THE NEW COVENANT

I) 1111 THE TIME OF THE NEVER TO BE EQUALED DISTRESS OF GOD'S PEOPLE ISRAEL - ALL TWELVE TRIBES; THE REGATHERING / RESTORATION AND ONGOING PROSPERITY OF BOTH ISRAEL AND JUDAH TOGETHER AS ONE PEOPLE INTO A FOREVER PRESENCE AND POSSESSION OF THE ENTIRE PROMISED LAND; AND THE EXHIBITING BY THEM OF CONSISTENT GODLINESS CONSTITUTE THE KEY CONTEXT OF THE FULFILLMENT OF THE NEW COVENANT - TO THE EXCLUSION OF ALL OTHER TIMES WHICH DO NOT HAVE ALL OF THIS IN VIEW

A) 1111A (Jer 30:1-3; 31:31-34; cf. 33:1ff) The Lord Commanded Jeremiah To Write The Words Which He Had Spoken To Jeremiah In A Book - The Subject Of Which Was His Promise To Restore His People Israel And Judah To The Promised Land To Possess Forever - The Fulfillment Of The New Covenant He Would Make With Them

(Jer 30:1 NASB) '''The word which [has come] to Jeremiah from the LORD, saying, (Jer 30:2 NKJV) Thus [has spoken] the LORD God of Israel, saying: 'Write in a book for yourself all the words that I have spoken to you. (Jer 30:3 NKJV) For behold, the days are coming,' says the LORD, 'that I will bring back from captivity My people Israel and Judah,' says the LORD. 'And I will cause them to return to the land that I gave to their fathers, and they shall possess it.' " ...

 ... (Jer 31:31 NASB) 'Behold, days are coming,' declares the LORD, 'when I will make a New Covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah, [crefs Jer 32:40; 33:14; Ezek 37:26] (Jer 31:32 NASB) not like the covenant which I made with their fathers in the day [of My taking] them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt, My covenant which they broke, although I was a husband to them,' declares the LORD. (Jer 31:33 NASB) But this [is] the covenant which I will make with the house of Israel after those days,' [Jer 32:40] declares the LORD, 'I will put My law within them [in the sense of within their minds] and on their heart I will write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people [Jer 24:7; 30:22; 32:38]. (Jer 31:34 NASB) They will not teach again, each man his neighbor and each man his brother, saying, 'Know the LORD,' for they will all know Me [Isa 11:9; 54:13; Jer 24:7; Hab 2:14], from the least of them to the greatest of them,' declares the LORD, 'for I will forgive their iniquity [Jer 33:8; 50:20; Ezek 36:25-27 ], and their sin I will remember no more [Isa 43:25]." =

(Jer 30:1 NASB) '''The word which [has come] to Jeremiah from the LORD, saying, (Jer 30:2 NKJV) Thus [has spoken] the LORD God of Israel, saying: 'Write in a book for yourself all the words that I have spoken to you. (Jer 30:3 NKJV) For behold, the days are coming,' says the LORD, 'that I will bring back from captivity My people Israel and Judah,' says the LORD. 'And I will cause them to return to the land that I gave to their fathers, and they shall possess it.' " =

  In Jer 30:1-3 the prophet Jeremiah wrote that the LORD commanded him to write a book - a book which contains all the words He had spoken to the prophet relative to the LORD's promise to restore the fortunes of His people Israel and Judah - bringing them to the land that He gave to their forefathers which they will possess forever, (ref. vv. 7-11) - in fulfillment of a New Covenant with them, (ref. Jer 31:31-34). Since Israel split into two kingdoms, their joining once more into one nation according to Scripture, and history so far, will not occur until the endtimes - this time for all time. So far this has not occurred. There are still millions of Jews remaining outside of the Promised Land. The Promised Land has largely remained and remains occupied and possessed by non-Jews .

Notice that in Jer 30:3, the Lord declared, "the days are coming that I will bring back from captivity My people Israel and Judah ... And I will cause them to return to the land I gave to their fathers and they shall possess it." In view of the phrases in Jer 30:3 rendered "the days are coming," and "My people Israel and Judah," Jer 30:1-3 is a clear and unequivocal statement of the permanent / forever return to and possession of the promised land by all of the tribes of Israel and Judah together. The passage does does not indicate periods of restoration followed by periods of dispersion for each of the kingdoms joined or separately until the final and permanent restoration is effected for all of Israel and Judah together once more as one people, as some contend. Although the Hebrew word "āymm" rendered "days" is masculine, plural, it cannot be referring to progressive days / periods of time of fulfillment interrupted by "unfulfillment" in order to include the history of Israel's restorations followed by dispersions and captivity, as some contend. For the "days" of fulfilllment are clearly permanent - forever - uninterrupted - unrepeatable. All of the references in Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Isaiah and elsewhere to the restoration of Israel in fulfillment of the New Covenant have the same plural "days" or "day" and clearly refer to the eschatological / end times - a time when both Israel and Judah together become as one people in an everlasting kingdom, (cf. Jer 3:16-18; 30:4-9; 16:14-21; 23:5-8; 30:24; 31:23-40). They will forever occupy and be forever in possession of the entire Promised Land . So the timeframe of the Everlasting Kingdom with both Israel and Judah as one people is in view.

Since both the Northern Kingdom of Israel, and the Southern Kingdom of Judah are in view in Jer 30:1-3, ("My people Israel and Judah"); and since the time is described in Jer 30:7 as, "for the day is great, there is none like it; and it is the time of Jacob's distress" which the passage indicates is a distress which will never be equaled or exceeded, (ref. Dan. 12:1; Matt. 24:15-22); then this time can only refer to the end time when both Kingdoms will be once more joined together as one people forever to occupy and possess the entire Promised Land, only after such unexcelled distress occurs in history as a one time event: the time of Jacob's trouble, (cf. Jer 30:7).

Since Abraham there have been great times of distress amongst the Jewish people - one greater than the other, only to be excelled by yet another; but none have occurred which has excelled all the others, (refs. Jer 46:10; Isa 2:12-21; 13:6; 34:1-8; Ezek 30:3; Joel 1:15; 2:1-2, 11; Amos 5:18-20; Mic 1:2-5; Zeph 1:2-3:8; Zech 14:1-8, 12-15; Dan. 9:27; 12:1; Matt. 24:15-22); and at the same time was followed by Israel and Judah being regathered into the Promised Land - the entire Promised Land to experience unsurpassed, everlasting life, peace and prosperity, (ref. Dan. 12:1; Matt. 24:15-22). And at no time in history has Israel acted in a consistently godly manner - without sin - corroborating that the LORD had fulfilled His New Covenant with them, (ref. Jer 31:31-34; Ezek 36:27; 27:23).

So it is evident that the LORD commanded Jeremiah to write these hopeful prophecies in a book in order to provide a permanent record for generations to come to read in order to assure God's chosen people that He would be faithful to His promise of their eternal destiny - an assurance of their eternal destiny as one people together forever especially during the times when God's people were being disciplined for unfaithfulness and were dispersed from the land under captivity.

This is the fulfillment of the New Covenant the LORD made with His people Israel as corroborated by what is stipulated in Jer 30:1-31:40 - the key verses being Jer 31:31-34:

1) [Jer 31:31-34 ]:

(Jer 31:31 NASB) " 'Behold, days are coming,' declares the LORD, 'when I will make a New Covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah,

(Jer 31:32 NASB) not like the covenant which I made with their fathers in the day [of My taking] them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt, My covenant which they broke, although I was a husband to them,' declares the LORD.

(Jer 31:33 NASB) But this [is] the covenant which I will make with the house of Israel after those days,' declares the LORD, 'I will put My law within them [in the sense of within their minds] and on their heart I will write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people.

(Jer 31:34 NASB) They will not teach again, each man his neighbor and each man his brother, saying, 'Know the LORD,' for they will all know Me, from the least of them to the greatest of them,' declares the LORD, 'for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin I will remember no more."

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B) 1111B (Jer 30:4-31:40) The Time Of The Never To Be Equaled / Surpassed Distress Of God's People - All Twelve Tribes Of Israel; The Regathering / Restoration Of Both Israel And Judah Together As One People Into A Forever Presence And Possession Of The Entire Promised Land; And The Exhibiting By Them Of Consistent Godliness Constitute The Key Context Of The Fulfillment Of The New Covenant - To The Exclusion Of All Other Times Which Do Not Have All Of This In View

(Jer 30:4 NASB) "Now these are the words which the LORD spoke concerning Israel and concerning Judah:

(Jer 30:5 NASB) For thus says the LORD, 'I have heard a sound of terror, Of dread, and there is no peace.

(Jer 30:6 NASB) Ask now, and see If a male can give birth. Why do I see every man With his hands on his loins, as a woman in childbirth? And why have all faces turned pale?

(Jer 30:7 NASB) Alas! for that day is great, There is none like it; And it is the time of Jacob's distress, But he will be saved from it."

  [Since both the Northern Kingdom of Israel, and the Southern Kingdom of Judah are in view in Jer 30:1-3, ("My people Israel and Judah"); and since the time is described in Jer 30:7 as, "for the day is great, there is none like it; and it is the time of Jacob's distress" which indicates that the distress in view will never be equaled or exceeded, (refs. Isa 34:1-8; Ezek 30:3-19; Joel 2:1-2, 11; Amos 5:18-20; Mic 1:2-5; Zeph 1:2-3:8; Zech 14:1-8, 12-15; Dan. 9:27; 12:1; Matt. 24:15-22); then this time can only refer to the end time when both Kingdoms will be once more joined together as one people forever to occupy and possess the entire Promised Land only after such unexcelled distress occurs in history as a one time event: the time of Jacob's trouble, (cf. Jer 30:7, 24).

Since Abraham there have been great times of distress amongst the Jewish people - one greater than the other, only to be excelled by yet another; but none have occurred which has excelled all the others,  (refs. Jer 46:10; Isa 2:12-21; 13:6; 34:1-8; Ezek 30:3; Joel 1:15; 2:1-2, 11; Amos 5:18-20; Mic 1:2-5; Zeph 1:2-3:8; Zech 14:1-8, 12-15; Dan. 9:27; 12:1; Matt. 24:15-22); immediately followed by Israel and Judah being regathered into the Promised Land - the entire Promised Land - to experience spiritual salvation, unsurpassed faithfulness, everlasting life, peace and prosperity, (Jer 31:31-34 ; and Ezek 36:25-27 ; Zech 12:10-13:1). This cannot be the coming fall of Judah to Babylon or to the later fall of Babylon to Medo-Persia, as some contend. There was a time when Judah was given mercy and liberation under the rulership of Cyrus the Persian, who freed Judah from her Babylonian captors, and eventually permitted them to return to Jerusalem. That in part was a time not of Jacob's trouble, but of Babylon's. Furthermore, both of these events and all of the other times of Israel's trouble have not effected the tribes of the Northern Kingdom of Israel. And at no time in history has Israel acted in a consistently godly manner - without sin - corroborating that the LORD had fulfilled His New Covenant with them, right after God rescues His people from their time of greatest distress. The signature passages on the everlasting fulfillment of the New Covenant are Jer 31:31-34 ;  Ezek 36:25-27 ; and Ezek 37:21-25 .

So it is evident that the LORD commanded Jeremiah to write these prophecies to assure His people of their salvation / deliverance in a book in order to provide a permanent record for generations to come to read to assure God's chosen people that He would be faithful to His promise of their eternal destiny as one people together forever, especially during the times when God's people were being disciplined for unfaithfulness and were dispersed from the land and under captivity. Since the fulfillment of the New Covenant would be when all Israel would believe in the LORD's promise of deliverance / salvation of all of Israel, there has always been hope of fulfillment for each generation of Israelites based on this Promise should all of a generation of Israel choose to believe in the LORD's provision for their salvation which will evidently earmark Israel's everlasting deliverance, salvation and restoration, (ref. Zech 12:10 ; Isa 53:11 ).

So in view in Jer 30:5 is the time of Jacob's trouble - referring to all twelve tribes of Israel. It will be the  greatest time of distress in history. There will be the sound of terror and dread, when there is no peace - only terrifying, overwhelmingly destructive war.

Jeremiah 30:6 indicates that this war will be so great that one will say, "Ask now, and see if a male can give birth?" For the men will have their hands covering their loins, as a woman does in childbirth. They will be sick and overwhelmed with fear and terror, their faces turned pale, frozen in a terrified expression.

And Jer 30:7 states, "Alas! for that day is great, There is none like it; And it is the time of Jacob's distress, But he [Jacob = Israel] will be saved from it." God will rescue His people in the midst of such great distress.

(Jer 30:8 NASB) " 'It shall come about on that day,' declares the LORD of hosts, 'that I will break his yoke from off their neck and will tear off their bonds; and strangers will no longer make them their slaves.

(Jer 30:9 NASB) But they shall serve the LORD their God and David their king, whom I will raise up for them."

  Jer 30:8 adds that on that day in the sense of during that future eschatological period of time of unparalleled distress, the LORD of hosts - of innumerable angelic beings - declares that He will break "his yoke" in the sense of breaking the yoke of all of those of "that day" who were oppressing that generation of people of Israel. And there will be many. The Hebrew word " 'ull" rendered "his yoke," consists of the pronomial suffix "" rendered "his" with the noun "ull" rendered "yoke." The suffix is to be taken as a collective pronoun for all oppressors of that generation of God's chosen people Israel, considering the eschatolotical / endtimes context, (cf. Jer 30:24).

Strangers will no longer make the people of Israel their slaves. Note that this cannot be referring to their release from the bondage of Nebuchadnezzar, for that release was followed in history by further distress and oppression of Israelites at the hands of Greece, Rome, Nazi Germany, etc. The context of Jer 30 is clearly a permanent / forever release from all foreign oppression.

Then in Jer 30:9, the LORD goes on to say, "But they shall serve the LORD their God, (cf. Jer 30:22), and David their king, whom the LORD will raise up for them.

Some contend that Jer 30:9 refers to Jesus Christ as "David." But He is never actually called “David” in the Bible. He is called the Son of David, the Seed of David, and the Root and Offspring of David, but never just “David.” Furthermore in Hosea 3:5 and several other Old Testament passages (Ezekiel 34:23-24; 37:21-25), the Lord is clearly distinguished from this individual called “David.” In other words, in these passages there is reference to “the LORD” Who will rule the world forever from the throne of David, Who is the one written about in Isa 9:6-7 - both man and God ; and the Servant of the LORD of chapters 42, 49, 50 and 52-53 ).

1) [Compare Hos 3:5]:

(Hos 3:5 NASB) "Afterward the sons of Israel will return [Jer 50:4-5] and seek the LORD their God [Jer 30:9; Ezek 34:23-24; 37:21-25] and David their king; and they will come trembling to the LORD and to His goodness in the last days."

2) [Compare Exek 34:23-24 & 37:21-25]:

(Ezek 34:23 NASB) "Then I will set over them one shepherd, My servant David, and he will feed them; he will feed them himself and be their shepherd.

(Ezek 34:24 NASB) And I, the LORD, will be their God, and My servant David will be prince among them; I the LORD have spoken."

(Ezek 37:21 NASB) '''Say to them, "Thus says the Lord GOD, 'Behold, I will take the sons of Israel from among the nations where they have gone, and I will gather them from every side and bring them into their own land;

(Ezek 37:22 NASB) and I will make them one nation in the land, on the mountains of Israel; and one king will be king for all of them; and they will no longer be two nations and no longer be divided into two kingdoms.

(Ezek 37:23 NASB) They will no longer defile themselves with their idols, or with their detestable things, or with any of their transgressions [Ezek 36:28-29]; but I will deliver them from all their dwelling places in which they have sinned, and will cleanse them. And they will be My people, and I will be their God.

(Ezek 37:24 NASB) My servant David will be king over them, and they will all have one shepherd; and they will walk in My ordinances and keep My statutes and observe them.

(Ezek 37:25 NASB) They will live on the land that I gave to Jacob My servant, in which your fathers lived; and they will live on it, they, and their sons and their sons' sons, forever; and David My servant will be their prince forever."

  The Bible suggests that there will be several rulers in the Eternal Kingdom of God who will rule under the Lordship of the Servant of the LORD, born of a woman, the Redeemer of Israel, the Holy One Of Israel Who is both God and Man: Isa 49:1-13  and Isa 9:6-7 ; Who is further described in Isa 52:1-53:12 as the Servant of the LORD Who has brought salvation through His atonement for the sins of all mankind. He is the Redeemer of all mankind . He will be in authority over all those who rule in the Kingdom Age. Moreover, Isaiah 32:1 says, “Behold, a king shall reign in righteousness, and princes shall rule in judgment.” So the Servant / the Messiah will rule with princes under Him.

So the evidence points to the conclusion that in the Eternal Kingdom Age, a resurrected David will rule with others, all subordinate to the Servant of the LORD. This will be preceded by an outpouring of the Holy Spirit leading to Israel’s conversion and perfect sanctification, as described in Zechariah 12:10:

3) [Compare Zech 12:10-14 ]:

(Zech 12:10 NASB) "I will pour out on the house of David and on the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the Spirit of grace and of supplication, [Ezek 36:26-27 ], so that they will look on Me whom they have pierced [Isa 53:5 ] and they will mourn for Him, as one mourns for an only son, and they will weep bitterly over Him like the bitter weeping over a firstborn.

[Just as in Exek 36:26-27 and Jer 31:31-34 which have in view the fulfillment of the New Covenant, so Zech 12:10 has in view the same event which includes the LORD pouring out His Spirit on the house of David and on the inhabitants of Jerusalem, i.e., "the Spirit of grace and supplication." And the focus at that time is the Servant Who has been pierced [Isa 53:5 ], Who will restore all of Israel into the Promised Land, (Isa 49:1-6 ).

Notice that a single individual Who was pierced is in view in Zech 12:10 upon Whom all of Israel is looking and acknowledging / believing in Who He is: One Who then cannot be all of Israel, nor David. Hence the Servant in Isa 53:5 Who was pierced is also a single individual, Who cannot be all Israel at the same time, nor David. But He is both God and Man, (Isa 9:6-7).

[Bible Knowledge Commentary, Walvoord & Zuck, Editors, Victor Books, USA, 1988]:

12:10a. Both leaders (the house of David) and commoners (the inhabitants of Jerusalem) - thus excluding no Israelites (cf. 13:1) - will be the objects of the outpouring of the divine spirit of grace and supplication. This is most probably a reference to the Holy Spirit... so called because He will minister graciously to Israel in her sinful condition and will lead her to supplication and repentance.

12:10b. Thus Israelites will receive divine enablement to look on Me, the One they have pierced. The Lord refers to the nation's action of piercing Him, a term usually indicating "piercing to death." ... The "looking" could be either physical vision (sight) or spiritual vision (faith). Probably it refers here to both ... when Israel will recognize her Messiah and turn to Him in faith. The change to the third person (mourn for Him, rather than "mourn for Me") is common in prophetic literature. The mourning for sin that is prompted by the outpoured Spirit is illustrated by a private act of mourning (v. 10) and a public act of mourning (v. 11). The loss of an only child or of a firstborn son was aggravated by the felt curse associated with childlessness and the lack of an heir to continue the family name and property]

(Jer 30:10 NASB) "Fear not, O Jacob My servant,' declares the LORD, 'And do not be dismayed, O Israel; For behold, I will save you from afar And your offspring from the land of their captivity. And Jacob will return and will be quiet and at ease, And no one will make him afraid.

(Jer 30:11 NASB) For I am with you,' declares the LORD, 'to save you; For I will destroy completely all the nations where I have scattered you, Only I will not destroy you completely. But I will chasten you justly And will by no means leave you unpunished."

  In Jer 30:10, the LORD declares a message to Jacob, His people - both Israel and Judah together, (ref. Jer 30:3; cf. Isa 20:3; 41:8-9; 43:10; 44:1-5, 21, 26; 45:4; 48:20). And it is the people of all of Israel who are His chosen people through whom, as servants and messengers of the LORD,

(refs Isa 41:8-9; 20:3; 43:10; 44:1-2, 21, 26; 45:4; 48:20; Jer 30:10; 46:27-28; Ps 136:22 ; but not the Servant of the LORD Who is God and Man - Isaiah chapters 11, 42, 49, 50 & 52-53 );

the message is to be conveyed to the nations of the world about Who the LORD is and His plan of salvation and deliverance to Israel and for all the nations of the world, as stipulated in the New Covenant promises - especially to His chosen people Jacob. And so in Jer 30:10 the LORD says to Jacob 'Fear not,' and 'do not be dismayed,' at the great, unparalleled distress around them. He declares that He will save them and their offspring from the land of their captivity no matter how far away they are. And the LORD promised that a generation of Jacob will return to the land He had promised them. And they will return and all will be quiet and at ease, and no one will make them afraid any longer.

Then in Jer 30:11, the LORD goes on to say that He is with His people to save them, in the sense of always being present with them, preserving them, blessing them, delivering them from difficulties and chastening them, depending upon their faithfulness. For God is a just God:

Through His substitutionary atonement for the sins of all mankind, He will uphold His attribute of Absolute Justice in forgiving the sins and declaring righteous, i.e. justifying (Isa 53:12 ), those who have trusted in Him for that, (Isa 52:1-53:12 ). And all of a generation of Israel will acknowledge / believe in the Servant of the LORD and be justified unto righteousness and eternal life, (Isa 53:11 ), in that future day, (Zech 12:10-14 ). On the other hand, the LORD will destroy all of those who do not believe in His substutionary atonement for them. Thus they who do not believe in Him will remain unjustified forever - wicked in their position and character before Him forever, (ref. Ps 1:4-6; 37:20, 28; 145:20).

So the LORD will restore all of a generation of His people "in that day," (Isa 10:20-23 ), to all of the land that He promised them; and they will always be faithful to Him. For they will be transformed into beings without sin, having all believed in Him, (Isa 53:11 ; Jer 31:31-34 , Ezek 37:25-27 , Zech 12:10-14 ).

Jer 30:11 goes on to say that "in that day" the LORD will destroy completely all the nations that have scattered the generation of His people. But He will not destroy His people completely - implying and corroborating the times in history when they were chastised justly and in part destroyed, but never annihilated completely, leaving a remnant of believers to survive into the next generation until the one generation in that day which will all believe and all will be justified and saved forever . For the LORD explained in Jer 30:11, "But I will chasten you justly. And will by no means leave you unpunished," (cf. 2 Kgs 18:9-12; Jer 10:24; 25:8ff; 30:11-15; 46:28; Isa 9:18-10:34).

(Jer 30:12 NASB) For thus says the LORD, 'Your wound is incurable And your injury is serious.

(Jer 30:13 NASB) There is no one to plead your cause; No healing for your sore, No recovery for you.

(Jer 30:14 NASB) All your lovers have forgotten you, They do not seek you; For I have wounded you with the wound of an enemy, With the punishment of a cruel one, Because your iniquity is great And your sins are numerous.

(Jer 30:15 NASB) Why do you cry out over your injury? Your pain is incurable. Because your iniquity is great And your sins are numerous, I have done these things to you.

(Jer 30:16 NASB) Therefore all who devour you will be devoured; And all your adversaries, every one of them, will go into captivity; And those who plunder you will be for plunder, And all who prey upon you I will give for prey.

(Jer 30:17 NASB) For I will restore you to health And I will heal you of your wounds,' declares the LORD, 'Because they have called you an outcast, saying: 'It is Zion; no one cares for her.' '''

  In Jer 30:12-15, the LORD continued to admonish Jacob, His people, Israel for their unfaithfulness - their great iniquity, their numerous sins for which He punished them severely; and for which there is no healing, nor recovery. Verses 12-15 state multiple times that there was no healing for the nation's wounds.

First, in Jer 30:12, the LORD, declared that that Israel's wound is incurable, her injury serious. His admonishment of Israel's incurable wound, her serious injury, i.e., her unfaithness was in answer to their evident complaint that they were being unjustly punished. The punishment was evidently the wounds she has received from her enemies because of her flagrant sins.

Hence in Jer 30:13, the LORD concludes that, "There is no one to plead [Israel's] cause; No healing for [her] sore, No recovery for [her]." Israel's sins have evidently been flagrant, grievous and frequent; and God had struck her as an enemy and punished her because of her guilt. Israel's transgressions were at the root of all of her calamaties. She had no right to complain of her punishment since she amply deserved it. And verse 13 indicates that there is no hope of Israel's recovery in the sense that Israel's problem of transgressions against God cannot be resolved through her own efforts. Her problem is internal and systemic. Since repentant behavior is not possible with mortal sinful man ; God must provide a means by which His people and all mankind might be transformed into godly acting people; which is via a moment of faith alone in the Servant's substitutionary atonement - no unworthy proactive actions: one individual at a time. For without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness of sins, Lev 17:11 .

Then in Jer 30:14a the LORD reiterates the consequences of Israel's incurable, irrevocable unfaithfulness to Him, "All your lovers have forgotten you, They do not seek you," in the sense of all of the gods, allies, treaty partners and friends Judah and Israel worship and relied upon in spiritual adultery have failed or forgotten her: Egypt especially, who failed to provide protection when she encouraged Judah to revolt against Babylon. Nor do any gods besides the LORD God exist anyway, (ref Isa 45:5, 21-22, 46:9).

And the LORD went on to state in 14b, "For I have wounded you with the wound of an enemy, with the punishment of a cruel one, because your iniquity is great and your sins are numerous."

Whereupon in Jer 30:15, the LORD asked, "Why do you cry out over your injury? Your pain is incurable. Because your iniquity is great And your sins are numerous, I have done these things to you." The LORD establishes that He is the One behind all of Israel's persecution, and for a wholly justifiable reason: her great iniquity and numerous sins.

Then in Jer 30:16, addressing the destiny of Israel's oppressors, the LORD declared, "Therefore all who devour you will be devoured; And all your adversaries, every one of them, will go into captivity; And those who plunder you will be for plunder, And all who prey upon you I will give for prey." There will be a measure for measure retaliation, (Gen 12:1-3; 27:29; Nu 24:9). Those in history and in "that day" will have received like retaliation for their devouring of, being an adversary of, taking into captivity, plundering or preying upon Israel.

Why did the Lord consider the mistreatment of His nation so great an offense? Because the words and actions of the enemies revealed their disregard of God and his expressed purpose for his people to be His servants representing Him to the nations of the world - Who He is and His salvation. He was completely devalued by their treatment of His people. Ultimately, calling Jacob an outcast impugned God's faithfulness to his elect people.

And in Jer 30:17, the good news is that the LORD declares that He will restore His people to health and heal their wounds, evidently unilaterally because Israel's wound is incurable, with no one to plead her cause, nor healing, nor recovery available, (vv. 12-15). And the LORD's motivation to restore His people, He declared was, "Because they have called you an outcast, saying: 'It is Zion; no one cares for her." The point of view of the nations of the world mattered when it came to respect for God's chosen people.

Notice that it is not as a result of anything Israel does, or even can do. It is because the nations of the world called her an outcast, and because no one cares for her, His people who represent Him. God would not allow the world to think that way about, nor not care for His beloved people, Israel. Hence it is evident that He will act unilaterally to restore a generation of His people, (cf Ezek 36:25-27 ); on the basis of the substitutionary atonement of the Servant of the LORD, born of a woman, the Redeemer of Israel, the Holy One Of Israel Who is both God and Man, (refs, Isa 49:1-13  and Isa 9:6-7 ); Who is further described in Isa 52:1-53:12 as the Servant of the LORD Who has brought salvation through His atonement for the sins of all mankind. Furthermore, He is the Redeemer of all mankind ; and He will be in authority over all mankind and all those who rule under him in the Kingdom Age and forever, (Isa 9:6-7).

(Jer 30:18 NASB) Thus says the LORD, 'Behold, I will restore the fortunes of the tents of Jacob And have compassion on his dwelling places; And the city will be rebuilt on its ruin, And the palace will stand on its rightful place.

(Jer 30:19 NASB) From them will proceed thanksgiving And the voice of those who celebrate; And I will multiply them and they will not be diminished; I will also honor them and they will not be insignificant.

(Jer 30:20 NASB) Their children also will be as formerly, And their congregation shall be established before Me; And I will punish all their oppressors.

(Jer 30:21 NASB) Their leader shall be one of them, And their ruler shall come forth from their midst; And I will bring him near and he shall approach Me; For who would dare to risk his life to approach Me?' declares the LORD.

(Jer 30:22 NASB) You shall be My people, And I will be your God.'''

In Jer 30:18 the LORD says that He will restore the fortunes of the tents of Jacob And have compassion on his dwelling places; And the city will be rebuilt on its ruin, And the palace will stand on its rightful place." So not only will the LORD restore prosperity to His people, Jacob; but He will include in that prosperity their dwelling places. And the city will be rebuilt on its former location, as well as the palace - the residence of the king that the LORD has chosen to rule Israel. The tents and dwellings do not refer to the peoples' temporary housing in Babylon or elsewhere, as some contend in order to make their current situation part of the context of Jeremiah chapter 30, but to the wretched condition of their houses in the homeland at the time of "that day."

And in Jer 30:19, Jacob will express thanksgiving to the LORD, and the LORD will multiply them, and honor them and they will not be insignificant any longer, (v. 17). The nations of the world will honor them for their relationship and status with the LORD. So along with material prosperity will come thanksgiving and celebration of their permanently restored relationship / fellowship with the LORD. Their numbers will grow exponentially, as will their reputation which will never again be diminished. They will be honored by the LORD; and highly esteemed by all of the nations of the world.

Then Jer 30:20 goes on to say that the children of Jacob, the people of Israel will be as formerly in the sense of their former time of prosperity, and their congregation will be established before the LORD in faithful worship; and He will retaliate, in kind, all those who have oppressed His people, Israel.

Then in Jer 30:21, the LORD announced that the leader of Israel, their ruler shall be an Israelite; and not a foreign ruler which has always resulted in further oppression.

4) [Compare Jer 30:9]:

(Jer 30:9 NASB) "But they shall serve the LORD their God and David their king, whom I will raise up for them."

5) [Compare Exek 34:23-24 & 37:21-25]:

(Ezek 34:23 NASB) "Then I will set over them one shepherd, My servant David, and he will feed them; he will feed them himself and be their shepherd.

(Ezek 34:24 NASB) And I, the LORD, will be their God, and My servant David will be prince among them; I the LORD have spoken."

(Ezek 37:21 NASB) '''Say to them, "Thus says the Lord GOD, 'Behold, I will take the sons of Israel from among the nations where they have gone, and I will gather them from every side and bring them into their own land;

(Ezek 37:22 NASB) and I will make them one nation in the land, on the mountains of Israel; and one king will be king for all of them; and they will no longer be two nations and no longer be divided into two kingdoms.

(Ezek 37:23 NASB) They will no longer defile themselves with their idols, or with their detestable things, or with any of their transgressions [Ezek 36:28-29]; but I will deliver them from all their dwelling places in which they have sinned, and will cleanse them. And they will be My people, and I will be their God.

(Ezek 37:24 NASB) My servant David will be king over them, and they will all have one shepherd; and they will walk in My ordinances and keep My statutes and observe them.

(Ezek 37:25 NASB) They will live on the land that I gave to Jacob My servant, in which your fathers lived; and they will live on it, they, and their sons and their sons' sons, forever; and David My servant will be their prince forever."

  The Bible suggests that there will be several rulers in the Eternal Kingdom of God who will rule under the Lordship of the Servant of the LORD, born of a woman, the Redeemer of Israel, the Holy One Of Israel Who is both God and Man: Isa 49:1-13  and Isa 9:6-7 ; Who is further described in Isa 52:1-53:12 as the Servant of the LORD Who has brought salvation through His atonement for the sins of all mankind. He is the Redeemer of all mankind . He will be in authority over all those who rule in the Kingdom Age. Moreover, Isaiah 32:1 says, “Behold, a king shall reign in righteousness, and princes shall rule in judgment.” So the Servant / the Messiah will rule with princes under Him.

7) [Compare Zechariah 6:12-13]:
(Zech 6:12 NASB) '''Then say to him, "Thus says the LORD of hosts, 'Behold, a man whose name is Branch, for He will branch out from where He is; and He will build the temple of the LORD.

(Zech 6:13 NASB) Yes, it is He who will build the temple of the LORD, and He who will bear the honor and sit and rule on His throne. Thus, He will be a priest on His throne, and the counsel of peace will be between the two offices.' " '''

So the evidence points to the conclusion that in the Eternal Kingdom Age, a resurrected David will rule with others, all subordinate to the Servant of the LORD, Who is God. The Servant of the LORD, the One born unto Israel will rule over the whole world from the throne of David:

8) [Compare Isa 9:6-7 ; cf. Isa 52:1-53:12 ]:

(Isa 9:6 NKJV) For unto us [Israel, Isa 1:1, 8:18] a Child is born, Unto us a Son is given; And the government will be upon His shoulder. And His name will be called Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.

(Isa 9:7 NKJV) "Of the increase of His government and peace There will be no end, Upon the throne of David and over His kingdom, To order it and establish it with judgment and justice From that time forward, even forever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this,"

So in Jer 30:21 the LORD will bring the leader of Israel near and that ruler, most likely the resurrected David will approach the LORD in the sense that he will have the authority and permission to approach God. The phrase rendered, "For who would dare to risk his life to approach Me?" implies that the ruler has been sanctified by God as a priest who may approach Him, (cf Jer 50:44; Lev chs 10 & 21). Hence the ruler in view cannot be the Servant of the LORD, for He hardly needs authority and permission to approach God. He is God.

Finally, in Jer 30:22, the LORD reiterates His key purpose to the fulfillment of the New Covenant: so that "You shall be My people, And I will be your God."

(Jer 30:23 NASB) Behold, the tempest of the LORD! Wrath has gone forth, A sweeping tempest; It will burst on the head of the wicked.

(Jer 30:24 NASB) The fierce anger of the LORD will not turn back Until He has performed and until He has accomplished The intent of His heart; In the latter days you will understand this.'''

  Jer 30:23 & 24 are a repetition of Jer 23:19-20. Jeremiah uses the figure of a sudden storm, a tempest, to characterize the LORD's sweeping wrath which will burst upon the head of the wicked. And He will continue His fierce anger until He has accomplished His purpose - the intent of His heart. This will all be better understood by those living in the latter, i.e., the last days - the end times.

9) [Compare Jer 23:19-20]:

(Jer 23:19 NASB) "Behold, the storm of the LORD has gone forth in wrath, Even a whirling tempest; It will swirl down on the head of the wicked.

(Jer 23:20 NASB) The anger of the LORD will not turn back Until He has performed and carried out the purposes of His heart; In the last days you will clearly understand it."

(Jer 31:1 NASB) " 'At that time,' declares the LORD, 'I will be the God of all the families of Israel, and they shall be My people.' [Jer 30:22; Gen 17:7-8; Isa 41:10]

  Jer 31:1 is essentially part of the context of the last verse of the previous chapter 30. For the phrase rendered "At that time," in Jer 31:31 indicates a yet future time in view of the context of the previous verse, Jer 30:24, (cf. Jer 23:20). Both Jer 30:24 and 23:20 have the Hebrew phrase transliterated "bĕ'ăḥărt haāyymm" literally "in the last of the days" which conveys the time frame of the passge as rendered in the NASB "In the latter days" or "last days," in 23:20 - the endtimes. It refers to final things such as the establishment of the mountain of the house of the LORD as the chief of the mountains forever, (Isa 2:2; Mic 4:1); and when the sons of Israel will return and seek the LORD their God and David their king forever, (Hos 3:5). It is especially true that it is those last days because the conditions of the new covenant have not yet been fulfilled precisely as stipulated which rules out partial or temporal fulfillment : Those conditions will not be fulfilled until, "all the families of Israel... shall be My people," forever - not just Judah or Israel, but all the families of people of Jacob. For example, Jer 30:22 has all of the people of the twelve tribes in view. And in the "last times" all twelve tribes of Israel and Judah shall be the people of God, and He shall be their God forever, with no interruptions.

(Jer 31:2 NASB) "Thus [has said] the LORD, '[A] people who survived [lit., the survivors of] the sword [Nu 14:20]  [will have] found grace in the wilderness, when [I will come to give him (a people) rest] - Israel' [Ex 33:14; Nu 10:33; Dt 1:33; Jos 1:13]"

  Thus the LORD has said, "A people who survived the sword," evidently referring to the Northern Tribes surviving the Assyrian onslaught and dispersement of them, they "will have found grace in the wilderness," in the sense that their future experience of God's grace will lead them into the desert / wilderness for their [all of Israel's - Judah's and Israel's together] new and final Exodus into the Promised Land to possess it forever.

10) [Compare Jer 16:14-15; cf. 23:7-8]:

(Jer 16:14 NASB) "Therefore behold, days are coming," declares the LORD, "when it will no longer be said, 'As the LORD lives, who brought up the sons of Israel out of the land of Egypt,'

[Notice that all of Israel is in view here]

(Jer 16:15 NASB) but, 'As the LORD lives, who brought up the sons of Israel from the land of the north and from all the countries where He had banished them.' For I will restore them to their own land which I gave to their fathers.' "

[And the people of the Northern Kingdom of Israel is included in this verse as well - not just Judah]

11) [Hos 2:14-15]:

(Hos 2:14 NASB) "Therefore, behold, I will allure her, Bring her into the wilderness And speak kindly to her.

(Hos 2:15 NASB) Then I will give her her vineyards from there, And the valley of Achor as a door of hope. And she will sing there as in the days of her youth, As in the day when she came up from the land of Egypt."

[References to the first Exodus have in view all twelve tribes of Israel]

[Expositor's Bible Commentary]:

"[Hos 2:15] God will not only speak consolingly; he will give Israel's vineyards back to her. In the historical parallel, this means that as soon as the future Israel has passed through her wilderness and entered her Canaan, she will receive again the vineyards that had been taken away (v. 12). The Valley of Achor, a place of trouble and disgrace at the time of Israel's entrance into Canaan under Joshua (cf. Achan's sin and punishment—Josh 7:24-26), will in the future be "a door of hope." So Israel's future response in song-filled thanksgiving will be as when she entered Canaan the first time.. in the future day there will be even greater praise, when the people return to their land and [the Servant of the LORD ] is their King."

(Jer 31:3 NASB ) "the LORD appeared to him [lit., "me" in the MT. The LXX* has "him" in the sense of the people of Israel, masc. sing.] from far away. 'I have loved you with an everlasting love [Dt 4:37; 7:8; Mal 1:2]; therefore, I have continued to extend faithful love to you.'

*(Jer 38:3 LXX) "The LORD appeared to him from afar, saying, 'I have loved thee with an everlasting love: therefore have I drawn thee in compassion."

  The LORD appeared to him, [LXX correction] i.e., to His people Israel from far away. He said that He has loved them with an everlasting love. Therefore, He has continued to extend faithful love to them - because His love for them is an everlasting love. So the motivation for God's future restoration of the nation is His everlasting love which He will freely bestow on His people - unilaterally, (cf. Hosea 11:4; 14:4; Zeph. 3:17) and His faithful love, i.e., His loving-kindness (cf. Jer. 9:24; 32:18; Lam. 3:32; Dan. 9:4). God had made a covenant with Abraham (Gen. 15:4-21 ) and another covenant with the nation Israel (Ex. 19:3-8; Lev. 26; Deut. 28:1-30:10), and the New Covenant with Israel as well (Jer 31:31-34 ; Ezek 36:23-27 ); and He vowed to stay faithful to His commitments. Israel could look forward to experiencing God's blessing.

In Jer 31:3, Jeremiah states that the LORD appeared to ["him" = Israel, LXX], referring to the analogy of the Exodus so that the people would recall the unparalleled love and grace that God had extended to them "in the past" (lit., "from afar"). Jeremiah underscores the Lord's everlasting love - his continuing to extend His faithful loving kindness to His people.

(Jer 31:4  NASB) "Again I will build you and you will be rebuilt, O virgin of Israel! [2 Ki 19:21; Jer 30:18] Again you will take up [or be adorned with] your tambourines, and go forth to the dances of the merrymakers. [Jer 24:6; 33:7; 30:19]"

  Jer 31:4 addresses Israel as a virgin, signifying God's gracious forgiveness resulting in Israel's being viewed by God as undefiled despite her unfaithfulness -  implying that the Lord sees her just as appealing as in the time of her departure from Egypt (cf. Jer 2:1-3; Hos 2:14-23). God's grace has evidently erased all of Israel's failures of the past. Both rebuilding and joy are promised to Israel - as part of the fulfillment of the New Covenant. Since the imagery of the Exodus is in view from the previous verse, then all Israel is in view - all twelve tribes. Contrasted with the sorrow of the Exile (Ps 137:1) is the use of tambourines at dances in times of rejoicing (cf. Exod 15:20).

(Jer 31:5 NKJV) "You shall yet plant vines [Ps 107:37; Isa 65:21; Ezek 28:26; Amos 9:14] on the mountains of Samaria; [Jer 33:13; 50:19] the planters shall plant and eat them as ordinary [i.e., common] food [Isa 37:30; Am 9:14]."

  Jer 31:5 portrays a time of peace and prosperity as the people plant their vineyards on the hills of Samaria. Free from external threats, they will be able to enjoy their fruit as common fruit indicating peaceful times when the fruit of the vine is common / ordinary - not so much in times of conflict and war, (cf. Lev. 26:16; Deut. 28:33; Micah 4:4; Zech. 3:9-10). Note that the law of Moses did not permit the Hebrews to eat the fruit of the first three years. Fruit of the fourth year was given to God, but it could be redeemed and eaten as common food (cf. Lev 19:23-25; cf. also Deut 20:6; 28:30). Thus Jeremiah's reference to the vineyards implies that Israel will be settled in her land and enjoying it under normal, peaceful conditions.

(Jer 31:6 NKJV) For there shall be a day When the watchmen [Isa 52:8; 56:10] will cry on Mount Ephraim, 'Arise, and let us go up to Zion, to the LORD our God.' [Isa 2:3; Jer 31:12; 50:4, 5; Dt 33:19; Mic 4:2]

  Then in Jer 31:6, the prophet Jeremiah writes of the day when the watchman will cry out the call for worshipping the LORD our God. According to Jewish tradition watchers were appointed for the appearance of the moon, from which their months were counted. Here the watchmen on the hills of Samaria are to show the Northern Kingdom how to go up to Jerusalem to keep the feasts, as the pilgrimage feasts were annually observed in ancient times (cf. Deut 16:16). This will mark the end of the disruption of the kingdom of Solomon in 930 B.C. Ephraim's (Israel's) condition in blessing will be permanent because Jeroboam's misleading them from the Lord's sanctuary will be a thing of the past, when they return to Zion. The breach of many centuries will at last be healed. It will be a time of renewed commitment to the Lord. The watchmen stationed on the hills of Ephraim will summon the people to go up to Zion to worship the LORD. Samaria, the last and most important capital of the Northern Kingdom, and Ephraim, its most important tribe, often represents the entire nation of Israel, as it does in this passage, (cf. Jer 31:1-2). For the “watchmen on Mount Ephraim” to urge their people to “go up to Zion” presages a reuniting of the Northern with the Southern Kingdom in loyalty to the LORD, whose Temple was in Zion/Jerusalem.

