); "iniquities," (vv. 5, 11); "iniquity," (v. 6); "wicked," (v. 9); "transgressors," (v. 12 twice); and "sin," (v. 12); and not healed physically as some contend. For physical healing has not been a part of the context of this passage. Believers even faithful ones still suffer physically while in their mortal bodies. On the other hand once an individual has been totally healed of sin, wherein their being no longer has the capacity to commit sins, then physical ailments will not be an intrinsic part of ones being - which is not today in this age until resurrection, then physical ailments will not be an intrinsic part of ones being.

Notice a singular, masculine individual human being is in view Who was pierced and crushed not only for the "people" of Israel but for "many nations," i.e., for the salvation of all mankind including Israel, (ref. Isa 52:10, 15). Hence all of mankind's transgressions are in view being put upon a single individual human being, and not upon Israel, nor upon the prophets nor upon a remnant of believers, as some contend. An individual is in view Who "was cut off out of the land of the living," [i.e., He was executed for the transgression of My people [and all people, (Isa 52:10, 15)] to whom the blow was due," (Isa 53:8). He was not only executed by His people when they sinned and murdered Him, not only by the Gentiles when they sinned and murdered Him, but also because of the sins of His people and all the nations of the world, taking the blow - the punishment for their sins - in their stead, to atone for their sins. Therefore, in view in Isa 53:5 is not the Servant being Israel, because the verse would deteriorate into nonsense because Israel or any group of humans cannot take upon itself their own sins in substution for themselves]

(Isa 53:6 NKJV) "All we like sheep have gone astray; We have turned, every one, to his own way; And the LORD has laid on Him the iniquity [the sum of a collection of sins, i.e., all kinds of and the sum total of the sins of all mankind] of us all."

  [Notice that all mankind is in view - again the prophet / writer is speaking for all of mankind, not just Israel or the remnant of believers, as some contend - corroborating that the entire passage has all mankind throughout history in view relative to for whom the Servant paid for sins. So it is all of mankind which is contaminated with sin. They have all been in sin with sin natures who commit acts of sin all the time. And like sheep we all follow one another into sin - one sin after the other. No one is without sin, except the Righteous One, the Servant of the LORD, (Isa 53:11). So verses 5 & 6 stipulate that the Servant was crushed for all of mankind's iniquities, i.e., for all sins committed both conscious and unaware, past, present and future for all time. But because of the Servant's atoning sacrifice, no one is going to be held accountable for paying for his own sins - even the worst of us. On the other hand, each person must be forgiven of his sins unto eternal life  so that he will not remain a sinner after his mortal life is over. So it is by a moment of faith in the Servant that one will be given the gift of the Righteousness of God, as Abraham experienced , and thereby be resurrected after death into a perfect sinless being, thereby qualifying that person to be with God in eternity in the Eternal Kingdom of God ]

J) 3333J (Isa 53:7-9) The Holy Arm Of The LORD, The Salvation Of Our God, His Servant, Despite His Innocence, He Has Been Oppressed And Afflicted. He Did Not Open His Mouth: Like A Lamb That Is Led To Slaughter - Like A Sheep That Is Silent Before Its Shearers. By Oppression And False Judgment He Has Been Taken Away, And Executed For The Transgressions Of His People, To Whom That Punishment Was Due - Few Of Whom Considered Him At All. His Grave Was To Be With The Wicked, But He Was Buried In A Tomb Assigned For The Rich. He Had Done No Violence, Neither Was There Any Deceit In His Mouth - Without Sin

(Isa 53:7 NASB) "He [has been] oppressed and He is afflicted, Yet He [does not] open His mouth; Like a lamb that is led to slaughter, And like a sheep that is silent before its shearers, So He [does not] open His mouth."

  [He was oppressed - persecuted in the sense of one who is innocent, i.e., without sin, yet persistently attacked as if guilty. And He was afflicted - tortured. And through this, the Arm = the Strength and Representative of God submitted to the sacrifice of Himself willingly as a sheep led to the slaughter - in silence, without complaint. In consideration of the fact that there was absolutely no legal case against Him, as a matter of fact there was no legal basis for His trial  at all. And there was a complete lack of evidence against Him; nevertheless He did not attempt to defend Himself, but went willingly to His sacrifice. He was sacrificed for the sins of the whole world so as to bring to mankind - Jew and Gentile alike - the availability of eternal and temporal peace and spiritual healing = eternal forgiveness of their sins - all through believing in this availability through His sacrifice for forgiveness of one's sins, (v. 1)]

(Isa 53:8 ASV) "By oppression and judgment he [has been] taken away; and as for his generation, who among them considered that he was cut off out of the land of the living for the transgression of My people to whom the [blow] was due?"

  [The Servant would be unjustifiably oppressed - unlawfully arrested, bound and taken away as a prisoner to die. He would evidently be illegally tried, judged and sentenced to die - not because of any sins of His own, (for He was without sin, (ref. Isa 53:9, 11); but for the sins of His people and not only for the sins of Israel, but for all mankind from the ends of the earth, (cf. Isa 52:10, 15), to whom such a punishment He received, was due. The phrase rendered, "and as for his generation, who among them considered that he was cut off out of the land of the living for the transgression of My people [God's people, Israel] to whom the blow [ the death blow] was due," implies that those of His generation, His contemporaries did not consider that the reason for His death was in payment for the transgressions, the sins of the whole world, Jew and Gentile throughout the ages. Note that this verse cannot have in view Israel being the Servant of the LORD and being cut off from the land of the living due to the Gentile nations' undue transgressions upon them, as some contend. For that would make Israel extinct - cut off from life - unable to be restored to the Promised Land in mortal bodies, a key point of fulfillment of the New Covenant . Furthermore, the verse literally stipulates that it was for the transgressions of "My people," Israel [as well as all the nations of the world, (Isa 52:10, 13)] that the Servant paid for in suffering, i.e., for the blow that was due to "My people," not because of the transgressions of the Gentile nations which they committed in their persecution of Israel, as some contend. The gymnastics to arrive at this misinterpretation is largely motivated by the rejection of the idea of substitutionary atonement by God for man. But this then rejects the premise of the New Covenant which God has promised He will unilaterally fulfill without any contribution from His people or anyone - totally by His grace through His Servant .

The phrase rendered "And as for His generation who among them considered that He was cut off out of the land of the living for the transgressions of My people to whom the [blow] was due?" implies the answer that only a few of those who were living at the time that the Arm of the LORD, the Servant of God was executed gave any consideration that He was the salvation of God: that His death was payment for their sins unto eternal life]

(Isa 53:9 ASV) "And they [have] made his grave with the wicked, and with a rich man in his death; although he had done no violence, neither was any deceit in his mouth."

  [The Arm of God was evidently an individual Man; a Descendant of Israel, (cf. Isa 9:6-7); without violence, lies or sin: "He had done no violence, neither was any deceit in His mouth." (Isa 53:9d; cf. Isa 53:11: "The Righteous One"). He was oppressed, taken prisoner, illegally tried, judged nevertheless and declared guilty although innocent, and executed as if wicked. He was to be buried in a mass grave assigned for the "wicked" - for those who are guilty of a capital offense, (cf. Jn 19:31). But He would be buried instead in a grave which was assigned to someone who was rich, (Mt 27:57-61)]

K) 3333K (Isa 53:10-11) Yet It Pleased The LORD To Bruise [Crush] Him / Cause Him To Suffer The Grief Of Such A Physical And Spiritual Death As To Accomplish His Purpose Of An Offering For Sin For The Restoration Of Mankind To Himself Via The LORD's Servant's Atoning Sacrifice. Thereafter The LORD Shall Raise His Seed - His One And Only Son - From The Dead, And Prolong His Days Forever. And In His Hand, The LORD Will Take Pleasure In Prospering Him - In Exalting Him Forever

And As A Result Of The Anguish Of His Soul In His Physical And Spiritual Death For His Atonement For Sins, The Seed Of God, The Arm / The Servant Of The LORD, The One And Only Son Of God Will See What He Has Accomplished And Be Satisfied With That. For By The Knowedge - By A Moment Of Faith In Him - In His Atonement, The Righteous One - The One Without Sin Will Justify The Many - Those Who Have Believed, As He Has Borne Upon Himself Their Iniquities And Those Of All Mankind

(Isa 53:10 NKJV) "Yet it pleased the LORD to bruise Him; He has put Him to grief. When You make His soul an offering for sin, He shall see His Seed, He shall prolong His days, [referring to being raised from the dead] And the pleasure of the LORD shall prosper in His hand."