(Jer 31:7 NASB) "For thus says the LORD, 'Sing aloud with gladness for Jacob, And shout among the chief of the nations; proclaim, give praise and say, 'O LORD, save Your people, the remnant of Israel."

  In Jer 31:7 it states that God's restoration will be accompanied by songs of joy and the praises of the people for His salvation of them. They were told to:

"Sing aloud with gladness for Jacob," referring to the whole of the nation of Israel, the Northern Kingdom and Judah, (cf. Jer 46:28). Note that 31:9 refers to Ephraim, often used to refer to the Northern Kingdom as well which has by this time been in exile more than 100 years];

"And shout among the chief of the nations," referring to Israel as the head of all of the nations of the world [Dt 26:19; 28:13; Isa 61:9; Amos 6:1] - confirming the timeframe to be during the endtimes and refuting the idea of a partial fulfillment before that;

"proclaim, give praise and say, 'O LORD, save Your people, [Ps 28:9], the remnant of Israel," [Ps 14:7; Jer 20:13; Isa 37:31; Jer 23:3].

Note that the phrase rendered, " 'O LORD, save Your people, the remnant of Israel" defines the scope of the New Covenant to be all of those of a generation of Israel all of whom will exercise faith in the LORD's provision of salvation through His Servant, which in the case of the fulfillment of the New Covenant will be all of that generation, (ref. Zech 12:10-14 ).

Since the New Covenant will be fulfilled when all of a generation of Israel is restored in the Promised Land, saved unto eternal life in sinless perfection, (ref. Jer 31:31-34   and Ezek 36:25-27 );

and since justification unto salvation unto eternal life of each individual requires a moment of faith alone in the substitutionary atonement of the Servant of the LORD alone, (ref. Isa 53:11 );

then it is true that all individuals of a generation of Jews will believe in the substitutionary atonement of Servant of the LORD, (ref. Isa 53:11), resulting only at that time and no other in the once and forever complete fulfillment of the New Covenant.


(Jer 31:8 NASB) Behold, I am bringing them from the north country [Jer 3:18; 23:8], and I will gather them [Dt 30:4; Isa 43:6; Ezek 34:13] from the remote parts of the earth, among them the blind [Isa 42:16] and the lame, [Isa 40:11; Ezek 34:16; Mic 4:6] the woman with child and she who is in labor with child, together; a great company [lit., assembly], they will return here."

   In the past, “The north country” was the source of the threatened calamities. And it will be in the future when the LORD will protect and restore a generation of His people from the completion of their final calamity. When the calamaty comes, it will come from the north, as other calamities had come upon Israel and then Judah in the past. In the endtimes Israel's return will be from the north where most of Israel’s exiled population had been taken in the past, as well as "from the remote parts of the earth." The classes of persons mentioned in v. 8 were thought incapable of hard travel or of survival if forced to it. Yet even these God would bring safely home. The return would be complete, not like the return from Babylon, where many decided to remain, even those who normally would be left behind. Also no one will be too insignificant for the Lord to deliver him. God will restore the blind and the lame along with expectant mothers. There will be universal participation:

Since the New Covenant will be fulfilled when all of a generation of Israel is restored in the Promised Land, saved unto eternal life in sinless perfection, (refs. Jer 31:31-34   and Ezek 36:25-27 );

and since justification unto salvation unto eternal life of each individual requires a moment of faith alone in the substitutionary atonement of the Servant of the LORD alone, (ref. Isa 53:11 );

then it is true that all individuals of a generation of Jews will believe in the substitutionary atonement of Servant of the LORD, (ref. Isa 53:11), resulting only at that time and no other in the once and forever complete fulfillment of the New Covenant.


(Jer 31:9 YLT) "[Ps 125:5; Jer 50:4] With weeping they come in, and with supplications I bring them, I cause them to go by streams of waters, [Isa 43:20; 49:10] on a straight path in which] - they stumble not in it, [Isa 63:13] for I have been to Israel for a father, [Isa 64:8; Jer 3:4, 19] and Ephraim [referring to all of Israel, esp. Ephraim = the Northern Kingdom] - My first born is he [Ex 4:22]."

  In Jer 31:9 in view is the regathering of Israel which will be accompanied by weeping and supplications / prayers. As God leads these people on their new Exodus into Israel He will provide for their every need. He will guide the people beside streams of water (cf. Ex. 15:22-25; Num. 20:2-13; Ps. 23:2) and they will travel on a level path so they will not stumble. "Rivers of waters in a straight way" would make the journey possible for all. No one will be too far away for the LORD to restore him; God will gather all of His people from all the ends of the earth. God will do all this because of His special relationship to Israel. He is Israel's father (Deut. 32:6), and Ephraim (referring to all the tribes but with an emphasis on the Northern tribes of Israel which have been exiled longer) is his firstborn son (cf. Ex. 4:22). Jeremiah used the image of a father/son relationship to show God's deep love for His people (cf. Hosea 11:1, 8).

(Jer 31:10 NASB) "Hear the word of the LORD, O nations, and declare in the coastlands afar off, [Isa 66:19, Jer 25:22], and say 'He who scattered Israel will [Jer 50:19] gather him and keep him as a shepherd keeps his flock [Isa 40:11; Ezek 34:12]."

  The message of Jer 31:10 is that the word of the LORD is to be spread afar, throughout the nations of the world, [Isa 66:19, Jer 25:22] - that the Lord will regather Israel. The nations will be told that it was the Lord who exiled his people and that it is He who will restore them [Jer 50:19]. It is He Who will keep Israel as a shepherd keeps his flock [Isa 40:11; Ezek 34:12]. The figure of shepherd and flock portrays the dual concepts of tenderness and concern. Just as the Lord alone was responsible for Israel's chastisement, so now it is He alone who will regather them, evidently not because of anything that any of His chosen people will do to merit that restoration.

(Jer 31:11 NASB) "For the LORD has ransomed Jacob and redeemed him [Isa 44:23; 48:20; Jer 15:21; 50:34] from the hand of him who was stronger than he." [Ps 142:6]

  In Jer 31:10 it stipulates that the Lord will gather and keep His people Israel as a shepherd keeps his flock; whereupon in Jer 31:11 it explains how this will have come about by stating that the LORD will have ransomed and redeemed Jacob [Israel] by purchasing His people from the hand of him who was stronger than Jacob - a stronger more powerful ruling people than Israel, (the LORD Himself having paid the ransom price); and the LORD has delivered them, (the LORD Himself having redeemed them from their enslavement to that rulership unto their forever restoration into the Promised Land. Their enslavement was caused by the LORD because of Israel's unfaithfulness - her sins, (2 Kgs 18:9-12; Jer 25:8ff; Isa 9:8-10:34). And Israel will be redeemed in the sense that the LORD will have paid the ransom for Israel's unfaithfulness through the substitutionary atonement of the Servant of the LORD, (Isa 52:1-53:12 ), thus releasing the LORD to unilaterally redeem, restore and transform His people unto possession, prosperity and faithfulness forever in the Promised Land. The word rendered "Redeemed" means to have been delivered from something by paying a price. In the case of Jer 31:11, Jacob has been delivered from sin by the payment for his sins by another - by the Servant of the LORD, (Isa 52:1-53:12 ) to once again become the people of the LORD, (ref. Jer 31:1). And Jacob has been therefore "ransomed” which means to have achieved the transfer of ownership from one to another through payment of a price or an equivalent substitute. In the case of Jacob (Israel) being ransomed, the payment was made through the redemption by the Servant of the LORD, (Isa 52:1-53:12 ). God will do this for Israel unilaterally by grace, - without anything of merit on the part of Jacob.

(Jer 31:12 HOLMAN) "They will [have] come [in] and [have shouted] for joy [Jer 31:6-7; Ezek 17:23] on the heights of Zion; they will be [have been] radiant with joy [Isa 2:2; Mic 4:1] because of the LORD's goodness, because of the grain, the new wine, the fresh oil, and because of the young of the flocks and herds [Hos 2:22; Joel 3:18; Jer 31:24; 33:12-13]. Their life will [have been] like an irrigated garden, [Isa 58:11] and they will no longer grow weak [from hunger] [Isa 35:10; 60:20; 65:19]."

  In Jer 31:12, promises are heaped one upon another - predictions of joy, return to Jerusalem, nature transformed and a new prosperity. Israel's regathering (like a flock of sheep; cf. Jer 23:3; Micah 2:12; 5:4; 7:14) will be accompanied by a renewal of God's material blessings. All of a future generation of Jacob (Israel) will be restored to the Promised Land, and will rejoice in the bounty of crops (cf. Jer. 31:5) and flocks and herds. Jeremiah compared Jacob's material wealth to a well-watered garden that was producing in abundance (cf. Deut. 30:5, 9). When the people come to Zion, they will find every need supplied. God's "bounty" (lit., "goodness") includes material blessings as the text shows.

The commodities mentioned in v. 12 (grain, new wine, fresh olive oil, lambs, kids and calves) represented abundance and, more importantly, the promise of continued abundance. These things would have been among the most welcomed of God’s promised blessings in the coming restoration. So all of a generation of Jacob will be ransomed, redeemed, rejoicing and restored to the Promised Land - forever.

(Jer 31:13 NASB) Then the virgin will rejoice in the dance, [Jud 21:21; Ps 30:11; Zech 8:4-5], and the young men and the old, together, for I will [have turned] their mourning into joy [Isa 61:3] and will [have comforted] them and [have given] them joy for their sorrow [Isa 51:11].

(Jer 38:13 Septuagint) Then shall the virgins rejoice in the assembly of youth, and the old men shall rejoice; and I will turn their mourning into joy, and will make them merry.

  This outpouring of blessing will produce gladness, comfort, and joy (cf. Jer. 31:4, 7). Never again will God's people express sorrow as they will express in the future time of Jacob's unsurpassed distress, (ref. Jer 30:7), which is far more than they did in the past. The Septuagint renders the first part of v. 13, “Then shall the virgins rejoice in the assembly of youth, and the old men shall rejoice; and I will turn their mourning into joy, and will make them merry," which makes better sense.


(Jer 31:14 NASB) "I will fill [lit., saturate] the soul of the priests with abundance [lit., abundance], and My people will be satisfied with My goodness [Jer 50:19],' declares the LORD."

  So great will be the prosperity bestowed on them that the priests will be satiated because of the many sacrifices brought by the worshipers (v.14; cf. Lev 7:34). With abundant harvests, the portions of the priests will increase. The priests did not have an inheritance of land in the economy of ancient Israel. They were to depend on the tithes and the generosity of their fellow Israelites. The priests would also share in the coming restoration of bounty. The “fatness” they would receive would consist partly in the choice portions of the sacrifices that were to be theirs, according to the Levitical regulations. But the fat of the animal sacrifices, strictly speaking, belonged to the Lord and was supposed to be burned on the altar. This notice concerning the priests refers to their share in that which God would lavish upon all Israel.

(Jer 31:15 NASB) "Thus says the LORD, 'A voice is heard in Ramah, lamentation and bitter weeping. Rachel is weeping for her children; She refuses to be comforted for her children, because they are no more."

  Rachel, the wife of Jacob, was the ancestress of the three tribes Ephraim, Manasseh and Benjamin. She had so desired children that she considered herself dead without them, (Gen 30:1). Rachel was Joseph and Benjamin's mother. Jeremiah said in Jer 31:15 that she was weeping in a figurative sense because of the loss of the people - her children in the sense of her descendants - killed or taken in captivity. And since she was the mother of Benjamin, it would fit because those in Ramah were Benjamites. Ramah was on the border of Benjamin and Ephraim, that is, of Judah with the Northern Kingdom, Israel. Rachel had passed near Ramah; she herself died not far away, at Ephrat. The future hope of all of the people of Israel will contrast sharply with Israel's present and future misery, (Jacob's Trouble, Jer 30:7 ). The cry from Ramah was one of mourning and great weeping as Jeremiah pictured Rachel in her grave in Ephrat near Ramah weeping for her children who were going off to exile, poetically speaking. Jeremiah himself was in a camp for exiles in Ramah (Jer 40:1). She who had so longed for children (cf. Gen 30:1) is cruelly bereaved of them, but God purposes to restore them. Joseph was the father of Ephraim and Manasseh, who became the two major tribes in the Northern Kingdom of Israel. These two tribes, more than the rest of the nation, suffered exile at the hands of the Assyrians in the aftermath of the defeat of 721 b.c. Much of the rest of the nation already had been separated off from Israel before that final defeat and deportation. Rachel lost her children more than did Leah, Bilhah or Zilpah (cf. Gen. 29-30). Thus Jeremiah was picturing the weeping of the women of the Northern Kingdom as they watched their children being carried into exile in 722 B.C. However, Jeremiah could also have had the 586 B.C. deportation of Judah in view because Ramah was the staging point for Nebuchadnezzar's deportation (Jer 40:1). In all likelihood these women were crying because they would never see their children again. As they will during the future time of Jacob's trouble, (Jer 30:7 ).

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In what sense was Herod's slaughter of the babies (Matt. 2:17-18) a "fulfillment" of Jeremiah 31:15? Jeremiah pointed to an Old Testament deportation of children from a town north of Jerusalem; Matthew used the passage to explain the New Testament slaughter of children in a village south of Jerusalem. The answer to the problem hinges on Matthew's use of the word "fulfilled" (plēroō). Though Matthew did use the word to record an actual fulfillment of an Old Testament prediction (cf., e.g., Matt. 21:4-5 with Zech. 9:9), he also used the word to indicate something comparable in the Old Testament had been realized (cf. Matt. 3:15; 5:17). In these latter instances there is no prophetic significance to the word "fulfill," which is how Matthew used the word to associate the slaughter in Bethlehem with the comparable sadness in Ramah. Matthew used Jeremiah 31:15 in his book (Matt. 2:17-18) to explain the sadness of the mothers of Bethlehem. The pain of those mothers in Ramah who watched their sons being carried into exile was comparable with the cries of the mothers of Bethlehem who cradled their sons' lifeless bodies in their arms.


(Jer 31:16 NASB) "Thus [has declared] the LORD, 'Restrain your voice from weeping and your eyes from tears; [Isa 25:8; 30:19] for your work will be rewarded,' declares the LORD, 'And they will return from the land of the enemy.' [Jer 30:3; Ezek 11:17]

(Jer 31:17 NASB) 'There is hope for your future,' declares the LORD, 'And your children will return to their own territory. [Jer 29:11]' "

  But as the women of Israel and Judah wept for their exiled children, God offered a word of comfort. They were to restrain their voices from weeping and their eyes from tears. Their (faithful) work will be rewarded. There was hope for their future because their children - a future generation of Israelites - will return from the land of the enemy to their own land. And God will unilaterally bring about their restoration, (Jer 31:31-34 ).


(Jer 31:18 NASB) ''' "I have surely heard Ephraim grieving [Jer 3:21], 'You have chastised me [Job 5:17; Ps 94:12], and I was chastised, like an untrained calf [lit., bull calf] [Hos 4:16]; bring me back that I may be restored, [Ps 80:3, 7, 19; Jer 17:14; Lam 5:21] for you are the LORD my God.' " '''

  In Jer 31:18, the LORD said, "I have surely heard Ephraim [Israel] grieving." And Ephraim, the people of Israel, were saying to the LORD 'You have chastised me; and I was chastised, like an untrained calf; bring me back that I may be restored for you are the LORD my God.' " So The people of Ephraim expressed sorrow for their sins. And they prayed for the Lord to restore them back into their land. In grief over their own waywardness, they reviewed the Lord's dealings with them. They admitted that they have been brought under the chastisement of the Lord. They were chastised like a stubborn, untrained calf, stubborn in need of discipline. Through the Lord's judgments they will have learned that discipline, and they will request to be brought back into the Promised Land so that they might be restored. For they will acknowledge and confess that He is the LORD and their God, evidently having repented from the centuries of their rebellion against the LORD through the LORD's unilateral action in fulfillment of the New Covanant, (Jer 31:31-34 ).


(Jer 31:19 HOLMAN) "[For after my turning back] I [have] repented; after [my knowing], I struck my thigh [in grief] [Ezek 21:12]. I [have been] ashamed and also humiliated because I bore the disgrace of my youth [Jer 3:11-25].

  In the previous verse, Jer 31:18, Ephraim in grief recognized the error of his ways before God. Having been chastised like a stubborn, untrained calf and desiring to be restored, He recognized that He is his LORD and his God."

Then the previous verse, Jer 31:19, it is explained that the people of Ephraim [Israel] turned back to the LORD and told Him that they have repented, having struck the thigh in grief [Ezek 21:12]. Note that it was a custom in the Near East to show remorse or astonishment by striking the thigh. They confessed that they have been ashamed and humiliated because of bearing the disgrace of their youth, (cf. Jer 3:11-25). Since the New Covenant promises to transform all of a generation of Ephraim [Israel] into individuals with God's laws implanted within the minds and hearts of all of a generation of His people wherein their past sins, which will all have been forgiven, they will be ashamed of and humiliated by; and wherein they will all turn back to the LORD; and wherein they will all have repented from their sins unto faithfulness, then their repentance will come as a result of God's grace, not by anything that they would do and merit.


(Jer 31:20 HOLMAN) "Isn't Ephraim a precious son to Me, a delightful child? [Hos 11:8] Whenever I speak against him, I certainly still think about him. Therefore, My inner being yearns for him [Judges 10:16; Isa 63:15; Hos 11:8]; I will truly have compassion on him. [This is] the LORD's declaration."

  Jer 31:20 is the Lord's answer to Ephraim's answer to Ephraim's chastisement. The LORD asks "Isn't Ephraim a precious son to Me, a delightful child? Whenever I speak against him, I certainly still think about him. Therefore, My inner being yearns for him; I will truly have compassion on him. [This is] the LORD's declaration."

Notice that the LORD will have compassion on His people

As the Lord had to denounce the sins of His people many times, nevertheless, He recalls his intimate relationships with them as well. Fatherly tenderness prevails in Jer 31:20. So Jeremiah ended this section by recording Israel's cry of contrition that she will recite when she returns to the land. Though she had strayed (Jer. 3:11-25; 31:19) she will be transformed into a faithful individual, (ref. Ezek 36:25-27 ). When she returns to her God she will be ashamed and humiliated because of her sin. God in turn will express His great compassion for the wayward but returning nation (cf. Hosea 2:16-23).

12) [Compare Jer 31:31-34 ]:

(Jer 31:31 NASB) " 'Behold, days are coming,' declares the LORD, 'when I will make a New Covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah,

(Jer 31:32 NASB) not like the covenant which I made with their fathers in the day [of My taking] them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt, My covenant which they broke, although I was a husband to them,' declares the LORD.

(Jer 31:33 NASB) But this [is] the covenant which I will make with the house of Israel after those days,' declares the LORD, 'I will put My law within them [in the sense of within their minds] and on their heart I will write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people.

(Jer 31:34 NASB) They will not teach again, each man his neighbor and each man his brother, saying, 'Know the LORD,' for they will all know Me, from the least of them to the greatest of them,' declares the LORD, 'for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin I will remember no more."


(Jer 31:21 NKJV) Set up signposts, Make landmarks; set your heart [mind] toward the highway, the way in which you went [Isa 52:11-12 ]. Turn back, O virgin of Israel, turn back to these your cities.

The LORD has commanded a generation of Ephraim  [all of Israel] to set up signposts, make landmarks; set your heart [mind] toward the highway, the way in which you went. Turn back, O virgin of Israel, turn back to these your cities [in the Promised Land]. Notice that the imagery is within the mind, not actually posting physical signposts, or building physical landmarks. For these will not be aides in setting ones heart toward the highway which signposts, landmarks and highways might not be recognizable or even standing for centuries when Israel will finally return, years after Jeremiah wrote these words to a future generation of Israelites from all the tribes not just from Babylon. Note that the return from exile in Babylon cannot be a partial fulfillment since the tribes of the exiled Northern Kingdom were not included, nor was the return 100% - most of the exiles chose to remain in Babylon, nor was the return a forever fulfillment without repeating the unfaithfulness leading to further destruction and dispersement such as in AD 70.


(Jer 31:22 NASB) How long will you go here and there, O [Jer 3:6; 49:4] faithless daughter? For the LORD has created a new thing in the earth - a woman will encompass a man.

(Jer 31:23 YLT) Thus [has said] the LORD of hosts, God of Israel, '[Again] they will say this word in the land of Judah and in its cities [Jer 30:18; 32:44], in My turning [them] back [from] their captivity, 'The LORD bless you, [Isa 1:26; Jer 50:7] O [abode] of righteousness, and holy mountain [Ps 48:1; 87:1; Zech 8:3]!

(Jer 31:24 NASB) [And] Judah and all its cities will [Jer 31:12; Exek 36:10; Zech 8:4-8] dwell together in it, the farmer and they who go about with flocks [Jer 31:12; Ezek 36:10; Zech 8:4-8].

(Jer 31:25 NASB) For I [have satisfied] the weary [soul] and everyone who languishes [in despair] [I have filled]. [Ps 107;9; Jer 31:12, 14; Mt 5:6; Jn 4:14]

(Jer 31:26 NKJV) After this I awoke and looked around, and my sleep was sweet to me [Zech 3:1; Prov 3:24].

(Jer 31:27 NASB) Behold, days are coming,' declares the LORD, 'when I will sow the house of Israel and the house of Judah [in the sense of prosperity] with the seed of man and and with the seed of beast. [Ezek 36:9, 11; Hos 2:23]

(Jer 31:28 NASB) As I have watched over them to pluck up, to break down, to over throw, to destroy and to bring disaster, [Jer 44:27; Dan 9:14; Jer 1:10; 18:7] so I will watch over them to build and to plant, [Jer 24:6],' declares the LORD.

(Jer 31:29 NASB) In those days they will not say again [Lam 5:7; Ezek 18:2] [in the sense of 'it will never again be said']: The fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the children's teeth are set on edge [Ezek 18:2].

(Jer 31:30 NASB) But everyone will die for his own iniquity; each man who eats the sour grapes [wild grapes], his teeth will be set on edge [in the sense of dulled], [Dt 24:16; Isa 3:11; Ezek 18:4, 20]

****** goto & copy from #jer31v4

(Jer 31:31 NASB) [Jer 31:31-34; Jer 32:40; 33:14; Dt 10:1-10; Ezek 36:24-33; 37:24-28] 'Behold, days are coming,' declares the LORD, 'when I will make a New Covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah,

(Jer 31:32 NASB) not like the covenant which I made with their fathers in the day [of My taking] them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt, [Ex 19:5; 24:6-8; Dt 5:2, 3; Dt 1:31; Isa 63:12; Jer 11:7, 8] My covenant which they broke, although I was a husband to them,' declares the LORD.

(Jer 31:33 NASB) But this [is] the covenant [Jer 32:40; Heb 10:16] which I will make with the house of Israel after those days,' declares the LORD, [Ps 40:8; 2 Cor 3:3] 'I will put My law within them [in the sense of within their minds] and on their heart I will write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people [Jer 24:7; 30:22; 32:38].

(Jer 31:34 NASB) They will not teach again [1 Thes 4:9; 1 Jn 2:27], each man his neighbor and each man his brother, saying, 'Know the LORD,' for they will all know Me [Isa 11:9; 54:13; Jer 24:7; Hab 2:14], from the least of them to the greatest of them,' declares the LORD, 'for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin I will remember no more [Jer 33:8; 50:20; Mic 7:17; Ro 11:27; Isa 43:25].

(Jer 31:35 NASB) Thus says the LORD, [Gen 1:14-18; Dt 4:19; Ps 19:1-6; 136:7-9] Who gives the sun for light by day, ... the [statutes / ordinances] of the moon and the stars for light by night, Who [Isa 51:15] stirs up the sea so that its waves roar [Jer 10:16; 32:18; 50:34], the LORD of hosts is His name:

(Jer 31:36 NASB) [Ps 89:36, 37; 148:6; Isa 54:9, 10; Jer 33:20-26] 'If [these statutes / ordinances] depart from before Me,' declares the LORD, 'Then the offspring of Israel also will cease from being a nation before Me forever [lit., all the days]. [Amos 9:8-9]'

(Jer 31:37 NASB) Thus [says] the LORD [Isa 40:12; Jer 33:22]; 'If the heavens above can be measured, and the foundations of the earth searched out below, then I will also cast off all the [descendants] of Israel for all that they have done,' [says] the LORD [Jer 33:24-26; Ro 11:2-5, 26-27].

(Jer 31:38 NASB) 'Behold days are coming,' declares the LORD, 'when the city will be rebuilt for the LORD [Jer 30:18; 31:4] from the Tower of Hanael [Neh 3:1; 12:39; Zech 14:10] to the Corner Gate [2 Kg 14:13; 2 Chr 26:9].

(Jer 31:39 NASB) The measuring line will go out farther straight ahead to the hill Gareb; then it will turn to Goah [Zech 2:1].

(Jer 31:40 NASB) And the whole valley of the dead bodies and of the ashes, and all the fields as far as the brook Kidron [2 Sam 15:23; 2 Kg 23:6, 12; Jn 18:1], to the corner of the Horse Gate toward the east [2 Kg 11:16; 2 Chr 23:15; Neh 3:28], shall be holy to the LORD; it will not be plucked up or overthrown anymore forever.' "

C) 1111C [Ezek 36:16-37:28]:

1) 1111C1 (Ezek 36:16-21) The People of Israel's Dispersion Was Caused By Their Defiling Their Own Land By Their Ways And Their Deeds

(Ezek 36:16 NASB) '''''Then the word of the LORD came to me saying,

(Ezek 36:17 NASB) ''''Son of man, when the house of Israel was living in their own land, they defiled it by their ways and their deeds; their way before Me was like the uncleanness of a woman in her impurity.'''' '''''

[(vv. 16-17) The word of the LORD came to the prophet Ezekiel whom the LORD has repeatedly called son of man emphasizing Ezekiel's humanity , as opposed to "The Son of Man," with the definite article emphasizing in Dan 7:13 an actual man Who is at the same time God Who will come in the clouds of heaven to receive a worldwide kingdom. From this use in Daniel it came to refer to the glorious Messiah Who is defined in Scripture as God Himself, .

The LORD through the prophet Ezekiel reviewed Israel's past history, in the sense of all the people of God - all twelve tribes, (cf. Ezek 37:15-23). Past history that had brought their dispersion upon them among the nations of the world. Ezekiel 36:16-21 is also a review of their unfaithfulness while they were living in their own sacred land. They defiled the land by their ways and deeds - by their disobedience of the Mosaic Law. Their way before the LORD was like a woman's menstrual impurity: just as the Mosaic regulations regarded a woman as "unclean" during her period, so the sinful behavior of the people of Israel had made the nation "unclean," (cf. Lev 15:19-23). And the land was polluted because of the sinfulness of the people who had lived in it.

Ezekiel had already spelled out the details of Israel's past sins in Ezek 11:1-21; 22:1ff  - especially that of Jerusalem and Judah, echoing the warnings of God to Moses about this very thing, (cf. Lev 18:25ff). Israel's two major crimes were (1) bloodshed, which was brought among her own people through infanticide, intrigue, violence and selfishness, and (2) idolatry, which pervaded the people's lives and drew them continually away from the LORD, (v. 18). Even when scattered among other nations they continued to profane God's holy name]

(Ezek 36:18 NASB) "Therefore I poured out My wrath on them for the blood which they had shed on the land, because they had defiled it with their idols.

(Ezek 36:19 NASB) Also I scattered them among the nations and they were dispersed throughout the lands. According to their ways and their deeds I judged them."

[(vv. 18-19) Therefore in view of Israel's chronic unfaithfulness, the LORD poured out His wrath on them for the blood which they had shed on the land, because they had defiled it with their idols - the two were evidently connected with one another. He scattered them throughout the nations, dispersed them throughout foreign lands, having judged them according to their deeds. Israel's persistent disobedience of the Law would result in her discipline, wherein the LORD had sown Israel like a seed throughout the countries of that day, (cf. Dt 29:1-30:10). So before dwelling on Israel's future cleansing, Ezekiel reminded the exiles of their past sin which caused their repeated judgment. God scattered His people among the nations of the world, dispersing them throughout the lands so that they might learn the importance of following His ways. But in the next two verses it is evident that His key concern was for His holy name.

(Ezek 36:20 NASB) '''When they came to the nations where they went, they profaned My holy name, because it was said of them, "These are the people of the LORD; yet they have come out of His land."

(Ezek 36:21 NASB) But I had concern for My holy name, which the house of Israel had profaned among the nations where they went." '''

[(vv. 20-21) In His disciplining of the people of Israel, the LORD risked impugning His holy name. A nation in ancient times was uniquely tied to its land. If a people were forced off their land, whether by conquest, famine, disease, or any other reason, this demonstrated that their god was not sufficiently strong enough to protect and care for them. Relative to the people of Israel being restored to the Promised Land, it was God's holy name which was at stake. The "name" of God refers to the representation of His character, sovereignty and power. Profaning God's holy name was one of the LORD's accusations against Judah made through His prophet Ezekiel, (cf. 20:29). The phrase rendered "My holy name" comes from Leviticus, where the regulations of God's Law were meant to keep God's name holy, set Him apart to Righteousness, to authenticate His Sovereignty and to prevent His name from becoming polluted or profaned by the actions of His people, (cf. Lev 20:3; 22:3; 22:32). Nevertheless the people of Israel did repeatedly profane the LORD's holy name by violating God's Law even while in the nations in which they were dispersed, (v. 21). Israel's spiritual rebellion and subsequent moral degeneration caused God's holy name to be impugned among the Gentile peoples who surrounded Israel and Judah. If Israel and Judah were the people of the LORD, it was thought that He must not be able to protect them because they were repeatedly being taken off into exile. It was concluded that He was a weak God. It was said by those who were of the nations, "These are the people of the LORD; yet they have come out of His land," implying that those in the nations of the world knew to some extent about the LORD of the Hebrews and the land that He reserved for His people, especially in view of their Exodus from Egypt and God's enablement of their conquering and occupation of the Promised Land. Thereafter, and despite the inevitable loss of reputation, God did scatter Israel among the nations a number of times for their unfaithfulness. So the world perceived that Israel's God was weak. And thereby the name of the LORD was profaned throughout the world all the more because of the way Israel behaved even where they resided outside of their land amongst the nations; and her population remains largely dispersed over the world outside of the Promised Land to this day]

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2) 1111C2 (Ezek 36:22-24) The People Of Israel Will Forever Be Returned To Their Own Land - The Promised Land - For The Sake Of God's Holy Name.

Note That Israel Is Not To Be Confused Here With Members Of The Church Whom The Latter Have Not Been Promised By God To Receive Land He Promised To Give Their Forefathers

(Ezek 36:22 NASB) ''''Therefore say to the house of Israel, '''Thus says the Lord GOD, "It is not for your sake, O house of Israel, that I am about to act, but for My holy name, which you have profaned among the nations where you went.

(Ezek 36:23 NASB) I will vindicate the holiness of My great name which has been profaned among the nations, which you have profaned in their midst. Then the nations will know that I am the LORD," declares the Lord GOD, "when I prove Myself holy among you in their sight.

(Ezek 36:24 NASB) For I will take you from the nations, gather you from all the lands and bring you into your own land." '''

[(v. 22) For the sake of His Holy Name, God will act in the sense that He will remove His people Israel from the nations where they have been scattered. He will gather them and bring them back to their land, the land of Canaan - the Promised Land, (v. 24), which had been promised to their forefathers in the Abrahamic covenant (cf. 11:17), despite their unfaithfulness.

Note that Israel is not to be confused here with members of the Church whom the latter have not been promised by God to receive land He promised to give their forefathers.

This implies that the LORD has made provision for the forgiveness of their sins so that God's Justice would be satisfied, His Righteousness confirmed in those who trusted in Him for their deliverance unto the eternal Promised Land - as implied in His covenant to Abraham, and in the New Covenant, (v. 24; cf. Ezek 36:25-28; Jer 31:31-34).

The promise that God made about the Promised Land was first made to Abraham, the Patriarch of God's chosen people, Israel, (Gen 12:1-4), whereupon when Abraham believed in God's promise it was accounted to Abraham as Righteousness unto the everlasting life which was required in order for the promise to Abram / Abraham to be fulfilled within himself and with his descendants through Isaac and Jacob - through the faith that Abraham expressed unto righteousness, (Gen 15:4-21 ; cf. Gen 13:14-18; 17:6; 2 Sam 7:12-16). God's covenant with Abraham was then confirmed to his son Isaac, (Gen 26:2-3), and then to Isaac's son Jacob (Gen 28:13-15), Abraham's grandson. The Promised Land was described in terms of the territory from the River of Egypt to the Euphrates River (Exodus 23:31).

a) [Gen 12:1-4; 15:18-21; 26:2-3; 28:13; Ex 23:31]:

(Gen 12:1 NASB) '''Now the LORD said to Abram, "Go forth from your country, And from your relatives And from your father's house, To the land which I will show you;

(Gen 12:2 NASB) And I will make you a great nation, And I will bless you, And make your name great; And so you shall be a blessing;

(Gen 12:3 NASB) And I will bless those who bless you, And the one who curses you I will curse. And in you all the families of the earth will be blessed."

(Gen 12:4 NASB) So Abram went forth as the LORD had spoken to him; and Lot went with him. Now Abram was seventy-five years old when he departed from Haran.'''

Gen 15:18 NASB) '''On that day the LORD made a covenant with Abram, saying, "To your descendants I have given this land, From the river of Egypt as far as the great river, the river Euphrates:

(Gen 15:19 NASB) the Kenite and the Kenizzite and the Kadmonite

(Gen 15:20 NASB) and the Hittite and the Perizzite and the Rephaim

(Gen 15:21 NASB) and the Amorite and the Canaanite and the Girgashite and the Jebusite." '''

(Gen 26:2 NASB) '''The LORD appeared to him and said, "Do not go down to Egypt; stay in the land of which I shall tell you.

(Gen 26:3 NASB) Sojourn in this land and I will be with you and bless you, for to you and to your descendants I will give all these lands, and I will establish the oath which I swore to your father Abraham." '''

(Gen 28:13 NASB) '''And behold, the LORD stood above it and said, "I am the LORD, the God of your father Abraham and the God of Isaac; the land on which you lie, I will give it to you and to your descendants." '''

(Ex 23:31 NASB) "I will fix your boundary from the Red Sea to the sea of the Philistines, and from the wilderness to the River Euphrates; for I will deliver the inhabitants of the land into your hand, and you will drive them out before you."

2 cont.) 1111C2 (Ezek 36:22-24 cont.) The People Of Israel Will Be Returned To The Promised Land For The Sake Of God's Holy Name.

Note That Israel Is Not To Be Confused Here With Members Of The Church Whom The Latter Have Not Been Promised By God To Receive Land He Promised To Give To Their Forefathers, (cont.)

(Ezek 36:22 NASB) '''Therefore say to the house of Israel, '''Thus says the Lord GOD, "It is not for your sake, O house of Israel, that I am about to act, but for My holy name, which you have profaned among the nations where you went.

(Ezek 36:23 NASB) I will vindicate the holiness of My great name which has been profaned among the nations, which you have profaned in their midst. Then the nations will know that I am the LORD," declares the Lord GOD, "when I prove Myself holy among you in their sight.

(Ezek 36:24 NASB) For I will take you from the nations, gather you from all the lands and bring you into your own land." '''

[(vv. 23-24) Therefore, in order that the holiness of His great name might be vindicated before the nations of the world who thought that the LORD - the God of Israel - could not protect His people and keep them safe within their land, the LORD would restore the people of Israel to their land, but not because of anything that they might do.

In ancient times one's name and person were equivalent; a name represented the person. Through Israel's rebellion against God, the people had defamed God's Person. Therefore, not only would His covenant faithfulness be displayed when He restored Israel to her land, but He would vindicate Himself in the sense of bringing back His Honor and sanctifying His Holy Name and Person throughout the world. And this will be through His supernatural regathering of that generation of Israel at that time. They evidently will all trust in His salvation / deliverance / restoration at the moment when He comes upon the earth in His Second Coming, having already made provision for the forgiveness of the sins of all mankind as the Seed of Abraham  - the Kinsman Redeemer. It will not be through anything that Israel will do . God's Righteousness will not be impugned because it was the Seed of Abraham Who has paid for the unrighteousness of Israel and all of mankind so that Israel and all mankind might have the opportunity to share in the blessings of the New Covenant in the Eternal Kingdom of God - each according to the plan of God as stipulated in the New Covenant, (vv. 25-27; cf. Jer 31:31-34; Ezek 11:14-20; chs 36-37; Isa 49:1-13; Romans ch 11 and many more). Then the nations will know that the God of Israel is Glorified, Just, Righteous, Holy, Almighty, Loving, etc. - the only true God.

So out of concern for His holy name which the house of Israel had profaned among the nations, the LORD commanded Ezekiel to say that it is not for the sake of Israel that the LORD is about to act, but for His Holy Name which the people of Israel has profaned even while among the nations where they were dispersed. The LORD will vindicate the Holiness of His Holy Name which Israel profaned. Then the nations will know that He is the LORD when He has proved Himself Holy among those nations in their sight, i.e., by their experiencing His Justice, Holiness, Almighty Power, Righteousness, Mercy - evidently all of this through the fulfillment of the New Covenant, (cf. Jer 31:31-34; Ezekiel chapters 11 & 37).

Note that God foretold of Israel's restoration after the Exile through Moses when Moses restated the Mosaic / Palestinian Covenant on the plains of Moab, (Deut 29:1-30:10). And God spoke of this through Ezekiel in Ezek 11:14-20 and once more in 36:24-28, and in chapter 37, as well as through the prophets Jeremiah in 30:4-31:40; and Isaiah in chapter 49]

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3) 1111C3 (Ezek 36:25-27) [After The Generation / A Remnant Of His People Israel Chosen By God Who Will Have Survived Unprecedented Distress / Tribulation - A Time Of Jacob's Trouble - Has Been Permanently Restored And Begins To Occupy And Possess The Promised Land Forever

- Israel Is Not To Be Confused Here With Members Of The Church Whom The Latter Have Not Been Promised By God To Receive Land He Promised To Give To Their Forefathers -

The LORD Will Unilaterally Cleanse His People From All Of Their Sins Without His People Having To Repent Of Any Sin. Each One Of The Generation Of The People Of Israel In View At That Time Will Have Exercised A Moment Of Faith Alone In The Messiah / Savior /Redeemer Alone For Salvation / Deliverance Unto The Eternal Kingdom Of God Forever In The Promised Land As Abraham Their Father Did. And The Lord Will Put His Spirit Within Each Of Them To Enable Them All To Constantly Live Godly Lives In Obedience To His Statutes And Ordinances - Without Sin]:

(Ezek 36:25 NASB) "Then I will sprinkle clean water on you, and you will be clean; I will cleanse you from all your filthiness and from all your idols.

(Ezek 36:26 NASB) Moreover, I will give you a new heart and put a new spirit within you; and I will remove the heart of stone from your flesh and give you a heart of flesh.

(Ezek 36:27 NASB) I will put My Spirit within you and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you will be careful to observe My ordinances."

  [(v. 25) After the LORD gathers a particular generation / a remnant of His people Israel chosen by God who will have survived unprecedented distress / tribulation - a time of Jacob's trouble, (Jer 30:7 ; (Jer 30:7, 24; Dan 12:1), (Isa 10:20-23 ) which He chose from among the nations - from where they were dispersed, He will permanently restore them into their own land - the land promised to their forefathers, (Ezek 36:24).

Note that Israel is not to be confused here with members of the Church whom the latter have not been promised by God to receive land He promised to their forefathers.

So God will sprinkle clean water on them to cleanse them from their filthiness and idols, i.e., from their sins, especially idol worship.

The people of Israel’s idolatrous ways had polluted the land (see 22:24; 24:13). They had proven themselves to be spiritually filthy and impure (see 22:15; 24:11, 13; 36:17). Thus, God had expelled them from the land. But now the promise is of a people washed of their sins and cleansed of their idolatry.

The concept of sprinkling the clean water of cleansing to make an individual ceremonially clean appears in Scripture. For example, it was to be done to Levitical priests to purify them as part of a symbolic ritual which would represent the actual work of God in the spiritual realm of purifying them from all their temporal sins:

a) [Compare Nu 8:5-7]:

(Nu 8:5 NIV) "The LORD said to Moses:

(Nu 8:6 NIV) 'Take the Levites from among the other Israelites and make them ceremonially clean.

(Nu 8:7 NIV) To purify them, do this: Sprinkle the water of cleansing on them; then have them shave their whole bodies and wash their clothes, and so purify themselves' "

Since the concept of sprinkling clean physical water over all of Israel would not literally wash away her sins, nor even clean away all of her external filthiness, then the phrase "sprinkle clean water" must be figurative, and represent an actual spiritual cleansing - the work of God, (the Holy Spirit), in the spiritual realm.

Note that for God to cleanse anyone of internal filthiness, i.e., of all of ones sins, it is implied that God must make payment for them through His Personal atonement for them, as He would be the only One Who would be qualified for that - given the sinfulness of all of humanity, (). This cleansing will be through the LORD's fulfillment of the New Covenant in them which includes faith in what the LORD promised Abraham and his Seed, when Abraham believed . So likewise will each one of the chosen generation / a remnant of His people Israel - chosen by God, who will have survived unprecedented distress / tribulation, a time of Jacob's trouble, (Jer 30:7 ; Jer 30:24; Dan 9:24-27; 12:1) - receive that fulfillment through a moment alone of faith alone in the Seed of Abraham alone - the One Who was to come, as Abraham their father did to fullfill God's covenant with him - the Messiah  (v. 26; cf. Ezek 11:1-20 ; Gen 22:18 ; Jer 31:31-34 ). In view is God's Servant, born of a woman, the Redeemer of Israel, the Holy One Of Israel Who is both God and Man: Isa 49:1-13  and Isa 9:6-7 , Who is further described in Isa 52:1-53:12 as the Servant of the LORD Who has brought salvation through His atonement for the sins of all mankind. He is the Redeemer of all mankind .

So the phrase rendered "Then I will sprinkle clean water on you" in Ezek 36:25 refers to and symbolizes God's actual cleansing of His people of their sins through His personal forgiveness by His sacrificial blood as symbolized under the Mosaic Law covenant of sin offerings for the cleansing of sins, (ref. Lev 14:1-35 ). He will cleanse that generation / a remnant of His people Israel chosen by God who will have survived unprecedented distress / tribulation - a time of Jacob's trouble, (Jer 30:7 ; Jer 30:24; Dan 12:1) - those of Israel who will all have believed as Abraham their father believed in the Seed of Abraham, (Isa 10:20-23 . And it is through one of Abraham's and Isaac's Descendants Who will make provision for salvation and blessing to all the nations of the earth, (Gen 22:18 ). He will cleanse His people unilaterally of all their sins and idolatry that has defiled them (cf. Ezek 11:1-20 below).