  [It pleased the LORD to "bruise" [Heb "dakkĕ' = "to crush"] Him - to cause Him to suffer physical and spiritual death in the sense of being pleased to accomplish His purpose through His Servant of restoring mankind to Himself via an atoning sacrifice for the sins of all mankind through those that choose to believe, (Isa 53:1-8). This "offering for sin," where the word for "guilt or sin offering" which is "AsAm," transliterated from the Hebrew, is used in Lev 5:15; 6:5; 19:21 and elsewhere as an offering to atone for sin. The statement, "When You [the LORD] make His [the Servant's] soul [life] an offering for sin," does not only mean that the sacrifice of the Servant's life satisfied the wrath of God against sin, but that the Servant's life which culminated in His death was sufficient sacrifice / atonement for all sins wherein it satisfied the righteous demands of the LORD in order to make provision for the justification of any man who trusted in that atonement. Thereafter He [the LORD] "shall see His Seed," in the sense of the LORD shall see His Son in His Humanity (Isa 9:6-7; Isa 49:5), be resurrected from the dead - no longer cut off out of the land of the living, (Isa 53:8); and He will prolong His days, referring to the Humanity of His One and only Son being raised from the dead to everlasting life. And the LORD shall take pleasure in prospering Him - in exalting Him forever, (ref. Isa 52:13) - all this by the hand of His Almighty power.

Note that the word rendered "Seed" does not refer to the seed of the Servant of the LORD in Isaiah 53 in the plural sense of the word so that those that believe in the Servant for salvation unto eternal life become children of God, born of God as in John 1:12, as some contend, because the context in Isaiah 53 does not address the issue of Jews and Gentiles becoming born of God, children of God when they believe in the One Who has provided atonement for ones sins. So the reader would not be informed within the context of the Book of Isaiah to draw that conclusion. On the other hand, the Seed as the one born of a woman, (Isa 49:1, 5), Who is both God and Man according to Isa 9:6-7, Isa 49:1-13 and Isa 52:10-53:12 build up the context to clearly support that the Seed is the One and only Son of God, born of a woman, both God and Man, the Redeemer of Israel, the Holy One of God, the Servant of the LORD, the Seed of God - Who has made atonement for the sins of all mankind; and through a moment of faith in Him alone each one will receive forgiveness of sins and eternal life.

So the physical death and burial of the Servant of the LORD - the Arm of the LORD - appeared to end His physical existence for those that crucified / opposed Him relative to His Humanity, (not His Diety as the Son of God, cf. Isa 9:6-7; Jn 1:1). For Isaiah 53:8 stipulates that He was "cut off" in the sense of being cut off out of the land of the living. On the other hand, verse 10 stipulates that He [the LORD] "shall see His Seed, [in the singular sense of the word] He shall prolong His days," i.e., He will resurrect His Humanity and the LORD God will prolong His days, i.e., live on forever as the Son of God in His Humanity, (His Deity is by nature eternal). So the Servant will be blessed (prosper; cf. Isa. 53:12a) because of His obedience to the will and plan of the LORD by the hand of His Almighty power]

(Isa 53:11 NASB) As a result of the anguish of His soul, He will see it and be satisfied; by [(the) knowledge of Him] the Righteous One, My Servant, will justify the many, As He will bear their iniquities.

  [As a result of the anguish of His [the Servant's] soul / of His life which has in view the suffering of being pierced for mankind's transgressions, crushed for all of their iniquities, (ref. Isa 53:5), He [the LORD God] will be satisfied, i.e., propitiated by the Servant's actions which resulted in all of mankind's sins being satisfactorily atoned for without violating God's Righteousness and Justice.

In the phrased rendered "by the knowledge of Him," has the Hebrew word transliterated "beda'att" = which can mean subjectively "by His knowledge," or objectively "by the knowledge of Him." According to the Masoretic markings, the phrase links to the words which follow it and thus it is best rendered "by [the] knowledge of Him" as opposed to "by His knowledge." So the former, rather than the latter rendering best suits the context as follows:

Since the context of this passage, (Isa 52:10-53:12) has One Who would provide Himself as a subsitutionary atonement, i.e., a sacrifice for the sins of all mankind by bearing all their iniquities, as the last phrase in the verse stipulates, (Isa 53:11c); so that a Savior, not a Teacher who has knowledge, would justify, i.e., declare righteous, those of mankind who have a knowledge of Him doing this for them, in the sense of those who believe in Him for it, (cf. Isa 52:15 and 53:1);

and since the context of this passage does not have an individual in view Who by His knowledge - solely by means of what He knows would on that basis alone justify the many - without any participation on the part of mankind such as requiring their expression of acceptance of His atonement for them, i.e., via a moment of faith - in a sense forcing this participation upon them involuntarily;

and since this second rendering of providing justification without the consent of the individual would violate the perfect justice of God Who cannot forgive sins without one accepting it in the sense of trusting in God for His payment for them;

then the correct rendering for the phrase in question would be that one is justified by the knowledge of Him, i.e., by a moment of faith alone in Who He is and what He did - that He bore ones iniquities.

Note that the Servant of God was stipulated as "the Righteous One" implying sinlessness - an absolutely necessary personal attribute in order to qualify to be an acceptable atoning sacrifice for the sins of mankind. Anyone less than perfect would neither qualify as a substitutionary atonement for sins, nor satisfy the Justice and Righteousness of God.

Notice that a singular, masculine individual human being is in view Who was wounded not only for the "people" of Israel but for "many nations," i.e., all mankind, (ref. Isa 52:10, 15; 53:5-6, 10-11); in order to that those of "all the nations," those of "all the ends of the earth," may see, i.e., be provided with the salvation of our God, (ref. Isa 49:6; 52:10). Hence all of mankind's transgressions are in view, with no limitations as some contend. For verses 5 & 6 and 10 & 11 stipulate that He was pierced for all of mankind's iniquities, i.e., for all sins committed both conscious and unaware, past, present and future for all time. Consider v. 11, the core of the gospel upon which all of the gospel passages in the bible are based: By the knowledge of Him, i.e., by a moment of faith in the Righteous Servant of God bearing their iniquities, an individual will be justified, i.e., declared to have the eternal righteousness of God unto [for] eternal life.

So here in Isaiah 52:13-53:11 is contained the gospel of eternal life. Israelites especially would know the content of Isaiah 53. If any individual, Jew or Gentile, in any age understands and accepts by a moment of faith alone in the gospel as presented in Isaiah chapter 53 alone they would be justified unto an eternal righteouness of God unto [for] eternal life].

L) 3333L (Isa 53:12) Therefore, In View Of The Victory Over Sin Via The Atoning Sacrifice Of The Seed Of The LORD, The LORD Will Divide Him A Portion Of That Victory Commensurate With The Great And The Strong; Because He Has Poured Out His Soul Unto Death For That Victory. While Numbered With The Transgressors, He Bore The Sin Of Many - Of All Of Mankind, And Made Intercession For The Transgressors - Which Numbers All Of Mankind

(Isa 53:12 NKJV) "Therefore I will divide Him a portion with the great, And He shall divide the spoil with the strong, Because He [has] poured out His soul unto death, And He [has been] numbered with the transgressors, And He [has borne] the sin of many, And [has] made intercession for the transgressors."

  [Having willingly followed the LORD's plan of salvation for mankind - having poured out Himself, lit., His soul, unto death, His Servant will be exalted (cf. 52:13). The phrase rendered, "I will divide Him a portion with the great, And He shall divide the spoil with the strong," pictures a general after winning a battle, sharing goods taken from the enemy. Because He was numbered with the transgressors, that is, was considered a sinner, i.e., because He allowed Himself to go to His death letting Himself be identified with sinful humankind - though He was treated as a rebel,  and bore the sin of many, that is, everyone - all mankind, (cf. Isa. 53:6); He was to be exalted. And the phrase rendered, "And He shall divide the spoil with the strong," implies that He will allow believers to share in the benefits of that exaltation. And because He is alive (cf. v. 10). And now He has made intercessions / prayers to God for transgressors.

So the Servant of the LORD will receive an inheritance of the dominion of the earth which will evidently be restored to mankind with the Servant of the LORD Who is both God and Man as Sovereign Ruler, (ref. Isa 9:6-7). And He will share His inheritance, (Ro 8:17), with all who have believed in Him for forgiveness of sins, (cf. Isa 53:1).

Notice that there is no restriction as to the number or kind of sins borne by the Arm of the LORD, as some contend. All the sins of all of mankind are in view - past, present and future - before one believes, if they do, and after one believes, if they do, (ref Isa 52:15). Because of the victory of the Seed of the LORD over sin, every individual human being has the opportunity to be eternally reconciled with God via a moment of faith alone in the sacrificial work of the Seed relative to sin alone.

Finally, the Servant here cannot be Israel, as some contend, because Israel is not going to be rewarded with the spoils after having paid for her own sins.

******

3) [Compare Isa 11:1-5]:

(v. 1) "A shoot will come up from the stump of Jesse; from his roots a Branch will bear fruit.

(v. 2) The Spirit of the LORD will rest on Him-- the Spirit of wisdom and of understanding, the Spirit of counsel and of power, the Spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD -

(v. 3) and He will delight in the fear of the LORD. He will not judge by what He sees with His eyes, or decide by what He hears with His ears;

(v. 4) but with righteousness He will judge the needy, with justice He will give decisions for the poor of the earth. He will strike the earth with the rod of His mouth; with the breath of His lips He will slay the wicked.

(v. 5) Righteousness will be His belt and faithfulness the sash around His waist."

Notice that a descendant of Jesse, David's father, is through the line of David. Hence this Man Who is God will be a descendant of David Who will rule the earth.

The rest of the passage indicates that the remnant of the believers of Judah and Ephraim (Israel) together will be recovered from the four corners of the earth to possess the Promised Land by the Shoot from the stem of Jesse in fulfillment of the New Covenant .


Old Testament Prophecies In Isa 52:13-53:12
Fulfilled in Jesus Christ
Isa 52:13
The Servant exalted
Acts 1:8-11; Eph 1:19-22; Phil 2:5-9
Isa 52:14  
The Servant shockingly abused   
Luke 18:31-34; Matt 26:67-68
Isa 52:15   
Nations startled by message of the Servant  
Luke 18:31-34; Matt 26:67-68
Isa 52:15  
His blood shed sprinkles nations   
Heb 9:13-14; Rev 1:5
Isa 53:1  
His people would not believe Him   
John 12:37-38
Isa 53:2   
Appearance of an ordinary man  
Phil 2:6-8
Isa 53:3a   
Despised   
Luke 4:28-29
Isa 53:3b     Rejected     Matt 27:21-23
Isa 53:3c     Great sorrow and grief     Matt 26:37-38; Luke 19:41; Heb 4:15
Isa 53:3d   Men hide from being associated with Him     Mark 14:50-52
Isa 53:4a    He would have a healing ministry     Matt 8:16-17
Isa 53:4b     Thought to be cursed by God     Matt 26:66; 27:41-43
Isa 53:5a     Bears penalty for mankind's iniquities     2 Cor 5:21; Heb 2:9
Isa 53:5b     His sacrifice provides peace between man and God     Col 1:20
Isa 53:5c His sacrifice would heal man of sin     1 Pet 2:24
Isa 53:6a     He would be the sin-bearer for all mankind    1 John 2:2; 4:10
Isa 53:6b     God's will that He bear sin for all mankind     Gal 1:4
Isa 53:7a     Oppressed and afflicted     Matt 27:27-31
Isa 53:7b    Silent before his accusers    Matt 27:12-14
Isa 53:7c     Sacrificial lamb     John 1:29; 1 Pet 1:18-19
Isa 53:8a    Confined and persecuted     Matt 26:47-27:31
Isa 53:8b    He would be judged     John 18:13-22
Isa 53:8c     Killed     Matt 27:35
Isa 53:8d     Dies for the sins of the world     1 John 2:2
Isa 53:9a     Buried in a rich man's grave     Matt 27:57
Isa 53:9b     Innocent and had done no violence    Luke 23:41; John 18:38
Isa 53:9c     No deceit in his mouth     1 Pet 2:22
Isa 53:10a     God's will that He die for mankind    John 18:11
Isa 53:10b  An offering for sin     Matt 20:28; Gal 3:13
Isa 53:10c      Resurrected and live forever     Rom 6:9
Isa 53:10d    He would prosper     John 17:1-5
Isa 53:11a    God fully satisfied with His suffering     John 12:27
Isa 53:11b    God's servant would justify man     Rom 5:8-9, 18-19
Isa 53:11c       The sin-bearer for all mankind     Heb 9:28
Isa 53:12a   
Exalted by God because of his sacrifice     Matt 28:18
Isa 53:12b    He would give up his life to save mankind     Luke 23:46
Isa 53:12c   
Numbered with the transgressors     Mark 15:27-28
Isa 53:12d      Sin-bearer for all mankind     1 Pet 2:24
Isa 53:12e   
Intercede to God in behalf of mankind   
Luke 23:34; Rom 8:34

IV) 4444 KEY PASSAGES THAT HAVE THE NEW COVENANT IN VIEW

A) 4444A (Dt 27-28; 29:1; 30:1-20) The Palestinian Covenant Includes God's Future Promise To Unilaterally Circumcise The Hearts Of His People Israel So That They Will Love Him With All Their Heart And Soul, Resulting In Complete Obedience To Him; And By That They Will Live Out The Years Of Their Temporal Lives And Have Eternal Life In The Eternal Kingdom Of God, Fulfilling The Abrahamic Covenant For Those Of The Faith Of Abraham In A Coming Messiah Savior Through His Seed

1) 4444A1 [Compare Dt 27-28; 29:1; 30:1-20]:

The Palestinian Covenant which the LORD gave the second generation of Israel in the Palestinian Covenant in the Book of Deuteronomy, has contained within it what is in view in Jeremiah chapters 30-31 - the LORD's unilateral promise to restore Israel and Judah in the Promised land. For the people of the nation Israel had not and would not in the future under their own auspices be able keep the Mosaic Law - the old covenant, after generations of failure. So the LORD God stipulated that He would accomplish this unilaterally, i.e., by grace in the Palestinian Covenant as well.

(Dt 27-28)

[Deuteronomy chapters 27-28 speak of blessings and curses for Israel's past history of obedience and disobedience to God - to the Law of Moses]

(Dt 29:1 NASB) These are the words of the covenant which the LORD commanded Moses to make with the sons of Israel in the land of Moab, besides the [Mosaic Law] covenant which He had made with them at Horeb."

(Dt 29:2-29)

[These verses are a review of Israel's past beginning with her exodus from Egypt through disasterous times because of forsaking the covenant of the Law, resulting in 40 years in the wilderness, a number of ensuing battles, adversities, the destruction of nations that arose against the Israelites and now to the point of a renewed covenant which emphasizes blessings to a new generation of Israelites when faithful to the Law and wrath and fury and curses when not]

(Dt 30:1 NASB) So it shall be when all of these things have come upon you, the blessing and the curse which I have set before you, and you call them to mind in all nations where the LORD your God has banished you,

(Dt 30:2 NASB) and you return to the LORD your God and obey Him with all your heart and soul according to all that I command you today, you and your sons

(Dt 30:3 NASB) then the LORD your God will restore you from captivity, and have compassion on you, and will gather you again from all the peoples where the LORD your God has scattered you

(Dt 30:4 NASB) If your outcasts are at the ends of the earth, from there the LORD your God will gather you, and from there He will bring you back. 

(Dt 30:5 NASB) The LORD your God will bring you into the land which your fathers possessed, and you shall possess it; and He will prosper you and multiply you more than your fathers.

(Dt 30:6 NASB) Moreover the LORD your God will circumcise your heart and the heart of your descendants, to love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul, so that you may live.

[Notice that this part of the Palestinian Covenant, (v. 6), contains a New Covenant unilaterally promised by the LORD wherein He Himself without contribution from anyone will unilaterally circumcise the hearts of the Israelites in the sense of giving them each a new will to obey Him in the place of their former unfaithfulness; and they will love Him with all their heart and soul implying complete obedience to him; and by that they will live, i.e., experience the abundant blessings including eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God in complete fulfillment of the Abrahamic covenant unilaterally through the LORD - through Abraham's Seed Who is Christ, (Gen 22:18, Gal 3:16).

From the history of mankind from Adam and Eve to Abraham to the Israelites and mankind the world over, it is evident that man has not and will not live godly lives of their own volition unless the LORD circumcises their hearts to enable them to do so. Those that have this done are those who expressed the faith of Abraham in God's unilateral promise of eternal life in the Promised Land.

[BKC]:

"Dt 30:6. The promise that the Lord your God will circumcise your hearts (cf. 10:16) means that God will graciously grant the nation a new will to obey Him in place of their former spiritual insensitivity and stubbornness. After returning to the Promised Land with a new heart they will remain committed to the Lord and therefore will experience abundant blessing (live). Loving Him wholeheartedly (cf. Dt 30:16, 20; see comments on 6:5), they would not fall back into apostasy as they had done before. A new heart is an essential feature of the New Covenant (cf. Ezek. 36:24-32), which will not be fulfilled for Israel as a nation until the return of Jesus Christ (cf. Jer. 31:31-34)."]

(Dt 30:7 NASB) The LORD your God will inflict all these curses on your enemies and on those who hate you, who persecuted you. 

(Dt 30:8 NASB) And you shall again obey the LORD, and observe all His commandments which I command you today.

[This implies Israel's future disobedience to the LORD's commandments which necessitated the LORD's unilateral action to circumcise the hearts of the sons of Israel, (ref. Dt 30:6]

(Dt 30:9 NASB) Then the LORD your God will prosper you abundantly in all the work of your hand, in the offspring of your body and in the offspring of your cattle and in the produce of your ground, for the LORD will again rejoice over you for good, just as He rejoiced over your fathers; 

(Dt 30:10 NASB) if you obey the LORD your God to keep His commandments and His statutes which are written in this book of the law, if you turn to the LORD your God with all your heart and soul.

[BKC]:

"30:7-10. All the prosperity mentioned here (cf. 28:4) would come on Israel because under the New Covenant the nation will finally be enabled to obey the Lord wholeheartedly (cf. all your heart and all your soul in 30:6; 6:5)."]

(Dt 30:11 NASB) For this commandment which I command you today is not too difficult for you, nor is it out of reach.

(Dt 30:12 NASB) It is not in heaven, that you should say, 'Who will go up to heaven for us to get it for us and make us hear it, that we may observe it?' 