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b) [Compare Ezek 11:1-20]:

(Ezek 11:1 NASB) '''Moreover, the Spirit lifted me up and brought me to the east gate of the LORD'S house which faced eastward. And behold, there were twenty-five men at the entrance of the gate, and among them I saw Jaazaniah son of Azzur and Pelatiah son of Benaiah, leaders of the people.

(Ezek 11:2 NASB) He said to me, "Son of man, these are the men who devise iniquity and give evil advice in this city, 

(Ezek 11:3 NASB) who say, 'The time is not near to build houses. This city is the pot and we are the flesh.' 

(Ezek 11:4 NASB) "Therefore, prophesy against them, son of man, prophesy!" 

(Ezek 11:5 NASB) Then the Spirit of the LORD fell upon me, and He said to me, "Say, 'Thus says the LORD, "So you think, house of Israel, for I know your thoughts. 

(Ezek 11:6 NASB) "You have multiplied your slain in this city, filling its streets with them." 

(Ezek 11:7 NASB) 'Therefore, thus says the Lord GOD, "Your slain whom you have laid in the midst of the city are the flesh and this city is the pot; but I will bring you out of it. 

(Ezek 11:8 NASB) "You have feared a sword; so I will bring a sword upon you," the Lord GOD declares. 

(Ezek 11:9 NASB) "And I will bring you out of the midst of the city and deliver you into the hands of strangers and execute judgments against you.

(Ezek 11:10 NASB) "You will fall by the sword. I will judge you to the border of Israel; so you shall know that I am the LORD. 

(Ezek 11:11 NASB) "This city will not be a pot for you, nor will you be flesh in the midst of it, but I will judge you to the border of Israel. 

(Ezek 11:12 NASB) "Thus you will know that I am the LORD; for you have not walked in My statutes nor have you executed My ordinances, but have acted according to the ordinances of the nations around you."'" 

(Ezek 11:13 NASB) Now it came about as I prophesied, that Pelatiah son of Benaiah died. Then I fell on my face and cried out with a loud voice and said, "Alas, Lord GOD! Will You bring the remnant of Israel to a complete end?"

  [(Ezek 11:1-13) The evil rulers of Jerusalem will be judged by the LORD for their evil deeds. They will fall by the sword. Evidently the sword of Babylon, as their invasion of Jerusalem was historically imminent. Ezekiel pleads with the LORD, "Will you bring the remnant of Israel to a complete end?" The next section which follows is the answer of the LORD]

(Ezek 11:14 NASB) ''''Then the word of the LORD came to me, saying,

(Ezek 11:15 NASB) '''Son of man, your brothers, your relatives, your fellow exiles and the whole house of Israel, all of them, are those to whom the inhabitants of Jerusalem have said, "Go far from the LORD; this land has been given us as a possession."

(Ezek 11:16 NASB) Therefore say, "Thus says the Lord GOD, 'Though I had removed them far away among the nations and though I had scattered them among the countries, yet I was a sanctuary for them a little while in the countries where they had gone.' "

(Ezek 11:17 NASB) Therefore say, "Thus says the Lord GOD, 'I will gather you from the peoples and assemble you out of the countries among which you have been scattered, and I will give you the land of Israel.' "

(Ezek 11:18 NASB) When they come there, they will remove all its detestable things and all its abominations from it. 

(Ezek 11:19 NASB) And I will give them one heart, and put a new spirit within them. And I will take the heart of stone out of their flesh and give them a heart of flesh, 

(Ezek 11:20 NASB) that they may walk in My statutes and keep My ordinances and do them. Then they will be My people, and I shall be their God." ''' ''''

  [(Ezek 11:14-20) The LORD's answer to Ezekiel's question, "Alas, Lord GOD! Will You bring the remnant of Israel to a complete end?" was that the surviving remnant would not be destroyed so that a future generation of Israelites would not be there to inherit the Promised Land. There would be a coming judgment of the people who remained in Jerusalem, but a remnant would be preserved - comprised of those dispersed and / or in captivity, not of those who remained in Jerusalem. Whereupon God promised to restore all of the remnant - all of the survivors of a future generation of descendants of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob - God's chosen people who would go through unprecedented distress / tribulation - a time of Jacob's trouble, (Jer 30:7 ; Jer 30:24; Dan 12:1), to the land He promised to their forefathers forever, (cf. Isa 10:20-23 ).

******

i) [Compare Isa 10:20-23]:

(Isa 10:20 NASB) "Now in that day the remnant of Israel, and those of the house of Jacob who have escaped, will never again rely on the one who struck them, but will truly rely on the LORD, the Holy One of Israel.

(Isa 10:21 NASB) A remnant will return, the remnant of Jacob, to the mighty God.

(Isa 10:22 NASB) For though your people, O Israel, may be like the sand of the sea, Only a remnant within them will return; A destruction is determined, overflowing with righteousness.

(Isa 10:23 NASB) For a complete destruction, one that is decreed, the Lord GOD of hosts will execute in the midst of the whole land."

  [Ezek 11:14-20 (cont.)] So God will give one heart to all of a generation / a remnant of His people Israel chosen by God who will have survived unprecedented distress / tribulation - a time of Jacob's Trouble, (Jer 30:7 ; Jer 30:24). And He will put a new human spirit within them as well. He will take the heart of stone out of their flesh and give them a heart of flesh, in the sense of changing their natures from sinful to godly so that they will walk in His statutes and keep His ordinances and do them. Then they will be His people, and He will be their God, (Ezek 11:1-20).

****** This is the fulfillment of the New Covenant as stipulated in Jer 31:31-34:

ii) [Jer 31:31-34]:

(Jer 31:31 NASB) " 'Behold, days are coming,' declares the LORD, 'when I will make a New Covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah,

(Jer 31:32 NASB) not like the covenant which I made with their fathers in the day [of My taking] them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt, My covenant which they broke, although I was a husband to them,' declares the LORD.

(Jer 31:33 NASB) But this [is] the covenant which I will make with the house of Israel after those days,' declares the LORD, 'I will put My law within them [in the sense of within their minds] and on their heart I will write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people.

(Jer 31:34 NASB) They will not teach again, each man his neighbor and each man his brother, saying, 'Know the LORD,' for they will all know Me, from the least of them to the greatest of them,' declares the LORD, 'for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin I will remember no more.' "

  [(Jer 31:31-34) This passage defines the New Covenant in which the LORD will unilaterally fulfill with the house of Israel and the house of Judah after He has brought them together and restored them forever to occupy and possess the land He promised to their forefathers, (Jer 30:3). He will put His Law within them, He will write it on their hearts. He will be their God and they will be His people - forever. They will all know Him. There will be no need to be taught of Him. He will forgive their iniquity, and their sin He will remember no more. And the LORD will put His Spirit within them and cause them to walk in His statutes, and they will be careful to observe His ordinances - they will live godly lives without sin.

******

Note that for God to cleanse anyone of internal filthiness, i.e., of all of ones sins, it is implied that God must make payment for them through His Personal atonement for them, as He would be the only One Who would be qualified for that - given the sinfulness of all of humanity, (). This cleansing will be through the LORD's fulfillment of the New Covenant in them which includes faith in what the LORD promised Abraham and his Seed, when Abraham believed . So likewise will each one of the chosen generation / a remnant of His people Israel - chosen by God, who will have survived unprecedented distress / tribulation, a time of Jacob's trouble, (Jer 30:7 ; Jer 30:24; Dan 12:1) - receive that fulfillment through through a moment alone of faith alone in the Seed of Abraham alone - the One Who was to come, as Abraham their father did to fullfill God's covenant with him - the Messiah  (v. 26; cf. Ezek 11:1-20 ; Gen 22:18 ; Jer 31:31-34 ). In view is God's Servant, born of a woman, the Redeemer of Israel, the Holy One Of Israel Who is both God and Man: Isa 49:1-13  and Isa 9:6-7 , Who is further described in Isa 52:1-53:12 as the Servant of the LORD Who has brought salvation through His atonement for the sins of all mankind. He is the Redeemer of all mankind .

3 cont.) 1111C3 (Ezek 36:25-27 cont.) [After The Generation / A Remnant Of His People Israel Chosen By God Who Will Have Survived Unprecedented Distress / Tribulation - A Time Of Jacob's Trouble - Has Been Permanently Restored And Begins To Occupy And Possess The Promised Land Forever

- Israel Is Not To Be Confused Here With Members Of The Church Whom The Latter Have Not Been Promised By God To Receive Land He Promised To Give To Their Forefathers -

The LORD Will Unilaterally Cleanse His People From All Of Their Sins Without His People Having To Repent Of Any Sin. Each One Of The Generation Of The People Of Israel In View At That Time Will Have Exercised A Moment Of Faith Alone In The Messiah / Savior /Redeemer Alone For Salvation / Deliverance Unto The Eternal Kingdom Of God Forever In The Promised Land As Abraham Their Father Did. And The Lord Will Put His Spirit Within Each Of Them To Enable Them All To Constantly Live Godly Lives In Obedience To His Statutes And Ordinances - Without Sin, (cont.)]:

(Ezek 36:25 NASB) "Then I will sprinkle clean water on you, and you will be clean; I will cleanse you from all your filthiness and from all your idols.

(Ezek 36:26 NASB) Moreover, I will give you a new heart and put a new spirit within you; and I will remove the heart of stone from your flesh and give you a heart of flesh.

(Ezek 36:27 NASB) I will put My Spirit within you and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you will be careful to observe My ordinances."

  [(v. 26) So in addition to the work of God stipulated in v. 25 which is figuratively referred to as "sprinkling clean water," of actually cleansing them from all their filthiness - their sinfulness - and their idols; God foretold in v. 26 that He will provide His chosen generation / a remnant of His people Israel chosen by God who will have survived unprecedented distress / tribulation - a time of Jacob's trouble, (ref. Jer 30:7 ; Jer 30:24; Dan 12:1; Isa 10:20-23 ), with a new heart and a newborn human spirit within them implying a spiritual regeneration or new birth with a capacity to walk in His statutes and be careful to observe His ordinances, i.e., sinless perfection, (Ezek 36:27) - a new nature that will make them righteous all the time, (Ezek 36:27; cf. Jer 31:31-34 ). For He will remove the heart of stone from their flesh and give them a heart of flesh so then they may walk in His statutes and keep His ordinances and do them. Then they will be His people, and He shall be their God, (cf. Ezek 11:1-20 ).

The word rendered "heart" here does not refer to the physical heart, but to the minds and attitudes of every Israelite being redirected toward a willingness and capacity to love and be obedient to God. The term "heart of stone" in the phrase "I will take the heart of stone out of your flesh" refers to the Israelites' attitude of coldness, hardness and consequent deliberate distancing from God resulting in their repeated unfaithfulness in the past throughout centuries of time. The work of God in providing Israel with a "new heart," i.e., a "heart of flesh" refers to God's work of enabling Israel to be faithful, obedient and close to God. The phrase rendered "I will put a new spirit within you" refers to God providing all of His chosen generation of Israel with newborn human spirits; i.e., a spiritual birth of all of that generation / a remnant of His people Israel chosen by God who will have survived unprecedented distress / tribulation - a time of Jacob's trouble, (ref. Jer 30:7 ; Jer 30:24; Dan 12:1).

God's unilateral cleansing of all of the sins of His chosen generation of His people Israel - a remnant that will survive the time of Jacob's trouble, an unparalleled distress and tribulation for Israel, (Jer 30:7 ; Jer 30:24; Dan 12:1), His provision of a new heart / capacity to be godly all the time - without sin, a new human spirit and the indwelling Holy Spirit unto godliness within each individual of that generation of His people, Israel will all be through the LORD's fulfillment of the New Covenant in them - each one of that generation.

Each and every one of that generation will express in that future time a moment of faith alone in the Seed of Abraham alone - the One Who was to come, as Abraham their father did to fullfill God's covenant with him - the Messiah  (v. 26; cf. Ezek 11:1-20 ; Gen 22:18 ; Jer 31:31-34 ); Who is God's Servant, born of a woman, the Redeemer of Israel, the Holy One Of Israel, God and Man: Isa 49:1-13 followed by 9:6-7 , Who is further described in Isa 52:1-53:12 as the Servant of the LORD Who has brought salvation through His atonement for the sins of all mankind. He is the Redeemer of all mankind ;  Who will make atonement for sins in His blood, (cf. Heb 9:11-22).

******

For without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness of sins:

c) [Compare Lev 17:11]:

(Lev 17:11 NASB) "For the life of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it to you on the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood by reason of the life that makes atonement."]

(Ezek 36:27 NASB) "I will put My Spirit within you and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you will be careful to observe My ordinances."

  [(v. 27) In the fulfillment of the New Covenant in a particular generation of God's chosen people Israel - a remnant of His people Israel chosen by God who will have survived unprecedented distress / tribulation - a time of Jacob's trouble, (ref. Jer 30:7 ; Jer 30:24; Dan 12:1; Isa 10:20-23 ), will receive God's Holy Spirit Who will enable them all to live godly lives - without sin, (cf. Ezek 11:1-20 ; 37:14; 39:29; Jer 31:31-34 ; Joel 2:28-29 ). They will all walk in God's statutes and be careful to observe His ordinances - they will live godly lives without sin. Ezek 11:20b and 36:28 go on to say, 'and then they [those of Israel] will be His people, and He shall be their God,' (cf. Heb 8:6-10:39). God's law will be written on the heart of those living under the New Covenant, so that they will not need to be taught, nor lack in obedience or godliness, (ref. Jer 31:31-34 ). The New Covenant will replace the Mosaic covenant, but not by eliminating righteous and godly stipulations that describe how to live a godly life; but by providing within each Israelite the capacity to walk in God's statutes and be careful to observe His ordinances - a capacity to be godly all the time - without sin. The New Covenant will provide complete and total forgiveness of sin once and for all and the Holy Spirit's indwelling unto godly living - without sin - for God's chosen people forevermore]

Some contend that this passage points to the coming fall of Judah to Babylon or to the later fall of Babylon to Medo-Persia. However, in both of these periods the Northern Kingdom of Israel was not affected. It had already gone into captivity (in 722 B.C.). A better solution is the still-future Tribulation period when Israel and Judah will experience a time of unparalleled persecution / tribulation, (ref. Dan. 9:27; 12:1; Matt. 24:15-22;  - a time of Jacob's trouble, (Jer 30:7 ; Jer 30:24); followed by when Christ, the Son of Man appears to rescue His elect, gather them from the ends of the earth to inherit the Eternal Kingdom that was prepared for them forever, (Ro 11:26; Mt 24:30-31; 25:31-46; Rev 19:11-21; 20:4-6).

(1) At no time have all of Israel and Judah been gathered together from all over the world after unprecedented tribulation, (Jer 30:7 ; Jer 30:24), and brought back into the Promised Land since they had divided into two kingdoms and were dispersed, (Ezek 36:24);

(2) At no time was all of Israel and Judah declared cleansed from all of their filthiness (sins) and idols, (Ezek 36:25);

(3) At no time was all of Israel and Judah given a new heart, a new human spirit and the indwelling Spirit of God so that they could and would walk in God's statutes and be careful to keep His ordinances - without sin, (Ezek 36:26-27);

And all of this forever, no interruptions and starting overs in view, as some contend to include 'partial' or 'near' fulfillments of the New Covenant, Abrahamic Covenant, Davidic Covenant or Palestinian Covenant.

Therefore, the various so called 'near' or 'partial' fulfillments -  returns of some of Israel, but not all, to some parts but not all of the Promised Land; and the several rebuildings of the Temple cannot and do not constitute near or partial fulfillments of the promises that comprise the New Covenant, Abrahamic Covenant, Davidic Covenant or Palestinian Covenant, especially in the light of subsequent conquerings, captivities, dispersements and destructions of the Temples - such as in AD 70, and some of the population of Israel occupying a part of the Promised Land in 1948 albeit not without constant conflict from surrounding nations, as some contend. And none of which is forever. On the other hand, each partial return, each rebuilding of the Temple signifies that God is at work giving yet another generation of His chosen people an opportunity for them to demonstrate that they are ready to have the New Covenant fufilled in them through unanimous faith in their Redeemer. So far all of a generation of Israel have not unanimously expressed that faith which will prompt that fulfillment, (ref. Isa 52:1-53:12 ).

4) 1111C4 (Ezek 36:28-32) [Under the New Covenant, The People Of Israel

- Not To Be Confused With Members Of The Church Whom The Latter Have Not Been Promised By God To Receive Land He Promised To Their Forefathers -

Will Live Forever In The Promised Land And Be God's People And He Will Be Their God And They Will Have Unprecedented Everlasting Prosperity]

(Ezek 36:28 NASB) "You will live in the land that I gave to your forefathers; so you will be My people, and I will be your God.

  [(v. 28) The generation of the people - the surviving remnant of Israel, chosen by God, which will have survived unprecedented distress / tribulation - a time of Jacob's trouble, (ref. Jer 30:7 ; Jer 30:24; Dan 12:1; Isa 10:20-23   will be brought into and possess the Promised Land forever - the land the LORD gave to their forefathers continues to be in view in Ezek 26:28.

Note that Israel is not to be confused here with members of the Church whom the latter have not been promised by God to receive land He promised to their forefathers.

So the generation of the people of Israel - the surviving remnant chosen by God - will all be unilaterally cleansed of all their sins by God, regenerated and given a new heart of flesh and a newborn human spirit, indwelt by the Holy Spirit to enable them to live sinless, godly lives, (ref. Ezek 36:24-27), will experience a productive and plentiful land without precedent, (ref. Ezek 36:1-15; 28-38 ). The epitome of the Mosaic covenant for Israel and the Lord that previous generations of Israel failed to experience will come about through the fulfillment of the New Covenant which will replace the old one. The generation of Israel who unanimously will believe in their Servant / Messiah Savior will experience as a forever reality being God's people and He will forever be their God]

(Ezek 36:29 NASB) "Moreover, I will save you from all your uncleanness; and I will call for the grain and multiply it, and I will not bring a famine on you.'

  [(v. 29) Moreover, the LORD will save this generation of His chosen people from all their uncleanness - especially in the sense of delivering them from the self-destructive effects of their own uncleanness / their sinfulness, (cf. v. 25 ); and He will call for the grain and multiply it, and will not ever bring a famine on them]

(Ezek 36:30 NASB) I will multiply the fruit of the tree and the produce of the field, so that you will not receive again the disgrace of famine among the nations."

  [(v. 30) And the LORD will multiply the fruit of the tree and the produce of the field, so that they will not receive again the disgrace of famine among the nations]

(vv. 28-30) Implied in vv. 28-30 is the timeframe of forevermore. For the LORD states that He will save this generation of His people from all their uncleanness, i.e., total and complete forgiveness of all of their sins. Implied is salvation unto eternal life, as well as temporal deliverance from distress and captivity. The phrases which end each verse: (v. 28b), "so you will be My people, and I will be your God," (v. 29b), "I will not bring a famine on you," (v. 30b), "so that you will not receive again the disgrace of famine among the nations," have an everlasting timeframe in view.

The LORD will multiply their crops of grain, the fruit of the tree, and the produce of the field. No longer will the people of Israel experience famine - a disgrace among the nations brought upon them by the LORD evidently due to their unfaithfulness while the nations surrounding them prospered - a reference to their past especially when they retreated from the Promised Land to Egypt and suffered years of captivity and disgrace there ]

(Ezek 36:31 NASB) "Then you will remember your evil ways and your deeds that were not good, and you will loathe yourselves in your own sight for your iniquities and your abominations.

(Ezek 36:32 NASB) I am not doing this for your sake," declares the Lord GOD, "let it be known to you. Be ashamed and confounded for your ways, O house of Israel!"

  [(v. 31) As a result of the unilateral action by the LORD upon a chosen generation / that remnant of Israel chosen by God which will survive the unparalleled distress / tribulation - the time of "Jacob's trouble," (ref. Jer 30:7 ; Jer 30:24; Dan 12:1); that generation of the people of Israel will experience being transformed into a faithful people to Him forever, be provided with unparalleled prosperity and complete occupancy and forever possession of the Promised Land that their forefathers departed from as stipulated in vv. 25-30. They will remember their evil ways and deeds, and loathe themselves in their own sight for their past iniquities and abominations. They will reflect upon God's grace and their former ways and will realize that they did not deserve this marvelous grace of God toward them.

So God will not save Israel for her own sake - because of anything she merited - but to vindicate and magnify His Holy Name, (cf. Ezek 36:22-23 ). The nations surrounding the land of Israel will know that it was the LORD Who rebuilt the ruined places and planted that which was desolate, and increased Israel's population and the numbers of their flocks - so that they will know that He is the LORD, (ref. vv. 32-38) - the holiness of His great name will be vindicated, (v. 23).

God's unilateral cleansing of all of the sins of His chosen generation / a remnant of His people Israel who have survived unprecedented distress / tribulation - a time of Jacob's trouble, (ref. Jer 30:7 ; Jer 30:24; Dan 12:1), His provision of a new heart / capacity to be godly all the time - without sin, a new human spirit and the indwelling Holy Spirit unto godliness within each individual of that generation of His people, Israel will be through the LORD's fulfillment of the New Covenant in them - each one of that generation.

Each and every one of that generation will express in that future time a moment of faith alone in the Seed of Abraham alone - the One Who was to come, as Abraham their father did to fullfill God's covenant with him - the Messiah  (v. 26; cf. Ezek 11:1-20 ; Gen 22:18 ; Jer 31:31-34 ); Who is God's Servant, born of a woman, the Redeemer of Israel, the Holy One Of Israel, God and Man: Isa 49:1-13 followed by 9:6-7 , Who is further described in Isa 52:1-53:12 as the Servant of the LORD Who has brought salvation through His atonement for the sins of all mankind. He is the Redeemer of all mankind , Who will make atonement for sins in His blood, (cf. Heb 9:11-22). For without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness of sins, (Lev 17:11)]

(Ezek 36:32 NASB) "I am not doing this for your sake," declares the Lord GOD, "let it be known to you. Be ashamed and confounded for your ways, O house of Israel!"

  [(v. 32) And in verse 32 the LORD said that He was not doing this for their sake - but for the sake of restoring His holy name which had been profaned by His people Israel in and out of the land promised to their forefathers, (cf. Ezek 36:20-21 ). He said let it be known to them that they should be ashamed and confounded in their ways, "O house of Israel!" A chosen generation of the forever united houses of Judah and Israel of God's chosen people.

Note that Israel is not to be confused here with members of the Church whom the latter have not been promised by God to receive the land He promised to Israel's forefathers; nor have they ever been called the house of Israel and / or the house of Judah, who the latter two will be restored together in the Promised Land as one.

The Gentile nations will observe this marvelous transformation in Israel and see the Lord as the only gracious and loving God, for Israel was not deserving of restoration (v. 32b). The LORD will vindicate the holiness of His great name:

a) [Compare Ezek 36:22-23]:

(Ezek 36:22 NASB) ''''Therefore say to the house of Israel, '''Thus says the Lord GOD, "It is not for your sake, O house of Israel, that I am about to act, but for My holy name, which you have profaned among the nations where you went.

(Ezek 36:23 NASB) I will vindicate the holiness of My great name which has been profaned among the nations, which you have profaned in their midst. Then the nations will know that I am the LORD," declares the Lord GOD, "when I prove Myself holy among you in their sight.''' '''']

(Ezek 36:33 NASB) '''Thus says the Lord GOD, "On the day that I cleanse you from all your iniquities, I will cause the cities to be inhabited, and the waste places will be rebuilt.

(Ezek 36:34 NASB) The desolate land will be cultivated instead of being a desolation in the sight of everyone who passes by.

(Ezek 36:35 NASB) They will say, 'This desolate land has become like the garden of Eden; and the waste, desolate and ruined cities are fortified and inhabited.'

(Ezek 36:36 NASB) Then the nations that are left round about you will know that I, the LORD, have rebuilt the ruined places and planted that which was desolate; I, the LORD, have spoken and will do it." '''

  [(vv. 33-36) Whereupon the LORD God said that on the day that He cleanses the people of Israel from all of their iniquities; He will cause the cities of their Promised Land to be inhabited, and the waste places to be rebuilt, and the desolate land to be cultivated instead of it being a desolation in the sight of everyone who passes by. Notice that first comes the cleansing of the people, then the prosperity. So the nations surrounding the people of Israel - the Promised Land that they occupy and possess will say, 'This desolate land has become like the garden of Eden; and the waste desolate and ruined cities are fortified and inhabited.' Then the LORD said that the nations that surround the people of Israel - which implies that they too have experienced the sifting of God's judgment and grace - they will know that He - by His grace - has rebuilt the ruined places and planted that which was desolate. "I, the LORD, says have spoken and will do it."]

(Ezek 36:37 NASB) '''''Thus says the Lord GOD, ''''This also I will let the house of Israel ask Me to do for them: I will increase their men like a flock.

(Ezek 36:38 NASB) Like the flock for sacrifices, like the flock at Jerusalem during her appointed feasts, so will the waste cities be filled with flocks of men. Then they will know that I am the LORD.''''

  [(vv. 37-38) And finally, the LORD gave a message to Ezekiel to declare to the house of Israel: the LORD said that He will let the house of Israel ask Him to do the following for them: to increase their number like a flock increases in number - like He had increased the flocks at Jerusalem for the sacrifices and the appointed feasts which He had provided for them in the past. So the number of the people of Israel will increase and fill the waste cities around Jerusalem in the manner that a flock is increased. And for this they will know that He is the LORD: By this the world will come know that He is not a weak god, but that He is the only God Who does exactly what He says He will do - He is the Just, Sovereign, Righteous, and Almighty and Only God. And that generation of Israel, the chosen remnant, will know that they are His people, and He is the LORD, their God - forever!

Note that the stipulations of God's restoration of Israel in Ezek chs 11, 15, 36-37, Jer chs 30-31, Isa chs 49, 51, etc. have not been yet been fulfilled - even partially. Since the time when Israel first divided into two kingdoms, the entire populations of Israel from the Northern Kingdom, Israel; and the Southern Kingdom, Judah were never reunited in the Promised Land, (Ezek 36:22-24); nor were they ever cleansed from all of their sins and idols, nor did they all receive a new heart, a new human spirit, nor the Spirit of God in them in order to walk in God's statutes and be careful to observe His ordinances in sinless perfection; nor was unparalleled prosperity experienced in the Promised Land by them, (Ezek 36:25-38). And all these stipulations are to be final, uninterrupted and everlasting. Therefore to date there has never been any kind of fulfillment of the New Covenant - full, partial, near or temporary or otherwise, as some contend.

So it cannot be concluded that the passages on the restoration of Israel and Judah relative to the fulfillment of the New Covenant have in view the return of a relatively small number of Israelites from Babylon to Canaan under Zerubbabel, Ezra and Nehemiah which return was neither sufficiently peaceful, nor sufficiently godly, nor sufficiently productive, nor everlasting to be the fufillment of the New Covenant. But they do point to a final, everlasting and complete restoration of all of the population of Israelites of a generation of Israel and Judah together under the Holy One of Israel, the Redeemer of Israel, Who is both God and Man, the  Messiah - the Seed of Abraham in the Everlasting Kingdom of God . So the details of Israel's everlasting reestablishment on her land set forth in all of these passages stipulated above did not occur in the returns under Zerubbabel, Ezra, and Nehemiah.

Note that Israel is not to be confused here with members of the Church whom the latter have not been promised by God to receive the land He promised to Israel's forefathers; nor have they ever been called the house of Israel and / or the house of Judah, who the latter two will be restored together in the Promised Land as one]

****** COMPARE EXCERPT FROM HOSEA 2:14-23 ******

OR CONTINUE TO NEXT SECTION

There Will Be An Unprecedented Event In The Future: Peace, Safety And Prosperity Will Be Restored To All Human, Plant And Animal Life Throughout All The Earth. At That Time, A Future Generation Of Israelites Will Be Bethrothed Forever To The LORD, Sealed Forever In Faithfulness. The LORD Will Say To Them Whose Ancient Israelite Descendants Were Unfaithful And Hence Not His People, 'You Are My People' And They Shall Say, 'You Are My God!'

[Hos 2:14-23]:

  [Introduction to Hosea 2:14-23. These verses portray future descendants of the ancient Israelites the latter of whom were disciplined, destroyed and have long since died. Prosperity will return due to the future descendants' becoming believers and their faith in and faithfulness toward God, (Hos 2:19-23).

In this unprecedented future time, there will be prosperity, peace, harmony and safety amongst man and animals throughout all the earth, (2:18-19). At that time, the future generation of Israelites will be betrothed forever to the LORD, sealed forever in faithfulness, (vv. 19-20). The LORD will say to them whose ancient Israelite descendants were unfaithful and hence not His people, 'You are My people' and they shall say, 'You are my God!' (2:23b)]

(Hos 2:14 NIV) ''' " 'Therefore I am now going to allure her; I will lead her into the desert and speak tenderly to her.

  [(Hos 2:14) So after punishing past generations of Israelites over the centuries with discipline and destruction over the centuries for unbelief and resulting unfaithfulness, the LORD will now allure and lead the future descendant believers of those ancient unbelieving and unfaithful Israelites into the desert and speak tenderly to them]

(Hos 2:15 NIV) There I will give her back her vineyards, and will make the Valley of Achor a door of hope. There she will sing as in the days of her youth, as in the day she came up out of Egypt.

  [(Hos 2:15) It is in verse 2:15 where it is indicated that prosperity will return. The verse declares that the LORD will give Israel back her vineyards and will make the Valley of Achor, (lit. the 'Valley of Trouble,' the site of one of Israel's past sins - of Achan's heinous act which jeopardized the success of occupying the Promised Land), a symbol of better things to come, a door of sure hope leading to repossession of the Promised Land. The verse states that Israel "will [then] sing as in the days of her youth as in the day she came up out of Egypt." This statement refers to the early days of ancient Israel's relationship with the LORD immediately after her exodus out of Egypt which has in view her eager responsiveness to the LORD in the very beginning of her relationship with the LORD and her journery in the wilderness with Him from out of captivity from Egypt. Note that the LORD views Israel here in this passage as His chosen people, comprised of those generations of Israelites who exercise trust alone in and faithfulness alone to the LORD as their God alone, (Hos 2:23), as their husband, (Hos 2:16). They are sons of the living God, (Hos 1:10). all generations of Israelites, past, present and future. Hence the phrase "In the days of her youth" in 2:15 refers to the generation of the Israelite people in their first days of their relationship with the LORD at the time of the Exodus from Egypt. The phrase, "In the days of her youth" does not limit Israel to the Exodus generation of Israelites, especially since not all the ancient Israelites coming out of Egypt were youthful. Many were not youthful or grew to be older in those days wandering in the wilderness]

(Hos 2:16 NKJV) "And it shall be, in that day," says the LORD," That you will call Me 'My Husband,' And no longer call Me 'My Master,'

(Hos 2:17 NKJV) For I will take from her mouth the names of the Baals, And they shall be remembered by their name no more.

(Hos 2:18 NKJV) In that day I will make a covenant for them With the beasts of the field, With the birds of the air, And with the creeping things of the ground. Bow and sword of battle I will shatter from the earth, To make them lie down safely.

  [(Hos 2:16-18) The LORD goes on to declare that a future generation of Israelites will call Him Husband instead of Father; Baal worship will be no more, (vv. 2:16-17); all animals will be at peace and harmony with one another and mankind; and wars will be no more, (v. 2:18). The LORD will mediate a covenant between the nation and the animal kingdom. The harmful beasts of the field, which had earlier devoured the vines and fig trees... will no longer be hostile. portraying the Kingdom Age as one of harmony between man and animals.]

(Hos 2:19 NKJV) I will betroth you to Me forever; Yes, I will betroth you to Me In righteousness and justice, In lovingkindness and mercy;

(Hos 2:20 NKJV) I will betroth you to Me in faithfulness, And you shall know the LORD.

  [(Hos 2:19-20) Note that the eternal time frame and character of this new kingdom of God is unprecedented. Since Israel will be forever bethrothed to God, and since an ancient betrothal involves the payment to seal the promise of the relationship. The LORD's payment will consist of providing His righteousness, justice, love, compassion and faithfulness to His chosen people. Hos 2:19 stipulates that God's betrothal was "In righteousness and justice, [and] in lovingkindness and mercy," then God's bethrothal will be sealed forever by Him in His righteousness; and it will be in accordance with His justice and by His loving kindness and mercy, i.e., by the grace of God. So the future generation of Israelites in view in Hos 1:10-11; 2:14-23 will be justified = declared as having the righteousness of God unto eternal life through their faith in their Messiah-Savior Descendant by the loving kindness and mercy of God, i.e., His grace. Since the LORD is always perfectly righteous, just, loving, compassionate and faithful; then it is Israel who will now also demonstrate those personal qualities in her eternal relationship with the LORD. Their eternal destiny in the eternal kingdom with the LORD will be eternal by the grace of God and not through anything Israel would do. They will know the LORD in that eternal and intimate sense, bethrothed forever to be His wife, (vv. 2:19-20)]

(Hos 2:21 NKJV) It shall come to pass in that day That I will answer," says the LORD; " I will answer the heavens, And they shall answer the earth.

(Hos 2:22 NKJV) The earth shall answer With grain, With new wine, And with oil; They shall answer Jezreel, [referring here to a valley which is identified with Israel]

  [(Hos 2:21-22) Furthermore, at that future time, the LORD will bring great temporal prosperity to the earth - grain, wine, oil. The prosperity will especially be brought to the "Valley of Jezreel," a valley in the Promised Land and a term identified with Israel, (vv. 2:21-22)]

(Hos 2:23 NKJV) Then I will sow her for Myself in the earth, And I will have mercy on her who had not obtained mercy; Then I will say to those who were not My people, [the Israelite descendents of the unbelieving ancient Israelites of the Northern Kingdom] ' You are My people!' And they shall say, 'You are my God! ' " '''

  [(Hos 2:23) Verse 2:23 then stipulates that the LORD will sow Israel for Himself "in the earth" [erets = lit., earth], a picture of planting her as a plant so that she will grow in her relationship with Him as His wife. He declares that He will have mercy on her where before - in ancient times - she had not obtained mercy from Him out of His disciplining her ancient descendants for turning from Him to worship Baal and for failing to acknowledge the LORD as the source of everything, (vv. 2:1-8). Now in the future, the LORD will say to those Israelite descendants of the ancients who the latter were disowned by Him and declared "not My people," "You are My people!" The nation called Lo-Ruhaman (not ... loved; cf. 1:6) and Lo-Ammi (not My people; cf. 1:9) will [in a future generation of Israelites] experience God's compassion and will be addressed as His people. They will acknowledge that He, not Baal, is their GodSo those descendant Israelites will respond in turn, "You are my God!" demonstrating that they are the remnant of true and faithful believers in their generation.

****** END OF EXCERPT RE: HOSEA 2:23 ******

5) 1111C5 (Ezek 37:1-13) The Hand Of The LORD Brought Ezekiel Out By The Spirit And He Passed Through The Valley Of Dry Bones. Whereupon The LORD Commanded Ezekiel To Prophesy Causing The Bones To Come Together - The Whole House Of Israel To Come To Life That They May Know That The One Who Has Brought Their Bones To Life Is The LORD. But The Bones Said "Our Bones Are Dried Up And Our Hope Has Perished. We Are Completely Cut Off." Whereupon The LORD Will Bring Them Up Out Of Their Graves And Into The Land Of Israel In The Sense Of Physical Restoration In The Promised Land And Spiritual Regeneration. Then They Will Know That He Is The LORD - When He Has Opened Up And Caused His People To Come Out Of Their Graves - His People, In The Sense Of Their Spiritual Rebirth And Physical Restoration In The Promised Land Of A Generation Of Israelites

(Ezek 37:1 NASB) '''''The hand of the LORD was upon me, and He brought me out by the Spirit of the LORD and set me down in the middle of the valley; and it was full of bones.

(Ezek 37:2 NASB) He caused me to pass among them round about, and behold, there were very many on the surface of the valley; and lo, they were very dry.

(Ezek 37:3 NASB) He said to me, ''''Son of man, can these bones live?'''' And I answered, ''''O LORD GOD, You know.''''

  [(Introduction to chapter 37)

Ezekiel chapter 37 conveys two symbollic, eschatological visions given to the prophet Ezekiel by the LORD. They portray the LORD's promise of Israel's everlasting reunification with Judah and their restoration in the Promised Land as one nation, the people of God - the subject of chapter 36. The visions were for Ezekiel to relay to the people of Judah in the light of Judah's present condition of Babylonian oppression and captivity. Judah was "dead" as a nation. The people were deprived of their land, their king and their temple. They had been conquered again, many died, the Temple was destroyed, many were dispersed, some were taken into captivity into Babylon . Judah and the Northern Kingdom of Israel, had been divided and dispersed for so long that reunification and restoration seemed impossible. So the LORD GOD gave two visions to His prophet Ezekiel, (37:1-14 and 37:15-28), to interpret and relay to his people of Judah. The visions were given to confirm the promise the LORD made that a generation of Israel and Judah would be restored, delivered and saved unto eternal life in the land that God had promised to their forefathers. These two visions were preceeded by God's messages through Ezekiel of judgment of a generation of Israelites from Judah and especially from Jerusalem for their unfaithfulness, (cf. Ezek 4:1ff). These two visions signified a new day of future blessing for a generation of God's people potentially to occur in Ezekiel's time or any time in the future provided that all of a particular generation of Israel are cleansed of their sins. This cleansing will be through the LORD's fulfillment of the New Covenant in them which includes faith in what the LORD promised Abraham and his Seed, when Abraham believed . So likewise will each one of the chosen generation of the house of Israel receive that fulfillment through a moment alone of faith alone in the Seed of Abraham alone - the One Who was to come, as Abraham their father did to fullfill God's covenant with him - the Messiah  (v. 26; cf. Ezek 11:1-20 ; Gen 22:18 ; Jer 31:31-34 ). In view is a moment of faith alone in God's Servant alone Who was born of a woman, is the Redeemer of Israel, the Holy One Of Israel Who is both God and Man: Isa 49:1-13  and Isa 9:6-7 , Who is further described in Isa 52:1-53:12 as the Servant of the LORD Who has brought salvation through His atonement for the sins of all mankind. He is the Redeemer of all mankind .

And this fulfillment is portrayed in Scripture as coming to pass when a generation of all of Israel and Judah together will believe in the One Whom they pierced, the Redeemer of Israel to receive forgiveness of sins and eternal life as well as a complete and everlasting restoration in the Promised Land .

a) [Compare Zech 12:10-14]:

(Zech 12:10 NASB) "I will pour out on the house of David and on the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the Spirit of grace and of supplication, [Ezek 36:26-27 ], so that they will look on Me whom they have pierced [Isa 53:5 ] and they will mourn for Him, as one mourns for an only son, and they will weep bitterly over Him like the bitter weeping over a firstborn."

[Just as in Exek 36:26-27 which has in view the fulfillment of the New Covenant, so Zech 12:10 has in view the same event which includes the LORD pouring out His Spirit on the house of David and on the inhabitants of Jerusalem, i.e., "the Spirit of grace and supplication." And the focus at that time is the Servant Who has been pierced [Isa 53:5 ], Who will restore all of Israel into the Promised Land, (Isa 49:1-6 ).

Notice that a single individual Who was pierced is in view in Zech 12:10 upon Whom all of Israel is looking and acknowledging Who He is: One Who then cannot be all of Israel. Hence the Servant in Isa 53:5 Who was pierced is also a single individual, Who cannot be all Israel at the same time]

5 cont.) 1111C5 (Ezek 37:1-13 cont) The Hand Of The LORD Brought Ezekiel Out By The Spirit And He Passed Through The Valley Of Dry Bones. Whereupon The LORD Commanded Ezekiel To Prophesy Causing The Bones To Come Together - The Whole House Of Israel To Come To Life That They May Know That The One Who Has Brought Their Bones To Life Is The LORD. But The Bones Said "Our Bones Are Dried Up And Our Hope Has Perished. We Are Completely Cut Off." Whereupon The LORD Will Bring Them Up Out Of Their Graves And Into The Land Of Israel In The Sense Of Physical Restoration In The Promised Land And Spiritual Regeneration. Then They Will Know That He Is The LORD - When He Has Opened Up And Caused His People To Come Out Of Their Graves - His People, In The Sense Of Their Spiritual Rebirth And Physical Restoration In The Promised Land Of A Generation Of Israelites, (cont.)

(Ezek 37:1 NASB) '''''The hand of the LORD was upon me, and He brought me out by the Spirit of the LORD and set me down in the middle of the valley; and it was full of bones.

(Ezek 37:2 NASB) He caused me to pass among them round about, and behold, there were very many on the surface of the valley; and lo, they were very dry.

(Ezek 37:3 NASB) He said to me, ''''Son of man, can these bones live?'''' And I answered, ''''O LORD GOD, You know.''''

  [(Introduction to chapter 37, cont.)

So Ezekiel, under God's direction, started a new phase of the prophet's ministry after the fall of Judah / Jerusalem in 586 B.C. What was needed was a message of hope. God had not reneged on His promises of the New Covenant to a generation of His people. His rejection of the unfaithful generations of the tribes of the Northern Kingdom which were dispersed earlier and remain dispersed today, and of the unfaithful generations of the tribes of the Southern Kingdom which included Judah was not to be permanent. He had sent approximately 50,000 of a generation of His people Judah into exile, and dispersed the rest of the tribes of Judah so that they might be disciplined for their sinful rebellion so that which ever of that number that were sent to Babylon that survived the captivity might choose to return and would do so in unanimous faith in the fulfillment of the New Covenant - their deliverance / eternal salvation through God's Servant, the Redeemer of Israel and of all mankind . Faith in the Redeemer was evidently not expressed by every one of a generation of the people of Israel. For the fulfillment of the New Covenant did not occur within that generation of Israel relative to their returning to the Promised Land from throughout the world when Judah returned to rebuild Jerusalem. And when they did, they ran into ongoing trouble from the people who had settled there, and they were indolent in rebuilding the Temple, .

Since the time when Israel first divided into two kingdoms, the entire populations of Israel from the Northern Kingdom, Israel; and the Southern Kingdom, Judah to this day have never been reunited in the Promised Land - even temporarily, (Ezek 36:22-24); nor were they ever cleansed from all of their sins and idols, nor did they all receive a new heart, a new human spirit, nor the Spirit of God in them in order to walk in God's statutes and be careful to observe His ordinances in sinless perfection; nor was unparalleled prosperity experienced in the Promised Land by them, (Ezek 36:25-38). And all these stipulations are to be final, uninterrupted and everlasting. Therefore to date there has never been any kind of fulfillment of the New Covenant - full, partial, near or temporary or otherwise, as some contend - even in 1948 when thousands had come from Europe and elsewhere to occupy a small portion of the Promised Land. 

Nevertheless, the small number of that generation of Judah who were freed by God to return to Jerusalem to begin to rebuild it met with ongoing trouble, as indicated throughout the books of Ezra, Nehemiah, Zechariah, etc. (). God stressed the fact of His sovereign power, capacity and willingness to unilaterally carry out these remarkable and gracious promises in the New Covenant. Their fulfillment depended upon Him alone, not on anything Israel might do, or circumstances, provided all of a generation of Israel and Judah believed alone in the Holy One of Israel, the Redeemer of Israel, God's Servant alone for that fulfillment.