(Dt 30:13 NASB) Nor is it beyond the sea, that you should say, 'Who will cross the sea for us to get it for us and make us hear it, that we may observe it?' 

(Dt 30:14 NASB) But the word is very near you, in your mouth and in your heart, that you may observe it. 

(Dt 30:15 NASB) See, I have set before you today life and prosperity, and death and adversity; 

(Dt 30:16 NASB) in that I command you today to love the LORD your God, to walk in His ways and to keep His commandments and His statutes and His judgments, that you may live and multiply, and that the LORD your God may bless you in the land where you are entering to possess it

(Dt 30:17 NASB) But if your heart turns away and you will not obey, but are drawn away and worship other gods and serve them

(Dt 30:18 NASB) I declare to you today that you shall surely perish. You will not prolong [your] days in the land where you are crossing the Jordan to enter and possess it.

[Notice that obedience to the LORD results in temporal blessing and disobedience in temporal destruction]

(Dt 30:19 NASB) I call heaven and earth to witness against you today, that I have set before you life and death, the blessing and the curse. So choose life in order that you may live, you and your descendants, 

(Dt 30:20 NASB) by loving the LORD your God, by obeying His voice, and by holding fast to Him; for this is your life and the length of your days, that you may live in the land which the LORD swore to your fathers, to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, to give them."

[The Palestinian Covenant was made between God and Israel right before Moses died and Israel entered the Promised Land. Hence it was made after the Mosaic Covenant and after Israel had wandered in the wilderness for forty years until the generation that had refused to enter the Promised Land the first time had passed away. The covenant would serve the new generation of Israelites as a reminder of their special covenant relationship with God originally ratified unilaterally with Abraham. It was the LORD's promise to restore the fortunes of Israel - make them more prosperous and more numerous than their fathers as they walked in his ways, and kept His commands, decrees and laws. Then the LORD will have compassion on the Israelites and gather them from all the nations where the LORD had scattered them to the land that belonged to their fathers. And the LORD will put curses on Israel's enemies. The focus of this covenant is on what God is going to do more than what Israel is supposed to do. While Israel's prosperity is closely tied to their obedience to God's command and they will still be punished for their disobedience to God, there is coming a day when God will return them to the land and they will possess it and God will bless them forever and through the New Covenant wherein He will circumcise their hearts and the hearts of their descendants - those that have been justified by faith as Abraham was according to the Abrahamic Covenant - so that they may love Him with all their heart and with all their soul, and live forever in the Eternal kingdom - in possession of the land that the LORD promised them]

B) 4444B (Gen 15:4-6) The Covenant Of Abraham Was Unilaterally Ratified By God When Abraham Believed In God's Promise Of Innumerable Descendants Through His Seed To Be Supernaturally Provided For By God Through Abraham's Seed - All Of This Being Relative To The LORD's Promise To Abraham And His Descendants Of Inheriting The Promised Land At Which Time When Abraham Believed God Accounted It To Abram And To All Men Of The Seed Of Abraham Of That Same Faith For Righteousness Unto Eternal Life In The Promised Land

1) 4444B1 [Compare Gen 15:4-6]:

(Gen 15:4 NKJV) "And behold, the word of the LORD came to him, saying, 'This one shall not be your heir, but one who will come from your own body shall be your heir.' (Gen 15:5 NKJV) Then He brought him outside and said, 'Look now toward heaven, and count the stars if you are able to number them.' And He said to him, 'So shall your descendants [lit. seed] be.' (Gen 15:6 NKJV) And he believed in the LORD, and He accounted it to him for righteousness." =

So when Abram believed in God's promise of innumerable descendants that he would evidently see and experience, God acounted it to Abraham for righteousness unto eternal life, i.e., the perfect righteousness of God. So Abraham was credited with God's perfect righteousness in conjunction with His promise to Abraham and innumerable descendants of receiving the promised land forever which God's righteousness is evidently required in order to have eternal life in order to inherit the promised land forever. Note that it was received by a moment of faith alone in the LORD's promise alone, tantamount to trusting in the Seed / Descendant of Abraham Who would make such provision so that God might be justified in fulfilling His promise - such provision being the payment for the sins of those whom God will justify unto righteousness apart from their own sinfulness because of such provision. In effect, since the offer is legitmately and righteously made to all the families of the world wherein all the families of the world may be blessed, (Gen 12:1-3 ), then all mankind have had their sins paid for. So it cannot be misconstrued that Abraham or anyone else besides the Seed of Abraham was expected to do anything in order to be perfectly righteous in his lifestyle in order to receive eternal life from God. There is no stipulation to that effect in the passage or anywhere in Scripture.

Gen 15:5-6 is not just a picture of Abram's countless descendants living long after he died with him having gone into the Lake of Fire. There would be no purpose if Abraham would never see them in person, i.e., have eternal life and instead be eternally confined and condemned to the Lake of Fire? This demonstration by the LORD was a picture of His promise to Abraham of eternal life - eternal life with countless descendants over an eternity of time through an individual seed - descendant supernaturally provided for in order to make all of this possible - for Abram was still childless, impotent and Sarai barren.

C) 4444C (2 Sam 7:8-17) [God's Covenant With David]:

(2 Sam 7:8 NASB) "Now therefore, thus you shall say to My servant David, 'Thus says the LORD of hosts, "I took you from the pasture, from following the sheep, to be ruler over My people Israel.

(2 Sam 7:9 NASB) I have been with you wherever you have gone and have cut off all your enemies from before you; and I will make you a great name, like the names of the great men who are on the earth.

(2 Sam 7:10 NASB) I will also appoint a place for My people Israel and will plant them, that they may live in their own place and not be disturbed again, nor will the wicked afflict them any more as formerly, 

(2 Sam 7:11 NASB) even from the day that I commanded judges to be over My people Israel; and I will give you rest from all your enemies. The LORD also declares to you that the LORD will make a house for you. 

(2 Sam 7:12 NASB) When your days are complete and you lie down with your fathers, I will raise up your descendant after you, who will come forth from you, and I will establish his kingdom.

(2 Sam 7:13 NASB) He shall build a house for My name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. 

(2 Sam 7:14 NASB) I will be a father to him and he will be a son to Me; when he commits iniquity, I will correct him with the rod of men and the strokes of the sons of men, 

(2 Sam 7:15 NASB) but My lovingkindness shall not depart from him, as I took it away from Saul, whom I removed from before you. 

(2 Sam 7:16 NASB) Your house and your kingdom shall endure before Me forever; your throne shall be established forever.

(2 Sam 7:17 NASB) In accordance with all these words and all this vision, so Nathan spoke to David."

[BKC]:

God had called David from inauspicious beginnings to be a shepherd of God's people (v. 8). Likewise, God had gathered Israel to Himself and would plant them securely in their own land. The house to be built for David would be a royal house, a dynasty of kings. It would originate with him but would never end (v. 16). The kingdom and its throne would be permanent, a realm over which the Son of David would reign forever (cf. 23:5).

The promise that David and his seed would be kings fulfilled the even more ancient Abrahamic Covenant blessing that the patriarchs would be the fathers of kings (Gen. 17:6, 16; 35:11). To Judah, great-grandson of Abraham, was given the explicit pledge that a promised ruler would come from Judah (Gen. 49:10). Samuel anointed this one from Judah, David himself, of whom the Lord said, "He is the one" (1 Sam. 16:12). David was aware of his election by God and of the theological significance of that election as part of the messianic line that would result in a divine Descendant and King (Pss. 2:6-7; 110; cf. Ethan's words in Ps. 89:3-4). The prophets also attested to the Davidic Messiah, the One who would rule over all and forever on His throne (Isa. 9:1-7; 11:1-5; Jer. 30:4-11; Ezek. 34:23-24; 37:24-25; Amos 9:11-15).

The promise that the people of the Lord, David's kingdom Israel, would have an enduring land of their own was also based on earlier commitments of the Lord. The seed of Abraham, God said, would be given Canaan as a home forever (Gen. 13:15; 15:18; 17:8; Deut. 34:4).

As for a temple, David would not be allowed to build it, but his son after him would have the honor of doing so (2 Sam. 7:12-13). That this refers to a literal house and not a dynasty is clear from the context, which speaks of the results that would follow if the son would be disobedient to the Lord (vv. 14-15). This could not be true of the King who is spoken of as the climactic figure of the Davidic dynastic line. These verses, then, are a good example of an Old Testament passage in which some elements find fulfillment in the immediate future (Solomon and other strictly human descendants of David), while other elements will be realized only in the more distant future (Jesus Christ, the Son of David; cf. Luke 1:31-33)."