Ezek 37:1-10 comprise a description of the first vision which God gave His prophet Ezekiel on this matter followed by the interpretation in verses 11-14:

(Ezek 37:1 NASB) '''''The hand of the LORD was upon me, and He brought me out by the Spirit of the LORD and set me down in the middle of the valley; and it was full of bones.

(Ezek 37:2 NASB) He caused me to pass among them round about, and behold, there were very many on the surface of the valley; and lo, they were very dry.

(Ezek 37:3 NASB) He said to me, ''''Son of man, can these bones live?'''' And I answered, ''''O LORD GOD, You know.''''

  [(vv. 1-3) In Ezek 37:1-3, the hand of the LORD brought the prophet Ezekiel out by the Spirit of the LORD and set him down in the middle of a valley full of many dry bones - very dry bones. The phrase rendered "the hand of the LORD" is a metaphor for God's power, which is further emphasized by the phrase "by the Spirit of the LORD," i.e., by the power of God the Holy Spirit. It was a symbollic vision of future events regarding God's chosen people Israel - their future restoration in the Promised Land, while the Judean exiles remained in oppressive captivity. The vision was of Ezekiel being passed among the bones round about. First, God caused the prophet to walk throughout the valley to see the bones. There were bones on the surface of the valley. There were many - enough for an exceedingly great army, (v. 10). And they were very dry, evidently bleached and baked under the hot sun. There was no rotting flesh left on them - just dry bones. These images conveyed a completely devastated / dead situation with no possibility of revival / restoration as God has promised, (Ezek 36). Circumstances appeared hopeless.

Consequently, in verse 3, the LORD God asked Ezekiel, "Son of man, can these bones live?" The expression rendered "son of man" is a common Semitic way of indicating an individual man, (cf. Ps 4:2; 57:4; 58:1; 144:3; Jer 49:18, 33; 50:40; 51:43 and about 90 times in the Book of Ezekiel - as opposed to the term the Son of Man ). The question was a rhetorical one - the situation was clearly hopeless. No natural ability could bring the bones back to life. And it was Almighty God Who asked the question in that light, and it was He alone Who has the power to fulfill what He has already promised to do, (ref. Ezek 36:22ff ). Ezekiel's answer implied that he did not know, deferring to God's omniscience, and he answered, "O LORD God, [Heb. "ǎdōāny yehwih] you know." ]

(Ezek 37:4 NASB) Again He said to me, ''''Prophesy over these bones and say to them, '''O dry bones, hear the word of the LORD.'''

(Ezek 37:5 NASB) Thus says the Lord GOD to these bones, '''Behold, I will cause breath to enter you that you may come to life.

(Ezek 37:6 NASB) I will put sinews on you, make flesh grow back on you, cover you with skin and put breath in you that you may come alive; and you will know that I am the LORD.''' ''''

  [(vv. 4-6) Whereupon Ezekiel was commanded to prophesy over the bones to "hear the word of the LORD." And the LORD spoke, "Behold, I will cause breath to enter you that you may come to life. I will put sinews on you, make flesh grow back on you, cover you with skin and put breath in you that you may come alive; and you will know that I am the LORD." The commands of the LORD God were given to Ezekiel to prophesy this message: to predict that in the future - speaking to the bones in the vision which evidently are symbollic of a future generation of Israel - a generation of a people which has long been dead to God as His chosen people "will come to life" in the sense of a particular generation being His people once again and forever, (cf. Hos 2:14-23 ; cf. Ro 9:25). The prophet Ezekiel was to state that it will be the LORD God alone Who will put sinews, i.e., muscles and flesh on that set of bones - that generation of Israel in the future - and put breath in them that they may come to life in the sense of a physical and spiritual life connected forever with the LORD so that they will know that He is the LORD, implying that their faith in Him to fulfill His promises in the New Covenant has been expressed by all of them, (cf. Ezek 36:24-27 )

(Ezek 37:7 NASB) So I prophesied as I was commanded; and as I prophesied, there was a noise, and behold, a rattling; and the bones came together, bone to its bone.

(Ezek 37:8 NASB) And I looked, and behold, sinews were on them, and flesh grew and skin covered them; but there was no breath in them.

  [(vv. 7-8) As Ezekiel prophesied, there was a noise, a rattling, and the bones came together, with sinews, implying that the bones were not previously connected. Flesh and skin covered them; but there was no breath in them - they were still physically and spiritually dead]

(Ezek 37:9 NASB) Then He said to me, ''''Prophesy to the breath, prophesy, son of man, and say to the breath, '''Thus says the Lord GOD, "Come from the four winds, O breath, and breathe on these slain, that they come to life." ''' ''''

(Ezek 37:10 NASB) So I prophesied as He commanded me, and the breath came into them, and they came to life and stood on their feet, an exceedingly great army.

  [(vv. 9-10) Ezekiel was then given the words to prophesy to the breath. And the breath came into the bones. The bones came to life and stood on their feet - an exceedingly great army. The vision of the recovery of the bones to form live human bodies into an exceedingly great army pictured a generation of Israel's ultimate national restoration. The breath that came into them that brought them to life was evidently a physical life and a spiritual birth as well, (ref. Ezek 36:24-28 )]

(Ezek 37:11 NASB) Then He said to me, ''''Son of man, these bones are the whole house of Israel; behold, they say, ''''Our bones are dried up and our hope has perished. We are completely cut off.''' ''''

  [(v. 11) Verses 11-13 provide the LORD's interpretation of His vision which He gave to Ezekiel, (ref. vv. 1-10). In verse 1 the LORD pronounced to Ezekiel, "Son of man, these bones are the whole house of Israel; behold, they say, 'Our bones are dried up and our hope has perished. We are completely cut off.' " So the LORD said that the vision was about the nation Israel, i.e., "the whole house of Israel," in the sense of the whole of the Hebrew people - Israel and Judah together - most of whom at that time were dispersed or in captivity. And they were completely cut off from God - from His blessings.

This is as opposed to members of the Church who some contend have replaced Israel as God's people which the Church is actually not in view in this passage at all.

And the LORD told Ezekiel that "the whole house of Israel" despairingly complained, "Our bones are dried up and our hope [for deliverance] has perished. We are completely cut off." In actuality they were like what they appeared to be in the vision: unburied skeletons / bones so dry that they appeared to have been dead for a very long time - implying that the nation Israel had been dead to God for a very long time - spiritually dead and no longer His people. So the bones were without capacity / hope for deliverance. Hope that was destroyed by the outcome of Babylon's attack resulting in Judah's dispersion and captivity]

(Ezek 37:12 NASB) ''''Therefore prophesy and say to them, '''Thus says the Lord GOD, "Behold, I will open your graves and cause you to come up out of your graves, My people; and I will bring you into the land of Israel.''' ''''

  [(v. 12) So the LORD commanded Ezekiel to prophesy and say to the resurrected bones, "Thus says the LORD God, 'Behold, I will open your graves and cause you to come out of your graves, My people; and I will bring you into the land of Israel.' " So in His vision to Ezekiel, graves appeared to be opened and God's people were brought to life and came up out of them, in the sense of becoming spiritually reconnected / reborn with their God. The LORD stipulated that He will bring them up out of their graves of captivity - places of exile such as in Babylon and througout the nations "into the land of Israel." Both the imagery of dry bones becoming live people and the figure of resurrection from a grave illustrate this same truth. Israel, who had been nonexistent as a people on their own land and scattered throughout the nations, would be brought back to life physically as a nation in their own land. This is not a resurrection of all

(Ezek 37:13 NASB) ''''Then you will know that I am the LORD, when I have opened your graves and caused you to come up out of your graves, My people.''''

  [(v. 13) Whereupon in verse 13 it says, "Then you will know that I am the LORD when I have opened your graves and caused you to come up out of your graves, My people." Priority number one is God's Holy Name, (cf. Ezek 36:20-23). God will vindicate His Holy Name. He will indeed open up their graves and cause them to rise up in life and come out of them, i.e., He will cause His people to come to life in a spiritual sense and reunite His people, move them up and out of their captivity and restore their Land to them forever, forgive and deliver them from sin and enable them to live godly lives forever - without sin. His people will surely know that He is the LORD]

6) 1111C6 (Ezek 37:14) The LORD Will Put His Spirit Within His People - That Generation Of Israel Whom He Has Chosen To Be His People - And They Will Come To Life, And He Will Place Them In Their Own Land. Then They Will Know That He, The LORD, Has Spoken And Done It

(Ezek 37:14 NASB) I will put My Spirit within you and you will come to life, and I will place you on your own land. Then you will know that I, the LORD, have spoken and done it,''' declares the LORD.''''

  [(v. 14) And the means by which a generation of the people of Israel will be spiritually and physically restored to the Promised Land will be done by the LORD: He will put His Spirit in them and cause them to come to life in a spiritual sense - in faithful fellowship with the LORD, and He will place them on their own land, in keeping with the New Covenant and the message just delivered in Ezekiel chapter 36. Then they will know that He, the LORD, has spoken and done it]

****** EXCERPT FROM EZEKIEL 36 ******

OR CONTINUE TO NEXT SECTION

(Ezek 36:22-24 cont.) The People Of Israel Will Be Returned To The Promised Land For The Sake Of God's Holy Name.

Note That Israel Is Not To Be Confused Here With Members Of The Church Whom The Latter Have Not Been Promised By God To Receive Land He Promised To Give To Their Forefathers, (cont.)

(Ezek 36:22 NASB) '''Therefore say to the house of Israel, '''Thus says the Lord GOD, "It is not for your sake, O house of Israel, that I am about to act, but for My holy name, which you have profaned among the nations where you went.

(Ezek 36:23 NASB) I will vindicate the holiness of My great name which has been profaned among the nations, which you have profaned in their midst. Then the nations will know that I am the LORD," declares the Lord GOD, "when I prove Myself holy among you in their sight.

(Ezek 36:24 NASB) For I will take you from the nations, gather you from all the lands and bring you into your own land." '''

[(vv. 23-24) Therefore, in order that the holiness of His great name might be vindicated before the nations of the world who thought that the LORD - the God of Israel - could not protect His people and keep them safe within their land, the LORD would restore the people of Israel to their land, but not because of anything that they might do.

In ancient times one's name and person were equivalent; a name represented the person. Through Israel's rebellion against God, the people had defamed God's Person. Therefore, not only would His covenant faithfulness be displayed when He restored Israel to her land, but He would vindicate Himself in the sense of bringing back His Honor and sanctifying His Holy Name and Person throughout the world. And this will be through His supernatural regathering of that generation of Israel at that time. They evidently will all trust in His salvation / deliverance / restoration at the moment when He comes upon the earth in His Second Coming, having already made provision for the forgiveness of the sins of all mankind as the Seed of Abraham  - the Kinsman Redeemer. It will not be through anything that Israel will do . God's Righteousness will not be impugned because it was the Seed of Abraham Who has paid for the unrighteousness of Israel and all of mankind so that Israel and all mankind might have the opportunity to share in the blessings of the New Covenant in the Eternal Kingdom of God - each according to the plan of God as stipulated in the New Covenant, (vv. 25-27; cf. Jer 31:31-34; Ezek 11:14-20; chs 36-37; Isa 49:1-13; Romans ch 11 and many more). Then the nations will know that the God of Israel is Glorified, Just, Righteous, Holy, Almighty, Loving, etc. - the only true God.

So out of concern for His holy name which the house of Israel had profaned among the nations, the LORD commanded Ezekiel to say that it is not for the sake of Israel that the LORD is about to act, but for His Holy Name which the people of Israel has profaned even while among the nations where they were dispersed. The LORD will vindicate the Holiness of His Holy Name which Israel profaned. Then the nations will know that He is the LORD when He has proved Himself Holy among those nations in their sight, i.e., by their experiencing His Justice, Holiness, Almighty Power, Righteousness, Mercy - evidently all of this through the fulfillment of the New Covenant, (cf. Jer 31:31-34; Ezekiel chapters 11 & 37).

Note that God foretold of Israel's restoration after the Exile through Moses when Moses restated the Mosaic / Palestinian Covenant on the plains of Moab, (Deut 29:1-30:10). And God spoke of this through Ezekiel in Ezek 11:14-20 and once more in 36:24-28, and in chapter 37, as well as through the prophets Jeremiah in 30:4-31:40; and Isaiah in chapter 49]

(Ezek 36:25-27) [After The Generation / A Remnant Of His People Israel Chosen By God Who Will Have Survived Unprecedented Distress / Tribulation - A Time Of Jacob's Trouble - Has Been Permanently Restored And Begins To Occupy And Possess The Promised Land Forever

- Israel Is Not To Be Confused Here With Members Of The Church Whom The Latter Have Not Been Promised By God To Receive Land He Promised To Give To Their Forefathers -

The LORD Will Unilaterally Cleanse His People From All Of Their Sins Without His People Having To Repent Of Any Sin. Each One Of The Generation Of The People Of Israel In View At That Time Will Have Exercised A Moment Of Faith Alone In The Messiah / Savior /Redeemer Alone For Salvation / Deliverance Unto The Eternal Kingdom Of God Forever In The Promised Land As Abraham Their Father Did. And The Lord Will Put His Spirit Within Each Of Them To Enable Them All To Constantly Live Godly Lives In Obedience To His Statutes And Ordinances - Without Sin]:

(Ezek 36:25 NASB) "Then I will sprinkle clean water on you, and you will be clean; I will cleanse you from all your filthiness and from all your idols.

(Ezek 36:26 NASB) Moreover, I will give you a new heart and put a new spirit within you; and I will remove the heart of stone from your flesh and give you a heart of flesh.

(Ezek 36:27 NASB) I will put My Spirit within you and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you will be careful to observe My ordinances."

  [(v. 25) After the LORD gathers a particular generation / a remnant of His people Israel chosen by God who will have survived unprecedented distress / tribulation - a time of Jacob's trouble, (Jer 30:7 ; (Jer 30:24; Dan 12:1), (Isa 10:20-23 ) which He chose from among the nations - from where they were dispersed, He will permanently restore them into their own land - the land promised to their forefathers, (Ezek 36:24).

Note that Israel is not to be confused here with members of the Church whom the latter have not been promised by God to receive land He promised to their forefathers.

So God will sprinkle clean water on them to cleanse them from their filthiness and idols, i.e., from their sins, especially idol worship.

The people of Israel’s idolatrous ways had polluted the land (see 22:24; 24:13). They had proven themselves to be spiritually filthy and impure (see 22:15; 24:11, 13; 36:17). Thus, God had expelled them from the land. But now the promise is of a people washed of their sins and cleansed of their idolatry.

The concept of sprinkling the clean water of cleansing to make an individual ceremonially clean appears in Scripture. For example, it was to be done to Levitical priests to purify them as part of a symbolic ritual which would represent the actual work of God in the spiritual realm of purifying them from all their temporal sins:

[Compare Nu 8:5-7]:

(Nu 8:5 NIV) "The LORD said to Moses:

(Nu 8:6 NIV) 'Take the Levites from among the other Israelites and make them ceremonially clean.

(Nu 8:7 NIV) To purify them, do this: Sprinkle the water of cleansing on them; then have them shave their whole bodies and wash their clothes, and so purify themselves' "

Since the concept of sprinkling clean physical water over all of Israel would not literally wash away her sins, nor even clean away all of her external filthiness, then the phrase "sprinkle clean water" must be figurative, and represent an actual spiritual cleansing - the work of God, (the Holy Spirit), in the spiritual realm.

Note that for God to cleanse anyone of internal filthiness, i.e., of all of ones sins, it is implied that God must make payment for them through His Personal atonement for them, as He would be the only One Who would be qualified for that - given the sinfulness of all of humanity, (). This cleansing will be through the LORD's fulfillment of the New Covenant in them which includes faith in what the LORD promised Abraham and his Seed, when Abraham believed . So likewise will each one of the chosen generation / a remnant of His people Israel - chosen by God, who will have survived unprecedented distress / tribulation, a time of Jacob's trouble, (Jer 30:7 ; Jer 30:24; Dan 9:24-27; 12:1) - receive that fulfillment through a moment alone of faith alone in the Seed of Abraham alone - the One Who was to come, as Abraham their father did to fullfill God's covenant with him - the Messiah  (v. 26; cf. Ezek 11:1-20 ; Gen 22:18 ; Jer 31:31-34 ). In view is God's Servant, born of a woman, the Redeemer of Israel, the Holy One Of Israel Who is both God and Man: Isa 49:1-13  and Isa 9:6-7 , Who is further described in Isa 52:1-53:12 as the Servant of the LORD Who has brought salvation through His atonement for the sins of all mankind. He is the Redeemer of all mankind .

So the phrase rendered "Then I will sprinkle clean water on you" in Ezek 36:25 refers to and symbolizes God's actual cleansing of His people of their sins through His personal forgiveness by His sacrificial blood as symbolized under the Mosaic Law covenant of sin offerings for the cleansing of sins, (ref. Lev 14:1-35 ). He will cleanse that generation / a remnant of His people Israel chosen by God who will have survived unprecedented distress / tribulation - a time of Jacob's trouble, (Jer 30:7 ; Jer 30:24; Dan 12:1) - those of Israel who will all have believed as Abraham their father believed in the Seed of Abraham, (Isa 10:20-23 . And it is through one of Abraham's and Isaac's Descendants Who will make provision for salvation and blessing to all the nations of the earth, (Gen 22:18 ). He will cleanse His people unilaterally of all their sins and idolatry that has defiled them (cf. Ezek 11:1-20 below).

[Compare Ezek 11:1-20]:

(Ezek 11:1 NASB) '''Moreover, the Spirit lifted me up and brought me to the east gate of the LORD'S house which faced eastward. And behold, there were twenty-five men at the entrance of the gate, and among them I saw Jaazaniah son of Azzur and Pelatiah son of Benaiah, leaders of the people.

(Ezek 11:2 NASB) He said to me, "Son of man, these are the men who devise iniquity and give evil advice in this city, 

(Ezek 11:3 NASB) who say, 'The time is not near to build houses. This city is the pot and we are the flesh.' 

(Ezek 11:4 NASB) "Therefore, prophesy against them, son of man, prophesy!" 

(Ezek 11:5 NASB) Then the Spirit of the LORD fell upon me, and He said to me, "Say, 'Thus says the LORD, "So you think, house of Israel, for I know your thoughts. 

(Ezek 11:6 NASB) "You have multiplied your slain in this city, filling its streets with them." 

(Ezek 11:7 NASB) 'Therefore, thus says the Lord GOD, "Your slain whom you have laid in the midst of the city are the flesh and this city is the pot; but I will bring you out of it. 

(Ezek 11:8 NASB) "You have feared a sword; so I will bring a sword upon you," the Lord GOD declares. 

(Ezek 11:9 NASB) "And I will bring you out of the midst of the city and deliver you into the hands of strangers and execute judgments against you.

(Ezek 11:10 NASB) "You will fall by the sword. I will judge you to the border of Israel; so you shall know that I am the LORD. 

(Ezek 11:11 NASB) "This city will not be a pot for you, nor will you be flesh in the midst of it, but I will judge you to the border of Israel. 

(Ezek 11:12 NASB) "Thus you will know that I am the LORD; for you have not walked in My statutes nor have you executed My ordinances, but have acted according to the ordinances of the nations around you."'" 

(Ezek 11:13 NASB) Now it came about as I prophesied, that Pelatiah son of Benaiah died. Then I fell on my face and cried out with a loud voice and said, "Alas, Lord GOD! Will You bring the remnant of Israel to a complete end?"

  [(Ezek 11:1-13) The evil rulers of Jerusalem will be judged by the LORD for their evil deeds. They will fall by the sword. Evidently the sword of Babylon, as their invasion of Jerusalem was historically imminent. Ezekiel pleads with the LORD, "Will you bring the remnant of Israel to a complete end?" The next section which follows is the answer of the LORD]

(Ezek 11:14 NASB) ''''Then the word of the LORD came to me, saying,

(Ezek 11:15 NASB) '''Son of man, your brothers, your relatives, your fellow exiles and the whole house of Israel, all of them, are those to whom the inhabitants of Jerusalem have said, "Go far from the LORD; this land has been given us as a possession."

(Ezek 11:16 NASB) Therefore say, "Thus says the Lord GOD, 'Though I had removed them far away among the nations and though I had scattered them among the countries, yet I was a sanctuary for them a little while in the countries where they had gone.' "

(Ezek 11:17 NASB) Therefore say, "Thus says the Lord GOD, 'I will gather you from the peoples and assemble you out of the countries among which you have been scattered, and I will give you the land of Israel.' "

(Ezek 11:18 NASB) When they come there, they will remove all its detestable things and all its abominations from it. 

(Ezek 11:19 NASB) And I will give them one heart, and put a new spirit within them. And I will take the heart of stone out of their flesh and give them a heart of flesh, 

(Ezek 11:20 NASB) that they may walk in My statutes and keep My ordinances and do them. Then they will be My people, and I shall be their God." ''' ''''

  [(Ezek 11:14-20) The LORD's answer to Ezekiel's question, "Alas, Lord GOD! Will You bring the remnant of Israel to a complete end?" was that the surviving remnant would not be destroyed so that a future generation of Israelites would not be there to inherit the Promised Land. There would be a coming judgment of the people who remained in Jerusalem, but a remnant would be preserved - comprised of those dispersed and / or in captivity, not of those who remained in Jerusalem. Whereupon God promised to restore all of the remnant - all of the survivors of a future generation of descendants of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob - God's chosen people who would go through unprecedented distress / tribulation - a time of Jacob's trouble, (Jer 30:7 ; Jer 30:24; Dan 12:1), to the land He promised to their forefathers forever, (cf. Isa 10:20-23 ).

[Compare Isa 10:20-23]:

(Isa 10:20 NASB) "Now in that day the remnant of Israel, and those of the house of Jacob who have escaped, will never again rely on the one who struck them, but will truly rely on the LORD, the Holy One of Israel.

(Isa 10:21 NASB) A remnant will return, the remnant of Jacob, to the mighty God.

(Isa 10:22 NASB) For though your people, O Israel, may be like the sand of the sea, Only a remnant within them will return; A destruction is determined, overflowing with righteousness.

(Isa 10:23 NASB) For a complete destruction, one that is decreed, the Lord GOD of hosts will execute in the midst of the whole land."

  [Ezek 11:14-20 (cont.)] So God will give one heart to all of a generation / a remnant of His people Israel chosen by God who will have survived unprecedented distress / tribulation - a time of Jacob's Trouble, (Jer 30:7 ; Jer 30:24). And He will put a new human spirit within them as well. He will take the heart of stone out of their flesh and give them a heart of flesh, in the sense of changing their natures from sinful to godly so that they will walk in His statutes and keep His ordinances and do them. Then they will be His people, and He will be their God, (Ezek 11:1-20).

This is the fulfillment of the New Covenant as stipulated in Jer 31:31-34:

[Jer 31:31-34]:

(Jer 31:31 NASB) " 'Behold, days are coming,' declares the LORD, 'when I will make a New Covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah,

(Jer 31:32 NASB) not like the covenant which I made with their fathers in the day [of My taking] them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt, My covenant which they broke, although I was a husband to them,' declares the LORD.

(Jer 31:33 NASB) But this [is] the covenant which I will make with the house of Israel after those days,' declares the LORD, 'I will put My law within them [in the sense of within their minds] and on their heart I will write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people.

(Jer 31:34 NASB) They will not teach again, each man his neighbor and each man his brother, saying, 'Know the LORD,' for they will all know Me, from the least of them to the greatest of them,' declares the LORD, 'for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin I will remember no more.' "

  [(Jer 31:31-34) This passage defines the New Covenant in which the LORD will unilaterally fulfill with the house of Israel and the house of Judah after He has brought them together and restored them forever to occupy and possess the land He promised to their forefathers, (Jer 30:3). He will put His Law within them, He will write it on their hearts. He will be their God and they will be His people - forever. They will all know Him. There will be no need to be taught of Him. He will forgive their iniquity, and their sin He will remember no more. And the LORD will put His Spirit within them and cause them to walk in His statutes, and they will be careful to observe His ordinances - they will live godly lives without sin.

Note that for God to cleanse anyone of internal filthiness, i.e., of all of ones sins, it is implied that God must make payment for them through His Personal atonement for them, as He would be the only One Who would be qualified for that - given the sinfulness of all of humanity, (). This cleansing will be through the LORD's fulfillment of the New Covenant in them which includes faith in what the LORD promised Abraham and his Seed, when Abraham believed . So likewise will each one of the chosen generation / a remnant of His people Israel - chosen by God, who will have survived unprecedented distress / tribulation, a time of Jacob's trouble, (Jer 30:7 ; Jer 30:24; Dan 12:1) - receive that fulfillment through through a moment alone of faith alone in the Seed of Abraham alone - the One Who was to come, as Abraham their father did to fullfill God's covenant with him - the Messiah  (v. 26; cf. Ezek 11:1-20 ; Gen 22:18 ; Jer 31:31-34 ). In view is God's Servant, born of a woman, the Redeemer of Israel, the Holy One Of Israel Who is both God and Man: Isa 49:1-13  and Isa 9:6-7 , Who is further described in Isa 52:1-53:12 as the Servant of the LORD Who has brought salvation through His atonement for the sins of all mankind. He is the Redeemer of all mankind .

(Ezek 36:25-27 cont.) [After The Generation / A Remnant Of His People Israel Chosen By God Who Will Have Survived Unprecedented Distress / Tribulation - A Time Of Jacob's Trouble - Has Been Permanently Restored And Begins To Occupy And Possess The Promised Land Forever

- Israel Is Not To Be Confused Here With Members Of The Church Whom The Latter Have Not Been Promised By God To Receive Land He Promised To Give To Their Forefathers -

The LORD Will Unilaterally Cleanse His People From All Of Their Sins Without His People Having To Repent Of Any Sin. Each One Of The Generation Of The People Of Israel In View At That Time Will Have Exercised A Moment Of Faith Alone In The Messiah / Savior /Redeemer Alone For Salvation / Deliverance Unto The Eternal Kingdom Of God Forever In The Promised Land As Abraham Their Father Did. And The Lord Will Put His Spirit Within Each Of Them To Enable Them All To Constantly Live Godly Lives In Obedience To His Statutes And Ordinances - Without Sin, (cont.)]:

(Ezek 36:25 NASB) "Then I will sprinkle clean water on you, and you will be clean; I will cleanse you from all your filthiness and from all your idols.

(Ezek 36:26 NASB) Moreover, I will give you a new heart and put a new spirit within you; and I will remove the heart of stone from your flesh and give you a heart of flesh.

(Ezek 36:27 NASB) I will put My Spirit within you and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you will be careful to observe My ordinances."

  [(v. 26) So in addition to the work of God stipulated in v. 25 which is figuratively referred to as "sprinkling clean water," of actually cleansing them from all their filthiness - their sinfulness - and their idols; God foretold in v. 26 that He will provide His chosen generation / a remnant of His people Israel chosen by God who will have survived unprecedented distress / tribulation - a time of Jacob's trouble, (ref. Jer 30:7 ; Jer 30:24; Dan 12:1; Isa 10:20-23 ), with a new heart and a newborn human spirit within them implying a spiritual regeneration or new birth with a capacity to walk in His statutes and be careful to observe His ordinances, i.e., sinless perfection, (Ezek 36:27) - a new nature that will make them righteous all the time, (Ezek 36:27; cf. Jer 31:31-34 ). For He will remove the heart of stone from their flesh and give them a heart of flesh so then they may walk in His statutes and keep His ordinances and do them. Then they will be His people, and He shall be their God, (cf. Ezek 11:1-20 ).

The word rendered "heart" here does not refer to the physical heart, but to the minds and attitudes of every Israelite being redirected toward a willingness and capacity to love and be obedient to God. The term "heart of stone" in the phrase "I will take the heart of stone out of your flesh" refers to the Israelites' attitude of coldness, hardness and consequent deliberate distancing from God resulting in their repeated unfaithfulness in the past throughout centuries of time. The work of God in providing Israel with a "new heart," i.e., a "heart of flesh" refers to God's work of enabling Israel to be faithful, obedient and close to God. The phrase rendered "I will put a new spirit within you" refers to God providing all of His chosen generation of Israel with newborn human spirits; i.e., a spiritual birth of all of that generation / a remnant of His people Israel chosen by God who will have survived unprecedented distress / tribulation - a time of Jacob's trouble, (ref. Jer 30:7 ; Jer 30:24; Dan 12:1).

God's unilateral cleansing of all of the sins of His chosen generation of His people Israel - a remnant that will survive the time of Jacob's trouble, an unparalleled distress and tribulation for Israel, (Jer 30:7 ; Jer 30:24; Dan 12:1), His provision of a new heart / capacity to be godly all the time - without sin, a new human spirit and the indwelling Holy Spirit unto godliness within each individual of that generation of His people, Israel will all be through the LORD's fulfillment of the New Covenant in them - each one of that generation.

Each and every one of that generation will express in that future time a moment of faith alone in the Seed of Abraham alone - the One Who was to come, as Abraham their father did to fullfill God's covenant with him - the Messiah  (v. 26; cf. Ezek 11:1-20 ; Gen 22:18 ; Jer 31:31-34 ); Who is God's Servant, born of a woman, the Redeemer of Israel, the Holy One Of Israel, God and Man: Isa 49:1-13 followed by 9:6-7 , Who is further described in Isa 52:1-53:12 as the Servant of the LORD Who has brought salvation through His atonement for the sins of all mankind. He is the Redeemer of all mankind ;  Who will make atonement for sins in His blood, (cf. Heb 9:11-22).

For without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness of sins:

[Compare Lev 17:11]:

(Lev 17:11 NASB) "For the life of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it to you on the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood by reason of the life that makes atonement."]

(Ezek 36:27 NASB) "I will put My Spirit within you and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you will be careful to observe My ordinances."

  [(v. 27) In the fulfillment of the New Covenant in a particular generation of God's chosen people Israel - a remnant of His people Israel chosen by God who will have survived unprecedented distress / tribulation - a time of Jacob's trouble, (ref. Jer 30:7 ; Jer 30:24; Dan 12:1; Isa 10:20-23 ), will receive God's Holy Spirit Who will enable them all to live godly lives - without sin, (cf. Ezek 11:1-20 ; 37:14; 39:29; Jer 31:31-34 ; Joel 2:28-29 ). They will all walk in God's statutes and be careful to observe His ordinances - they will live godly lives without sin. Ezek 11:20b and 36:28 go on to say, 'and then they [those of Israel] will be His people, and He shall be their God,' (cf. Heb 8:6-10:39). God's law will be written on the heart of those living under the New Covenant, so that they will not need to be taught, nor lack in obedience or godliness, (ref. Jer 31:31-34 ). The New Covenant will replace the Mosaic covenant, but not by eliminating righteous and godly stipulations that describe how to live a godly life; but by providing within each Israelite the capacity to walk in God's statutes and be careful to observe His ordinances - a capacity to be godly all the time - without sin. The New Covenant will provide complete and total forgiveness of sin once and for all and the Holy Spirit's indwelling unto godly living - without sin - for God's chosen people forevermore]

Some contend that this passage points to the coming fall of Judah to Babylon or to the later fall of Babylon to Medo-Persia. However, in both of these periods the Northern Kingdom of Israel was not affected. It had already gone into captivity (in 722 B.C.). A better solution is the still-future Tribulation period when Israel and Judah will experience a time of unparalleled persecution / tribulation, (ref. Dan. 9:27; 12:1; Matt. 24:15-22;  - a time of Jacob's trouble, (Jer 30:7 ; Jer 30:24); followed by when Christ, the Son of Man appears to rescue His elect, gather them from the ends of the earth to inherit the Eternal Kingdom that was prepared for them forever, (Ro 11:26; Mt 24:30-31; 25:31-46; Rev 19:11-21; 20:4-6).

(1) At no time have all of Israel and Judah been gathered together from all over the world after unprecedented tribulation, (Jer 30:7 ; Jer 30:24), and brought back into the Promised Land since they had divided into two kingdoms and were dispersed, (Ezek 36:24);

(2) At no time was all of Israel and Judah declared cleansed from all of their filthiness (sins) and idols, (Ezek 36:25);

(3) At no time was all of Israel and Judah given a new heart, a new human spirit and the indwelling Spirit of God so that they could and would walk in God's statutes and be careful to keep His ordinances - without sin, (Ezek 36:26-27);

And all of this forever, no interruptions and starting overs in view, as some contend to include 'partial' or 'near' fulfillments of the New Covenant, Abrahamic Covenant, Davidic Covenant or Palestinian Covenant.

Therefore, the various so called 'near' or 'partial' fulfillments -  returns of some of Israel, but not all, to some parts but not all of the Promised Land; and the several rebuildings of the Temple cannot and do not constitute near or partial fulfillments of the promises that comprise the New Covenant, Abrahamic Covenant, Davidic Covenant or Palestinian Covenant, especially in the light of subsequent conquerings, captivities, dispersements and destructions of the Temples - such as in AD 70, and some of the population of Israel occupying a part of the Promised Land in 1948 albeit not without constant conflict from surrounding nations, as some contend. And none of which is forever. On the other hand, each partial return, each rebuilding of the Temple signifies that God is at work giving yet another generation of His chosen people an opportunity for them to demonstrate that they are ready to have the New Covenant fufilled in them through unanimous faith in their Redeemer. So far all of a generation of Israel have not unanimously expressed that faith which will prompt that fulfillment, (ref. Isa 52:1-53:12 ).

****** END OF EXCERPT FROM EZEKIEL 36

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7) 1111C7 (Ezek 37:15-20) [The Word Of The LORD Came Again: "Son Of Man, Take For Yourself One Stick And Write On It, 'For Judah And For The Sons Of Israel, His Companions;' Then Take Another Stick And Write On It, 'For Joseph, The Stick Of Ephraim And All The House Of Israel, His Companions' Then Join Them Into One Stick. Then The LORD Will Take The Stick Of Joseph, The Hand Of Ephraim, And The Tribes Of Israel; And He Will Put Them With The Stick Of Judah, And Make Them One Stick, And They Will Be One In My Hand. The Sticks On Which Ezekial Writes Will Be In His Hand Before The Peoples' Eyes]

(Ezek 37:15 NASB) '''''The word of the LORD came again to me saying,

(Ezek 37:16 NASB) ''''And you, son of man, take for yourself one stick and write on it, '''For Judah and for the sons of Israel, his companions;''' then take another stick and write on it, '''For Joseph, the stick of Ephraim and all the house of Israel, his companions.''' ''''

  [(vv. 15-16) Once again, the word of the LORD came to Ezekiel, saying to the son of man, Ezekiel, take one stick and write upon it, "For Judah and for the sons of Israel, his companions," referring to the Southern Kingdom of Judah, (cf. v. 19). And then take another stick and write upon it, "For Joseph, the stick of Ephraim and all the house of Israel, his companions," referring to the Northern Kingdom of Israel, sometimes referred to as Ephraim, the tribe of Joseph, the dominant tribe of that Kingdom, (cf. v. 19). After Solomon died the nation of Israel split asunder, in 931 B.C. The Southern Kingdom was known as Judah because Judah was its larger tribe and because the country was ruled by a king from that tribe  (cf. 1 Kings 12:22-24). The Northern Kingdom was called Israel, or sometimes Ephraim (e.g., Hosea 5:3, 5, 11-14) either because Ephraim was the strongest and most influential tribe or because the first king of Israel, Jeroboam I, was an Ephraimite (1 Kings 11:26). Israel was taken into captivity by Assyria in 722 B.C., and Judah was taken into exile by Babylon in 605, 597, and 586 B.C.]

(Ezek 37:17 NASB) ''''Then join them for yourself one to another into one stick, that they may become one in your hand.

(Ezek 37:18 NASB) When the sons of your people speak to you saying, '''Will you not declare to us what you mean by these?''' ''''

  (vv. 17-18) Then Ezekiel was told to join the two sticks into one stick so that they may become one in his hand. Exekiel's vision was to be relayed to the people of Israel evidently in a physical / visual demonstration so that when the sons of Israel hear and see it, they will ask "Will you not declare to us what you mean by these?" Ezekiel will use a symbolic act to demonstrate that the two previously divided kingdoms of Israel and Judah will once again be reunited into one nation when God brings his people back into their land. Israel will then be godly, faithful - without sin and complete with all of God's covenants with her fulfilled]

(Ezek 37:19 NASB) ''''say to them, '''Thus says the Lord GOD, "Behold, I will take the stick of Joseph, which is in the hand of Ephraim, and the tribes of Israel, his companions; and I will put them with it, with the stick of Judah, and make them one stick, and they will be one in My hand."

(Ezek 37:20 NASB) The sticks on which you write will be in your hand before their eyes." ''' ''''

  (vv. 19-20) And the LORD told Ezekiel to say to them, "Thus says the Lord GOD, 'Behold, I will take the stick of Joseph, which is in the hand of Ephraim, and the tribes of Israel, his companions; and I will put them with it, with the stick of Judah, and make them one stick, and they will be one in My hand.' " The uniting of the sticks pictured God's restoring and reuniting His people on the Promised Land as a single nation forever. The repetition of the phrase "before their eyes" from verse 17 stresses the public nature of Ezekiel's ministry]

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8) 1111C8 (Ezek 37:21-28) [The LORD God Says, "Behold, I Will Take The Sons Of Israel From Among The Nations, Gather Them, Bring Them Into Their Own Land, Make Them One Nation, And One King For All Of Them, No Longer Two Nations Divided. They Will No Longer Defile Themselves With Idols, Detestable Things, Transgressions. I Will Deliver Them From Their Lawless Deeds, Cleanse them. They Will Be My People, And I Will Be Their God. My Servant David Will Be King Over Them, They Will Walk In My Ordinances, Keep My Statutes And Observe Them, Live On The Promised Land Forever, David My Servant Will Be Their Prince Forever. I Will Make An Everlasting Covenant Of Peace With Them. I Will Place Them And Multiply Them And Will Set My Sanctuary / My Dwelling Place In Their Midst Forever. I Will Be Their God, And They Will Be My People. And The Nations Will Know That I Am The LORD WhoSanctifies Israel, When My Sanctuary / Temple Is In Their Midst Forever

(Ezek 37:21 NASB) ''''Say to them, '''Thus says the Lord GOD, "Behold, I will take the sons of Israel from among the nations where they have gone, and I will gather them from every side and bring them into their own land;

(Ezek 37:22 NASB) and I will make them one nation in the land, on the mountains of Israel; and one king will be king for all of them; and they will no longer be two nations and no longer be divided into two kingdoms." ''' ''''

  [So after Ezekiel took the two sticks and wrote upon them as the LORD had instructed him, (v. 16), and then joined them together as one in his hand, (v. 17), and while the people asked, "Will you not declare to us what you mean by these?" (v. 18); and after Ezekiel responded with, "Behold, I will take the stick of Joseph, which is in the hand of Ephraim, and the tribes of Israel, his companions; and I will put them with it, with the stick of Judah, and make them one stick, and they will be one in My hand," while he held the sticks in his hand before their eyes, (v. 20); then in vv 21-22, Ezekiel was instructed by the LORD to say to the people," Thus says the Lord GOD, 'Behold, I will take the sons of Israel from among the nations where they have gone, and I will gather them from every side and bring them into their own land; and I will make them one nation in the land, on the mountains of Israel; and one king will be king for all of them; and they will no longer be two nations and no longer be divided into two kingdoms."

Note that the restoration of Israel will be accomplished by what was previously stipulated in Ezek 36:25-27 and just previously in 37:14 - by the power of God:

a) [Compare Ezek 37:14 NASB]:

" 'I [the LORD] will put My Spirit within you and you will come to life, and I will place you on your own land. Then you will know that I, the LORD, have spoken and done it,' declares the LORD,"

(Ezek 37:23 NASB) "They will no longer defile themselves with their idols, or with their detestable things, or with any of their transgressions; but I will deliver them from all their dwelling places [LXX: "anomiOn" = "lawlessnesses," i.e., "lawless deeds"] in which they have sinned, and will cleanse them. And they will be My people, and I will be their God."

  [In Ezek 37:23, the MT's ‏מֹושְׁבֹתֵיהֶם‎ (mosebotehem, "their dwellings") is changed to ‏מְשׁוּבֹתֵיהֶם‎ (mesubotehem, "their lawlessnesses, i.e., their lawless deeds) in the LXX and in Symmachus - a 2nd-3rd century Greek translation. The metathesis of the letters ‏ו‎ (w) and ‏שׁ‎ (s) could likely be a scribal error. The context favors "their lawlessnesses, i.e., lawless deeds."

So the people of Israel will no longer defile themselves with their idols, or with their detestable things, or with any of their transgressions - their lawless deeds. For the LORD will deliver them from all their lawless deeds in which they have sinned in the sense of judging them righteous as Abraham was judged righteous through a moment of faith in the LORD's plan for his eternal life through one of Abraham's descendants , (ref.  Ezek 37:23b); and He will cleanse them of all sin, evidently through a substitutionary atonement  which is required in order to receive forgiveness of sins , (cf. Ezek 36:24 and Ezek 36:25-27 ). And they will be His people, and He will be their God forever]

(Ezek 37:24 NASB) "My servant David will be king over them, and they will all have one shepherd; and they will walk in My ordinances and keep My statutes and observe them.

Whereupon verse 24a indicates that the LORD's servant David will be king over restored Israel, and that they will all have one shepherd...

b) [Compare Ezek 34:23-24]:

(Ezek 34:23 NASB) "Then I will set over them one shepherd, My servant David, and he will feed them; he will feed them himself and be their shepherd.

(Ezek 34:24 NASB) And I, the LORD, will be their God, and My servant David will be prince among them; I the LORD have spoken)."

After the LORD delivers a generation of His chosen people, Israel from all of their lawless deeds in the sense of judging them righteous as Abraham was judged righteous through faith , (ref.  Ezek 37:23b); He will cleanse them from sin. Then David, the servant of the LORD will have been appointed king over them. The restored people of Israel by God will have one shepherd (cf. Ezek 34:23-24 quoted above).

Although, many see this as an allusion to Jesus Christ, the Good Shepherd (cf. John 10:11-18), Who descended from the line of David to be the King of Israel (cf. Matt. 1:1); Jesus Christ is never actually called “David” in the Bible. He is called the Son of David, the Seed of David, and the Root and Offspring of David, but never just “David.” Furthermore, Isaiah 32:1 says, “Behold, a king [meaning Jesus Christ] shall reign in righteousness, and princes shall rule in judgment.” So the Christ / the Messiah / the Servant  Who is the One born of Israel   will rule with princes under Him. Also Ezekiel indicated that David will be the prince (ānś') of the restored people (Ezek. 34:24; 37:25). Furthermore, nothing in Ezekiel 34:24 or 37:25 demands that Ezekiel was not referring to the literal King David who will be resurrected to serve as Israel's righteous prince. David is referred to by name elsewhere in passages that look to the future restoration of Israel (cf. Jer. 30:9; Ezek. 37:24-25; Hosea 3:5). This same "prince" will then offer sin offerings for himself during the millennial period (45:22; 46:4). Such actions would hardly be appropriate for the sinless Servant , Who is the Son of God - Diety ; but they would be for David. Since David in his resurrected form will be sinless, his offering of a sin offering will be ceremonial, a testimony to God's having redeemed him through the atoning sacrifice of the Servant, His Son Who transformed him into a sinless, eternal being. And David's offerings will be an example to those in mortal bodies who have intrinsic sin natures, born of those in redeemed mortal bodies who first entered into the Millennial Kingdom and are to offer their own sin offering as an object lesson pointing to the once for all sacrifice of the Servant of the LORD, (Isa 52:1-53:12 ), following the example of David, (Ezek 43:18-46:24; Isa 56:6-8; Jer 33:15-18). So it seems this is a literal reference to a resurrected David. In place of the false shepherds God will resurrect a true shepherd to tend his sheep.

And the generation of Israel, restored, redeemed and faithful / without sin will walk in the LORD's ordinances and keep His statutes and observe them, (Ezek 37:24b); evidently by the work of the Holy Spirit in them, (ref. Ezek 36:25-27 , and Jer 31:31-34).

(Ezek 37:25 NASB) They will live on the land that I gave to Jacob My servant, in which your fathers lived; and they will live on it, they, and their sons and their sons' sons, forever; and David My servant will be their prince forever.

[So - in review from verse 21 - the sons of Israel will be taken from among the nations where they have gone, and will be gathered from every side [of the earth] and brought into their own land as one nation, one king for all of them, no longer two nations, (Ezek 37:21-22). And they will no longer defile themselves with their idols, detestable things, transgressions. They will have been delivered / cleansed of sin by the LORD. And [once again] they will be the people of the LORD, and He will be their God, (Ezek 37:23). And the servant of the LORD, David will be appointed by the LORD to be king over all of them, and they will have one shepherd and will walk in the ordinances of the LORD and keep His statutes, (Ezek 37:24; cf. Ezek 34:23-24).

Whereupon in Ezek 37:25, the prophet Ezekiel writes that the regathered, transfromed, unified generation of Israelites will live on the land that the LORD gave to Jacob His servant, (cf Gen 50:24), and in which their fathers lived. And they and their descendants will live on it forever. And David, the servant of the LORD will be their prince forever]

(Ezek 37:26 NASB) I will make a covenant of peace with them; it will be an everlasting covenant with them. And I will place them and multiply them, and will set My sanctuary in their midst forever."

Ezek 37:26 stipulates that the LORD will make an everlasting covenant of peace with a generation of His people Israel who are descendants of Israel's past generations who did not choose to trust in the provisions of the New Covenant promised to them on the condition of universal acceptance of the Servant of LORD and His substitutionary atonement for them . It will be fullfilled in them forever. And the LORD will place them in the Promised Land, and multiply them, and He will set His sanctuary - His dwelling place - in their midst forever, evidently the new temple of the Eternal Kingdom of God described in detail in Ezekiel chs 34-48 ).

Note that the Covenant of Peace that the LORD will make with a generation of His people in Ezek 37:26 and in  34:25-30 is the same as the New Covenant because both stipulate an everlasting restoration of the earth. There cannot be two everlasting fulfillments of the same thing:

c) [Compare Ezek 34:25-30]:

(Ezek 34:25 NASB) "I will make a covenant of peace with them [Israel, vv. 11-14)] and eliminate harmful beasts from the land so that they may live securely in the wilderness and sleep in the woods.

(Ezek 34:26 NASB) I will make them and the places around My hill a blessing. And I will cause showers to come down in their season; they will be showers of blessing.

(Ezek 34:27 NASB) Also the tree of the field will yield its fruit and the earth will yield its increase, and they will be secure on their land. Then they will know that I am the LORD, when I have broken the bars of their yoke and have delivered them from the hand of those who enslaved them.

(Ezek 34:28 NASB) They will no longer be a prey to the nations, and the beasts of the earth will not devour them; but they will live securely, and no one will make them afraid.

(Ezek 34:29 NASB) I will establish for them a renowned planting place, and they will not again be victims of famine in the land, and they will not endure the insults of the nations anymore.

(Ezek 34:30 NASB) Then they will know that I, the LORD their God, am with them, and that they, the house of Israel, are My people," declares the Lord GOD."

Furthermore, everlasting peace throughout the world will be established by the Son, born of a woman of Israel, both God and Man, Who will be everlasting Ruler of the world from upon the throne of David - the Servant of the LORD appointed by the LORD as a covenant to the people, Israel, as a light to the nations in order to provide salvation for her and for all of mankind, (ref. Isa 42:1-6 ; Isa 49:1-8 ]

(Ezek 37:27 NASB) My dwelling place also will be with them; and I will be their God, and they will be My people."

The LORD's dwelling place - the Temple of the Eternal Kingdom of God on the earth, (Ezekiel chs 34-48 ), will also be with them - a generation of Israelites that have universally chosen to trust in the provisions of the New Covenant . And the LORD will be their God and they will be His people, cf. 11:20; 14:11; 36:28; 37:23).

Note that the stipulations in view in Ezekiel 36:25-27  and Jeremiah 31:31-34 are that the new covenant will unilaterally be fulfilled by God alone, through His Servant, (Isa 42:1-13 ; 49:1-13 ), Who is God .

(Ezek 37:28 NASB) And the nations will know that I am the LORD Who sanctifies Israel, when My sanctuary is in their midst forever." ''' '''' ''''' 

The Eternal Temple of God on the earth will serve as a visual object lesson to Israel and the nations the world of God's presence in the midst of His people. And part of that lesson is that the LORD has sanctified His people Israel - set them apart to forever be the ruling nation of the world.

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II) 3333 THE PROVISION OF A MESSIAH / SAVIOR OF THE WORLD: ISRAEL'S REGATHERING UNTO EVERLASTING RESTORATION, THE ETERNAL SALVATION FOR ALL MANKIND IN THE EVERLASTING KINGDOM OF GOD, AND INNUMERABLE OTHER BLESSINGS HAVE BEEN AND WILL BE PROVIDED FOR BY A SERVANT OF THE LORD, GOD AND MAN, SAVIOR, REDEEMER WHO WAS GIVEN AS A COVENANT TO THE PEOPLE OF ISRAEL WHICH THE LORD PROMISED

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A) 3333A (Isa 9:6-7) For A Future Generation, The Gloom And Distress Upon Israel Would Be No More - As When At First The LORD Treated With Contempt The Lands Of Zebulun And Naphtali, And Afterward More Heavily Oppressed Them Through Assyrian Invasion. The People Of Israel Who In Past Generations Walked In Darkness Would See A Great Light From The LORD Shining Upon Them. The Nation Would Be Multiplied And The LORD Would Increase Their Joy - Like The Rejoicing At Harvest Time Or When Men Divide The Spoils. In The Manner That The LORD Supernaturally Provided Victory For Gideon And Israel Over The Midianites, So There Would Be An End To Oppression And War: For Unto Israel A Child Would Be Born. To His People Israel The LORD Would Give A Son - His Son. The Government Would Be upon His Shoulder; And His Name Would Be Called Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince Of Peace. And Of The Increase Of His Government And Peace There Would Be No End. He Would Rule His Kingdom And The World From The Throne Of David - Establishing Judgment And Justice Forever. All Of This Would Be Accomplished Through The Zeal Of The LORD of Hosts

(Isa 8:16 NKJV) '''[Isaiah said to] Bind up the testimony, Seal up the law among my disciples.

(Isa 8:17 YLT) And I have waited for [the LORD], Who is hiding His face from the house of Jacob, And I have looked for Him.

(Isa 8:18 NKJV) Here am I and the children whom the Lord has given me! [We] are for signs and wonders in Israel From the Lord of hosts, Who dwells in Mount Zion.

(Isa 8:19 NKJV) And when they say to you, 'Seek those who are mediums and wizards, who whisper and mutter,' should not a people seek their God? [Should they seek] the dead on behalf of the living?

(Isa 8:20 NKJV) To the law and to the testimony! If they [are not speaking] according to this word, it is because [there is] no light in them.

(Isa 8:21 NKJV) They will pass through it hard-pressed and hungry; and it shall happen, when they are hungry, that they will be enraged and curse their king and their God, and look upward.

Isa 8:22 NKJV) Then they will look to the earth, and see trouble and darkness, gloom of anguish; and [they will be] driven into darkness.

(Isa 9:1 NKJV) Nevertheless the [darkness] will not be upon her who is distressed As when at first He [the LORD] [treated with contempt] The land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, And afterward more heavily oppressed her, By the way of the sea, beyond the Jordan, In Galilee of the Gentiles.

(Isa 9:2 NKJV) The people who [who are walking] in darkness Have seen a great light; Those who dwelt [are dwelling] in the land of the shadow of death, Upon them a light has shined.

(Isa 9:3 KJV) [You have] multiplied the nation, [have you] not increased the joy? They [rejoice] before [You] according to the joy in harvest, and as men rejoice [to divide] the spoil.

(Isa 9:4 NKJV) For You have broken the yoke of his burden And the staff of his shoulder, The rod of his oppressor, As in the day of Midian.

(Isa 9:5 HOLMAN) [For the warrior's trampling sandle] and the garments [rolled in the blood of battle] will be burned as fuel for the fire.

(Isa 9:6 NKJV) For unto us [Israel, Isa 1:1, 8:18] a Child is born, Unto us a Son is given; And the government will be upon His shoulder. And His name will be called Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.

(Isa 9:7 NKJV) Of the increase of His government and peace There will be no end, Upon the throne of David and over His kingdom, To order it and establish it with judgment and justice From that time forward, even forever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this." =

In the Masoretic Text of the Hebrew Bible, Isaiah chapter 8 ends with the verse which most translated versions have indicated as Isa 9:1. In that verse, the ancient Israelite tribal allotments of Zebulun and Naphtali - the lands of Zebulun and Naphtali - which refer to the northern portion of Israel were caused by the LORD to be oppressed and then invaded by Assyria and annexed by Tiglath-pileser III in 733-732 B.C. This included Galilee. The phrase rendered ''The way of the sea" refers to Sharon or Philistia. It describes a major international highway running through this region. This is the only time this phrase appears in Scripture, but it appears often in Assyrian and Egyptian records. The invading Assyrian soldiers took that route when they invaded the Northern Kingdom. The phrase rendered "Galilee of the Gentiles" refers to the area of Gilead and southeast Syria, when it was under Gentile domination. The Assyrians carved out three provinces for themselves from these areas in three campaigns. These lands were the first to feel the distress caused by Assyrian invasion. But there will be a time when darkness of oppression will not be upon Israel, (Isa 9:1).

Past tenses in Isa 9:2 continue to speak of future events, such that the future was described by the prophet as having already occurred. Light stands for God's blessings, presence, and revelation - all characterized by His absolute Righteousness, (cf. Isa 2:5). The phrase rendered "shadow of death," means the darkness of separation from the fellowship of God and His Righteousness. Past generations of the people of Israel had been walking in darkness for centuries; but a future generation of them would see a great light, which the passage will indicate is embodied in His incarnate Son, (Isa 9:2-7).

In the future the LORD will multiply the number of His people. Their joy will be increased as those who rejoiced at harvest time or as men of battle who rejoiced in dividing the spoils of war. In view of the context, Isa 9:3b is best rendered, "[You have] multiplied the nation, [have you] not increased the joy? They [rejoice] before [You] according to the joy in harvest, and as men rejoice [to divide] the spoil," (Isa 9:3).

And the reason for joy being brought upon the Israelites is that the LORD will finally break the yoke of oppression upon His people. For generations, God's chosen people, the Israelites had been dwelling in the land of the shadow of death, (Isa 9:2), experiencing invasions by such as Egypt, Assyria and Babylon. The phrases rendered "the yoke of his burden," "the staff of his shoulder" and "the rod of his oppressor" in Isa 9:4 refer to the oppression of the people of Israel. The word rendered "yoke" referred to that which controlled and caused a burden upon Israel, "the staff" to that which struck the shoulder in punishment, "the rod" to that which oppressed them; and the word rendered "his" to the agent of the LORD used to discipline His people, such as Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, etc.

1) 3333A1 [Compare Isa 10:24-27]:

(Isa 10:24 NKJV) "Therefore thus says the LORD God of hosts: 'O My people, who dwell in Zion, do not be afraid of the Assyrian. He shall strike you with a rod and lift up his staff against you, in the manner of Egypt.

(Isa 10:25 NKJV) For yet a very little while and the indignation will cease, as will My anger in their destruction.'

(Isa 10:26 NKJV) And the LORD of hosts will stir up a scourge for him like the slaughter of Midian at the rock of Oreb; as His rod was on the sea, so will He lift it up in the manner of Egypt.

(Isa 10:27 NKJV) It shall come to pass in that day that his burden will be taken away from your [Israel's] shoulder, And his yoke from your neck, and the yoke will be destroyed because of the anointing oil"

The breaking of oppression which the LORD imposed upon Israel to discipline her was paralleled to "The day of Midian" which referred to the miraculous defeat of the Midianites by Gideon brought about supernaturally by the LORD, (Isa 9:4; cf. Jud 1:7).

A cont.) 3333A (Isa 9:6-7) For A Future Generation, The Gloom And Distress Upon Israel Would Be No More - As When At First The LORD Treated With Contempt The Lands Of Zebulun And Naphtali, And Afterward More Heavily Oppressed Them Through Assyrian Invasion. The People Of Israel Who In Past Generations Walked In Darkness Would See A Great Light From The LORD Shining Upon Them. The Nation Would Be Multiplied And The LORD Would Increase Their Joy - Like The Rejoicing At Harvest Time Or When Men Divide The Spoils. In The Manner That The LORD Supernaturally Provided Victory For Gideon And Israel Over The Midianites, So There Would Be An End To Oppression And War: For Unto Israel A Child Would Be Born. To His People Israel The LORD Would Give A Son - His Son. The Government Would Be upon His Shoulder; And His Name Would Be Called Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince Of Peace. And Of The Increase Of His Government And Peace There Would Be No End. He Would Rule His Kingdom And The World From The Throne Of David - Establishing Judgment And Justice Forever. All Of This Would Be Accomplished Through The Zeal Of The LORD of Hosts, (cont.)

(Isa 8:16 NKJV) '''[Isaiah said to] Bind up the testimony, Seal up the law among my disciples. (Isa 8:17 YLT) And I have waited for [the LORD], Who is hiding His face from the house of Jacob, And I have looked for Him. (Isa 8:18 NKJV) Here am I and the children whom the Lord has given me! [We] are for signs and wonders in Israel From the Lord of hosts, Who dwells in Mount Zion. (Isa 8:19 NKJV) And when they say to you, 'Seek those who are mediums and wizards, who whisper and mutter,' should not a people seek their God? [Should they seek] the dead on behalf of the living? (Isa 8:20 NKJV) To the law and to the testimony! If they [are not speaking] according to this word, it is because [there is] no light in them. (Isa 8:21 NKJV) They will pass through it hard-pressed and hungry; and it shall happen, when they are hungry, that they will be enraged and curse their king and their God, and look upward. (Isa 8:22 NKJV) Then they will look to the earth, and see trouble and darkness, gloom of anguish; and [they will be] driven into darkness. (Isa 9:1 NKJV) Nevertheless the [darkness] will not be upon her who is distressed As when at first He [the LORD] [treated with contempt] The land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, And afterward more heavily oppressed her, By the way of the sea, beyond the Jordan, In Galilee of the Gentiles. (Isa 9:2 NKJV) The people who [who are walking] in darkness Have seen a great light; Those who dwelt [are dwelling] in the land of the shadow of death, Upon them a light has shined. (Isa 9:3 KJV) [You have] multiplied the nation, [have you] not increased the joy? They [rejoice] before [You] according to the joy in harvest, and as men rejoice [to divide] the spoil. (Isa 9:4 NKJV) For You have broken the yoke of his burden And the staff of his shoulder, The rod of his oppressor, As in the day of Midian. (Isa 9:5 HOLMAN) [For the warrior's trampling sandle] and the garments [rolled in the blood of battle] will be burned as fuel for the fire. (Isa 9:6 NKJV) For unto us [Israel, Isa 1:1, 8:18] a Child is born, Unto us a Son is given; And the government will be upon His shoulder. And His name will be called Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace. (Isa 9:7 NKJV) Of the increase of His government and peace There will be no end, Upon the throne of David and over His kingdom, To order it and establish it with judgment and justice From that time forward, even forever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this," (cont.) =

The passage in Isaiah chapter 9 goes on to explain that the sandles of the soldier and the garments rolled in blood, (a tactic of war to frighten enemies in an impending battle), would be burned, i.e., the implements of warfare would be destroyed. So the darkness of war will be no more, (Isa 9:5).

Isaiah 9:6-7 explained why the people of Israel would be delivered from its generations of darkness: It would be accomplished through One Who would be born of Israel:

(Isa 9:6 NKJV) "For unto us [Israel, Isa 1:1, 8:18] a Child is born, Unto us a Son is given; And the government will be upon His shoulder. And His name will be called Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace. (Isa 9:7 NKJV) Of the increase of His government and peace There will be no end, Upon the throne of David and over His kingdom, To order it and establish it with judgment and justice From that time forward, even forever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this."

Since it is the LORD Who gives children to man; and since a child was born to Israel, a Son given; then this implied that the LORD had given His Son to be born as a child of Israel - an Israelite - the Son adding Humanity to His eternal essence of Deity. Whereupon, the passage declared that His name would be called Mighty God, Everlasting Father, implying Diety as well as Perfect Humanity. The first person plural "us" referring to Israel in the phrase rendered, "For unto us [Israel, Isa 1:1, 8:18] a Child is born, Unto us a Son is given," in the NKJV, implies a link to the passage of the virgin birth in Isa 7:14:

2) 3333A2 [Compare Isa 7:14 ]:

(Isa 7:14 NKJV) "Therefore the LORD Himself will give you [plural] a sign: 'Behold, [a] virgin shall conceive and bear a Son, and shall call His name Immanuel,' [which means God is with us]."

The phrase rendered "the Government will be on His shoulder" referred to the ensign of office worn upon the shoulder to signify the One Who had the position of ruling the nation, (cf. Isa 22:22-23). Then verse 6 declared, "And His name will be called Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace;" "Wonderful" in the sense of being a marvelous, wondrous being; "Counselor," in the sense of having the godly wisdom to convey to others; "Mighty God," in the sense of being Almighty God; "Everlasting Father," in the sense of being Everlasting God; "Prince of Peace," in the sense of being the One Who will bring to Israel and the world, everlasting peace. The Hebrew text of Isaiah 9:6 rendered "Mighty God" cannot be describing a mighty god as opposed to Almighty God, for Isaiah later indicates that besides Almighty God, there is no other [God] , (cf. Isa 43:10; 45:5). All of the terms in Isa 9:6c are unequivocally descriptive only of the human Israelite child, and not anyone else or any other nation but Israel.

So just as Gideon defeated Midian through the supernatural work of the LORD, (Isa 9:4); so the LORD will lead His people from spiritual darkness into light supernaturally - this time through His Son, the Child born unto the nation Israel. Through Him, there will be everlasting peace for all mankind, (Isa 9:6).

For Isaiah 9:7 said that the increase of His government and peace will be without end. He will sit upon the throne of David and rule over His kingdom and through that kindgom, the world. He will keep order and establish His judgment forever. The phrase rendered "Upon the throne of David" indicates that the God Man will be a Jew and Ruler of Israel. He will rule with an eternal rule of peace and absolute justice. And the zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this, in the sense that it is God Himself alone Who will accomplish this, (Isa 9:7) - the sign of the fulfillment of the New Covenant.

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B) 3333B (Isa 49:1-3) The LORD's Servant To All Mankind Declared Himself To Mankind Through The Prophet Isaiah. He Was Born Of A Woman, Called By The LORD From The Womb, Equipped To Pronounce Judgment Upon All Mankind, Protected And Hidden By The LORD Until His Time, Named "Israel" - An Individual Not A Group Of Israelites, As Some Contend - In Whom The LORD Will Manifest His Glory

(Isa 49:1 NKJV) '''[Isaiah writes that the LORD's Servant has said] "Listen, O coastlands, to Me, And take heed, you peoples from afar! The LORD has called Me from the womb; From the [womb] of My mother He has made mention of My name.

(Isa 49:2 NKJV) And He [makes] My mouth like a sharp sword; In the shadow of His hand He has hidden Me, And [the LORD] [makes] Me a polished (lit., purified) shaft; In His quiver He has hidden Me.

(Isa 49:3 NKJV) And He [the LORD] [says] to Me, 'You are My Servant, O Israel, In Whom I [manifest My glory].' " ''' =

Chapter 49 begins with a command by the LORD's Servant to the peoples of the world - from the "coastlands" referring to the nations of peoples living on coastlands to those "peoples from afar" expressions which overall convey the concept of all the peoples of the world - evidently including Gentiles as well as Jews - to listen to One Who has been called by "Yahweh," the LORD God to be the LORD's Servant. The message of the LORD's Servant is being conveyed through the prophet Isaiah. It is evident from the phrase in the first verse, "The LORD has called Me from the womb; From the [womb] of My mother He has made mention of My name," that this Servant was to be born a Human being in the future because it is implied that the Servant had not yet made His presence in the world known up to that time; and the promises that are made relative to the Servant are indicated as future ones. The Servant is both identified with and yet distinguished from Israel throughout chapter 49 in the first and third person singular; hence neither the nation Israel, nor a remnant of Israelites is in view - as some have contended, (Isa 49:1).

The next verse indicates that the LORD's Servant's mouth was made "like a sharp sword" - a weapon which would bring sharp judgment upon men with the words that He would speak. The phrase, "In the shadow of His hand He has hidden Me," indicates that the LORD God would provide protection and concealment for His Servant until it was time for the Servant to bring that judgment upon all mankind. The next phrase, "And [the LORD] [makes] Me a polished (lit., purified) shaft" refers to the Servant as a polished (lit., purified) arrow shaft conveying the Servant wielding judgment upon mankind. The word rendered "polished (lit., purified)" conveys no defects in order to make the path of the arrow true, in the sense that the Servant is to be without sin - His judgment therefore being True and Righteous - which disqualifies Israel as being the Servant, as some contend. The arrow is stipulated as hidden in the LORD's quiver implying that the Servant will be secure and hidden until judgment time, (Isa 49:2).

The Servant then said that the LORD said to Him, "You are My Servant, O Israel, In Whom I [manifest My glory]." The LORD God named the Servant, "Israel," implying a single individual and indicated that in Him would the LORD God manifest His glory. Although neither the nation Israel nor a remnant of Israelites is in view, as some contend; He is portrayed as the perfect expression as an individual of what God intended all Israel to be like. The Servant is characterized as sinless - unlike the nation Israel or the remnant. In the following chapters, the LORD's Servant is taught, He suffers, He is vindicated, and He imparts God's truth to others, who are judged by their attitude toward Him. There is not, in fact, in these chapters a single expression necessitating or even suggesting that the servant is a group rather than an individual. Moreover, in chapter 53, His work is unique, for none other in the OT, either within or outside Isaiah, dies as an atoning sacrifice for human sins, (Isa 49:3).

C) 3333C (Isa 49:4-5) The LORD's Servant Declared His Labor In Vain, His Strength Spent; Yet He Declared That His Reward Was With The LORD, His Work With "My God." The Servant Then Declared That The LORD Who Formed Him From The Womb - Confirming His Humanity - To Be The LORD's Servant To Bring The Tribes Of Jacob (All Israel) Back To Him. The Servant Of The LORD - An Individual Person Chosen By The LORD "Shall Be Glorified In The Eyes Of The LORD, And My God Shall Have Been My Strength."

(Isa 49:4 NKJV) ''' "Then I said, 'I have labored in vain, I have spent my strength for nothing and in vain; Yet surely My just reward is with the LORD, And My work with My God.

(Isa 49:5 NKJV) [Whereupon the Servant declared] And now the LORD ... Who formed Me from the womb to be His Servant, To bring Jacob [Israel] back to Him [has said that], Israel will be gathered to Him [the LORD], and I [the Servant] shall be [glorified] in the eyes of the LORD, And My God [shall have been] My strength' " ''' =

Then the Servant of the LORD declared, "I have labored in vain, I have spent My strength for nothing and in vain," in the sense that His mission to bring Israel to repent unto faith in the LORD would at first be in vain. His strength would be spent, implying the physical end of Himself. So the Servant would be rejected at first and then killed. Yet in all of this He declared, "Yet surely My just reward is with the LORD, And My work with My God," implying His trust in the LORD's plan through Him would finally be fulfilled. Note that the Humanity of the LORD's Servant as opposed to His Diety is in view in this chapter. Other chapters in Isaiah reveal that the Servant would be vindicated (50:8) and He would be rewarded after His death (53:8) and be resurrected unto His just reward, (53:10). For the Servant finished with, "Yet surely My just reward is with the LORD, And My work with My God," (Isa 49:4).

Verse 5 has the Servant of the LORD relaying the message that the LORD gave to Him: [The Servant declared] "And now the LORD ... Who formed Me from the womb to be His Servant, To bring Jacob [Israel] back to Him [has said that], Israel will be gathered to Him [the LORD], and I [the Servant] shall be [glorified] in the eyes of the LORD, And My God [shall have been] My strength." Notice that the Servant is once again defined as one single individual formed by the LORD in the womb - an individual Human being but without sin and with a supernatural mission - the Righteous One, (Isa 42:6; 53:9, 11; 49:2). The success of the Servant's mission which includes bringing Jacob, i.e., the tribes of Jacob - the people of Israel, back to the LORD is further confirmed. Since the mission of "Israel," the Servant of the LORD, was to gather Israel back to the LORD then the Servant could not be the people of Israel - for they are sinful, but an individual named "Israel," - the Righteous One who is without sin, (Isa 42:6; 53:9, 11; 49:2) Since none of this had occurred up to this time, then all of this was to have been accomplished in the future. The Servant therefore declared: "And I shall be glorified in the eyes of the LORD, and My God shall have been My strength," in the sense that the Servant of the LORD in His Humanity would complete His mission via the strength - the power of the LORD, (Isa 49:5).

D) 3333D (Isa 49:6-7) The LORD Declared That Not Only Was His Servant To Raise Up The Tribes Of Jacob - To Restore All Israel - But The Servant Was To Be A Revelation To All Mankind Of The LORD And Of His Salvation. The LORD, The Redeemer, The Holy One Of Israel, Had Said To His Servant - To The Abhorred One Of The Gentiles, To The Servant Of The Rulers Of The World: "Kings Will See, And Princes Will Rise Up To Bow Down To The Servant Because Of The LORD God Who Is Faithful. Isaiah Wrote To The Servant, "The LORD Chose You" To Restore Israel And Provide Eternal Salvation To All Mankind

(Isa 49:6 NKJV) ''' "Indeed He [the LORD] says, 'It is too small a thing that You should be My Servant To raise up the tribes of Jacob, And to restore the preserved ones of Israel; I will also give You as a Light to the Gentiles, That You should be My salvation to the ends of the earth.' "

(Isa 49:7 CBL Interlinear) [Isaiah writes of the LORD]: Thus [has said] Yahweh [the LORD], the Redeemer of Israel, His [Israel's] Holy One; to the despised One [the LORD's chosen Servant]; [the LORD has said] to the abhorred One [the chosen Servant] of the nations [the Gentiles], to the Servant of rulers [of the world], [all speaking of the LORD's chosen Servant - the LORD said to Him]: "Kings, they will see, and princes, they will rise up; and they will bow down because of Yahweh [the LORD] Who is faithful - the Holy One of Israel; And [Isaiah wrote] "He [the LORD] chose You" [to be His Servant - to provide salvation to all mankind unto everlasting life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, ref. vv. 8-13].''' = 

And then the LORD declared to His Servant relative to the scope of His mission: "It is too small a thing that You should be My Servant To raise up the tribes of Jacob, And to restore the preserved ones of Israel; I will also give You as a Light to the Gentiles, That You should be My salvation to the ends of the earth." So the Servant shall not only be the Instrument by which the tribes of Jacob, i.e., of Israel - those whose physical lives at the time of the regathering have been preserved - will be gathered back to the LORD God, but also their salvation and the salvation of the Gentiles as well - to all mankind - for the LORD declared that He will give His Servant "As a light to the Gentiles," in the sense of providing revelation of the truth to all mankind about the LORD God, especially His salvation unto everlasting life in the Eternal Kingdom of God through His Servant, (ref. vv. 8-13).

Note that this had been the LORD's message all along - that salvation was to be provided for all mankind through a Descendant of Eve ; and that Descendant would descend from Abraham ; and that Descendant would be the LORD's chosen Servant as testified to in the words of the LORD given to the Prophet Isaiah, (Isa 49:6) .

Isaiah reports what the LORD (Yahweh) had conveyed to him: that the LORD, the Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel had said to His chosen Servant, His Servant of rulers [of the world] - His Servant Who would become the despised One and the abhorred One of the Gentiles - the LORD said to His Servant: 'Kings, they will see, and princes, they will rise up to acknowledge; and then they all will bow down to the LORD's chosen One because of the LORD - the Holy One of Israel - is faithful - the Holy One of Israel.' And Isaiah wrote about the LORD relative to His Servant, 'He chose You' [to accomplish this mission to fulfill the day of salvation for all mankind which it is implied the Servant of the LORD would successfully fulfill, (cf. v. 9)], (Isa 49:7).

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E) 3333E (Isa 49:8) In The Time Decreed By The LORD For Effecting His Eternal Plan Of The Regathering Of Israel To Himself, The Restoration Of The Earth And The Provision Of Salvation Unto Eternal Life For All Mankind; The LORD Declared To His Chosen Servant That He Will Have Answered Him, Helped Him, Preserved Him And Given Him As A Covenant To Israel His People To Restore The Earth Forever - Especially Israel's Promised Land Inheritance

(Isa 49:8 CBL Interlinear) ''' Thus the LORD has said [to His Servant], "In the time of favor [in the sense of in the acceptable time] I will have answered You, and in the day of salvation I will have helped You; I will have preserved You and I will give You as a covenant to the people to raise up [in the sense of to restore] the earth, to inherit the desolate inheritances." ''' =

In Isa 49:8, Isaiah reports that the LORD, speaking to His Servant said, "Thus the LORD has said, 'In the time of favor...' - the time decreed by God for effecting His eternal plan of the regathering of Israel to the LORD, the eternal restoration of the earth, and the provision of eternal salvation for all those of mankind who choose to believe in the LORD's Servant for that unto the Eternal Kingdom of God.

'I will have answered You,' - in the sense of the LORD having answered His Servant's concerns which the Servant expressed in verse 4, ('I have labored in vain, I have spent my strength for nothing and in vain'), referring to the Servant's point of view that He had failed in His Human lifetime to restore Israel and the earth, and to gather His people to Himself as well as the world.

And the LORD's answer to His Servant which would be given "In the time of favor' was as follows:

'And in the day of salvation I will have helped You;

'I will have preserved You' - in the sense of preserving His Human life, (via resurrection unto a glorified body).

'and I will give You as a covenant to the people,' to fulfill God's covenant promises to Israel, (cf. Isa 42:6), to raise up [in the sense of restore] the earth, and to inherit the desolate inheritances' - in the sense of the Servant fulfilling the LORD's covenant with His people Israel to restore all things of the earth forever - especially the inheritances promised to them which had become desolate - the Promised Land, (Isa 49:8).

F) 3333F (Isa 49:9-13) The Lord's Chosen Servant Will Command All Israelites To Return From Captivity To The Promised Land As Well As All Mankind From Throughout The World To Go Before Him - To Experience Unprecedented Prosperity. No One Will Ever Suffer Hunger, Thirst, Scorching Winds, Or Heat Of The Sun - An Eternally Beneficient Worldwide Climate And Topography Is In View. People From All Over The World Will Come To Receive Blessings From And The Salvation Of The LORD. The LORD Declares For The Heavens To Sing, The Earth To Be Joyful, The Mountains To Sing Because He Will Have Had Mercy On His Afflicted - Referring To Israel. The Everlasting Kingdom Of God Is In View!

(Isa 49:9 NKJV) ''' "That You may say to the prisoners, 'Go forth,' To those who are in darkness, 'Show yourselves.' They shall feed along the roads, And their pastures shall be on all desolate heights.

(Isa 49:10 NKJV) They shall neither hunger nor thirst, Neither [scorching wind] nor sun shall strike them [down]; For He Who has mercy on them will lead them, Even by the springs of water He will guide them.

(Isa 49:11 NKJV) I will make each of My mountains a road, And My highways shall be elevated.

(Isa 49:12 NKJV) Surely these shall come from afar; Look! Those from the north and the west, And these from the land of Sinim.

(Isa 49:13 NKJV) Sing, O heavens! Be joyful, O earth! And break out in singing, O mountains! For the LORD has comforted His people, And will have mercy on His afflicted." ''' =

'That You may say to the prisoners,' - those Israelites in captivity...

'Go forth' - in the sense of commanding them, and all mankind, to go forth from all over the world to the land of Israel, evidently to return to the Promised Land to be gathered there before the LORD's chosen Servant.

'To those who are in darkness,' - darkness in the sense of those who are Gentiles who needed the Light of God's revelation about Himself and His salvation - which is in His chosen Servant, (Isa 49:6) ...

'Show yourselves. They shall feed along the roads, And their pastures shall be on all desolate heights' in the sense of the LORD providing food even along the roads, and pastures on high ground, formerly desolate heights which would be restored - all implying unprecedented and eternal prosperity, (Isa 49:8-9).

The LORD continued to expound upon the time of "the salvation to the ends of the earth," (ref. v. 6): "They shall neither hunger nor thirst - [no more hunger or thirst anywhere on the Earth, implying major and eternal changes in the Earth's topography, climate, etc.]. Neither [scorching wind] nor sun shall strike them [down] - implying a worldwide beneficent climate]. For He Who has mercy on them will lead them, Even by the springs of water He will guide them. I will make each of My mountains a road, And My highways shall be elevated - [implying major restoration and beneficent changes to the Earth's topography that are everlasting in nature]. Surely these shall come from afar; Look! Those from the north and the west, And these from the land of Sinim - [implying coming to Israel to receive the blessings and the salvation of the LORD, (ref. Isa 49:5), corroborating that salvation is for all peoples]

Note that the country named Sinim is implied as very remote from Israel, yet known in Israel, suggesting Persia or some other country from afar.

In verse 13, the LORD declares for the heavens to sing, the earth to be joyful, the mountains to sing because He will have comforted His people, and will have had mercy on His afflicted - referring to Israel, (Isa 49:10-13). Note that the Everlasting Kingdom of God is in view - a sign of the fulfillment of the New Covenant!

Thereafter, beginning at verse 14, Isaiah the prophet recorded a dialogue between Israel and God. Zion (i.e., the people in Jerusalem) felt as if God had forgotten her (v. 14). But God replied that He certainly had not forgotten Israel. He could not possibly do so because He is like a mother to the nation...]

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G) 3333G (Isa 50:1-11)

(Isa 50:1 NASB) "Thus says the LORD, [speaking through Isaiah to Israel] 'Where is the certificate of divorce By which I have sent your mother away? Or to whom of My creditors did I sell you? Behold, you were sold for your iniquities, And for your transgressions your mother was sent away.

(Isa 50:2 NASB) Why was there no man when I came? When I called, why was there none to answer? Is My hand so short that it cannot ransom? Or have I no power to deliver? Behold, I dry up the sea with My rebuke, I make the rivers a wilderness; Their fish stink for lack of water And die of thirst.

(Isa 50:3 NASB) I clothe the heavens with blackness And make sackcloth their covering.

[Bible Knowledge Commentary, Walvoord & Zuck, Editors, Victor Books, USA, 1988]:

"50:1-3. The Lord declared that He was temporarily "divorcing" Zion because she had rejected Him without cause. He explained to Zion's children that He temporarily sent away their mother because she sinned. In the Mosaic Law a husband could give his wife a divorce certificate detailing her fault(s) and she would be required to leave the home (Deut. 24:1). Israel's captivity was like a wife having to leave her husband because of... sins. Isaiah also pictured Israel's exile as being like sons sold into indentured servitude because of a great debt. Yet Israel's rejection of Him was unreasonable (Isa. 50:2). Did they think God could not ransom or rescue them? Of course He could. He is the One who can withhold rain and dry up... rivers (cf. Deut. 28:23-24)]

(Isa 50:4 NASB) The Lord GOD has given Me the tongue of disciples, That I may know how to sustain the weary one with a word. He awakens Me morning by morning, He awakens My ear to listen as a disciple.

(Isa 50:5 NASB) The Lord GOD has opened My ear; And I was not disobedient Nor did I turn back.

(Isa 50:6 NASB) I gave My back to those who strike Me, And My cheeks to those who pluck out the beard; I did not cover My face from humiliation and spitting..

[Note that Isa 50:4-6 has the suffering Servant in view from Isa chapter 49:1-13. It cannot have collective Israel in view because not all Israelites have a beard to pluck out.

[Bible Knowledge Commentary, Walvoord & Zuck, Editors, Victor Books, USA, 1988]:

"50:4-6. In verses 4-9 the Servant is speaking, for He addresses God as the Sovereign Lord (vv. 4-5, 7, 9). As the Lord taught the Servant daily how to comfort the weary (v. 4), the Servant did not rebel against that instruction (v. 5). In fact He even gave His body to those who persecuted Him (v. 6). Jesus, before He was crucified, was beaten, mocked, and spit on (Mark 14:65; 15:16-20). In extremely difficult circumstances, more difficult than what Isaiah's original readers were facing, the Servant was obedient and submissive (cf. 1 Peter 2:22-23)]

(Isa 50:7 NASB) For the Lord GOD helps Me, Therefore, I [have not been] disgraced; Therefore, I have set My face like flint, And I know that I will not be ashamed.

(Isa 50:8 NASB) He who vindicates Me is near; Who will contend with Me? Let us stand up to each other; Who has a case against Me? Let him draw near to Me.

(Isa 50:9 HOLMAN) In truth, [behold] the Lord GOD will help Me; who will condemn Me? Indeed, all of them will wear out like a garment; a moth will devour them.

[Bible Knowledge Commentary, Walvoord & Zuck, Editors, Victor Books, USA, 1988]:

"50:7-9. The Servant was convinced that He will be vindicated by the Sovereign Lord who helps Him (vv. 7, 9). Even if it did not seem as if He were winning a battle, He was convinced that He was doing God's will. The Servant was aware that those who falsely accused Him will eventually face Him as their Judge and will come to nothing. Like moth-eaten garments, they will perish (cf. 51:8)"]

(Isa 50:10 NASB) Who is among you that fears the LORD, That obeys the voice of His servant, That walks in darkness and has no light? Let him trust in the name of the LORD and rely on his God.

(Isa 50:11 NASB) Behold, all you who kindle a fire, Who encircle yourselves with firebrands, Walk in the light of your fire And among the brands you have set ablaze. This you will have from My hand: You will lie down in torment."

[Bible Knowledge Commentary, Walvoord & Zuck, Editors, Victor Books, USA, 1988]:

"50:10-11. Isaiah exhorted the Servant's followers - those who fear the Lord and obey His Word, but who are in the dark (i.e., living in difficult times when the Servant was rejected, v. 6) - to walk by faith, trusting in the... Lord. If they insist on walking by their own light they will suffer the fate of those who reject Him. They will lie down in torment. This admonition was directed to those living in Isaiah's day. But all who refuse to trust the Lord will suffer eternal damnation."]

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H) 3333H (Isa 52:1-15) The LORD's Servant - His Holy Arm Will Bring Salvation To All Mankind. This Servant Of God Acts Wisely. He Has Been Greatly Exalted, Yet His Appearance Was Inhumanly Disfigured. Some Will Choose To Believe In Him For Salvation And He Will Cleanse Their Sins Implying His Personal Atonement For All Of Mankind So That They May Make That Choice. So The Arm Of The LORD Has Evidently Been Revealed To All Mankind - Jews And Gentiles Alike. Most Will Not Chose To Hear About Him

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(Isa 52:1 NIV) '''Awake, awake, O Zion, clothe yourself with strength. Put on your garments of splendor, O Jerusalem, the holy city. The uncircumcised and defiled will not enter you again.

(Isa 52:2 NIV) Shake off your dust; rise up, sit enthroned, O Jerusalem. Free yourself from the chains on your neck, O captive Daughter of Zion.'''

  [Zion (Jerusalem) is emphatically called by Isaiah, hence the LORD, to awaken from her exile = to be alert and do what is herein commanded: She was to clothe herself with strength, i.e., to rebuild herself hence regain her strength. Jerusalem, the holy city, the capital of Israel representing all Israel was commanded to put on garments of splendor - to rebuild in such a fashion as to set herself apart to the glory of her God. Note that the time of this particular rebuilding is yet future, for the text indicates that the uncircumcised, (= non-Jews and unbelievers) and the defiled (= unclean relative to violations of statutes of the Mosaic Law), will not enter her again. Non-Jews and the defiled have continued to occupy Jerusalem for centuries even up through the 21st century. Hence the eternal kingdom is in view, and not the rebuilding of Jerusalem after being set free from Babylonia. So Israel will be freed from enslavement to other kingdoms forever and be ruler of her own kingdom. Verse 2 further commanded Jerusalem to shake off the dust of her enslavement and to rise up and take charge of ruling herself]

(Isa 52:3 NIV) '''For this is what the LORD says: 'You were sold for nothing, and without money you will be redeemed.'

(Isa 52:4 NIV) For this is what the Sovereign LORD says: 'At first My people went down to Egypt to live; lately, Assyria has oppressed them.

(Isa 52:5 NIV) And now what do I have here?' declares the LORD. [Speaking of Israel's captivity this time by Babylon] 'For My people have been taken away for nothing, and those who rule them mock,' declares the LORD. 'And all day long my name is constantly blasphemed.

(Isa 52:6 NIV) Therefore My people will know My name; therefore in that day [of the future eternal kingdom] they will know that it is I Who foretold it. Yes, it is I.'''

  [Notice that Jerusalem has a history of being enslaved by other kingdoms including Egypt, Assyria and Babylon; but no more, she, i.e., all Israelites of that future time of the eternal kingdom will be redeemed by the LORD as a free gift forever vis vis verse 3b, "and without money you will be redeemed." They will know the name of the LORD in the sense of Him as Redeemer unto eternal life. So the free gift of eternal redemption is in view]

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(Isa 52:7 NIV) How beautiful on the mountains are the feet of those who bring good news, who proclaim peace, who bring good tidings, who proclaim salvation, who say to Zion, 'Your God reigns!'

(Isa 52:8 NIV) Listen! Your watchmen lift up their voices; together they shout for joy. When the LORD returns to Zion, they will see it with their own eyes.