[EXPOSITOR'S]:

5-7 The messenger formula ("This is what the Lord says," v.5) pinpoints Nathan as the mediator of the divine oracle to David. In contrast to his title as "the king" in the opening verses of the chapter (see comment on vv.1-3), David is now referred to by the Lord as "my servant David" (vv.5, 8; see comment on 3:18; cf. also 1 Kings 11:13, 32, 34, 36, 38, 14:8; 2 Kings 19:34; 20:6; Jer 33:21-22, 26; Ezek 34:23-24), a description that he willingly and humbly accepts (v.26). The only other occurence [sic] of this precise phrase, "my servant N.," in the whole of the Deuteronomic work is "my servant Moses" in the words of Yahweh to Joshua when he takes over the leadership of Israel [Josh 1:2, 7]. Not even Joshua himself merits the title.... This calls attention to David's importance—he merits comparison with Moses—and the important new thing, the institution of the Davidic monarchy, which begins with him. (McCarthy, "2 Samuel 7 and Deuteronomic History," p. 132; cf. Gerbrandt, p. 170) The substantive contents of the present literary unit (vv.5-7) are framed by two questions asked by the Lord, both of which pertain to building a temple for him (vv.5, 7). The first—"Are you the one to build me a house to dwell in?"—has been interpreted in a variety of ways (for a typical list, cf. Gerbrandt, p. 162). After examining a number of ancient extrabiblical Near Eastern texts that deal with the building/rebuilding/repairing of temples, Michiko Ita concludes: The real issue is that both the initiative to build a temple and the choice of the person for the task must come from God and not from an individual king.... First, God has not commanded the building of a temple either to any of the past leaders or to David himself (vss 6-7). Second, the choice of the person is God's affair. God's denial—put in the interrogative form (vs 5)—concerns the person of David and not the temple itself. The emphatic position of the pronoun (h'th) makes this point more than clear. Moreover, this denial of David results in the positive choice of his successor in vs 13, where the emphatic hw' ybnh ["He is the one who will build"] is to be noted as a counterpart of the emphatic denial in vs 5. ("A Note on 2 Sam 7," in A Light Unto My Path: Old Testament Studies in Honor of Jacob M. Myers Gettysburg Theological Studies 4; edd. Howard N. Bream, Ralph D. Heim, and Carey A. Moore [Philadelphia: Temple University, 1974], p. 406; cf. Carlson, p. 109). That the question in v.5 expects a negative answer is clear not only from the succeeding context but also from the LXX's Ou sy ("Not you") and from the Chronicler's parallel: "You are not the one" (1 Chronicles 17:4). Needless to say, the prohibition of v.5 is merely temporary. "This is confirmed by the later verses in the chapter, by verses such as 1 Kings 5:3-5, as well as by the positive emphasis on the temple throughout the remainder of the history" (Gerbrandt, p. 162). David's son Solomon (see comments on vv.12-13) would eventually build the Lord's house (cf. 1 Kings 5:3-5; 6:1). In the broader context, at least two reasons are given for the fact that David himself did not build the temple: (1) He is too busy waging war with his enemies (1 Kings 5:3); (2) he is a warrior who has shed much blood (1 Chronicles 22:8; 28:3). The reasons are complementary rather than contradictory, the first being practical and the second theological (cf. similarly Walter C. Kaiser, Jr., "The Blessing of David: The Charter for Humanity," in The Law and the Prophets: Old Testament Studies Prepared in Honor of Oswald Thompson Allis ed. John H. Skilton [Nutley: Presbyterian and Reformed, 1974], p. 304 n. 21). Neither reason dims David's vision, however (cf. similarly Ps 132:1-5), and before his death he makes extensive preparations for the temple that would eventually be built by Solomon (cf. 1 Chronicles 22:2-5; 28:2). But the time for construction has not yet arrived. The tabernacle still suffices as the Lord's dwelling (v.6). Although David is "living" (yshb) in a palace (v.1), the Lord has never "dwelt" (yshb; thus also "dwell" in v.5) in a permanent house, not "from the day" (cf. Judg 19:30) he "brought the Israelites up out of Egypt" (v.6)—a common phrase recalling the miracles of the Exodus redemption (cf. 1 Sam 8:8; 10:18; Deut 20:1; Josh 24:17; for additional examples cf. Cross, Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic, p. 253; see comment on 1 Sam 12:6). The Lord has been content with "moving from place to place" (hthlk; cf. v.7, "moved"; cf. also Deut 23:14, "moves about"), demonstrating his continuing desire to "walk" (hthlk) among his people (Lev 26:12; cf. Gen 3:8). Referred to as "tent(-curtain[s])" in v.2 (see Notes), the tabernacle is called both a "tent" ('ohel) and a "dwelling" (mishkan) in v.6. The latter term is commonly translated "tabernacle" in the OT (cf. Exod 25:9) and occurs elsewhere in association with the former (cf. Exod 26:12-13), especially in the phrase "tent over the tabernacle" (Exod 26:7; 36:14; 40:19). The irony in v.6 must not be missed: Although God condescends to accompany his people on their journey with a tent as his dwelling (v.6b), a tent carried by them, all along they have in fact been carried by him (v.6a). Like the first, the second question in the present literary unit (vv.5-7) expects a negative answer (see comment on v.5). Beginning with the word "did," it implies that the Lord never required the Israelites to build him a "house of cedar" (v.7; see comment on v.2). "Any of their rulers" translates 'ahad shibte yisra'el which is literally "one of the tribes of Israel." Since the same Hebrew phrase occurs in 15:2 in its literal sense, Philippe de Robert wants to translate it the same way here ("Judges ou Tribus en 2 Samuel VII 7?" VetTest 21, 1 [1971]: 116-18; cf. also the LXX's phylen ["tribe"]). As S.R. Driver had already pointed out long ago, however (Notes on the Books of Samuel, p. 274), there is no example of any tribe having been divinely commissioned to "shepherd" (see 5:2 and comment; cf. also 24:17) Israel (but cf. Kirkpatrick, who suggests that "tribes" may be understood "of the different tribes which through the Judges and leaders chosen from them successively attained the supremacy, as Ephraim in the time of Joshua, Dan in the days of Samson, Benjamin in the reign of Saul" [The Second Book of Samuel, p. 98; cf. 1 Chronicles 28:4; Ps 78:67-68]). Many commentators therefore substitute shopte ("judges," "leaders") for shibte on the basis of 1 Chronicles 17:6 (where the LXX, however, has phylen) and the subsequent context (vv.10-11; cf. McCarthy, "2 Samuel 7 and Deuteronomic History," p. 133 and n. 7; S.R. Driver, Notes on the Books of Samuel in loc.). The best solution to the problem would seem to be that of Patrick V. Reid, who suggests revocalizing the MT's shibte as shobte "a denominative qal participle... of shebet meaning ‘the one who wields a staff,’” thus “staff bearers,” which “fits the imagery of the passage much better than ‘judges.’ One would expect that the persons bearing the shepherd's staff would be commissioned ‘to shepherd’” (“shbty in 2 Samuel 7:7,” CBQ 37, 1 [1975]: 18; cf. pp. 17-20 for full argumentation; cf. similarly McCarter, II Samuel; cf. also the use of shebet ["scepter"] as a metaphor for authoritative rule in the messianic texts Gen 49:10; Num 24:17). The NIV's "rulers" (v.7; "ruler" in v.8 renders a different Heb. word) is a term general enough to capture the basic idea. "People" used with reference to Israel is an important Leitmotif in the chapter (cf. independently Carlson, p. 118), employed four times in each half (vv.7, 8, 10, 11; vv. 23 [ter], 24; see also comment on 6:21). "The people of God is one of the most prominent themes in the Bible" (John Goldingay, Theological Diversity and the Authority of the Old Testament [Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1987], p. 59; for full discussion cf. pp. 59-96). "I will be your God, and you will be my people" or the equivalent is doubtless the most characteristic covenant expression in the entire OT (cf. v.24; Exod 6:7; Lev 26:12; Deut 26:17-18; Jer 7:23; 30:22; 31:1, 33; 32:38; Ezek 34:30; 36:28; 37:23; Hos 1:9-10; 2:23; cf. also Heb 8:10). 8-11a The repetition of the messenger formula (see comment on v.5) marks v.8 as the start of a new section of Nathan's oracle. Here, however, the word "Lord" (v.5) has been augmented by "Almighty," a regal title (see comment on 1 Sam 1:3) that stresses the Lord's function as covenant Suzerain of David, his "servant" vassal (see comment on v.5). Characteristically, David in his response to God willingly acknowledges both roles (vv.26-27). In Paul's citation of v.14a in 2 Corinthians 6:18, he similarly acknowledges the solemnity and importance of "Almighty" in describing the Lord in this context. The divine grant to David is divided into two parts: "promises to be realized during David's lifetime (2 Sam 7:8-11a) and promises to be fulfilled after his death (7:11b-16)" (Waltke, "The Phenomenon of Conditionality," p. 130). Verses 7b-8a constitute a brief historical prologue in which the Lord reviews his earlier blessings on his servant David. He begins by reminding David of where he found him: "I [emphatic] took you ... from following the flock" (v.8). At the time of David's earlier private anointing, Samuel had said, "Send for him" (1 Sam 16:11; lit., "Send and take him"); the Lord now observes that it was he himself who "took" David. As in the case of Amos, the Lord took him "from following the flock" (Amos 7:15, "from tending the flock"; same Heb. expression in both passages). Once a mere shepherd boy (see comment on 5:2; and on 1 Sam 16:11), David has been given a much weightier responsibility: to be "ruler" over the Lord's people Israel (see comments on 5:2; on 6:21; on 1 Sam 9:16; and on 10:1; cf. also Hezekiah in 2 Kings 20:5 ["leader"]). "Yahweh could use David, not because he was a great military leader, but because he was faithful. In this way a good king can be an agent by which the people are blessed" (Gerbrandt, p. 171). Verse 9 is linked to v.6 through the use of the durative form wa'ehyeh ("I have been"): As the Lord had been "moving from place to place" with his people (v.6; cf. also v.7), so he has been "with" (v.9; see v.3 and comment; cf. also Carlson, p. 114) David "wherever" he has gone (cf. v.7; 8:6, 14; Josh 1:7, 9). The Lord had promised to "cut off" David's enemies from before him (cf. also 1 Sam 20:15). Verses 9b-11a contain three elements: The Lord will (1) make David's "name great" (v.9b), (2) "provide a place" for Israel (v.10), and (3) give David "rest" from all his enemies (v.11a; Carlson, pp. 114-15). The divine promise to make the name of David great is a clear echo of the Abrahamic covenant (cf. Gen 12:2), which in turn stands in sharp contrast to the self-aggrandizing boasts of the builders of the tower of Babel: "so that we may make a name for ourselves" (Gen 11:4). An example of David's name becoming great is 8:13, where the narrator reports that David "became famous" (lit., "made a name"; cf. 1 Kings 1:47) after defeating the Edomites (cf. similarly 1 Sam 18:30). But again David testifies to his reliance on God's power as he affirms that redemption takes place in the context of God's determination to "make a name for himself" (vv.23, 26; cf. Jer 13:11; 32:20; see 1 Sam 12:22 and comment). That God would provide a "place" for his people (v.10) had been predicted long ago: "Every place where you set your foot will be yours: Your territory will extend from the desert to Lebanon, and from the Euphrates River to the western sea" (Deut 11:24; cf. Josh 1:3-4). "Since this promise is identical with that given to Abraham in Gen 15:18... the introduction of the maqom ["place'] idea in 7:10 [cf. also 1 Sam 12:8] implies that the Covenant made with Abraham is fulfilled through David" (Carlson, p. 116; cf. 8:1-4). And far from being temporary, the "place" that God would provide would be the land where he would "plant" them (v.10; cf. Exod 15:17; Pss 44:2; 80:8; Isa 5:2; Jer 2:21; Amos 9:15). Plant imagery is frequently applied to David's dynasty in the OT (e.g., Ps 80:15; Isa 11:1, 10; Jer 23:5; 24:5-6; 33:15; Ezek 19:10-14; Zech 3:8; 6:12; cf. Talmon, p. 218 n. 26). Having a home of their own, David and his countrymen will no longer "be disturbed" (v.10; i.e., "tremble" in fear [Deut 2:25; same Heb. verb in both cases]) by "wicked people" (lit., "sons of wickedness" [see comment on "wicked men" in 3:34], which contrasts with "Israelites" [lit., "sons of Israel"] in vv.6-7). Indeed, "wicked people will not oppress them anymore" (a phrase echoed in Ps 89:22), as had been their fate earlier in their history ("at the beginning"; cf. Gen 15:13, where the Lord predicts that Abraham's descendants would be "mistreated" [thus also Deut 26:6; same Heb. verb as that rendered "oppress" here] four hundred years—yet another link between the Abrahamic and Davidic covenants [cf. Carlson, p. 118]). Although oppression had been virtually endemic in Israel during the entire period of the "judges" (v.11; NIV mg.), such would no longer be the case. "David and his line are presented as the true successors of the judges who will bring on the lasting rest from Israel's enemies which the earlier leaders were unable to achieve" (McCarthy, "2 Samuel 7 and Deuteronomic History," p. 133; cf. Gerbrandt, p. 171 n. 186; Roth, "The Deuteronomic Rest Theology," p. 8; Howard, "The Case for Kingship," p. 113 n. 36). As always, of course, the ultimate Giver of the rest is God himself (v.11; see v.1 and comment). The Chronicler's parallel notes that the method the Lord would use to "give [David] rest from" all his enemies would be to "subdue" them (1 Chronicles 17:10). 11b-16 Just as the divine pronouncements in vv.5-7 and 8-11a are introduced with the messenger formula "This is what the Lord [Almighty] says," so also vv.11b-16? begin with the oracular preface "The Lord declares to you" as a means of introducing God's promises to David's descendants: a "house" (= dynasty, vv.11b, 16; cf. "offspring," v.12); a throne (vv.13, 16) and kingdom (vv.12-13, 16) that will last forever (vv.13, 16); a "house" (= temple, v.13); and a Father-son relationship (v.14) including a covenant love that will never be taken away (v.15). The importance of "house" in the sense of "dynasty" in Nathan's oracle is underscored by its appearance at the beginning (v.11b) and end (v.16) of the literary unit, thus serving to frame the whole. That "house" is used with two different meanings in these verses is clear from the verbs used with it: In v.11b the verb is `sh ("establish"; lit., "make"; cf. 1 Kings 2:24, where "made a house" is translated "founded a dynasty"), while in v.13 the verb is bnh ("build," as in v.5; see comment there). Although David is not to build a "house" (temple) for the Lord (v.5), the Lord will establish a "house" (dynasty) for David (v.11; cf. similarly Brueggemann, First and Second Samuel, p. 255). It is David's "offspring" (v.12) who will build the Lord's temple (v.13). All the promises in this section would be fulfilled after David's death, after his being laid to "rest" (v.12; lit., "lie down"; a different Heb. verb is used for "rest" in vv.1, 11) with his "fathers" (cf. 1 Kings 1:21; 2:10)—an expression used of Moses (Deut 31:16) and others (cf. Gen 47:30). It reflects the ancient Israelite practice of having multiple burials in family tombs (see comment on 2:32). "Like Abraham, David is receiving promises concerning a son yet unborn" (Gordon, I & II Samuel, p. 239). Saul's earlier plea to David not to cut off "my descendants" (lit., "my seed after me," 1 Sam 24:21; cf. Ruth 4:12 for "seed/offspring" applied to David's ancestor[s]) is reprised in the Lord's determination with respect to David to "raise up your offspring to succeed you" (lit., "your seed after you"; cf. similarly 1 Kings 15:4). The emphasis that David's offspring would "come from your own body" (lit., "loins" as the locus of procreation, v.12) forges yet another striking line to the Abrahamic covenant (cf. Gen 15:4), as does the repeated reference to Abraham's "seed/descendants after you/him" in Genesis 17:7-10, 19.