(Isa 52:9 NIV) Burst into songs of joy together, you ruins of Jerusalem, for the LORD has comforted His people, He has redeemed Jerusalem." '''

  [How beautiful on the mountains, (referring to the mountainous countryside around Jerusalem), are the feet which run on the paths through the mountains to Jerusalem which belong to those who bring good news of peace, good tidings, (the gospel of the free gift of salvation unto eternal redemption, {v. 7}). And that redemption is through the Holy Arm of the LORD for all mankind to see in verse 10 which follows]

(Isa 52:10 NKJV) "The LORD has made bare His Holy Arm In the eyes of all the nations; And all the ends of the earth shall see The Salvation of our God."

  [Notice that the LORD will return some day to redeem all of Israel - all of Jerusalem, i.e., all of the generation of Israel of that future time as a free gift, (ref. Isa 52:3). He will appear in a form that can be seen: the LORD will lay bare His Holy Arm Who will be an individual Man Who will have God's Strength, Righteousness and Authority over all the nations of the earth, (cf. Isa 9:6-7 , 49:1-13 . All mankind will see the salvation / the redemption of the God of Israel through this Man. Evidently the LORD will appear as Savior and Redeemer to Israel and to all of mankind in Human form, (Isa 9:6-7 ; 49:1-13 ; cf. 52:1-9).

So the first phrase of Isa 52:10, "The LORD has made bare His Holy Arm In the eyes of all the nations" has the sense that the LORD has revealed His Holy Arm to the eyes of all nations - for all mankind to see Him, which is corroborated in the second phrase, "And all the ends of the earth," i.e., all the nations - all mankind "shall see the Salvation of our God." The time when this revelation of the Holy Arm of the LORD to all mankind from the ends of the earth will see the Salvation of our God will evidently not be within the mortal lives of most of mankind who will have died before He is revealed to the world. But all mankind that are in mortal bodies on earth at this future time will see Him: They will see the Salvation of God as embodied in the Person of the Holy Arm of the LORD. They will see the Child born of Israel, the Son given by God to His chosen people - the One Who will call His name Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace, the One Who will begin His everlasting rule upon the throne of David, (Isa 9:6-7 , cf. Joel chs 2 & 3 .

Note that the "our" in "our God," refers to those of Israel who believed in God's plan of salvation through His Holy Arm to whom God gave the message of salvation through the prophet Isaiah. For it is the Jewish prophet Isaiah who has written this psalm in chapters 52-53 for Jewish believers to be encouraged by, to sing and to proclaim the message of the Salvation of the LORD to Israel and to all the world, (cf. Isa 43:8-13). The message was not given by God to Gentiles to encourage them while they were in captivity, nor for them to spread the message of salvation throughout the world, nor did the message originate with the Gentiles at all, as some contend.

As this passage continues through chapter 53, it is indicated that the Servant of the LORD, His Holy Arm, (Isa 52:13), will provide that salvation through His personal atonement for the sins of all mankind to anyone who will choose to believe in Him for it unto eternal life - Jew or Gentile, (Isa 53:1-12)]

(Isa 52:12 NASB) "But you will not go out in haste, Nor will you go as fugitives; For the LORD will go before you, And the God of Israel will be your rear guard."

  As in the Exodus out of Egypt and the Exodus away from Babylon, so in Israel's yet-future return, the righteous remnant is exhorted to get away from the evil places where they will be living: Depart, depart.... come out. However, there will be a difference: they will not have to leave in haste. Since the Lord will be with them and will protect them they need have no fear.

(Isa 52:13 YLT) "[Behold], My Servant [acts] wisely, He is [exalted], and [has] been lifted up], And [has] been [greatly exalted]."

  [The LORD's Servant, portrayed as the LORD's Holy Arm of Salvation made bare for all mankind to see Him in Isa 52:10, is described in v. 13 as One Who acts wisely. God's Servant - His Holy Arm of salvation - will have the wisdom to accomplish successfully what God has sent Him to do - to provide for the availability of Salvation to Israel and to all mankind, (cf. Isa 49:1-6; 52:5), through a moment of faith in Him for it, (Isa 52:10 & 53:1). The Servant's wisdom was incredibly self-denying. It meant accepting the determined will of God and willingly shouldering a burden of unimaginable suffering to make salvation possible for mankind. This evidently will result in His supreme exaltation. For there is a threefold emphatic repetition in this regard, "He is exalted, and has been lifted up and has been greatly exalted." The Servant of the LORD will be exalted as only God will be exalted - seated at the Right Hand of God.

Note that some contend that Isa 52:1 through chapter 53 refers to Israel, or to the godly remnant of Israel or to the prophet Isaiah himself as God's Servant, as the Holy Arm of the LORD. But the prophet Isaiah pictures Israel as sinful, suffering because of her sins and accountable for her own sins which are many, (Dt 31:17-18; Jer 1:1-16; 2:20; 3:1ff; 4:1; 7:18-19; 19:1-13; Isa 59:1-14; Ezek 8:17; 11:1-20; 16:26-59; 36:16-21; 31ff; 1 Kgs 19:18; 2 Kgs 23:1-20, etc. ). And for that reason, Israel is neither able to pay for her own sins, nor for the sins of others, nor to provide salvation for herself, nor for all the nations of the world, (Isa 52:10). It will require a sinless, atoning sacrifice for sins, which neither Israel collectively, nor any man born of Adam is capable nor qualified to do. All men born of Adam have sinned and are constantly committing sins, (Isa 64:6-7; Gen 8:21; Eccl 7:20; Jer 17:9; Ps 51:5; Job 14:1-4). Even the godly remnant of believers is still sinful. Only God's Servant, His Holy Arm of salvation, the Righteous One is without sin, (cf. Isa 42:6; 49:2; 53:9, 11), and in His sinless perfection is qualified to be an atoning sacrifice for the sins of mankind in order to be "the Holy Arm of the LORD - "the Salvation of our God."

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1) [The Doctrine Of Substitutionary Atonement Is Supported In Scripture]

The doctrine of substitutionary atonement / payment for someone elses's sins is not a false doctrine as some contend - some even maintaining that Israel is in view as the Servant of the LORD, which people suffered because of relentless, sinful, undeserved persecution brought upon them by the Gentile nations over centuries of time.

a) [Exodus 12]:

But Scripture does support the doctrine of substitutionary atonement. For example, in Exodus 12 just prior to Israel's Exodus from Egypt, God instituted the Passover observance in which the blood of the lamb of the Passover served as a substitutionary sacrifice for the Israelites' firstborn sons.

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i) [Compare Exodus 12:5]:

(Exod 12:5 NASB) "Your lamb shall be an unblemished male a year old; you may take it from the sheep or from the goats."

The sacrifice forestalled the penalty of death for those who were within the household - especially the firstborn sins, protecting the household from divine wrath. According to Exod 12:12, the LORD would execute judgment as He passed through the land of Egypt. Israelites who followed the instructions and applied the blood of the slaughtered lamb to the doorposts of their houses would escape that judgment, (ref. Exod 12:13, 23, 27). Indeed the Israelites did escape death, (ref. Exod 12:30). In Exod 12:12 it stipulates that the death of the firstborn of Egypt provided judgment against the gods of the Egyptians. Ezek 20:4-10 indicates that the Israelites participated in idolatry while in Egypt, (ref. Exod 20:7-8; cf. Jos 24:14) - a punishment due to them for which the blood of the sacrificed lamb was substituted.

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b) [Leviticus & The Day Of Atonement]

Secondly, the Book of Leviticus provides a means for sinners to be accepted and to enter God's Presence through levitical sacrifices and festivals.

An example of this is the Day of Atonement which exceeds all others in its significance to Israel's relationship to the LORD. It was the climax and crown of Israel's theology of sanctification. Its historical setting belongs to God's judgment on Nadab and Abihu (Lev 10:1-20) - a stark reminder of the holiness of God and its incompatibility with human sinfulness. Emphasis thus fell on the necessity of atonement even for the priests' own sins. If the priests were defiled, they could not mediate between the people and God. Without mediators, sinful Israelites could not approach God's Presence and the Presence of God could not continue to reside in their midst. The "scapegoat" symbolized the removal of sin from the Presence of God's glory in the midst of His people. The laying of hands on the head of the goat (Lev 16:21-22), outwardly depicted transference of sins from Israel to the living goat. It served as their substitute - condemned to die in the wilderness, isolated from Israel. The scapegoat carried upon it 'all the iniquities' of the Israelites, (Lev 16:22). In addition, Lev 16:24, 29-34 indicate that the entire ritual, not simply the scapegoat procedure, atones for the sins of the priests and the people. Note that suspension of the penalty applied equally to believer and unbeliever alike within Israel. Thus the Day of Atonement anticipated the Messiah's propitiatory sacrifice in His Humanity, the actual and permanent Human substitutionary atonement for all mankind by the blood of a Human, as depicted in Isaiah 53:1ff. So God suspended the penalty in the light of sins' ultimate, full and permanent removal from mankind through the the Servant of the LORD's perfect and complete atonement for all mankind.

The Day of Atonement was the central observance of the levitical system. It emphasized, more than any other observance, the holiness of God and the sinfulness of His people. For Israel the Day of Atonement provided cleansing or purification so that they might have access to the Presence of the LORD. It emphasized the lack of direct access to God by anyone at any time under the Mosaic Law. Therefore, the Day of Atonement is the point of comparison with regard to the sacrificial work of the Servant of the LORD in Isa 53:1ff. The Day of Atonement expiated the nation Israel's sins, cleansed the sanctuary from the pollution caused by those sins, and removed those sins from the community - suspending them until the permanent atonement for them was accomplished by the Servant of the LORD.

Another example of the Hebrew word transliterated "kappEr" rendered "atonement" is that it represents the phenomenon of the 'substitute' or 'ransom,' the substance to which the sin is transferred and thereupon suspended and then eliminated when the final substitutional atonement is made via a representative Perfect Human, (ref. Isa 52:1-53:12). The stituations in which this term carries this meaning include the law of census in which the ransom averts the penalty of plague when the law is violated, (Exod 30:12-16), laws regarding homicide in which death is the penalty for the crime (Num 35:31; Dt 21:1-9); the matter of the Levites guarding the sanctuary's sanctity so that there will be no wrath or plague or death on the congregation (Num 1:53; 8:19; 18:22-23 - cp. the case of Phinehas, Num 3:32 and 25:11), the inability of Babylon to ransom herself from divine judgment (Isa 47:11; cf. Ps 49), and blood's sacrificial and atoning significance (Lev 17:11). Thus the use of the term "kappEr" explicitly related to both substitution and penalty.

c) [Dan 9:24-27 The Endtimes - The Finish Of Transgression, The End To Sins, The Atonement For Wickedness, The Bringing In Everlasting Righteousness, The Sealing Up Of Vision And Prophecy, The Anointing Of The Most Holy ]

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d) [Isa 52:1-53:12 The Servant Of The LORD is mankind's Substitutionary Atonement ]

The text of Isa 52:1-53:12 describes the sufferings of the Servant of the LORD whose griefs and sorrows and transgressions are not His own, but belong to mankind because of their transgressions. That fact appears to identify the Servant's sufferings as substitutionary (cp., v. 4, "our griefs He Himself bore, And our sorrows He carried"). The substitutionary imagery of verse 6c ("the LORD has caused the iniquity of us all to fall on Him") is drawn straight from Leviticus chapter 16. The language of Isa 53 clearly includes the penal aspect (cp. v. 5, "pierced... crushed... chastising ... scourging"). So the sufferings of the Servant of the LORD are not because of the sins of others deliberately committed upon the Servant such as persecution by Gentile nations, as some contend. The sufferings of others were borne / carried by the Servant, (Heb. "nAsA" = borne, carried, (v. 4) is in view in Isa 52:1-53:12).

According to Scripture the LORD's Servant meets all the requirements for being a substitutionary sacrifice:

(1) identification with condemned sinners (Isa 53:8, "For the transgression of My people, to whom the stroke was due"

(2) being blameless and without any stain or spot to mar His sacrifice (Isa 53:9, "He had done no violence. Nor was there any deceit in His mouth.").

[Note that this excludes the people of Israel, except the One Who is an Israelite born of a woman, the Seed of God - both God and Man, without sin, the New Covenant appointed by the LORD to the people, Israel - to all mankind - to restore Israel forever into the Promised Land and the earth and bring salvation unto eternal life to Israel and to all mankind, (Isa 9:6-7 ; 49:1-13 , cf. Isa 42:1-13 ; 52:5; Ezek chs 36-37; Jer chs 30-31)]

(3) and being acceptable to the LORD, (Isa 53:10, "But the LORD was pleased to crush Him, putting Him to grief ... as a guilt offering," (and not as an act by Gentiles of persecution toward Israel, as some contend).

Other passages such as Isa 9:6-7; 42:1-13; 49:1ff and 50:1ff depict a single Human being Who is God, the Servant of the LORD, the Holy Arm of the LORD Who will be a child born to Israel: to Israel a Son will He be given, (Isa 9:6). And the LORD will appoint Him as a covenant to the people [Israel], and as a Light of salvation to the nations [the Gentiles] of the world, (Isa 42:6 ; 49:6). The LORD will make Him to be a polished (lit., purified) [sinless] shaft, Who was formed by the LORD in the womb to be His Servant to bring Jacob [the people of Israel] back to the LORD, So that Israel is gathered to His Servant. The Servant will raise up the tribes of Jacob, restore the preserved ones [the remnant of believers] of Israel   of Israel. And the LORD will also give His Servant as a light to the Gentiles, that He should be the Salvation of the LORD to the ends of the earth - to be the salvation of all mankind. And the LORD will give His Servant as a covenant to the people, to restore the earth, (Isa 49:1-8).

The government will be upon His shoulder. His name will be called Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace. Of the increase of His government and peace There will be no end, Upon the throne of David and over His kingdom, To order it and establish it with judgment and justice From that time forward, even forever, (ref. Isa 9:6-7 ).

And it is He Who will willingly choose to suffer completely for the propitiation of the sins of all mankind. Israel cannot and will not repent, much less atone for all of her sins, collectively or individually, as some contend. For even if Israel could and did repent perfectly unto a life of sinlessness - which is not possible with sinful mankind, (Isa 64:6-7 ; cf. Gen 8:21; Eccl 7:20; Jer 17:9; Ps 51:5; Job 14:1-4); nevertheless repentance does not pay for sins committed in the past. Good deeds do not erase bad deeds.

Finally, since Israel is no less sinful than the rest of humanity, (ref. Dt 31:17-18; Jer 1:1-16; 2:20; 3:1ff; 4:1; 7:18-19; 19:1-13; Isa 59:1-14; Ezek 8:17; 11:1-20; 16:26-59; 36:16-21; 31ff; 1 Kgs 19:18; 2 Kgs 23:1-20, etc. ); and since the Servant is without sin; and since nothing sinful / imperfect can bring about its own restoration to sinless perfection; and since the Servant is the One Who will restore Israel into the Promised Land - Israel not being capable of doing that herself - then the Servant in the passages under review cannot be the people of Israel.

But He is an Israelite born of a woman, the Seed of God - both God and Man, without sin, the New Covenant appointed by the LORD to the people, Israel - to all mankind - to restore Israel forever into the Promised Land and the earth and bring salvation unto eternal life to Israel and to all mankind, (Isa 9:6-7 ; 49:1-13 , cf. Isa 42:1-13 ; 52:5; Ezek chs 36-37; Jer chs 30-31)]

d) [Other Passages Which Are Cited Do Not Rule Out Substitutionary Atonement ]

H cont.) 3333H cont. (Isa 52:1-15 cont.) The LORD's Servant - His Holy Arm Will Bring Salvation To All Mankind. This Servant Of God Acts Wisely. He Has Been Greatly Exalted, Yet His Appearance Was Inhumanly Disfigured. Some Will Choose To Believe In Him For Salvation And He Will Cleanse Their Sins Implying His Personal Atonement For All Of Mankind So That They May Make That Choice. So The Arm Of The LORD Has Evidently Been Revealed To All Mankind - Jews And Gentiles Alike. Most Will Not Chose To Hear About Him, (cont.)

(Isa 52:10 NKJV) "The LORD has made bare His Holy Arm In the eyes of all the nations; And all the ends of the earth shall see The Salvation of our God.

(Isa 52:13 YLT) [Behold], My Servant [acts] wisely, He is [exalted], and [has] been lifted up], And [has] been [greatly exalted].

(Isa 52:14 HCSB) Just as many [have been astonished] at You - His appearance was so disfigured that He did not look like a man, and His form did not resemble a human being -"

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  [Isa 52:10, 13-14 together state as follows:

(Isa 52:10 NKJV) "The LORD has bared His Holy Arm, the Servant, in the sight of all the nations, That all the ends of the earth may see the salvation of our God:

(Isa 52:13 YLT) [Behold], My Servant [acts] wisely, He is [exalted], and [has] been lifted up], And [has] been [greatly exalted].

(Isa 52:14 HCSB) Just as many have been astonished at You [the Servant, the Holy Arm of the LORD, (ref. Isa 52:10, 13)] - His appearance was so disfigured that He did not look like a man, and His form did not resemble a human being."

These three verses together convey the sense of many people from all over the world from different times seeing the Servant's visible appearance - His being lifted up and greatly exalted yet with His inhumanly, disfigured appearance - the latter evidently a result of His being beaten during His suffering for mankind's iniquities, (Isa 52:10, 14 & especially verse 15 and Isa 53:1-12 which follow). Consequently unbelieving mankind will be astonished in the sense of astonished disbelief about Who He will appear to be at His exaltation, (Isa 52:13): the Servant of the LORD lifted up in His exalted glory, honored by God for providing for the salvation, the redemption and the restoration of Israel and of the peoples of the world - to the ends of the earth, (Isa 52:3, 7-10, 13), yet also inhuman in His appearance in some way. So "The LORD has bared His Holy Arm, the Servant, in the sight of all the nations, That all the ends of the earth may see the salvation of our God: the Servant's exalted appearance as well as His disfigurement should have reminded people of His atoning sacrifice for their sins," (ref., Isa 52:10, cf. 53:1-12).

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2) The Servant In Isaiah Chapters 52-53 Is Not Israel

Note that from the beginning of Isaiah chapter 52, the context excludes Israel from being the Servant, and excludes the context of conflict with the Gentile nations. Although Israel / Jacob - the people of Israel, are also called the servant of the LORD in other passages in Isaiah, (as well as others such as the prophets in Scripture; these other passages, such as Isaiah: 20:3, 41:8-9; 43:10; 44:1-2, 21, 26; 45:4; 48:20, have a different context from the four songs in Isaiah comprising chapters 42, 49, 50, 52-53. The "song" chapters and chapter 11 as well   all have in view the Servant as one Man. For anyone from Israel - and no man - can save himself from his own sins, nor purge himself unto righteousness, repentance and salvation via persevering through relentless suffering at the hands of the Gentile nations, nor transform himself into a godly person. Nor can a generation of Israelites come back and take possession of the entire Promised Land forever under its own auspices. The people of Israel - and all mankind - need the Righteous Servant of the LORD as depicted in the song passages in Isaiah as well as in chapter 11 to provide unilateral action to do these things. It takes the Righteousness, Power, Justice and Sovereignty of the LORD to accomplish these things under the auspices of sinless Humanity. The people of Israel have no capacity do do these things themselves as shown by centuries of unfaithful history - nor does any Gentile, (Isa 64:6-7 ; cf. Gen 8:21; Eccl 7:20; Jer 17:9; Ps 51:5; Job 14:1-4). This is what is in view in the context of these four songs and corroborated by the many passages about the fulfillment of the New Covenant such as Jeremiah chapters 30-31, and Ezek chapters 36-37 .

H cont.) 3333H cont. (Isa 52:1-15 cont.) The LORD's Servant - His Holy Arm Will Bring Salvation To All Mankind. This Servant Of God Acts Wisely. He Has Been Greatly Exalted, Yet His Appearance Was Inhumanly Disfigured. Some Will Choose To Believe In Him For Salvation And He Will Cleanse Their Sins Implying His Personal Atonement For All Of Mankind So That They May Make That Choice. So The Arm Of The LORD Has Evidently Been Revealed To All Mankind - Jews And Gentiles Alike. Most Will Not Chose To Hear About Him, (cont.)

(Isa 52:10 NKJV) "The LORD has made bare His Holy Arm In the eyes of all the nations; And all the ends of the earth shall see The Salvation of our God.

(Isa 52:13 YLT) [Behold], My Servant [acts] wisely, He is [exalted], and [has] been lifted up], And [has] been [greatly exalted].

(Isa 52:14 HCSB) Just as many [have been astonished] at You - His appearance was so disfigured that He did not look like a man, and His form did not resemble a human being -"

Relative to people at all the ends of the earth seeing the Salvation of our God - the greatly exalted Servant of the LORD and being astonished by Him, by His disfigured appearance: most of mankind throughout history would not have been present at the time and place in their mortal bodies when the Servant brought salvation to the world through His substitutionary atonement - a time when they would have had the opportunity to observe Him and then would have been astonished in the sense of astonished disbelief at His exaltation with His disfigured, inhuman appearance. Furthermore, most of mankind would not have had the opportunity in their mortal bodies to see Him when He will have been greatly exalted. Hence the timeframe(s) in view in Isa 52:10, 13-14 must be when the Servant will have been resurrected, (ref., Isa 53:10), into a glorified, exalted state, (ref. Isa 52:13); evidently still appearing with / bearing His inhuman disfigurement, (ref., Isa 52:14). So the timeframe is the afterlife of most of mankind as well as those of mankind that are still alive in their mortal bodies at the yet future time of the revelation of Him coming upon the earth in His exalted glory which is in view in Isa 52:13-14 - at which time or times all will be astonished in the sense of astonished disbelief at and in awe of His appearance.

So it is the Servant of the LORD - a single Jewish Individual, not collective Israel - Who is the Salvation of our God, the provider of Israel's redemption and the redemption / salvation of all mankind. It is He Who is the Holy Arm of the LORD Who will have been seen by all the nations to the ends of the earth, (Isa 49:1-13 ; 52:3, 7-10). It is He Who has sprinkled / washed away the sins of many nations in the sense of all mankind, (Isa 52:15, cf. 49:1-13 ); Who has borne their griefs and sorrows - the sins of all mankind, (Isa 53:4); Who has been pierced through for all of mankind's transgressions wherein the chastening / punishment for mankind's restoration to peace with God fell upon Him. And by His having been scourged - severely whipped - all mankind has been [spiritually] healed, (Isa 53:5).

Note that Zech 12:10-14 has in view a single, solitary individual who is evidently the same individual that is the Servant in Isa 53:5, which rules out the Servant being collective Israel or the remnant of Israelite believers:

a) [ on Zech 12:11-14]:

"I will pour out on the house of David and on the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the Spirit of grace and of supplication, so that they will look on Me Whom they have pierced and they will mourn for Him, as one mourns for an only son, and they will weep bitterly over Him like the bitter weeping over a firstborn,"

b) with Isa 53:5a:

"But He was pierced through for our transgressions, He was crushed for our iniquities;"

So the Servant has been put to physical death, (Isa 53:8); He has been crushed, He has been put to the grief due mankind, He has been made a guilt offering - a substitutionary atonement for the sins of all mankind - which is scriptural . Nevertheless the LORD will see His Seed and prolong His days - raising Him from the dead to live eternally in greatly exalted prosperity, (Isa 52:10, 13; 53:10). For He - the Servant - has justified many by bearing their iniquities, (Isa 53:11); has borne the sin of many [all mankind], [intercedes] for the transgressors [all mankind, in the sense of substitutionary atonement ], (Isa 53:12)]

Yet there will be an unbelieving mindset by most of mankind which will be evidenced by their not having acknowledged Who the Servant is and what He did for them during their mortal lives; and by their astonished disbelief when they see Him in His exalted glory, (cf. vv 13-15). Although mankind's sins will have been washed away, those who never believe in Him for salvation will not be personally forgiven of their sins because they will never have believed in Him, (cf. Isa 53:1). Hence they will not receive eternal life and dwell forever in the Eternal Kingdom of God, (Isa chapter 49 , and passages on the New Covenant ).

The vast majority of people throughout history will be so irretrievably entrenched in their own religious / philosophical systems that they will not be disposed to consider, much less believe in God's plan of salvation through a moment of faith in His Servant - His Holy Arm of salvation alone, whether told about Him or not, (cf. Isa 53:1). They will have lived out their lives choosing not to consider Who He is.

The Servant's mission for the LORD required Him to raise up the tribes of Jacob, to restore the preserved ones of Israel unto the entire Promised Land; to be the Light of the salvation of the LORD to the Gentiles, to be a covenant of the people of Israel, etc. And it would be the Servant's atoning sacrifice, His physical execution unto death in order to physically and spiritually die for the sins of Israel and all the nations of the world to provide that salvation to all mankind, to the ends of the earth, (cf. Isa 49:6; 52:10). At the time of the completion of His mission, His physical appearance as a result of fulfilling His mission caused Him to be so disfigured that he would not be recognizable as a man - "inhuman," pointing to being so mistreated as to cause such an extreme appearance. Those in their mortal bodies who did witness Him in the fulfillment of His mission for the salvation of mankind - and the disfigurement He suffered; and most of mankind who will have seen Him in His exalted glory - those who did not believe in Who He claimed to be, nor even consider what He claimed to have done, nor even gaze upon Him - considered that He had been executed for His own sins, (Isa 53:4).

3) The Popular Jewish Interpretation Of Isaiah 52:13-14 Refuted

a) [Popular Jewish Interpretaton - Israel The Servant Will Prosper According To God's Plan]:

(Isa 52:13 YLT) [Behold], My Servant [acts] wisely, He is [exalted], and [has] been lifted up], And [has] been [greatly exalted].

(Isa 52:14 HCSB) Just as many have been astonished at You [the Servant, the Holy Arm of the LORD, (ref. Isa 52:10, 13)] - His appearance was so disfigured that He did not look like a man, and His form did not resemble a human being."

The popular Jewish interpretation contends that in Isa 52:13, Isaiah prophesies that, in the end, it is Israel who will prosper and take its rightful place in God's plan.

b) [Rebuttal: Israel's Prospering Due To The Servant Is Not In View In Isa 52:13]:

It is true that Israel will prosper in the Promised Land after being restored to it and after being transformed into a godly people, obedient to God's Law according to passages such as Isa 49:1-26, Ezek 36:25-27. But the prosperity is not the same thing as  the exaltation in view in Isa 52:13 which is of the Servant Himself as One Man born of a woman, both God and Man, (Isa 9:6-7 ; Isa 49:1-13 ), not Israel's future restoration which is portrayed elsewhere, but not in Isa 49:1-13 or any of the four song passages or chapter 11. For it is the Servant Himself Who, having acted wisely, (Isa 52:13); Who will have raised up the tribes of Jacob; and by Himself will have restored "the preserved ones of Israel," (Isa 49:5-6). It is He Who is the One providing for the unilateral redemption of Israel, (Isa 52:3, 7-10); through substitutionary atonement, (Isa 53:1-12). He is the One Who has been given by the LORD to Israel as a covenant with the people, - He is the New Covenant, (Isa 42:6 ; 49:8) - the Fulfillment of that New Covenant . He indeed will restore the land, transform the people into godliness and obedience to God's Law, giving them possession of their inheritance of the Promised Land forever, seeing to it that they prosper in it, (Isa 49:1-13 ). The Servant in view in Isaiah 52:1-53:12, as well as in chapters 42, 49 and 50 - is the Servant Who restores the people of Israel. He is not the same servant who is defined as the people of Israel with a different function elsewhere in the Book of Isaiah 20:3, 41:8-9; 43:10; 44:1-2, 21, 26; 45:4; 48:20, to be messengers and examples of the salvation of the LORD to the world which they failed to do throughout the centuries. Israel neither has the capacity to restore herself to godliness, nor to occupy the entire Promised Land, nor to prosper in it in peace forever. The Servant of Isaiah 52:1-53 is the individual, not corporate Israel, Who is God and Man Who will rule the world from the throne of David, Who will restore Israel in the Promised Land, wash away her sins, transform her into a godly people and prosper her forever, (cf. Isa 9:6-7 , Isa 49:1-13 )]

c) [The Popular Jewish interpretation Of Isa 52:14 Contends That It Is Israel Who Will Perservere Relentless Suffering At The Hands Of The Gentiles; And Even Though Disfigured Will Be Exalted To The Astonishment Of The Gentile Nations Who Will Recognize That Israel Is God's Chosen People]

(Isa 52:14 HCSB) "Just as many have been astonished at You [the Servant, the Holy Arm of the LORD, (ref. Isa 52:10, 13)] - His appearance was so disfigured that He did not look like a man, and His form did not resemble a human being."

The popular Jewish interpretation of Isa 52:14 contends that it is the prophet who is still speaking for God, who is describing how the Gentile nations habitually looked down upon the nation of Israel as people who were thought of as being disfigured and 'subhuman, people whose God was not with them - protecting them. Still being the narrator here and speaking for God, Isaiah quotes what the Gentile nations will be saying about Israel in their astonishment. The dismayed (Gentile) nations will see a people, thought to be disfigured and 'sub-human,' become exalted and successful, a people who have God with them and not against them (e.g., Isaiah 52:9-10). Isaiah reassures his people, Israel, that those who had such visions of them will be stunned when they see that Israel is the one who is exalted in the end."

d) [Rebuttal: The Servant Is Not Israel, He Did Not Go Through Relentless Persecution. The Servant Is A Man Who Was The One Who Suffered For Mankind's Sins]:

[(Isa 52:14 HCSB) "Just as many have been astonished at You [the Servant, the Holy Arm of the LORD, (ref. Isa 52:10, 13)] - His appearance was so disfigured that He did not look like a man, and His form did not resemble a human being."

In order to force Isa 52:14 to convey that the Servant is Israel in Isa 52:13-14 and the rest of 52 through 53:12, history must be changed to have in view all of the Gentile nations for centuries relentlessly persecuting the people of Israel, looking upon them collectively as such a disfigured race of people - so ugly that they appeared to be inhuman. Although there has been and will continue to be persecution of the Jews until the Servant, the Arm of the LORD redeems her; there is no history of relentless, persecution worldwide by Gentile nations throughout the centuries since the time of Abraham. Nor have Israelites always being disadvantaged and deprived throughout history. Israel is a Semitic race of people. There are millions of the Jewish and other Semitic races which have a wide range of appearances that do not collectively appear to be so markedly different from other races that they might be thought of as so disfigured as to be inhuman looking. Furthermore, not all of the Gentile nations were relentlessly aggressive toward Israel throughout her history. They often traded with her and participated in her prosperity. And they often intermarried with Jews, despite Jewish separatism in that regard. And many Jews were successful within the nations of the world - and not deprived. And there were times of prosperity for Israel as a nation as well . Although the Gentile nations might very well become astonished in the sense of astonished disbelief when they see Israel in her exalted glory restored to the Promised Land forever at the commencement of the Eternal Kingdom of God, with Israel as the ruling nation of priests, (ref. Ex 19:5-6); the popular Jewish interpretation of Isa 52:13-14 is not supported in this passage]

(Isa 52:15 YLT) "So [does] He sprinkle many nations. Concerning Him kings shut their mouths, For that which was not recounted to them they have seen, And that which they had not heard they have understood!"

  [Isa 52:15 continues the context of the peoples and kings of the world: those who are alive in mortal bodies at the time of the exaltation and glorification of the Servant; and those who have died and are able in the afterlife to view Him - the greatly exalted Servant of the LORD, (Isa 52:13-14).

Note that the Hebrew verb form transliterated "yazzeh" is in the imperfect tense, masculine, singular, is best translated "So does He sprinkle many nations" in the sense of cleansing them of their sins, (cf. Lev 4:6; 8:11: 14:7, Ez 36:25-30).

The phrase "So [does] He sprinkle [wash away the sins of] many nations," in Isa 52:15 refers to all the nations of the world including Israel because it continues the context of verse 10 in which all peoples including Israel are included in God's plan of salvation through His Servant, not just the Gentile nations, as some contend. Everyone needs to have their sins washed away, Israel included! Nevertheless, some contend for the exclusion of Israel from "many nations" in order to force the verse to indicate that the Arm of the LORD, the Servant is Israel, who evidently, by their thinking will save / redeem herself as well as the rest of mankind, contrary to what Scripture teaches, (cf. Isa 52:3, 7-10; 49:1-13 ; 42:1-6). Given their agenda to force the word "Servant" into being Israel all the time it appears in Isaiah, they maintain the unscriptural notion that in Isa 52:15 the Gentiles will be startled at [not sprinkled by] Israel when they - in the after life or at the time of the Servant's exaltation - will view the Servant in greatly exalted glory. The contenders maintain that "yazzeh" means "startled at," chiefly to avoid the idea of the Servant - an Individual Man and God, (Isa 9:6-7; 11:1-16) - washing away the sins of the Gentiles - substitutionary atonement - a doctrine which they reject despite the evidence from Scripture . Since the contenders falsely maintain that the Gentiles previously viewed Israel as inhuman looking and that all of the nations had relentlessly and egregiously persecuted them as a worthless and despicable people for centuries; they will, after seeing Israel in her exalted glory / the ruling nation of the world, become startled by their greatly exalted appearance. Thus the verse according to them does not have in view the Servant's washing of sins of many nations as an individual Who is both God and Man as it is corroborated in Isa 9:6-7 , despite the fact that Israel Who has sins of her own cannot even repent of her own sins, much the more atone for everyone elses. Somehow the contenders maintain that the Eternal Kingdom with the exalted Servant Israel the ruling nation will begin without any atonement for sins at all, by anyone! Everyone will simply start behaving better, with no accountability for past sins! Then the LORD will restore Israel in the Promised Land, her relentless suffering at the hand of the Gentile nations for centuries somehow purging her of her sins so that she will be redeemed and act in a godly manner.

In the first place, the word "startled" is an unsubstantiated meaning for the Hebrew word transliterated "yazzeh," in order to force a meaning which is completely out of the context of the entire passage which has a single, sinless Servant in view Who is the Holy Arm of the salvation of the LORD via His substitutionary atonement   for the sins of Israel and for all the nations to the ends of the earth, (Isa 49:1-13 ; 42:1-13; 52:1-53:12).

Secondly, "yazzeh" is rendered "sprinkled" and not "startled" every time it appears in Scripture, especially muliple times in Leviticus chapter 16  where it has to do with substitutionary atonement .

Thirdly, Hebrew dictionaries do not even include "startled" as an available meaning for "yazzeh."

In any case, the last part of Isa 52:15, "Concerning Him kings shut their mouths, For that which was not recounted to them they have seen, And that which they had not heard they have understood!" best fits with the context of the Servant in His exalted glory, Who is not the entire population of Israel, but a single, humble Man, born of a woman, born of Israel, a Son of Israel, Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace ... upon the Throne of David and over His kingdom ... forever will He rule, (Isa 9:6-7 ; 49:1-13 ); Who, being without sin, (Isa 42:6; 53:9, 11; 49:2), would atone for the sins of Israel and the whole world, (Isa 52:15) and restore Israel to the Promised Land, (Isa 49:1-6; 42:6; 49:6) - which Israel cannot do even for herself; and be greatly exalted because He acted wisely: He was faithful to what the LORD God appointed His Arm to accomplish, i.e., Salvation for all mankind - something which is beyond the capacity of the people of Israel, (Isa 52:13); and in so doing be so brutally beaten that His appearance would be so bad that He would appear inhuman, (Isa 52:14), such that the kings - the rulers of the world, and most of mankind who will not have the above report "recounted to them," nor "have they heard... have [they] understood [it]," about Him when they in the future will have an opportunity to see Him greatly exalted in all of His glory, their mouths will be shut, they will have nothing to say, they will be so astonished in the sense of astonished disbelief, (Isa 52:25b).

So the Servant's life would be a humble one. Among the peoples and kings of the world, He was not to be well remembered because He would have neither worldwide worldly fame nor worldly glory. For He was considered by the world as of no import. But now - too late for those in the afterlife - mankind must consider the truth of the matter that He had cleansed many in the sense of all peoples of all the nations of the world of their sins, but which forgiveness they had not accepted for themselves while in their mortal lives by a moment of faith in Him for that forgiveness unto eternal life.

It is implied that the vast majority of people throughout history will be so irretrievably entrenched in their own religious / philosophical systems that they will not be disposed to consider much less believe in God's plan of salvation through His Servant - His Holy Arm of salvation, whether told about Him or not, (cf. Isa 53:1)]

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I) 3333I (Isa 53:1-4) Throughout History Few Will Have Believed In The Report Of Salvation Through The Arm Of The LORD Which Is Revealed To All Mankind Throughout History And At Judgment - The One Who Has Grown Up In His Humanity Before The LORD With No Stately Form Or Attractive Appearance, Despised And Forsaken - A Man Of Sorrows And Grief, Without Esteem Among Men. He Has Taken Up Mankind's Pain, Borne Our Suffering. Yet He Is Considered Punished And Afflicted By God

(Isa 53:1 NKJV) "Who has believed our report? And to whom has the Arm of the LORD been revealed?"

  [The context of Isa 52:1-10; 13-15 continues to be the subject in chapter 53: that of the Salvation of the LORD via the Holy Arm of the LORD which will have been seen throughout all the ends of the earth - the Servant of the LORD Who will act wisely and be greatly exalted. The Servant of the LORD will be lifted up in His exalted glory, honored by God for providing for the salvation, the redemption and the restoration of Israel and of the peoples of the world - to the ends of the earth, (Isa 52:3, 7-10, 13). Unbelieving mankind in the afterlife will have been astonished at Him in the sense of astonished disbelief at seeing Him in His exalted glory, His appalling appearance testifying to His sacrifice which provided the sprinkling / the washing away of the sins of the world. And they will now understand with astonishment in the sense of astonished disbelief at the Servant of the LORD in His exalted glory , Whom they had not believed in during their mortal lives.

So with this in mind, two questions are asked in Isa 53:1 evidently by the remnant of believing Jewish messengers to whom the message was given by the LORD to be His witnesses to spread throughout the world, (Isa 43:8-13), "Who has believed our report?" = who has believed in the message of the sacrificial death of the Servant, the Holy Arm of the LORD Who by His sacrificial death, (cf. Isa 53:8), has sprinkled / cleansed of sin all mankind to provide for their salvation by individual faith, (ref. Isa 53:1); and the second question, "And to whom has the Arm of the LORD been revealed?"

The words rendered "our report" in the phrase "Who has believed our report" refer to the message that God gave to Israel, which was received faithfully by the remnant of Jewish believers in the Servant to be passed on by them to the world. The message / the report is salvation through the Holy Arm = the Servant of the LORD by God. The Arm of the LORD is the Servant of the LORD Himself in Isa 53:1; and the Servant is the embodiment of the power of God fulfilled through His atonement for the sins of all mankind. This message / this report was to be spread throughout the world at this time in human history and throughout the age by the remnant of Jewish believers who were appointed by God as servants of the LORD, (refs, Isa 41:8-9; 20:3; 43:10; 44:1-2, 21, 26; 45:4; 48:20; Jer 30:10; 46:27-28; Ps 136:22). It was the message that the LORD gave to the Jewish prophets such as Isaiah who is included in the phrase rendered "our report." The four songs in Isaiah 42, 49, 50 and 52-53 and chapter 11 as well, especially speak of the Servant of the LORD Whom the LORD appointed to make provision of the salvation of mankind as an instructional song to sing in the congregation. This same message was given by the LORD to Abraham and Moses and corroborated by the other prophets as evidenced in Scripture; especially in passages about the covenants that God made with Israel which refer to the Servant, the Seed of Abraham who is One individual, not corporate Israel, as some contend, .

1) The Popular Jewish Interpretation Of Isa 53:1 Refuted In The Light Of The Ongoing Context Of Chapter 52 Into Chapter 53

In Chapter 52, Isaiah's message is from the LORD, (v. 3), and it is a message of encouragement and enlightenment to Israel, shortly before the exile in Babylon would end and those in exile would be able to return to their land. It was a message of encouragement to them alone which included Israel's future redemption and restoration forever in the Promised Land, especially including the restoration of Jerusalem - all of this through the Holy Arm of the LORD Who will cleanse many nations, i.e., all mankind of their sins - all by God's grace, nothing to be contributed in order to benefit, (Isa 52:3, 7-10). This future message was stipulated as an evangelistic one: "How lovely on the mountains Are the feet of him who brings good news, Who announces peace And brings good news of happiness, Who announces salvation, And says to Zion, 'Your God reigns!' Listen! Your watchmen lift up their voices, They shout joyfully together; For they will see with their own eyes When the LORD restores Zion. Break forth, shout joyfully together, You waste places of Jerusalem; For the LORD has comforted His people, He has redeemed Jerusalem. The LORD has bared His Holy Arm In the sight of all the nations, That all the ends of the earth may see The salvation of our God How lovely on the mountains," (Isa 52:1-10).

So the message of Isa 53:1 is not the popular Jewish interpretation which conveys the words of the Gentile nations about their report of their own self-generated repentance unto godly behavior for persecuting Israel, as some contend. There is no indication in the passage that the context has changed so drastically from the people of Israel being given the message of a Servant Who will redeem them Himself, and sprinkle / wash the sins away of mankind to the Gentiles repenting and purifying themselves of their own sins. Furthermore, Isaiah, a Jew, who is the writer of the Book of Isaiah, includes himself in the word rendered "our" in the phrase "Who has believed our report?" So he is not a Gentile conveying a Gentile report / message. Much less is it an evangelistic message from the Gentiles to the world through the LORD whom the Gentiles largely do not believe in. The report referred to in Isa 53:1 is not about repentant Gentiles who have realized their mistake in persecuting Jews for centuries in the light of the exaltation / glorification of the Servant Whom it is contended is Israel. Finally, Israel has not suffered centuries of unwarranted persecution by the Gentiles, which will supposedly lead to their purification unto holiness and faithfulness to the LORD resulting in their being lifted up and exalted, as it is contended. For there were times when the people of Israel were not under persecution, but blessing. And not all of her persecution was undeserved . The message which is conveyed in chapters 42, 49, 50 and 52-53 was given by God to Isaiah to convey to Jews - especially those in exile in Babylon, not to Gentiles. It is authored by a Jew who includes himself as one who is conveying the message.

Furthermore, the generation of Israel at the time when they will all choose to believe in the salvation of the LORD through His Servant will experience the fulfillment of the New Covenant to be restored forever to the Promised Land, redeemed from sin, transformed into obedient and faithful people to God, saved unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. They will not merit their own salvation by their having suffered at the hand of Gentiles or by perfect repentance.

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{For repentant behavior is not possible with mortal sinful man, (ref. Isa 64:6-7; cf. Gen 8:21; Eccl 7:20; Jer 17:9; Ps 51:5; Job 14:1-4)}:

a) [Compare Isa 64:6-7; cf. Gen 8:21; Eccl 7:20; Jer 17:9; Ps 51:5; Job 14:1-4]:

(Isa 64:6 NASB) "For all of us have become like one who is unclean, And all our righteous deeds are like a filthy garment; And all of us wither like a leaf, And our iniquities, like the wind, take us away.

(Isa 64:7 NASB) There is no one who calls on Your name, Who arouses himself to take hold of You; For You have hidden Your face from us And have delivered us into the power of our iniquities."

Present righteous / repentant behavior can never pay for past sins. Hence there is the need for substitutional atonement if anyone wants to be saved from their sins and have eternal life. Since no man is without sin except the Servant Himself, (Isa 53:9, 11; 42:6; 49:2; cf. Isa 64:6-7 ; cf. Gen 8:21; Eccl 7:20; Jer 17:9; Ps 51:5; Job 14:1-4). On this alone, Israel could not be the Servant. Nevertheless, a single individual born of Israel of the Seed of God will be without sin, (Isa 9:6-7; 11:1-16; 3:10; cf. 42:6; 49:2; 53:9, 11). He is the only One capable of fulfilling the New Covenant for all mankind - Himself alone! So salvation can only be totally by the grace of God, Who will unilaterally fulfill every stipulation of the New Covenant through His Servant - even the faith that all of that generation of Israel will choose of their own volition to express in the Servant of the LORD will be by the grace, sovereignty and election of God .

So when the message of Isaiah chapters 52 is carefully considered, the first question of Isa 53:1, "Who has believed our report [i.e., our message]" implies that the Jewish believers' remnant are the ones to whom the message of the Salvation of mankind was given and received. For only a remnant comprising comparatively few Jews  historically will become believers who will then be interested in spreading the message of the gospel, (ref. Isa 52:7 ). Unbelieving Jews would not receive the message, nor be willing to share it at all. So the Jewish remnant of believers have lamented and continued to lament throughout the dispensations of the Jews that only a few individuals, Jew and Gentile, throughout the ages will believe in the Holy Arm of the LORD for salvation - a remnant of believers, (cf. Isa 10:20-23 ); confirming that a moment of faith alone in the Servant of the LORD, His Holy Arm of Salvation, is the one and only essential response needed for each one to personally benefit from the Servant's atonement of mankind's sins - as Abraham did .

It was emphasized in Isa 52:1-10, 13-15 that there would be nothing significant about the Servant of God until a time when He would be revealed by the LORD as the Salvation of our God. Until that time the Holy Arm of the LORD's appearance or what He does, evidently in His Humanity, will attract little attention of the peoples of the world to believe in Him as the Salvation of God. Whereupon the message of Isaiah in chapter 52 continues into the next chapter with further details relative to the Servant of God / the Holy Arm of the LORD making provision for the sprinkling / the cleansing of the sins of all mankind and of Him being raised up and exalted by the LORD. Each individual who chooses to "believe" (Isa 52:13-15; 53:1), in the Servant of the LORD for a personal atonement for ones sins will receive forgiveness of all of ones sins implying the reception of eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God - as opposed to the judgment of those who do not believe and are astonished in the sense of astonished disbelief when they see the Servant of the LORD in His exalted glory.

So in consideration of the question, "Who has believed our message," author Isaiah asks another question: "And to whom has the Arm of the LORD been revealed?" This second question implies that only a few have been given the message / the report of salvation through the Holy Arm, the Servant of the LORD which first was given by the LORD to the remnant of Jews who believes in the LORD's provision of salvation through the Seed of Abraham, beginning with Abraham himself and as reported in Scripture. And only a few individuals - a remnant of Jews (Isa 10:20-23 ) and Gentiles as well, (cf. Acts 15:16-17; Mt 7:13) i.e., only a remnant of mankind throughout the ages from the time of Adam and Eve   will actually choose to seek and receive this revelation / this report and believe in it. The rest of humanity will not be disposed to consider the message, much less believe in it as true. They will be astonished in the sense of astonished disbelief when they learn the truth after their mortal lives are over . They will face that truth when they see the Embodiment of that truth: the resurrected Holy Arm / the exalted Servant of the LORD. For their sins will not have been forgiven because they have not believed in the Servant's atonement for them, so they will not be transformed into godly beings qualifying them to make it into the Eternal Kingdom of God - the fulfillment of the New Covenant ]

(Isa 53:2 NASB) "For He [grows] up before Him [the LORD], like a tender shoot, And like a root out of parched ground; He has no stately form or majesty That we should look upon Him, Nor appearance that we should be attracted to Him."

  [Though lamenting the fact that few people will believe "our" [Israel's, especially the remnant of Jewish believers'] report [including the writer and prophet Isaiah]; which report is the message of salvation to Israel and to all mankind through the Holy Arm, the Servant of the LORD, (Isa 53:1; cf. Isa 42:6 ; 49:1-6; 52:9-10); the remnant of Jewish believers will realize that nothing about the Servant's appearance would generate popularity, much less faith in His Salvation for eternal life, (ref. Isa 53:3). Isa 53:2 reads, "For He [grows] up before Him [the LORD] like a tender shoot, And like a root out of parched ground; He has no stately form or majesty that we should look upon Him, Nor appearance that we should be attracted to Him." This  wording indicates that the Servant of the LORD's Humanity is a Descendant of Jesse, David's father - hence of David himself, corroborating with a previous passage in Isaiah:

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2) [Compare Isa 11:1-16]:

(Isa 11:1 HOLMAN) "Then a shoot will [have grown] from the stump of Jesse, and a branch from his roots will bear fruit.

  [Since the Jesse referred to is the father of David as follows:

Although the Assyrians nearly destroyed Judah short of the gate of Jerusalem, the kings of Judah continued in the line of David until the Babylonians destroyed Jerusalem and the Temple in 586 B.C. Hence the portrayal of a tree stump cut off close to the roots, pictures the loss of royal power of Israel and especially the descendants of David. Instead there is the image of the lowly condition of those descendants. Nevertheless, a shoot will grow from the stump of David's father, Jesse who was never king, but whose Descendant will bear the fruit of the Righteousness of God. He will rule over His Eternal Kingdom on the throne of David as described in the next 15 verses in Isaiah chapter 11, (cf. Isa 9:1-7 )

- then the shoot which will have grown from the stump of Jesse will be a Descendant of David, the description of Whom in this passage in Isaiah chapter 11 fully corroborates the description of the Servant, the Holy Arm of the LORD in Isaiah chapters 42, 49, 50 and 52-53.

So then the Servant - the Shoot from the stump of Jesse - can hardly be the people of generations of Israel, nor the remnant of Israelite believers throughout centuries of time. For neither all Israelites, nor all Israelite remnant believers are descendant from David, nor even of the same tribe of David, (Judah). Nor do all Israelites meet the description of the individual Descendant in the verses which follow in Isaiah chapter 11]:

(Isa 11:2 KJV) "And the Spirit of the LORD shall [have rested] upon Him, the Spirit of wisdom and understanding, the Spirit of counsel and might, the Spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD;

  [And at that time, the Spirit of the LORD shall have rested upon the Descendant in the sense of a permanent indwelling in Him. Furthermore, the Descendant shall permanently receive the Spirit of wisdom and understanding, the Spirit of counsel and might, the Spirit of knowledge and the fear of the LORD]

(Isa 11:3 NKJV) His delight is in the fear of the LORD, And He shall not judge by the sight of His eyes, Nor decide by the hearing of His ears;

(Isa 11:4 YLT) And He [has] judged in righteousness the poor, and [has] decided in uprightness [i.e., in equity] for the humble [in the sense of the lowly] of [the earth]; And has [struck] the earth with the rod of His mouth, And with the breath of His lips He [puts] the wicked to death.

(Isa 11:5 NKJV) Righteousness shall be the belt of His loins, And faithfulness the belt of His waist.

  [Verse 3 goes on to declare that this Descendant's delight is in the fear of the LORD. The Hebrew word transliterated "ruwach," rendered "delight" in the NKJV refers to the Descendant's scent or spirit. It is used in this verse in the metaphorical sense of His prevailing response; i.e., that which defines the Descendant's essence - that which characterizes Him. The phrase rendered "the fear of the LORD" in the NKJV is in the sense of trust, obedience and worship of the LORD. Hence, Isaiah writes that this Descendant will not judge by what He sees with His eyes; and He will not execute justice by what He hears with His ears. He will not limit Himself to His finite Humanity - as do all other human judges, who have often misused their office to oppress the needy and the poor. Instead Isaiah indicates that He will judge by the counsel, wisdom and understanding of the LORD through the work of the Holy Spirit in Him. So He will have judged in righteousness the poor, and will have decided in uprightness, i.e., equity for the humble in the sense of the lowly. Whereupon, Isaiah declared that this Descendant will have struck the earth with the rod of His mouth - implying condemnatory judgment of unrighteous people throughout the earth, for the context is universal and not limited to Israel, as some contend. With the breath of His lips He puts the wicked to death. All of these attributes are reserved for God alone - yet, being God, He will be a Descendant of David - a Man. Isaiah goes on to write that Righteousness shall be the belt of His loins And Faithfulness the belt of His waist, [in the sense that His reign will be characterized by the Righteousness, (cf. 9:7; 16:5) and the Faithfulness of God as if they were integral parts of Him as a belt and a sash are essential, key foundational elements of His clothing - implying deity.

Note that the Child born of Israel, the Son given to them of Isa 9:6-7 , is in view when He comes of age to function as Messiah exercising the attributes of the wisdom, understanding and counsel of the LORD via the Spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD with a further view of when He comes to His Righteous rule in the Eternal Kingdom of God. For reasons stated above - especially those which describe His attributes, which are those of God, this Descendant of Jesse cannot be king Hezekiah or some other king of Judah, or the collective people of Israel be they the remant or all of Israel throughout the centuries, as some contend, (Isa 11:2-5; cf. 6-16)]

(Isa 11:6 NKJV) The wolf also shall [have dwelt] with the lamb, The leopard shall lie down with the young goat, The calf and the young lion and the fatling together; And a little child shall lead them.

(Isa 11:7 NKJV) The cow and the bear shall graze; Their young ones shall lie down together; And the lion shall eat straw like the ox.

(Isa 11:8 NKJV) The nursing child shall play by the cobra's hole, And the weaned child shall put his hand in the viper's den.

(Isa 11:9 NKJV) They shall not hurt [lit., do evil toward] nor destroy in all My holy mountain, For the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the LORD As the waters cover the sea.

  [In view of the appearance of the Descendant of Jesse, Father of David, His indwelling by the Spirit, His demonstration of His innate fear of the LORD as Messiah to come, Isaiah moves to the description of the age in which the Messiah comes to begin His Eternal Kingdom on the earth: "The wolf also shall [have dwelt] with the lamb, The leopard shall lie down with the young goat, The calf and the young lion and the fatling [in the sense of the best, well fed yearling which is used for sacrifice] together; And a little child shall lead them. The cow and the bear shall graze; Their young ones shall lie down together; And the lion shall eat straw like the ox. The nursing child shall play by the cobra's hole, And the weaned child shall put his hand in the viper's den. So predator will no longer be predator. All animals will demonstrate a respect and submission, even benevolence and protection toward human beings during the reign of the LORD in His eternal kingdom. Note that these changes in the animal life are literal, and not to be taken figuratively as some contend. They are possible because the Creator is Sovereign and declared through Isaiah that these changes would be characteristic of His Kingdom on earth in literal language. The restoration of human beings to God is implied in phrase "For the earth shall be full of the knowledge of God As the waters cover the sea" in the NKJV which in turn implies the complete and thorough restoration of the world's environment from its fallen condition. So the world's entire ecological system including plants, animals and people will be in harmony with the Righteous rule of the LORD. In His reign, nature will be at peace with itself and with man. Contrary to what some contend, the Eternal Kingdom rule has not yet begun, since these factors do not characterize any age of history so far: Animal life shall not hurt [lit., do evil toward] nor destroy in all My holy mountain [in the sense that the entire earth will be in that day the LORD's holy mountain], For the earth - plants, animals and people - shall be full of the knowledge of the LORD As the waters cover the sea - in the sense of everything being obedient to Him - all the people, animals and plants. Peace and tranquility will reign throughout His Kingdom - "As the waters cover the sea," (cf. Isa 9:7); (Isa 11:6-9)]

(Isa 11:10 NKJV) And in that day there shall be a Root of Jesse, Who shall stand as a banner to the people; For the Gentiles shall seek Him, And His resting place shall be glorious.

  [And in that day there shall be a Root of Jesse. As a tree root is the source of life to the tree, so the Root of Jesse, in the line of David, is portrayed as the source of the life to the world. In that day, He shall stand as a Banner - a rallying symbol Who will draw all the peoples of the world to Him: "For the Gentiles shall seek Him" in the sense of coming to a knowledge of Him, trusting and worshipping Him. His "resting place" in the sense of where He sits, i.e., His throne in the Temple - the resting place of God, (cf. Isa 60:13)] shall be glorious, i.e., filled with the visible glory of God. This is an open declaration that this Root of Jesse is God incarnate. Note that this period of rule, considering the references to the sea and the nations in verse 10, ("Gentiles), is for all the peoples of the world, and not to be limited the Israel, as some contend, (Isa 11:10)]

(Isa 11:11 NKJV) It shall come to pass in that day That the LORD shall set His hand again the second time To recover the remnant of His people who are left, From Assyria and Egypt, From Pathros and Cush, From Elam and Shinar, From Hamath and the islands of the [Mediterranean] sea.

  ["And it shall come to pass in that day That the LORD shall set His hand again the second time to recover the remnant of His people [the first recovery pointing to the Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt where the whole nation was brought out of slavery and into the promised land, (Exodus 11:12-16; cf. Isa 11:16). The second time, the LORD Himself will gather the godly remnant of His people from the areas where they were scattered in the ancient times: They will come from the [SOUTH:] "From Assyria and Egypt, From Pathros [i.e., 'Upper Egypt' - one of the three divisions of Egypt south of Memphis and north of Aswan] and Cush [Ethiopia, south of Egypt, now Abyssinia, and the southern parts of Arabia, along the Red Sea]; [EAST] From Elam [Persia, especially the southern part of it now called Susiana, lying north of the western end of the Persian Gulf ] and Shinar [The Babylonian heartland, lying in the south-eastern part of the Tigris-Euphrates valley] [NORTH] From Hamath [a Syrian city, a small kingdom on the Orontes River] [WEST] and [from] the islands of the sea [the Mediterranean maritime nations and the far western regions beyond the sea], (Isa 11:11)]

(Isa 11:12 NKJV) [And] He will [have] set up a banner for the nations, And will [have assembled] the outcasts of Israel, And gather together the dispersed of Judah From the four corners of the earth.

(Isa 11:13 ASV) The envy also of Ephraim shall [have departed], and they that vex Judah shall be cut off: Ephraim shall not envy Judah, and Judah shall not [cause distress to] Ephraim]

  [Furthermore, the gathering of the remnant of His people will be worldwide: [And] He will [have] set up a banner for the nations, And will [have assembled] the outcasts of Israel, And gather together the dispersed of Judah From the four corners of the earth - the remnant of all twelve tribes will be gathered from everywhere on earth. Note that this second gathering of the remnant of the people of the LORD is not the same as the return of the remnant from Babylon under the edict of Cyrus as some contend; because this latter return was partial, not worldwide. Many Jews remained scattered throughout the world, (cf. Books of Ezra, Nehemiah and Esther). Furthermore, the detailed description of the complete and permanent return of all of God's people Israel from throughout the world as specifically stipulated in Isaiah chapter 11 has not yet occurred. Hence the return of Jews who were scattered after the destruction of Jerusalem in A.D. 70, or after the Bar Kokhba rebellion of about A.D. 132-135 or when Jews returned to Palestine in 1948, or any event so far in history up through 2011 is not in view. But what is in view will be that all of the jealousy and hostility between the tribes will be gone forever: "The envy also of Ephraim shall [have departed], and they that vex Judah shall be cut off: Ephraim shall not envy Judah, and Judah shall not [cause distress to] Ephraim," (Isa 11:12-13)]

(Isa 11:14 NKJV) But they shall [have flown] down upon the shoulder of the Philistines toward the west [lit., seaward], Together they plunder the people of the east; they shall [plunder] Edom and Moab; and the [children] of Ammon [obeying] them

  [But they [the restored worldwide remnant of Israel] shall [have flown] down upon the shoulder of the Philistines [as a bird attacking its prey] toward the west [lit., seaward], Together they plunder the people of the east; they shall [plunder] Edom and Moab; [Edom - south of Judah, from the Dead Sea to the Red Sea; "Moab"-- east of Jordan and the Dead Sea] and the [children] of Ammon [east of Judea, north of Moab, between the Arnon and Jabbok] [obeying] them [in the sense of the peoples who occupy that geographical area at the future time of the day of the LORD so that all who oppose Israel will be put down into submission throughout the world], (Isa 11:14)]

(Isa 11:15 NKJV) [And] the LORD will [have utterly destroyed] the tongue of the Sea of Egypt; With His mighty wind He will [have shaken] His fist over the [Euphrates] River, And [thus have made it into] seven streams, [so that] men [will have crossed over it] dryshod.

(Isa 11:16 HOLMAN) [And] there will be a highway for the remnant of His people who will survive from Assyria [in the sense of descendants from the ancient generation of Israelites were captured by Assyria], as there was for Israel when they came up from the land of Egypt."

  [[And] the LORD will [have utterly destroyed] [in the sense of drying up] the tongue of the Sea of Egypt [the Gulf of Suez], [destroyed in the sense that it no longer could be used as a waterway]; With His mighty wind He will [have shaken] His fist over the [Euphrates] River, [in the sense of breaking it up into seven streams] And [thus have made it into] seven [the number of completion] [shallow] streams, [so that] men [will have crossed over it] dryshod. [And] there will be a highway [i.e., a path completely clear of all obstructions] for the remnant of His people who will have descended from those of the Northern Kingdom that survived in captivity in Assyria [in the sense of descendants from the ancient generation of Israelites were captured by Assyria, a symbol of all of the people from all over the world who will return at that time], as there was for Israel when they [the entire nation of Israel in the first complete return] came up from the land of Egypt," (Isa 11:14-16)

  on Isaiah chapter 12]

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I cont) 3333I (Isa 53:1-4 cont) Throughout History Few Will Have Believed In The Report Of Salvation Through The Arm Of The LORD Which Is Revealed To All Mankind Throughout History And At Judgment - The One Who Has Grown Up In His Humanity Before The LORD With No Stately Form Or Attractive Appearance, Despised And Forsaken - A Man Of Sorrows And Grief, Without Esteem Among Men. He Has Taken Up Mankind's Pain, Borne Our Suffering. Yet He Is Considered Punished And Afflicted By God, (cont.)

(Isa 53:2 NASB) "For He [grows] up before Him [the LORD], like a tender shoot, And like a root out of parched ground; He has no stately form or majesty That we should look upon Him, Nor appearance that we should be attracted to Him."

  [The phrase rendered "For He [grows] up before Him [the LORD], like a tender shoot, And like a root out of parched ground;" in Isa 53:2 implies that the Servant of the LORD was born and raised in an arid area, a location where one would not expect a large plant to grow, implying hardship even from His youth as He grew up in His Humanity. Note that this cannot apply to all the people of Israel for all generations, as some contend, because there were different places that the people of Israel were born in, and settled into at different times under vastly different circumstances, not all of which were the same "parched" terrain. Recall that the early years of the people of Israel began in the land of milk and honey in the Promised Land, then into Egypt - a fairly fertile area called Goshen where the crops and herds multiplied. So to make the Servant into a collective of all generations of Israel throughout the centuries makes nonsense out of the verse. The text of Isa 53:2 must be limited to One Person. Furthermore, the text implies with the phrases rendered, "He has no stately form or majesty That we should look upon Him, Nor appearance that we should be attracted to Him," that

(1) He would not amount to much in the world relative to worldly power and wealth;

(2) His physical appearance was not like a royal person of beauty and majesty which might have attracted interest among the population of the time while He was in His Humanity, before His exaltation, (Isa 52:13).

(3) He has no form, nor comeliness, i.e., He would not have the stereotype of a royal person or majesty, nor beauty that one should desire Him. He will be One Who would not be especially sought after, or viewed as amounting to much in a worldly sense. There was nothing in His appearance, nor anything remarkable about His accomplishments for the world to admire such as mighty worldly deeds, military conquests, nor rulership of great kingdoms / empires, nor accumulation of great wealth that would attract great numbers of people of the world to believe in and follow him.

Despite the contention by some, there is no relentless persecution of anyone in view here in Isa 52:1-53:12. Nor will all of Israel die as the Servant of the LORD is stipulated will be in Isaiah 52-53. For this would leave no Israelite in a mortal body to return to the Promised Land as prophesied in passages that describe the New Covenant promises to Israel . But the Servant of Isa 52-53 did die as an atoning sacrifice for sins, (ref. Isa 53:8-10).

1) [The Popular Jewish Interpretation Of Isa 53:2 Is Not Consistent With The Context]

(Isa 53:2 NASB) "For He [grows] up before Him [the LORD], like a tender shoot, And like a root out of parched ground; He has no stately form or majesty That we should look upon Him, Nor appearance that we should be attracted to Him."

The popular Jewish interpretation of Isa 53:2 was contrived from what is found elsewhere in the Hebrew Bible in other passages from which it was falsely concluded that Israel has for centuries been persecuted, despised, forsaken, afflicted by the Gentile nations - all of them all of the time, with adversities often likened to injuries and diseases in order to force these words from passages outside of the context of the passage at hand into the words found in the text of Isa 53:2 - a bit of fancy editorial work to say the least. So on the basis of questionable conclusions about passages elsewhere in Scripture, Isa 53:2 is forced to have in view the people of Israel whom the (Gentile) nations characterized as having been despised by them, a "man of pains" who is accustomed to illness, and similar imagery which was drawn from elsewhere and not the context at hand. Hence there is drawn the false conclusion that all of this has been going on for long periods of time - for centuries; descriptions implying undue persecution of a people over centuries by all the Gentile nations. The literal depiction in Isa 52:1-53:12 of a single individual, in a short period of time, in his single mortal life, resulting in pain and suffering as He was executed to death at the hands of Jew and Gentile alike is rejected in favor of the contrived interpretation where generations of Israel are the Servant. But all of Israel did not die - and the Servant did, (ref. Isa 53:8-10)!

Note that no words which might be construed figuratively, poetically or otherwise as "despised," "forsaken," "afflicted," "injured" or "diseased" in order to serve to characterize persecution over a long period of time appear in Isa 53:2. Other passages may have these words in them or words to that effect which are applicable in some manner to Israel or someone else, but not here in Isa 53:2. Since there are no words to establish that the time line was a very long one - centuries long; such a concept cannot be forced into this verse. It's all about being consistent with the context of the passage at hand .

Since generation after generation of the people of Israel have neither been historically or according to Scripture relentlessly and continually despised nor persecuted over a period of centuries by all Gentile nations; and since the context of Isa 53:2 is not about persecution but about the conditions in which the Servant grew up in - circumstances of hardship; and about His physical characteristics / His appearance and physical stature; and since Isa 53:2 does not endeavor to take into account the great number of variations which would exist within generations of people over the passage of centuries of time adding innumerable circumstances that generations of people experience any of which would belie the context which is literally in view in Isa 53:2: a single individual with a single life experience in Isa 53:2; then the context of an individual life for a short period of time is the best interpretation of Isa 53:2 - the Servant is One Man.

Historically speaking and according to Scripture, Israel has had extended and short periods of prosperity and peace and protection afforded to them by the LORD over centuries of time. The times of captivity, persecution and dispersion have neither been unrelenting, nor lasting for centuries . And there have been a number of Israelite international 'celebrities' of great and / or attractive stature to the Gentile peoples of their time period, refuting the claim that Gentiles wholly viewed the entire Jewish race as inhuman looking and of no account: Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, David, Solomon, Joseph, Samson, Daniel, Moses, the prophets, etc., etc.

The passage in Isa 53:2 is best interpreted just as the words say. The phrases in Isa 53:2, rendered "tender shoot," "and like a root," tie the Servant in Isaiah chapters 52-53 to the earlier Messianic prophecies such as Isa 11:1-16  which verses portray "A shoot will come up from the stump of Jesse" [father to David] of whom the Servant from Isa 53:2 it is implied when corroborating it with Isa 11:1 is the Descendant which Isa 9:6-7 also speaks of ): from his roots a Branch will bear fruit," (Isa 11:1 ). This speaks of a single individual, not a whole nation of Israelites, as some contend. And He will have a belt of Righteousness about His loins, and a belt of faithfulness about His waist, (Isa 11:5) - which speaks of being without sin - corroborating the Servant being an individual without sin, (cf. Isa 42:6; 53:9, 11 and 49:2 ). This is something which the people of Israel cannot be characterized as until after the LORD through His Servant saves a generation of Israel by providing for their Righteousness Himself, (ref., Isa 42:6 ; 49:1-8; 52:10-13, 15; cf. Ezek 36:24-27 ). This "Root of Jesse, whose descendant (son) was David, whose Descendant is the Servant of the LORD, the One Who shall stand as a banner to the people [Israel, (cf. Isa 11:10-12 )], will bring about the return of the remnant of believers of Judah and Ephraim (Israel) together and back forever into the Promised Land . He is Personified as the Fulfillment of the New Covenant (Isa 42:6 ; 49:8) . In Isa 11:3-4, it says, "His delight is in the fear of the LORD, And He shall not judge by the sight of His eyes, Nor decide by the hearing of His ears; And He [has] judged in righteousness the poor, and [has] decided in uprightness [i.e., in equity] for the humble [in the sense of the lowly] of [the earth]; And has [struck] the earth with the rod of His mouth, And with the breath of His lips He [puts] the wicked to death." On this alone, (ref. Isa 11:3-4), the Servant cannot be Israel, because Israel is not even able to bring herself back forever into the entire Promised Land, nor to transform herself into a righteous people without sin who can righteously judge others. But the "tender shoot" in Isa 53:2 who is the Root of Jesse in Isaiah chapter 11 - the Servant of the LORD who will bring salvation and redemption to Israel, (ref. Isa 52:10-15; 49:1-6 ; 42:6), Who is the fulfillment of the New Covenant to Israel,  (ref. Isa 42:6 ; 49:8); indicates that an individual Person can and will do all of these things. So a generation of the people of Israel first needs to be brought back by the Servant of the LORD, Who will transform all Israelites of a generation with a new heart, and the Spirit within to make then righteous, (cf. Ezek 36:24-27 ), by the grace of God on the basis of the Servant of the LORD accounting for their unrighteousness by paying for their sins - a substitutionary atonement for a Righteous God of Absolute Justice can do no less, (Isa 42:6 ; 49:1-6; 52:10-13, 15).

So the Servant, the Holy Arm of the LORD as portrayed in Isa 53:2 and corroborated in Isa 11:1-16 would not amount to much until He completed His mission of providing atonement for the sins of all mankind - the Salvation of God through Him and the restoration of Israel into the Promised Land in fulfillment of the New Covenant. Then there will be exaltation and glory for Him, (Ref. Isa 52:12-13)]

I cont.) 3333I (Isa 53:1-4 cont.) Throughout History Few Will Have Believed In The Report Of Salvation Through The Arm Of The LORD Which Is Revealed To All Mankind Throughout History And At Judgment - The One Who Has Grown Up In His Humanity Before The LORD With No Stately Form Or Attractive Appearance, Despised And Forsaken - A Man Of Sorrows And Grief, Without Esteem Among Men. He Has Taken Up Mankind's Pain, Borne Our Suffering. Yet He Is Considered Punished And Afflicted By God, (cont.)

(Isa 53:3 NASB) "He was despised and forsaken [= rejected] of men, A Man of sorrows and acquainted with grief; And like One from Whom men hide their face He was despised, and we did not esteem Him."

  [Isa 53:3 declares that the Arm / the Servant of the LORD would be "despised and rejected by men. A Man of sorrows and acquainted with grief." The words rendered "sorrows" refers to the sorrows of pain and suffering and "acquainted with grief," refers to the grief of sickness and suffering of an individual. Notice that the Servant's Humanity is in view - as a single individual: people who were there when His Humanity was present on the earth as onlookers while He was suffering for the sins of all mankind, (ref. Isa 53:5-6; cf. 52:10, 15), would not look upon Him. It was if they were hiding their faces from Him - especially those who had rejected Him with great animosity and often with mockery. He was despised, people did not esteem Him - in the sense that Who He was was vehemently rejected and despised by those of His time - mostly Jews. His actual physical suffering for their iniquities is evidently in view, described as "sorrows," and "pains," or "sickness," (ref. Isa 53:4-6). People, especially those that despised Him would turn to face the other way rather than to gaze upon Him as He suffered so.

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2) [The Popular Jewish Interpretation Of Isa 53:3  Refuted]

Note that every time that the word rendered "servant" appears in Scripture, it does not always refer to Israel. So Isaiah 53:3 does not have to have Israel in view as the Servant even if she did suffer relentlessly over centuries at the hands of the Gentile nations, as some contend; which she did not . For the Servant is clearly portrayed as a single individual throughout the four songs in chapters 42:1-13 , 49 , 50 and 52-53  and chapter 11 as well . Furthermore, the word rendered "servant" in the context of one appointed by the LORD to serve Him in some capacity appears in other passages in Isaiah which refer to the people of Israel as messengers of the gospel of salvation by being an example of God's saving grace and redemption before the whole world, (Isa 41:8-9; 20:3; 43:10; 44:1-2, 21, 26; 45:4; 48:20; Jer 30:10; 46:27-28; Ps 136:22). But this is not the servant of the LORD in the same capacity as the Servant in chapters 42, 49, 50 and 52-53 and chapter 11 as well - the latter passages conveying a capacity which includes the Servant's attribute of Absolute Righteousness qualifying Him to fulfill His mission to make provision for an atoning sacrifice for the sins of all mankind, (Isa 53:4-12). And there are other passages which have the word rendered "servant" in them which refer to Isaiah as the prophet, (Isa 20:3); Eliakim as the palace administrator, (Isa 22:20); David as king of Israel, (Isa 37:35). And there are many others from the rest of Scripture referring to other individuals in varying capacities of servitude to the LORD God. But the Servant of Isaiah chapters 42, 49, 50, 52-53 and chapter 11 as well is unique . Not one characteristic of the people of Israel, or anybody else meets this Servant's Standard of Righteousness or His purpose to be an atoning sacrifice for the sins of all mankind and the provision of the salvation / restoration of Israel and all mankind.

Futhermore, the Hebrew phrase transliterated "'š mak'ōbt" is rendered literally "a man of sufferings," in Isa 53:3. It portrays a single individual without any corroboration in the passage to make the phrase figurative in order to refer to the entire population of a downtrodden Israel throughout the centuries under undeserved, relentless persecution, worldwide causing continual suffering and deprivation as a result of the transgressions of the Gentiles acting out this suffering upon them. For this concept is neither historically nor biblically accurate:

Although numbers large and small of the people of Israel have suffered deprivation and persecution for extended periods of time throughout the centuries, there were also many periods of relative prosperity and freedom and even world power such as when Solomon ruled; and when the nations of the world sought Israel out for trade and alliances; and when Solomon had many wives, many foreign - testifying to the people of Israel not being so inept, deprived or inhuman looking; and when the first Temple - a magnificent building that was marveled throughout the world - was built; and during the first part of Israel's presence in Egypt to escape famine; and when Moses as Pharaoh's adopted son was being groomed to be a great ruler of the world's leading nation - displaying qualities of humanity that were hardly despicable, downtrodden, deprived or inhuman looking; and when Israel returned to the Promised Land. There were conflicts on the way but never an ongoing captivity nor relentless persecution by Gentile nations. For the LORD God was with them every step of the way to teach, protect, preserve and discipline them to be His Chosen People; and when there was the restoration of Israelites to Jersusalem when the temple was rebuilt; and when many Jews chose to remain in Babylon, preferring the more prosperous lifestyle there with relative freedom under Cyrus the Great, the Persian King, rather than to return to the Promised Land to the hardship of rebuilding the Temple; and when countless Israelites remained over the centuries to live without Gentile persecution in Judah, Samaria and other Middle Eastern regions after having been conquered by Egypt, Assyria, Greece, Babylon, Persia, Rome, Nazi Germany, etc. For many Israelites experienced relative prosperity and freedom after their initial captivity in these regions and around the world - a number often rising to important positions in their adopted countries, like Joseph, Moses and Daniel; and then we have Israel in the 21st century with nearly 70 years of power and prosperity, albeit with ever present conflict with neighboring enemies.

So the context of Isa 53:3 cannot be forced to portray an extreme, unrelenting, undeserved, non-historical, unbiblical suffering of generations of the people of Israel throughout centuries of time by Gentile nations, while it is contended that God's chosen people consistently acted righteously 'most' of the time - not deserving most of the Gentile persecution that they actually suffered. Scripture indicates that the people of Israel were frequently being disciplined by the LORD, (2 Kgs 18:9-12; Jer 25:8ff; Isa 9:18-10:34); and Israel and the whole world will experience unparalleled persecution and destruction in the endtimes, (ref. Dan 9:24-27 ). Nevertheless, it is only the Servant of the LORD Who is in view in Isa 53:3 especially because of the relatively short time span in view, and the unique, sinless, unparalleled capacity of the Servant - far beyond that of the people of Israel]

(Isa 53:4 NIV) "Surely He [has taken up] our pain and [has borne] our suffering, yet we [have] considered him punished by God, stricken by Him, and afflicted."

  [Isa 53:4 concludes the context of the previous verses with, "Surely he [has taken up] our pain and [has borne] our suffering, yet we [have] considered him punished by God, stricken by Him, and afflicted" in the sense that the prophet was speaking for all mankind, and not just on behalf of the Gentile nations, as some contend. Isa 52:10, 13 & 15 confirm that the salvation of all of mankind is in view:

3) [Compare Isa 52:10, 13, 15]:

(Isa 52:10 NKJV) "The LORD has made bare His Holy Arm In the eyes of all the nations; And all the ends of the earth shall see The Salvation of our God.

(Isa 52:13 YLT) [Behold], My Servant [acts] wisely, He is [exalted], and [has] been lifted up], And [has] been [greatly exalted].

(Isa 52:15 YLT) So [does] He sprinkle many nations. Concerning Him kings shut their mouths, For that which was not recounted to them they have seen, And that which they had not heard they have understood!"

Notice the words of Isa 53:4: "Surely He [has taken up] our pain and [has borne] our suffering, yet we [have] considered him punished by God, stricken by Him, and afflicted." The author and prophet Isaiah wrote the words "our" and "we" to include himself in this group of people for whom the Servant will bring salvation, thereby encompassing the whole world - which includes, Jews and Gentiles. But while they viewed Him being executed, people considered that He had mistakenly considered that He was not taking up their sins, but being punished for His own transgressions. He was considered to have been convicted of a capital crime, because of the method of His death which was designated for such offenses . But writer and prophet Isaiah concluded that the Servant's suffering would not be for any sins of His own. For He was without sin, (Isa 53:9, 11; cf. 42:6; 49:2). He would suffer for "our," i.e., all of Isaiah's, Israel's and mankind's sins, (cf. Isa 52:10, 13-15; 53:4). This is described here as follows: "Surely He [has taken up] our pain and [has borne] our suffering," evidently referring to the eternal pain and suffering individuals who have trusted in Him would have been subjected to had the Servant not taken it upon Himself to suffer that eternal pain for all of mankind.

4) [The Popular Jewish Interpretation Of Isa 53:4]

(Isa 53:4 NIV) "Surely He [has taken up] our pain and [has borne] our suffering, yet we [have] considered him punished by God, stricken by Him, and afflicted."

The popular Jewish interpretation of Isa 53:4 is that the one speaking in this verse is the voice of the Gentile nations. It is maintained that the Jewish people are the Servant who experienced ills and pains caused by the direct and evil actions of the Gentile nations - the Gentiles' deliberate and willful persecution of them for personal gain - territorial, slave labor, natural resources, etc. The people of Israel as the Servant of the LORD throughout the centuries are maintained to have borne the consequences of the Gentile nations' sinful actions toward them and many other peoples. They have suffered and continue to suffer because of them. But it is maintained that the Gentile nations have held that the Jewish people were cursed by God - their excuse for their deliberate persecution of them. They were, and many still are, determined to see that they suffer the consequences of this alleged curse, so they continue to deliberately seek to punish Israel. It is further maintained, that some of Israel’s suffering was due to its own transgressions of Torah, but the Gentile nations, by “going overboard” with their misdeeds, inflicted most of the suffering on Israel. So it was not that God was actually punishing Israel for her sins, nevertheless it was God Who has, indeed, used the Gentile nations as a “rod” against Israel for its misdeeds, but He is not pleased with the way the Gentile nations have exceeded their “license” in this function (e.g., Zechariah 1:15).

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5) [The Popular Jewish Interpretation Of Isa 53:4 Is Neither Logical Nor Consistent With The Context - The Servant Is Not Israel]

(Isa 53:4 NIV) "Surely He [has taken up] our pain and [has borne] our suffering, yet we [have] considered him punished by God, stricken by Him, and afflicted."

From the beginning of Isaiah chapter 52, the context excludes Israel from being the Servant; albeit Israel / Jacob - the people of Israel, are also called the servant of the LORD in other passages in Isaiah, (as well as others such as the prophets in Scripture, but in a different context from the four songs in Isaiah comprising chapters 42, 49, 50, 52-53. The "song" chapters and chapter 11 as well all have in view the Servant as one Man. The Servant of the LORD elsewhere in Scripture which refers to the people of Israel is indicated in the following verses in Isaiah: 20:3, 41:8-9; 43:10; 44:1-2, 21, 26; 45:4; 48:20); but not in the four song passages. For Israel can neither save herself from her own sins, nor transform herself into a godly people, (Dt 31:17-18; Jer 1:1-16; 2:20; 3:1ff; 4:1; 7:18-19; 19:1-13; Isa 59:1-14; Ezek 8:17; 11:1-20; 16:26-59; 36:16-21; 31ff; 1 Kgs 19:18; 2 Kgs 23:1-20, etc. ), nor come back to take possession of the entire Promised Land forever under her own auspices. The people of Israel need the Servant of the LORD of the song passages in Isaiah to provide unilateral action to do these things. It takes the Power and Justice and Sovereignty of the LORD to accomplish this, under the auspices of sinless Humanity to save the people of Israel from their sins, transform them into a godly people, restore them to the Promised Land, and provide unparalleled prosperity for them, (ref. Ezek 36:24-27 . The people of Israel have no capacity to do this by themselves as shown by centuries of unfaithful history . This is what is in view in the context of these four songs and corroborated by the many passages about the fulfillment of the New Covenant :

So it is the Servant of the LORD - a single Jewish Individual, not collective Israel - Who is the Salvation of our God, the provider of Israel's redemption and the redemption / salvation of all mankind. It is He Who is the Holy Arm of the LORD Who will have been seen by all the nations to the ends of the earth, (Isa 49:1-13 ; 52:3, 7-10). It is He Who has sprinkled / washed away the sins of many nations in the sense of all mankind, (Isa 52:15, cf. 49:1-13 ); Who has borne their griefs and sorrows - the sins of all mankind, (Isa 53:4); Who has been pierced through for all of mankind's transgressions wherein the chastening / punishment for mankind's restoration to peace with God fell upon Him. And by His having been scourged - severely whipped - all mankind has been [spiritually] healed, (Isa 53:5). So the Servant has been put to physical death, (Isa 53:8); He has been crushed, He has been put to the grief due mankind, He has been made a guilt offering - a substitutionary atonement for the sins of all mankind - which is scriptural . Nevertheless the LORD will see His Seed and prolong His days - raising Him from the dead to live eternally in greatly exalted prosperity, (Isa 52:10, 13; 53:10). For He - the Servant - has justified many by bearing their iniquities, (Isa 53:11); has borne the sin of many [all mankind], [intercedes] for the transgressors [all mankind], in the sense of substitutionary atonement ], (Isa 53:12)]

a) [Review Of Isa 52:10, 13-14]:

(Isa 52:10 NKJV) "The LORD has made bare His Holy Arm In the eyes of all the nations; And all the ends of the earth shall see The Salvation of our God.

(Isa 52:13 YLT) [Behold], My Servant [acts] wisely, He is [exalted], and [has] been lifted up], And [has] been [greatly exalted].

(Isa 52:14 HCSB) Just as many [have been astonished] at You - His appearance was so disfigured that He did not look like a man, and His form did not resemble a human being -"

Relative to the context of people at all the ends of the earth seeing the Salvation of our God - the greatly exalted Servant of the LORD - and their being astonished by Him, by His disfigured appearance: most of mankind throughout history would not have been present at the time and place in their mortal bodies when the Servant brought salvation to the world through His substitutionary atonement - a time when they would have had the opportunity to observe Him and then would have been astonished in the sense of astonished disbelief at His exaltation with His disfigured, inhuman appearance. Furthermore, most of mankind would not have had the opportunity in their mortal bodies to see Him when He will have been greatly exalted. Hence the timeframe(s) in view in Isa 52:10, 13-14 must be when the Servant will have been resurrected, (ref., Isa 53:10), into a glorified, exalted state, (ref. Isa 52:13); evidently still appearing with / bearing His inhuman disfigurement, (ref., Isa 52:14). So the timeframe of Isa 52:10, 13-14 is the afterlife of most of mankind as well as those of mankind that are still alive in their mortal bodies at the yet future time of the revelation of the Servant coming upon the earth in His exalted glory which is in view in Isa 52:13-14 - at which time or times all will be astonished in the sense of astonished disbelief at and in awe of His appearance, (cf. Zech 12:10-14 ).

There will be an unbelieving mindset by most of mankind which will be evidenced by their not having acknowledged Who the Servant is and what He did for them during their mortal lives; and by their astonished disbelief when they see Him in His exalted glory, (cf. vv 13-15). Although mankind's sins will have been washed away, those who never believe in Him for salvation will not be personally forgiven of their sins because they will never have believed in Him, (cf. Isa 53:1). Hence they will not receive eternal life and dwell forever in the Eternal Kingdom of God, (Isa chapter 49 , and passages on the New Covenant ).

The vast majority of people throughout history will be so irretrievably entrenched in their own religious / philosophical systems that they will not be disposed to consider, much less believe in God's plan of salvation through a moment of faith in His Servant - His Holy Arm of salvation alone, whether told about Him or not, (cf. Isa 53:1). They will have lived out their lives choosing not to consider Who He is.

The Servant's mission for the LORD required Him to raise up the tribes of Jacob, to restore the preserved ones of Israel unto the entire Promised Land; to be the Light of the salvation of the LORD to the Gentiles, to be a covenant of the people of Israel, etc. And it would be the Servant's atoning sacrifice, His physical execution unto death in order to physically and spiritually die for the sins of Israel and all the nations of the world to provide that salvation to all mankind, to the ends of the earth, (cf. Isa 49:6; 52:10). At the time of the completion of His mission, His physical appearance as a result of fulfilling His mission caused Him to be so disfigured that he would not be recognizable as a man - "inhuman," pointing to being so mistreated as to cause such an extreme appearance. Those in their mortal bodies who did witness Him in the fulfillment of His mission for the salvation of mankind - and the disfigurement He suffered; and most of mankind who will have seen Him in His exalted glory - those who did not believe in Who He claimed to be, nor even consider what He claimed to have done, nor even gaze upon Him - considered that He had been executed for His own sins, (Isa 53:4).