Although Carlson (p. 122) assumes that the offspring of v.12 is Absalom because of the occurrence of "is of my own flesh" (lit., "has come from my own loins") in 16:11, Symon Patrick long ago understood that the future tense in v.12 "shows that he speaks of one, who was not yet born, viz. Solomon: And that Absalom, Adonijah and the rest who pretended to the Kingdom, were not designed for it: Being already proceeded from him" (p. 395; cf. 3:2-5, which lists the sons born to David in Hebron). Furthermore, the Lord promises to "establish" (vv.12-13, 16; see 5:12 and comment; the verb is kwn different from that used in v.11 [see comment there]) the "kingdom" and throne of Solomon, not Absalom. Although Saul's kingdom could earlier have been theoretically "established" alongside that of David (see 1 Sam 13:13 and comment), such was not to be (cf. v.15). The possibility of understanding "seed" ("offspring," NIV) as either singular or plural (cf. Ps 89:4, 29, 36, where the Heb. word for "seed" is translated "line" in connection with the Davidic covenant) is exploited by Paul in Galatians 3:16: "The promises were spoken to Abraham and to his seed. The Scripture [Gen 12:7; 13:15; 24:7] does not say "and to seeds,' meaning many people, but "and to your seed,' meaning one person, who is Christ" (cf. also "the Seed" [= Christ] in Gal 3:19 and "Abraham's seed" [= Christians] in Gal 3:29). The trajectory from the Abrahamic covenant through the Davidic covenant to the New Covenant in Christ is strengthened by the repetition of words such as "seed" used in a messianic sense (cf. similarly John M.G. Barclay, Obeying the Truth: A Study of Paul's Ethics in Galatians [Edinburgh: T. and T. Clark, 1988], p. 89; cf. also John 7:42 and NIV mg. there; Acts 13:23 ["descendants"]; cf. further Dale Goldsmith, "Acts 13 33-37: A Pesher on 2 Samuel 7," JBL 87, 3 [1968]: 321-24).

Unlike vv.11 and 16, v.13 uses "house" in the sense of a building (cf. also vv.1-2 ["palace"], 5-7), in this case a house of worship, a temple. David's offspring (v.12)—"he" (emphatic, v.13), answering to the emphatic "you" (David) of v.5 (see comment there)—has been designated to build a temple for the Lord's "Name" (i.e., his presence, v.13 [for "name" = "presence" cf. John 1:12]; see comment on 6:2; cf. also 1 Kings 3:2; 5:3, 5; 8:16, 18-19, 44, 48; 9:7). "Within the [Deuteronomic] History this ["he'] is an obvious reference to Solomon. This verse could be interpreted both as a justification for Solomon's building the temple, and as a sign legitimating his rise to the throne (the one who builds the temple is the God-chosen successor to David)" (Gerbrandt, p. 163; cf. Brueggemann, David's Truth, pp. 75-76). Indeed, "1 Kings 6-8 is the fulfilment of the oracular promise in 7:13a, cf. 1 Kings 8:14-21, 24" (Carlson, p. 120; Gerbrandt, p. 165). As for v.13b, it promises that the Davidic dynasty, throne, and kingdom will endure "forever" (a fact mentioned seven times in ch. 7: vv.13b, 16a, 16b, 24, 25, 29a, 29b; cf. also 22:51; 1 Kings 2:33, 45; 1 Chronicles 22:10; Ps 89:4).

Not the least because they are cited twice in the NT (2 Cor 6:18; Heb 1:5), the Lord's words in v.14a are doubtless the best known as well as the most solemn in the entire chapter: "I [emphatic] will be his father, and he [emphatic] will be my son." In its original setting the son is Solomon, as the subsequent context makes clear (cf. also 1 Chronicles 22:9-10). The statement in the first instance was not a formula of begetting but of adoption (Edmond Jacob, Theology of the Old Testament [New York: Harper, 1958], p. 236; cf. also Pss 2:7; 89:26; Shalom M. Paul, "Adoption Formulae: A Study in Cuneiform and Biblical Legal Clauses," Maarav 2, 2 [1980]: pp. 173-85; Anthony Phillips, "Another Example of Family Law," VetTest 30, 2 [1980]: 240-41). The formula "provides both the judicial basis for the gift of the eternal dynasty (compare Pss 2:7-8; 89) and the qualification that disloyal sons will lose YHWH's protection (compare 1 Kings 6:12-13; 9:4, 6-7)" (Waltke, "The Phenomenon of Conditionality," p. 131; cf. Weinfeld, "The Covenant of Grant," p. 190). Because of its typological use in 2 Corinthians 6:18 and Hebrews 1:5, v.14a has long been considered messianic in a Christological sense. The Qumran text known as 4Q Florilegium, an eschatological midrash primarily on vv.10b-14a (although other OT passages, including Ps 2:1, are also treated in it), demonstrates that the Dead Sea sectarians also understood v.14a to be messianic (for text cf. J.M. Allegro, "Fragments of a Qumran Scroll of Eschatological Midrashim" JBL 77, 4 [1958]: 350-54; Yigael Yadin, "A Midrash on 2 Sam. vii and Ps. i—ii [4Q Florilegium]," IEJ 9 [1959]: 95-98; for a literate and readily accessible translation, cf. Vermes, The Dead Sea Scrolls in English, pp. 245-47). William R. Lane observes that 4Q Florilegium divides naturally into two parts, the first of which concentrates mainly on vv.10b-14a and deals with "the establishment of the true house of Israel under the Davidic Messiah and the subsequent era of peace" and the second with "the wicked and their affliction of the elect during the final struggle" ("A New Commentary Structure in 4Q Florilegium," JBL 78, 4 [1959]: 344).

Needless to say, the Qumran sectarians interpreted the OT "prooftexts" according to their own agenda. The fact that they understood v.14a messianically, however, is surely significant for the NT passages that do the same. No longer is it possible to insist that the NT writers overstepped their bounds in claiming that the divine sonship of the Messiah (in their case, Jesus) is adumbrated in 2 Samuel 7, Psalm 2, and elsewhere. They were making use of well-established, exegetical methodologies that had long been recognized in Jewish scholarly circles. Indeed, 4Q Florilegium "suggests that the Qumran community... inherited a messianic reading of [Nathan's] oracle from earlier times.... Christian and Qumran interpreters shared a basic approach to the verses, but their exegesis led in rather different directions" (Donald Juel, Messianic Exegesis: Christological Interpretation of the Old Testament in Early Christianity [Philadelphia: Fortress, 1988], pp. 61-62; cf. also pp. 87-88).

At the same time, what is particularly striking about the 4Q Florilegium commentary is that it betrays no embarrassment regarding the use of father-son imagery in v.14. That is notable only in light of later targumic and rabbinic tradition that took great pains to ensure that the imagery from this text be understood as figurative. Later tradition was hesitant to use "son" to speak of the Messiah; the Qumran interpreter shows no such reservations. (ibid., p. 68.; cf. also p. 78)

Like 4Q Florilegium, Hebrews 1:5 also quotes v.14a and Psalm 2 (this time, however, Ps 2:7: "You are my Son; today I have become your Father"). The author of Hebrews uses the two texts to demonstrate that Jesus, the Son of God, "became as much superior to the angels as the name he has inherited is superior to theirs" (Heb 1:4) when he "sat down at the right hand of the Majesty in heaven" (Heb 1:3). Furthermore, "the "Son of God' is a title applied to Jesus by the gospel writers to highlight his messianic and divine origin as the fulfilment of such Old Testament prophecies as Psalm 2:7 and 2 Samuel 7:14" (Craig L. Blomberg, The Historical Reliability of the Gospels [Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1987], p. 251). And such passages as Luke 1:32-33 reverberate with echoes of Nathan's oracle: "[Jesus] will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High. The Lord God will give him the throne of his father David, and he will reign over the house of Jacob forever; his kingdom will never end." At the same time, "son" in v.14a could be understood by NT writers in a collective sense, as 2 Corinthians 6:18 demonstrates: "I will be a Father to you, / and you will be my sons and daughters, / says the Lord Almighty" (see NIV mg.). Murray J. Harris notes: "What God promised to Solomon through David and to Israel through Solomon (cf. Jer 31:9) finds its fulfillment in what God is to the community of believers through Christ (Gal 3:26; 4:6)" (comment at 2 Cor 6:18). Father-son imagery representing God's relationship to the people of Israel is common in the OT. Besides Jeremiah 31:9, it is found in such texts as Exodus 4:22-23; Deuteronomy 14:1; 32:6, 19; Isaiah 1:2; 30:1; 43:6; 45:10; 63:16; 64:8; Jeremiah 3:19; Hosea 1:10; 11:1; and Malachi 1:6; 2:10.

A further aspect of the father-son metaphor is its covenant setting. In Mesopotamia, for example, "employment of familial metaphors to express political ties was... a well-known phenomenon in the diplomatic lexicon of the second millennium. Thus abbutu "fathership' signifies suzerainty, marutu "sonship'—vassalship" (Paul, "Adoption Formulae," p. 177). The use of "father" for God and "son" for Solomon in v.14a is thus entirely appropriate in what has justifiably come to be known as the Davidic covenant. At the same time the most characteristic of all covenant formulas—"I will be your God, and you will be my people"—is taken from "the sphere of marriage/adoption legal terminology like its Davidic counterpart in II Sam. VII, 14" (Weinfeld, "The Covenant of Grant," p. 200).

Although the Davidic king was to enjoy the unique relationship of being the Lord's "son," he would thereby be brought "all the more firmly within the constraints of Yahweh's fatherly discipline" (Gordon, I & II Samuel, p. 239), as v.14b indicates. The Lord would use men as agents of divine judgment on Solomon (and his dynastic successors) "when he does wrong" (cf. Solomon's words in 1 Kings 8:47 in their context). It is not an idle promise: "The rod" (v.14b; cf. also Ps 89:32) of divine wrath would fall on Jerusalem and her citizens because of the sins of David's descendants (cf. Lam 3:1). The Chronicler's parallel leaves out v.14b entirely because of his characteristic desire to display the Davidic dynasty in the best possible light. His omission of the negative threat makes it tempting to assume that Hebrews 1:5, referring to the sinless Christ, cites 1 Chronicles 17:13 rather than 2 Samuel 7:14 (cf. Reymond, Jesus, Divine Messiah, p. 11 n. 6). Symon Patrick, however, prefers to call v.14 "a mixt [sic] Prophecy, some part of which belongs to Christ, and the other part to Solomon and his Successors in the Kingdom of Israel" (p. 395). But neither expedient seems necessary. Although the NT leaves no doubt that v.14a is fulfilled typologically in Jesus, it is also clear that in its original setting the entire verse refers to the Lord's adoption of Solomon (and his royal descendants) as his son/vassal: "The son given into adoption has the duties of a son (= respecting his parents) but also has the privileges of a son: he has to be treated like the son of a free citizen and not like a slave.... What is then meant in II Sam. VII, 14 is that when David's descendants sin they will be disciplined like rebellious sons by their father but they will not be alienated" (Weinfeld, "The Covenant of Grant," pp. 192-93). Such an understanding in no way denies the interpretation that Solomon, the type, prefigures Jesus, the antitype.

Taken together, vv.14b-15? have often been understood to mean that the Davidic covenant is unconditional: No matter what David's descendants do (v.14b), the Lord's love will "never be taken away" from them (v.15). But although the verses "may point in that direction, it is striking that a passage so clearly grounded in the royal cults of that time would emphasize that Yahweh will punish the king for disobeying the law. This must be seen as at least qualifying the promise if not making it conditional. These verses point out that kings are not to use the Davidic promise as a justification for any style of behavior" (Gerbrandt, p. 164). At the same time, however, the "When" of v.14b gives way to the "But" of v.15. Brueggemann remarks:

Sound interpretation requires us to recognize that while the covenantal "if" is silenced in this theology, it has not been nullified. Therefore, interpretation must struggle with the tension of "if" and "nevertheless" that is present in the Bible, in our own lives, and in the very heart of God.... The historical process teaches us about the reality of judgment and condition, so that we know about the "if" of reality from our own experience. The other side of the tension, God's unconditional commitment, will be operative in biblical faith only if Nathan's bold oracle of "nevertheless" is sounded as the gospel. (First and Second Samuel, p. 259) All three verbs in v.15 ("be taken away," "took... away," "removed") are forms of the verb swr ("turn aside"), the second and third occurrences of which are identical (hasiroth i). The Lord promises that although he "turned aside" his love from Saul (whom the Chronicler in his parallel, reluctant to mention Saul by name, simply calls David's "predecessor" [1 Chronicles 17:13]), David's mortal enemy whom the Lord "turned aside" from before him, the divine love will never "turn aside" from David's seed ("offspring," v.12), David's son Solomon (and his descendants)—and ultimately great David's greater Son, Jesus Christ. Carlson notes that "the emphasized hesir element in v.15 derives from the previous description of Saul and David, cf. 1 Sam 16:14, 18:12, 28:15 f." (p. 122; see comments on 1 Sam 16:14; and on 28:15-16). In addition lo'-yasur ("will never be taken away") echoes the same phrase in Genesis 49:10 ("will not depart"; cf. Carlson, p. 108).

God's covenant with David assures him that his covenant "love" (hesed v.15; see comments on 2:6; on 1 Sam 20:8, and on 14-15; cf. Roger T. Beckwith, "The Unity and Diversity of God's Covenants," Tyndale Bulletin 33 [1987]: 102 n. 26) will never leave David's son as it had left Saul. An important emphasis in v.15 is the fact that it constitutes "an endorsement of the Davidic claim to the throne over against the Saulide and any others that may emerge" (Levenson, "The Davidic Covenant," p. 217). The word hesed becomes a virtual synonym for berit ("covenant") in later allusions to the Davidic covenant (cf. 22:51 ["unfailing kindness"]; 1 Kings 3:6 ["kindness"]; 2 Chronicles 6:42 ["great love"]; Ps 89:28, 33, 49; Isa 55:3; 1 Macc 2:57 [for the last reference, cf. Kruse, "David's Covenant," p. 148, who observes that eleos ("mercy") = hesed in this context; cf. further Pierre Bordreuil, "Les "Graces de David' et 1 Maccabees ii 57," VetTest 31, 1 [1981]: 73-76).

With respect to Isaiah 55:3 (cited in Acts 13:34 to demonstrate that Jesus' resurrection was further proof of God's covenant love to David), Walter C. Kaiser, Jr., makes the helpful observation that "the phrase hasde dawid hanne'emanim ["faithful love promised to David']... echoes 2 Sam 7:15-16: "My hesed I will not remove from him.... Sure [ne'man] are your house and your kingdom before me forever" ("The Unfailing Kindnesses Promised to David: Isaiah 55:3," JSOT 45 [1989]: 92). Verse 16 itself reprises earlier promises in the near context in summary fashion (for "house/dynasty" see comment on v.11b; for "kingdom" and "throne"—which are linked contextually to "house/dynasty"—and "forever" see comment on v.13b; for "established" see comment on v.12).

That David's "house" would "endure" (v.16) echoes Abigail's insight in 1 Samuel 25:28 (see comment on "lasting dynasty" there; see also comment on "firmly [established his] house" in 1 Sam 2:35; cf. 1 Kings 11:38 ["dynasty as enduring"]—the Heb. expression is virtually the same in all four passages). N'mn ("enduring," "true," "established," "confirmed") is applied also to the divine promises made to David (1 Kings 8:26; 1 Chronicles 17:23; 2 Chronicles 1:9; cf. further Mettinger, In Search of God, pp. 144-45, who calls attention to the fact that "Isaiah's address to the Davidide Ahaz [Isa 7:9]... contains a play on the Nathan prophecy"; cf. similarly Gordon, I & II Samuel, p. 240), which comprise the covenant itself (which "will never fail," Ps 89:28). Through Solomon (cf. 1 Chronicles 22:6-11; 28:5-7) and his descendants, David's throne would "be established" (kwn v.16; cf. 1 Kings 2:45 ["remain secure"]; Ps 89:37).

When A.G. Hebert wrote a book that he subtitled A Study of the Fulfilment of the Old Testament in Jesus Christ and His Church he could think of no better main title than The Throne of David (London: Faber and Faber, 1941). More than any other, Christ fulfills the promises of the Davidic covenant. "The failure of the kings generally leads not to disillusion with kingship but to the hope of a future king who will fulfill the kingship ideal—a hope which provides the most familiar way of understanding the significance of Jesus of Nazareth, the Christ coming in his kingdom" (Goldingay, Theological Diversity and the Authority of the Old Testament, p. 70). That the throne of David will remain "forever" (v.16) refers ultimately to "none but Christ, for David 's Kingdom had an end, but Christ's hath none" (Symon Patrick, p. 396; cf. Luke 1:31-33). In the words of Martin Luther, "his kingdom is forever." 17 Nathan's oracle (vv.5-16) having come to an end, a summary statement functions, together with the introduction (v.4), to frame the oracle itself. It was incumbent on a prophet to report "all the words" that the Lord commissioned him to proclaim (cf. Jer 42:4 ["everything"]), and Nathan keeps nothing back. "The task of the prophet, to convey the message of the Lord faithfully and accurately, is carried out by Nathan, though it involved contradicting what he had already said to David by way of personal opinion" (Baldwin, p. 217; see v.3 and comment).

The Lord's "revelation/vision" (hizzayon see v.4 and comment) to Nathan concerning David and his dynasty is perhaps referred to in Psalm 89:19 ("vision," hazon), which may allude also to the divine communication to Samuel in 1 Samuel 16:12.

D) (Mt 21:43) The Kingdom Of God Will Be Taken Away From Unfaithful Jews And Given To Those Jews Who Are Faithful

(Mt 21:43 NASB)  "Therefore I say to you, the kingdom of God will be taken away from you and given to a people, producing the fruit of it."

[BKC]

"Jesus said the kingdom of God was being taken away from those who heard Him, and it would be given to the people who would produce its fruit. The word for "people" (ethnei) is usually translated "nation." (It appears here without an article.) Two interpretations of this verse are often presented. One is that Jesus was saying the kingdom had been taken from the Jewish nation and would be given to Gentile nations who would produce the proper fruit of genuine faith. It is argued that since ethnei is singular, not plural, the word refers to the church which is called a nation in Romans 10:19 and 1 Peter 2:9-10. But the kingdom has not been taken completely away from Israel forever (Rom. 11:15, 25). And the church is not now inheriting the kingdom.

A better interpretation is that Jesus was simply saying the kingdom was being taken away from the nation Israel at that time, but it would be given back to the nation in a future day when that nation would demonstrate true repentance and faith. In this view Jesus was using the term "nation" in the sense of generation (cf. Matt. 23:36). Because of their rejection, that generation of Israel would never be able to experience the kingdom of God (cf. comments on 21:18-22). But a future generation in Israel will respond in saving faith to this same Messiah (Rom. 11:26-27), and to that future generation the kingdom will be given. By rejecting Jesus the Stone, these builders (Matt. 21:42) suffered judgment (he on whom it [the Stone] falls will be crushed). The religious leaders (then the chief priests and the Pharisees, v. 45; cf. v. 23) realized Jesus' remarks were directed toward them, and they tried their best to arrest Him. But they were afraid of the... people (cf. v. 26), who thought Jesus was a Prophet (cf. v. 11), so they were unable to act."

E) (Heb 8:6-13)

(Heb 8:6 NKJV) "But now He has obtained a more excellent ministry, inasmuch as He is also Mediator of a better covenant, which was established on better promises. 

(Heb 8:7 NKJV) For if that first covenant had been faultless, then no place would have been sought for a second. 

(Heb 8:8 NKJV) Because finding fault with them, He says: "Behold, the days are coming, says the LORD, when I will make a New Covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah -

(Heb 8:9 NKJV) not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day when I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt; because they did not continue in My covenant, and I disregarded them, says the LORD. 

(Heb 8:10 NKJV) For this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, says the LORD: I will put My laws in their mind and write them on their hearts; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people.

(Heb 8:11 NKJV) None of them shall teach his neighbor, and none his brother, saying, 'Know the LORD,' for all shall know Me, from the least of them to the greatest of them. 

(Heb 8:12 NKJV) For I will be merciful to their unrighteousness, and their sins and their lawless deeds I will remember no more.

(Heb 8:13 NKJV) In that He says, "A New Covenant," He has made the first obsolete. Now what is becoming obsolete and growing old is ready to vanish away."