So the one who is 'speaking' in Isa 53:4 is Isaiah the Jewish prophet and writer. He would not be speaking on behalf of the Gentile nations, as some contend, but on behalf of God. Nevertheless, some contend that the Gentiles are declaring through Isaiah that they have repented of persecuting Israel relentlessly for centuries and now, somehow in the light of what they mistakenly view in Isa 52:13 as the Servant, Israel's glorious exaltation, they understand that Israel is truly God's chosen people who have wrongly suffered under their persecution. The contenders further impose the idea that the Gentile nations had always considered that it was God Who was punishing Israel despite the fact that it was they, in their own minds, who were doing the persecution for their own personal gain; and they did not even know the God of Israel. For the contenders maintain that at some future time Israel will be glorified and exalted as if they are the Servant in Isa 52:13 - and they are not ; and they further maintain that the Gentile nations will have repented of their relentless persecution Israel under their own auspices, as if such perfect repentance is possible with sinful man, in the sense of ceasing to doing all wrong things which then will forgive their past sinfulness. But this does not make sense, nor does it fit the context of the passage. Why would a Jewish writer and prophet speak on behalf of the Gentiles? There are no words in the text that indicate such a dramatic change in the point of view of Isaiah's writing in verse 4 such as "Thus say the nations." And why would the Gentiles think that their supposed persecution of Israel was caused by a God they did not believe in or even know in the first place? For in the Gentile mindset, it was their decision to do the persecution - which usually included other peoples besides Israel as well - for their own personal gain - they weren't doing anything for the God of Israel? Even if perfect repentance is possible with sinful man - and it is not, how does repenting from evil result in forgiveness of past evils - it does not! And what about all the prosperous times when Israel was not under persecution ? And what about all the times when God used other nations - the Gentile nations to punish Israel for being so unfaithful - and not in a small way as this "popular" interpretation suggests, (cf. 2 Kgs 18:9-12; Jer 25:8ff; Isa 9:8-10:34)? Finally, Isa 53:4 indicates that the Servant was innocent of anything that He was suffering for, (Isa 53:9b, 11; 49:2), unlike the people of Israel, (Dt 31:17-18; Jer 1:1-16; 2:20; 3:1ff; 4:1; 7:18-19; 19:1-13; Isa 59:1-14; Ezek 8:17; 11:1-20; 16:26-59; 36:16-21; 31ff; 1 Kgs 19:18; 2 Kgs 23:1-20, etc. ), or anyone born of Adam, (Isa 64:6-7; Gen 8:21; Eccl 7:20; Jer 17:9; Ps 51:5; Job 14:1-4). The text of Isa 53:4 says that He took up "our" pain, and bore "our" suffering, the "our" evidently including the writer Isaiah, Israel and all mankind for the purpose of providing salvation for all mankind throughout history as stipulated in Isa 52:1-10 - key verses which contribute mightily to the context of this passage of all mankind - Israel, the Gentiles and Isaiah - being in view in Isaiah chapter 53 as those whose iniquities were being borne by the Servant - and not just the Gentile nations . But Israel was not so innocent, as previously indicated . Therefore the people of Israel cannot be in view as the Servant in Isa 53:4, nor can the Gentiles be speaking in this verse, or Isaiah speaking for them.

Note that the Hebrew verbs tranliterated "ānśā," literally, "He has borne," which is best rendered "He [the Servant] has taken up [our - Isaiah's, Israel's and all mankind's suffering, (Isa 52:1-10]" and "sĕbālām," literally, "He [the Servant] has carried" [our - all mankind's pain] cannot be construed to refer to the Gentile nations' bringing suffering and pain upon the Servant by persecuting Him. The words rendered "suffering" and "pain" are modified by the word rendered "our" referring to the suffering and pain which were due to the Gentile nations and due to Israel, and the whole world for all of mankind's own wrong doing. Hence Isaiah included himself as part of this group of all mankind for whom the Servant suffered. He was not being a spokesman for the Gentile nations, as some contend. And He suffered and died for mankind's own sins, taking punishment upon Himself, i.e., substitutionary atonement which is Scriptural ]

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J) 3333J (Isa 53:5-6) The Holy Arm Of The LORD, The Salvation Of Our God, His Servant Was Pierced For Mankind's Transgressions, Crushed For All Of Mankind's Iniquities. The Chastisement For The Purpose Of Establishing Mankind's Peace With God Falls Upon Him. By His Scourging All Mankind Is Healed Spiritually From Sins. For All Mankind Has Gone Astray / Sinned. And The LORD Has Laid On Him The Iniquity Of All Mankind

(Isa 53:5 NASB) "But He was pierced through for our transgressions, He was crushed for our iniquities; The [chastisement] for our [peace = absence of conflict and strife with God] [falls] upon Him, And by His scourging [= stripes] we are healed. [lit., "there is healing to us."]

  [The remnant of Jewish believers who were entrusted by God with the report / the message through the prophets, such as Isaiah, (Isa 3:1), goes on to say in Isa 53:5 that instead of paying for His own sins (of which He had none, (ref. Isa 53:9b, 11; 49:2), "He was pierced through for our transgressions" - the prophet here writing / speaking on behalf of all mankind, not just Israel. For the Servant is the Salvation of all mankind to the ends of the earth throughout the ages and into eternity, (cf. Isa 52:10, 15; 49:1-6; 42:6).

Note that the Hebrew participal of the verb transliterated "chālal" - which can mean to fatally wound, bore through, pierce through transliterated "mĕhōlāl" and rendered "pierced" is not a translation error, as some contend in order to break the corroboration with later New Testament Scripture; {the reference of Jesus being nailed to the cross, (Jn 19:18), and pierced with a Roman spear, (Jn 19:34)}. The meaning of "pierced through" is one of a number of available meanings for the Hebrew verb. And it best fits the context of Isa 53:5. Another example of this verb meaning best fitting the context of "piercing through" unto death is in Isa 51:9 with the same Hebrew verb in the form of a participle transliterated "mĕhŏlelet" and rendered "pierced" in the NASB, or more literally "piercing," in the YLT referring to the piercing of Rahab, cutting her in pieces as with a sword in order to slaughter her to death:

1) [Compare Isa 51:9]:

(Isa 51:9 NASB) "Awake, awake, put on strength, O arm of the LORD; Awake as in the days of old, the generations of long ago. Was it not You who cut Rahab in pieces, [piercing, YLT] the dragon?"

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2) [Compare Zech 12:10-14]:

(Zech 12:10 NASB) "I will pour out on the house of David and on the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the Spirit of grace and of supplication, [Ezek 36:26-27 ], so that they will look on Me whom they have pierced [Isa 53:5 ] and they will mourn for Him, as one mourns for an only son, and they will weep bitterly over Him like the bitter weeping over a firstborn.

[Just as in Exek 36:26-27 which has in view the fulfillment of the New Covenant, so Zech 12:10 has in view the same event which includes the LORD pouring out His Spirit on the house of David and on the inhabitants of Jerusalem, i.e., "the Spirit of grace and supplication." And the focus at that time is the Servant Who has been pierced [Isa 53:5 ], Who will restore all of Israel into the Promised Land, (Isa 49:1-6 ).

Notice that a single individual Who was pierced for mankind's transgressions is in view in Zech 12:10 upon Whom all of that generation of Israel is looking and acknowledging Who He is, i.e., believing in Him for justification unto forgiveness of sins, (cf Isa 53:11 ): One Who then cannot be all of Israel. Hence the Servant in Isa 53:5 Who was pierced is also a single individual, Who cannot be all Israel at the same time.

[Bible Knowledge Commentary, Walvoord & Zuck, Editors, Victor Books, USA, 1988]:

12:10a. Both leaders (the house of David) and commoners (the inhabitants of Jerusalem)—thus excluding no Israelites (cf. 13:1) - will be the objects of the outpouring of the divine spirit of grace and supplication. This is most probably a reference to the Holy Spirit..., so called because He will minister graciously to Israel in her sinful condition and will lead her to supplication and repentance.

12:10b. Thus Israelites will receive divine enablement to look on Me, the One they have pierced. The Lord refers to the nation's action of piercing Him, a term usually indicating "piercing to death." ... The "looking" could be either physical vision (sight) or spiritual vision (faith). Probably it refers here to both, ... when Israel will recognize her Messiah and turn to Him [byfaith]. The change to the third person (mourn for Him, rather than "mourn for Me") is common in prophetic literature. The mourning for sin that is prompted by the outpoured Spirit is illustrated by a private act of mourning (v. 10) and a public act of mourning (v. 11). The loss of an only child or of a firstborn son was aggravated by the felt curse associated with childlessness and the lack of an heir to continue the family name and property]

(Zech 12:11 NASB) In that day there will be great mourning in Jerusalem, like the mourning of Hadadrimmon in the plain of Megiddo. 

(Zech 12:12 NASB) The land will mourn, every family by itself; the family of the house of David by itself and their wives by themselves; the family of the house of Nathan by itself and their wives by themselves; 

(Zech 12:13 NASB) the family of the house of Levi by itself and their wives by themselves; the family of the Shimeites by itself and their wives by themselves;

(Zech 12:14 NASB) all the families that remain, every family by itself and their wives by themselves."

J cont.) 3333J (Isa 53:5-6 cont.) The Holy Arm Of The LORD, The Salvation Of Our God, His Servant Was Pierced For Mankind's Transgressions, Crushed For All Of Mankind's Iniquities. The Chastisement For The Purpose Of Establishing Mankind's Peace With God Falls Upon Him. By His Scourging All Mankind Is Healed Spiritually From Sins. For All Mankind Has Gone Astray / Sinned. And The LORD Has Laid On Him The Iniquity Of All Mankind, (cont.)

(Isa 53:5 NASB) "But He was pierced through for our transgressions, He was crushed for our iniquities; The [chastisement] for our [peace = absence of conflict and strife with God] [falls] upon Him, And by His scourging [= stripes] we are healed. [lit., "there is healing to us" (cont.)]

And "He [the Servant] was crushed," in the sense of physically and spiritually being destroyed unto death - for our / all mankind's iniquities - a physical and emotional destruction.

The word "peace" in the phrase rendered "The chastisement for our peace falls upon Him" signifies that the Servant, the Holy Arm of the LORD took upon Himself God's chastisement / God's punishment for mankind's sins. The "our" includes author Isaiah, a Jew representing all Israel and speaking for all the (Gentile) nations as well due to Isa 52:10, 15; 49:1-6; 42:6 being included in the Servant's salvation. So all of mankind's sins are included in God's chastisement / punishment of the Servant in order to reconcile man to God with the result of providing eternal peace between God and man to those who trust in the Servant's sacrifice for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life, (Isa 53:1, 11). So peace here is defined as the absence of an individual's conflict and strife with the LORD God because of unforgiven sins which place him under the eternal wrath of God. So those who will choose to trust alone in the atonement work of the Servant alone will have eternal peace, i.e., eternal life with God, (cf. Isa 53:1 ; 53:11 ). The peace in view is an eternal peace - a positional eternal peace wherein one is in an eternal, peaceful position with God, no longer under His eternal wrath which is reserved for unbelievers - the unforgiven. It is not necessarily a temporal peaceful experience because that depends upon the believer being in fellowship with God moment to moment in his temporal life, beginning first with trusting in the Servant - the Arm of the LORD alone for eternal life to become a believer; and thereafter through confession of sins and consequent faithfulness as David wrote about, (Ps 32:1-11 ).

The phrase rendered, "And by His scourging, [i.e., stripes] we are healed," indicates that the Servant of the LORD would be severely whipped - scourged - as part of the punishment He would suffer for the sins of mankind. This rules out the Servant being collective Israel all receiving such a punishment throughout the centuries.

The phrase has in view all of mankind who believe being healed of ones iniquities, i.e., ones sins; i.e., of being spiritually healed which is clear from the words,  "transgressions," (vv. 5, 8); "iniquities," (vv. 5, 11); "iniquity," (v. 6); "wicked," (v. 9); "transgressors," (v. 12 twice); and "sin," (v. 12); and not healed physically as some contend. For physical healing has not been a part of the context of this passage. Believers, even faithful ones, will still suffer physically while in their mortal bodies. On the other hand once an individual has been totally healed of sin, wherein their being no longer has the capacity to commit sins, then physical ailments will not be an intrinsic part of ones being - which is not today in this age until the resurrections of believers commence. Then physical ailments will not be an intrinsic part of ones being. On the other hand, physical ailments will not be part of the experience of believers after the fulfillment of the New Covenant .

Notice a singular, masculine individual human being is in view Who was pierced and crushed not only for the "people" of Israel but for "our transgressions" and "our iniquities," i.e., for "many nations," i.e., for the salvation of all mankind including author Isaiah representing all of Israel and mankind, (ref. Isa 52:10, 15; 49:1-6; 42:6). Hence all of mankind's transgressions are in view being put upon a single individual human being, and not upon Israel, nor upon the prophets, nor upon a remnant of believers, as some contend. An individual is in view Who "was cut off out of the land of the living," [i.e., He was executed for the transgression of My people [and all people, (Isa 52:10, 15)] to whom the blow was due," (Isa 53:8). He was not only executed by His people when they sinned and murdered Him, not only by the Gentiles when they sinned and murdered Him, but also He died for the sins of His people and all the nations of the world, taking the blow - the punishment for their sins - in their stead, to atone for their sins. Therefore, in view in Isa 53:5 is not the Servant being Israel, because the verse would deteriorate into nonsense because Israel or any group of humans cannot take upon itself their own sins in substitution for themselves, in order to be forgiven of them, and die in the process, leaving no Israelite alive to be redeemed and to inherit the Promised Land in their mortal bodies.

The doctrine of substitutionary atonement / payment for someone elses's sins is not a false doctrine, as some contend. It is in view in Isa 53:5 and elsewhere in Scripture . Furthermore, the contention that the people of Israel are the Servant of the LORD which people suffered because of relentless, undeserved persecution brought upon them by the Gentile nations over centuries of time is not valid because the Servant in the context of this passage is a single individual according to Isa 52:1-53:3 , Isa 53:4   and Isa 9:6-7 .

2) [The Popular Jewish Interpretation Of Isa 53:5a & b Selects An Available Meaning, (And Excludes Other Meanings), For The Preposition Transliterated "min" Because It Is Consistent With Their View Against Substitutionary / Vicarious Atonement]

(Isa 53:5 NASB) "But He was pierced through for our transgressions, He was crushed for our iniquities; The [chastisement] for our [peace = absence of conflict and strife with God] [falls] upon Him, And by His scourging [= stripes] we are healed. [lit., "there is healing to us" (cont.)]

The Hebrew preposition rendered "for" in the two phrases, Isa 53:5a & b are - מ-\ מ (mei-\mi-). Both are abbreviations of the preposition מִן (min), meaning "because of" or "for" depending upon the context.

The popular Jewish interpretation of Isa 53:5 conveys the servant as Israel being repeatedly hurt because of the sinful acts of the Gentile nations toward them, not being punished for in the sense of in place of the iniquity - the sins committed by all mankind, i.e., substitutionary atonement for all mankind. This punishment that Israel will have received is falsely perceived as originating with the Gentile nations as deliberate, relentless, cruel and enduring persecution for centuries - beyond anything that the LORD intended. But the length of time, the relentlessness and severity of this persecution is neither historically, nor biblically accurate . Furthermore, the Bible conveys that the Servant in Isaiah chapters 42, 49, 50, 52-53 is an individual man, not Israel or anyone else and chapter 11 as well . These chapters convey that the Servant vicariously took upon Himself the sins - the iniquity - of all mankind. So the iniquity of all mankind caused him, and not mankind, to bear the consequences for all of mankind's iniquities. This is a context that has been consistent from the beginning of this passage in Isa 52:1. This is especially in view at Isa 53:2 . This context continues on through to the end of chapter 53; and it is present in other passages in Isaiah such as Isa 9:6-7 ; 11:1-16 49:1-13 ; 42:1-13; and throughout Scripture - especially in the New Testament .

So the two prepositions should be rendered “for” in the first two phrases of Isa 53:5 - instead of "because of." The two are abbreviations of the Hebrew preposition "min." According to the ongoing context they must serve to convey that the Servant took upon Himself the iniquities of all mankind, not just suffered because of the iniquity / the persecution of them by the Gentile nations. So the Servant was crushed for all of mankind's sins - expiating them through His suffering. This idea contradicts the popular Jewish interpretation of Isa 53:5a & b which demands "because of" the iniquities of the Gentiles. For to them, vicarious atonement is strictly forbidden. They insist that each person is responsible for his or her own sins, citing a number of passages such as Exodus 32:31-33; Numbers 35:33; Deuteronomy 24:16; 2 Kings 14:6; Jeremiah 31:29 [30 in Christian Bibles]; Ezekiel 18:4,20; Psalms 49:7-8). Properly examined, none of these passages rule out substitutionary atonement , rather there are key passages in Scripture rule it in .

3) [The Popular Jewish Interpretation Of Isa 53:5a & b Arbitrarily Rules Out An Available Meaning Of The Preposition "min" Because It Signifies Substitutionary Atonement Which Doctrine They Reject Because Of False Interpretations Derived From An Improper Interpretation Of Passages Elsewhere Which Do Not Have The Subject Of Substitutionary Atonement For Forgiveness Of Sins Unto Eternal Life In View. But Substitutionary Atonement Is Corroborated By Isa 53:c & d And The Rest Of Scripture]:

(Isa 53:5 NASB) "But He was pierced through for our transgressions, He was crushed for our iniquities; The [chastisement] for our [peace = absence of conflict and strife with God] [falls] upon Him, And by His scourging [= stripes] we are healed. [lit., "there is healing to us" (cont.)]

The Hebrew preposition transliterated "mi-" and "mē" both rendered "for" [Str #H4480] in the phrases in Isa 53:5a & b rendered "but He was pierced through for our transgressions" and "He was crushed for our iniquities" has a large number of available meanings, not the least of which is "for" in the sense of "in place of another" as opposed to "as a result of another's actions," or "because of another's actions toward one," which these latter meanings are also available but do not best fit the context of the verse or the passage from 52:1 on. The last two phrases of Isa 53:5 determine the best interpretation of the first two phrases by virtue of the context of the verse and the overall context leading up to the verse from Isa 52:1. These last two phrases are rendered as follows:

(Isa 53:5c) "The [chastisement] for our peace falls upon Him" where the Hebrew preposition transliterated " 'ā" [Str #H5921] is clearly rendered "for" in the sense of punishment received in place of that punishment which is due to another;" i.e., substitutionary / vicarious atonement; and the phrase,

(Isa 53:5d) "And by ["with"] His scourging [=stripes] we are healed [lit. "there is healing to us"]" where the Hebrew preposition transliterated "ba" [Complete Biblical Library Hebrew Lexicon #904] which is best rendered "by" or "with" in the sense of "because of the Servant receiving the punishment due to all mankind, i.e., being scourged we [all mankind] are healed."

So the last two phrases of Isa 53:5 convey the message of the Servant receiving punishment that was due to all mankind, thereby causing all mankind to be able to be spiritually healed. This meaning comes by applying the available meaning "for" for the preposition "min," which best fits the context of the verse, the passage, Isa 52:1-53:12 and related passages in Isa 9:6-7; 49:1-13; 42:1-13; . Therefore the first two phrases of Isa 53:5 must convey the same message in order to be consistent with the last two which clearly convey substitutionary atonement, in order not to have the verse deteriorate into contradictory nonsense.

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The following passages some contend - those who espouse the popular Jewish interpretation of Isa 52-53  - prove that Substitutionary atonement is not biblical; but in fact, when carefully examined they either do not address the subject at all, or fully support the concept of substitutionary atonement in order to provide mankind with salvation unto forgiveness of sins unto eternal life whenever one believes in the Servant and His provision of it, (cf. Isa 53:1):

a) [Compare Exod 32:30-33]:

(Exod 32:30 NASB) "On the next day Moses said to the people, 'You yourselves have committed a great sin; and now I am going up to the LORD, perhaps I can make atonement for your sin.'

[In view is the forestalling of temporal judgment, i.e., early physical death for the perpetrators of idolatry. Atonement for sins unto eternal life is not in view. And God's answer for the idolatry was to cause the early physical death for the guilty parties. What happens to them after physical death is not addressed]

(Exod 32:31 NASB) Then Moses returned to the LORD, and said, 'Alas, this people has committed a great sin, and they have made a god of gold for themselves.

(Exod 32:32 NASB) But now, if You will, forgive their sin - and if not, please blot me out from Your book which You have written!'

[In Ex 32:31-33 we do not have in view a reference to the Book of Life. Moses was not asking God to have his name blotted out in order to go to hell. He was asking God to let him die rather than be associated with such an idolatrous people. The Book in view operates as a census book of Israel in which physical death results in ones name being blotted out - which is what occurred to those in Israel who practiced idolatry, (v. 35; Dt 1:35-36; 2:14)]

(Exod 32:33 NASB) The LORD said to Moses, 'Whoever has sinned against Me, I will blot him out of My book.' "

[So Ex 32:20-33 is not a statement about substitutionary atonement for mankind's sins relative to eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God]

[Bible Knowledge Commentary, Walvoord & Zuck, Editors, Victor Books, USA, 1988]:

"32:30-35. Though the major instigators of the plot were put to the sword (except for Aaron, for whom Moses interceded, Deut. 9:20) Moses recognized that the nation as a whole shared the guilt. Therefore he again entreated the Lord for atonement for their sin. Moses told God that if He refused to forgive His people he would prefer to have his name removed from the book God had written (Ex. 32:32). Some say this was the book of life (Rev. 20:15; 21:27) that lists believers' names but, more likely, it was the census of the people. Moses' statement probably indicated he was willing to die a premature death (but not suffer eternal torment in hell). He did not want to be associated with a sinful, unforgiven people. Rejecting Moses' offer, God promised to punish the sinners (by premature death). Some died of a plague (Ex. 32:35) and all fighting men (except Joshua and Caleb) died later in the desert (Deut. 1:35-36; 2:14). Yet God said Moses would lead the nation (the younger generation) to the land promised them (Ex. 32:34)."

b) [Compare Nu 35:31-33]: 

(Nu 35:31 NASB) " 'Moreover, you shall not take ransom for the life of a murderer who is guilty of death, but he shall surely be put to death.

[Note that this is capital punishment not subsititutionary atonement for sins unto eternal life. What happens to them after physical death is not addressed]

(Nu 35:32 NASB) 'You shall not take ransom for him who has fled to his city of refuge, that he may return to live in the land before the death of the priest.

(Nu 35:33 NASB) So you shall not pollute the land in which you are; for blood pollutes the land and no expiation can be made for the land for the blood that is shed on it, except by the blood of him who shed it.' " 

[Bible Knowledge Commentary, Walvoord & Zuck, Editors, Victor Books, USA, 1988]:

"A murderer could not merely pay a fine (ransom) or otherwise redeem himself - he must die (Num. 35:31). Likewise a manslayer who had been confined to a city of refuge could not pay a monetary compensation (ransom) in lieu of his confinement (v. 32). The reason for such strict measures was the fact that bloodshed in murder pollutes the land and the only "cleansing" agent was the blood of the murderer himself (Gen. 4:10; 9:6). It was not fitting that Israel and the Lord, who lived in Israel's midst, should occupy a polluted land. So blood vengeance was not an option but a theological necessity."

c) [Compare Dt 24:16; 2 Kgs 14:6]:

(Dt 24:16 NASB) "Fathers shall not be put to death for their sons, nor shall sons be put to death for their fathers; everyone shall be put to death for his own sin."

(2 Kgs 14:6 NASB) "But the sons of the slayers he did not put to death, according to what is written in the book of the Law of Moses, as the LORD commanded, saying, 'The fathers shall not be put to death for the sons, nor the sons be put to death for the fathers; but each shall be put to death for his own sin.' "

[Again this is about capital punishment, not about substitutionary atonement for mankind's sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God]

[Bible Knowledge Commentary, Walvoord & Zuck, Editors, Victor Books, USA, 1988]:

"Dt 24:16. Though personal responsibility was the norm in the law codes of the ancient Near East, in some cases a son was permitted to be put to death in place of his father (e.g., Code of Hammurabi, Law 230), though again (cf. comments on 22:22) no court records indicate that this was ever enforced. Moses forbade such a practice: each is to die for his own sin (cf. comments on Num. 14:26-35). It was true, however, that a father who rebelled against the Lord might influence his descendants to do the same (see comments on Deut. 5:9).

"2 Kgs 14:6 In obedience to God's Law (Deut. 24:16) Amaziah did not execute the children of his father's assassins as was customarily done by Near Eastern monarchs. He trusted God to control these potential rebels."

d) [Compare Jer 31:30-31]:

(Jer 31:30 NASB) " 'But everyone will die for his own iniquity; each man who eats the sour grapes, his teeth will be set on edge.

(Jer 31:31 NASB) Behold, days are coming,' declares the LORD, "when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah,' "

[As this passage unfolds, it is evident that the New Covenant is intimately connected with substitutionary atonement, not disconnected from it! ]

[Bible Knowledge Commentary, Walvoord & Zuck, Editors, Victor Books, USA, 1988]:

"Jer 31:27-30. God vowed to provide a new beginning for His covenant people. In this new age God will plant the nations of Israel and Judah with the offspring of men and animals. Jeremiah again used agricultural and architectural metaphors to illustrate God's work (cf. comments on 1:10). God had judged Judah for her sin, but He will reverse that judgment.

God's work for the nation will silence a proverb that was common in Jeremiah's day (cf. comments on Ezek. 18:2-4). Those facing judgment in Jeremiah's day felt they were being unfairly punished by God for their ancestors' sins. Though the fathers had eaten sour grapes, it was the children who experienced the effects of having their teeth... set on edge. This proverb was false because it implied that God was unrighteous. God's justice will guarantee that each guilty person will die for his own sin.

Jer 31:31-37. In addition to a new beginning God promised to make a New Covenant with His people. This New Covenant was expressly for the house of Israel (the Northern Kingdom) and the house of Judah (the Southern Kingdom). It would not be like the covenant God had made with Israel's forefathers at the time of the Exodus because that covenant had been broken by the people (cf. 11:1-8). The earlier covenant God referred to was the Mosaic Covenant contained in the Books of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. Twice God had announced a series of punishments or "curses" that would be invoked on those who violated His Law (Lev. 26; Deut. 28). The final judgment would be a physical deportation from the land of Israel. With the destruction of Jerusalem in 586 b.c. this final "curse" was completed. God had set a holy standard of conduct before the people, but because of their sinful hearts they could not keep those standards. A change was needed.

God's New Covenant will involve an internalization of His Law. He will put His Law in their minds and on their hearts, not just on stones (Ex. 34:1). There will be no need to exhort people to know the Lord because they will already all know God (cf. Isa. 11:9; Hab. 2:14). God's New Covenant will give Israel the inner ability to obey His righteous standards and thus to enjoy His blessings. Ezekiel indicated that this change will result from God's bestowal of the Holy Spirit on these believers (cf. Ezek. 36:24-32). In Old Testament times the Holy Spirit did not universally indwell all believers. Thus one different aspect of the New Covenant is the indwelling of the Holy Spirit in all believers (cf. Joel 2:28-32).

A second aspect of the New Covenant will be God's provision for sin. The sins of the people resulted in the curses of the Old Covenant. However, as part of the New Covenant God will forgive Israel's wickedness and remember their sins no more. But how could a holy God overlook sin? The answer is that God did not "overlook" sin—its penalty was paid for by a Substitute (cf. Isa. 53:4-6). In the Upper Room Christ announced that the New Covenant was to be inaugurated through the shedding of His blood (cf. Matt. 26:27-28; Luke 22:20). Forgiveness of sin would be part of the New Covenant only because God provided a Substitute to pay the penalty required of man."

e) [Compare Ezek 18:4, 20]:

(Ezek 18:4 NASB) "Behold, all souls are Mine; the soul of the father as well as the soul of the son is Mine. The soul who sins will die.

(Ezek 18:20 NASB) The person who sins will die. The son will not bear the punishment for the father's iniquity, nor will the father bear the punishment for the son's iniquity; the righteousness of the righteous will be upon himself, and the wickedness of the wicked will be upon himself.

(Ezek 18:21 NASB) But if the wicked man turns from all his sins which he has committed and observes all My statutes and practices justice and righteousness, he shall surely live; he shall not die."

[Premature physical death due to sinfulness or death forestalled by repentance, i.e., temporal deliverance is in view, substitutionary atonement unto eternal life is not]

[Bible Knowledge Commentary, Walvoord & Zuck, Editors, Victor Books, USA, 1988]:

"18:1-4. God asked Ezekiel about a proverb being circulated. This proverb—The fathers eat sour grapes, and the children's teeth are set on edge—must have been well known in Israel because Jeremiah also quoted it (cf. Jer. 31:29-30). The proverb's point was that children were suffering because of their parents' sins. True, Jerusalem was suffering, but as stated in the proverb the people thought they were suffering not because of their sins but because of their parents' sins. So these people were blaming God for punishing them unjustly (cf. Ezek. 18:25).

God saw that this false proverb had to be refuted. Yet, as with all false doctrines, a kernel of truth in the teaching made it seem plausible. In the Ten Commandments God indicated that He was "a jealous God, punishing the children for the sin of the fathers to the third and fourth generation of those who hate Me" (Ex. 20:5). This same threat was repeated in Exodus 34:6-7 and Deuteronomy 5:9. Even Ezekiel had traced God's coming judgment back to the people's past actions (cf. Ezek. 16:15-29). But the point of these passages was that the effects of sin are serious and long-lasting, not that God capriciously punishes the innocent for their ancestors' evil ways.

Blaming others for their misfortunes, the people were denying their own guilt. This was wrong because every individual is personally responsible to God. For every living soul belongs to Me, the father as well as the son. Those who are guilty will receive their own deserved punishment. The soul who sins is the one who will die (cf. 18:20). The people of Israel could not rightly charge God with injustice.

Ezek 18:14-20. Ezekiel's third case continued to follow this hypothetical family. Suppose (cf. "suppose" in vv. 5, 10) this wicked son has a son who sees all the sins of his father but does not do such things himself. Instead of following in the sin of his father, this son followed in the righteous path of his grandfather (cf. vv. 15-16 with vv. 6-9).

God's conclusion is obvious: He will not die for his father's sin; he will surely live. A righteous son will not be punished for his father's evil deeds. But his father will die for his own sin. The proverb being quoted (v. 2) was incorrect. When the people were judged, it was not for the sins of someone in a former generation. Only those who remained faithful to God would be delivered (v. 19). (By the word live Ezekiel meant escaping punishment in this life. See comments on v. 24.) Ezekiel then repeated his point: The soul who sins is the one who will die (v. 20; cf. v. 4).

Ezek 18:21-23. However, escape from judgment was possible. Sinners could avoid judgment if they repented of their sins by turning from them (cf. Prov. 28:13) and kept God's decrees. Ezekiel was not teaching salvation by works. First, he was speaking of a temporal deliverance from Babylon's armies rather than eternal deliverance from the second death (Ezek. 18:13). Second, he clearly indicated that these righteous works would spring only from a "new heart and a new spirit" (v. 31). Good works result from a changed life; they do not bring about such a change."

f) [Compare Ps 49:7-13]:

(Ps 49:7 NASB) "No man can by any means redeem his brother Or give to God a ransom for him -

(Ps 49:8 NASB) For the redemption of his soul is costly, And he should cease trying forever -

(Ps 49:9 NASB) That he should live on eternally, That he should not undergo decay.

(Ps 49:10 NASB) For he sees that even wise men die; The stupid and the senseless alike perish And leave their wealth to others.

(Ps 49:11 NASB) Their inner thought is that their houses are forever And their dwelling places to all generations; They have called their lands after their own names.

(Ps 49:12 NASB) But man in his pomp will not endure; He is like the beasts that perish.

(Ps 49:13 NASB) This is the way of those who are foolish, And of those after them who approve their words. Selah."

[This passage in Ps 49 is all about mortal man thinking he can be immortal somehow - such as giving his brother in payment for living on eternally, or paying a ransom, or leaving behind 'eternal' monuments like their name living on in history through descendants, or their name being on monuments, institutions, cities, countries, etc. But in the end all will perish, their mortal lives will cease. Although it is true that a sinful man cannot be a ransom for another relative to the other's punishment for sins unto eternal life, because the sacrificial lamb must be without imperfection before God and all men are sinners, (ref. Isa 64:6-7; Gen 8:21; Eccl 7:20; Jer 17:9; Ps 51:5; Job 14:1-4); Scripture has foretold of One Who will be without sin, called by the LORD to be His Arm of salvation as an atoning sacrifice for mankind's sins unto eternal life ]

[Bible Knowledge Commentary, Walvoord & Zuck, Editors, Victor Books, USA, 1988]:

Ps 49:5. In verses 5-12 the wise poet reported his observation that the prosperous have a false security. He introduced his theme in verse 5 by stating that he marveled that he ever feared evil times brought on by the wicked. Their glory is only temporary.

Ps 49:6-9. He developed this idea by noting that the proud and arrogant cannot redeem (cf. comments on 26:11) another person's life. Life is too costly for a man to ransom, even by great riches. Wealth cannot prevent death.

Ps 49:10-12. The truth stated in verses 6-9 is known even among the wealthy. They—as well as the foolish—die (cf. Ecc. 2:15-16) and leave their wealth to their heirs (cf. Ecc. 2:19-21). Their new places of residence will be the grave, even though their earthly dwellings or lands may bear their names. Man's body, like the bodies of animals, dies (cf. Ecc. 3:19-20)."

4) [The Popular Jewish Interpretation Of Isa 53:5d  Maintains That The Last Phrase Is To Be Rendered "And By His Scourging [= stripes] We Were Healed" Instead Of "We Are Healed" Which Appears In Most Christian Versions. But The Verb Is Literally And Best Rendered "There Is Healing To Us," Within The Context Of A Yet Future Event - Which Largely Agrees With "We Are Healed"]

(Isa 53:5 NASB) "But He was pierced through for our transgressions, He was crushed for our iniquities; The [chastisement] for our [peace = absence of conflict and strife with God] [falls] upon Him, And by His scourging [= stripes] we are healed. [lit., "there is healing to us" (cont.)]

According to the popular Jewish interpretation of Isa 53:5, the closing phrase of this verse which the Christian Bibles have [KJV, NASB, NKJV, HOLMAN, ASV, KJV, NIV, etc.] is "we are healed," [the YLT has "is healing to us"]; whereas the Jewish translation has "we were healed" portraying a past event. The popular Jewish interpretation maintains that the literal translation of the phrase נִרְפָּא־לָנוּ is "[it] was healed for us," refers to an illness from which one has been healed. And from this comes their interpretation of an idiomatic expression translated  “we were healed.”

But there is no indication of past action in the Hebrew form of the verb in question. The Hebrew verb נִרְפָּא־לָנוּ transliterated "nirpā'-lān" consists of nirpā' which is a participle, masculine singular, literally "[it is] healing" not healed or we were healed. The verb comes with the preposition as a pronomial suffix in the first person common singular "-lān," literally "us." The Youngs Literal Translation has the phrase literally as "there is healing to us," in the context of a yet future event.

The timeframe of Isaiah's writing of this passage is during the latter stages of the Babylonian captivity of a large number of Israelites. Since Israel had not yet been completely restored to and in full possession of the entire Promised Land, nor had the exaltation of the Servant occurred yet, (Isa 52:13); nor had the scourging of the Servant been completed in Isaiah's timeframe; then the action portrayed in Isa 53:5 was still in the future to the timeframe of when Isaiah wrote chapters 52-53. So the popular Jewish interpretation of a past event of healing does not suit the context. Furthermore, the literal phrase "it is healing" best suits the context of an ongoing healing begining when the events portrayed in Isa 53:5 occur - yet future events.

5) [The Popular Jewish Interpretation Of The Last Phrase Of Isa 53:5 Which They Interpret To Say "And by His [Israel's] bruise we [Gentiles] were healed" Is In Error]

(Isa 53:5 NASB) "But He was pierced through for our transgressions, He was crushed for our iniquities; The [chastisement] for our [peace = absence of conflict and strife with God] [falls] upon Him, And by His scourging [= stripes] we are healed. [lit., "there is healing to us" (cont.)]

The popular Jewish interpretation of the last phrase of Isa 53:5 which they maintain should be rendered "And by His [Israel's] bruise we [Gentiles] were healed" is also in error relative to the word rendered "bruise" and relative to their understanding that the Servant "He" is Israel.

The Hebrew word transliterated "chăvurāh is a collective noun which means "injuries" or "bruises," plural. The Christian Bibles render it "stripes," (KJV), (NKJV), (ASB) - (as is imparted by a whip); "scourging," (NASB);  "bruise," (YLT); "wounds," (HOLMAN), (NIV); while the Jewish translation renders it as a singular wound and implies that this wound is not a substitutionary wound that was due another. But the popular Jewish interpretation maintains that the wound that the Gentile nations perpetrated upon the Servant [Israel] will cause the Gentiles to realize their wrongdoing, repent of it and thereby be healed, thereby avoiding substitutionary atonement.

On the other hand, the context of Isa 52:1-10-53:12 repeatedly describes the sufferings [plural] of the Servant of the LORD as a single individual; the One Who is an Israelite; Who is born of a woman; Who is the Seed of God, both God and Man, without sin, Who is the Personification of the New Covenant appointed by the LORD to the people, Israel - to all mankind, (Isa 42:6 ; 49:8) - to restore Israel forever into the Promised Land and the earth and to bring salvation unto eternal life to Israel and to all mankind, (Isa 9:6-7 ; 49:1-13 , cf. Isa 42:1-13 ; 52:5; Ezek chs 36-37; Jer chs 30-31). In view in the context is One Whose griefs and sorrows and transgressions [plural] for which He suffered are not His own.

The following points especially identify the Servant's sufferings as substitutionary (cp., v. 4, "our griefs He Himself bore, And our sorrows He carried"). The substitutionary imagery of verse 6c ("the LORD has caused the iniquity of us all to fall on Him") is drawn straight from Leviticus chapter 16 . The language of Isa 53 clearly includes the penal aspect (cp. v. 5, "pierced... crushed... chastising ... scourging"). So the sufferings of the Servant of the LORD are not because of the sins or collective sin of others deliberately committed upon the Servant, who is Israel being wrongfully persecuted by Gentile nations, as some contend. The sufferings due others for their iniquity being borne / carried by the Servant, (Heb. "nAsA" = borne, carried, (v. 4)) is in view in Isa 52:1-53:12).

So according to Scripture the LORD's Servant meets all the requirements for being a substitutionary sacrifice - which is prophetically pictured in Scripture :

(1) identification with condemned sinners (Isa 53:8, "For the transgression of My people, to whom the stroke was due," including all mankind, (Isa 52:9-13; 15)

(2) being blameless and without any stain or spot to mar His sacrifice (ref. Isa 53:9, cf. 11; 49:2 "He had done no violence. Nor was there any deceit in His mouth").

[Note that this excludes the people of Israel, except the One Who is an Israelite born of a woman, the Seed of God - both God and Man without sin, the New Covenant appointed by the LORD to the people, Israel - to all mankind - to restore Israel forever into the Promised Land and the earth and bring salvation unto eternal life to Israel and to all mankind, (Isa 9:6-7 ; 49:1-13 , cf. Isa 42:1-13 ; 52:5; Ezek chs 36-37; Jer chs 30-31)]

(3) and being acceptable to the LORD as a guilt offering, (Isa 53:10, cf. 11) "But the LORD was pleased to crush Him, putting Him to grief ... as a guilt offering;" (and not as an act by Gentiles of persecution toward Israel, as some contend)]

(Isa 53:6 NKJV) "All we like sheep have gone astray; We have turned, every one, to his own way; And the LORD has laid on Him the iniquity [the sum of a collection of sins, i.e., all kinds of and the sum total of the sins of all mankind] of us all."

  [Notice that all mankind is in view - again the prophet / writer is speaking for all of mankind, not just Israel or the remnant of believers, as some contend - corroborating that the entire passage has all mankind throughout history in view relative to for whom the Servant paid for sins, (cf. Isa 52:9-13, 15; 49:1-6; 49:6; 53:4-12). So it is all of mankind which is contaminated with sin. They have all been in sin with sin natures who commit acts of sin all the time, (Isa 64:6-7; Gen 8:21; Eccl 7:20; Jer 17:9; Ps 51:5; Job 14:1-4). And like sheep we all follow one another into sin - one sin after the other. No one is without sin, except the Righteous One, the Servant of the LORD, (Isa 42:6; 49:2; 53:9, 11). So verses 5 & 6 stipulate that the Servant was crushed for all of mankind's iniquities, i.e., for all sins committed both conscious and unaware, past, present and future for all time. But because of the Servant's atoning sacrifice, no one is going to be held accountable for paying for his own sins - even the worst of us. On the other hand, each person must be forgiven of his sins unto eternal life so that he will not remain a sinner after his mortal life is over . It is by a moment of faith in the Servant that one will be given the gift of the Righteousness of God, as Abraham experienced , and thereby qualifying that person to be with God in eternity in the Eternal Kingdom of God; and thereby be resurrected after death into a perfect, sinless being unto eternal life, ]

6) [The Popular Jewish Interpretation Of Isa 53:6 Attempts To Force An Alternative Translation That Better Suits Their Point Of View Instead Of One That Suits The Context. Furthermore The Alternative Translation Adds Information From Elsewhere In Scripture That Is Not In View And Which Does Not Fit The Context Of Isa 53:6 Either]

(Isa 53:6 NKJV) "All we like sheep have gone astray; We have turned, every one, to his own way; And the LORD has laid on Him the iniquity [the sum of a collection of sins, i.e., all kinds of and the sum total of the sins of all mankind] of us all."

Relative to the phrase rendered in the NKJV, "The LORD has laid on Him [the Servant] the iniquity of us all," the popular Jewish interpretation conveys that "the LORD has inflicted upon him [reinterpreting him to be Israel as the Servant] the iniquity of all of us [restricting this word to refer only to the Gentile nations]," with Israel being subjected to the Gentile nations' iniquity - its sinful, unrelenting, centuries-long persecution toward Israel, meting out undeserved punishment toward the Israelites which in the end, it is maintained, will serve to purify, redeem and exalt her. There is notably the absence of forgiveness of sins through payment for them either by themselves or by a qualified, sinlessly perfect Substitute, despite the fact that substitutionary atonement is biblical .

This popular Jewish interpretaton of Isa 53:6 has another version which moves even further away from the doctrine of the substitutionary atonement of one Man for all mankind: The Hebrew verb "hipga' " rendered "has laid upon Him" in the sense of inflicted upon Him the iniquity of us all in the phrase rendered in the NKJV, "the LORD has laid upon Him the iniquity of all of us," has other possible / available meanings such as 'has hit," 'has hurt,' 'has insulted,' 'has bid,' 'has prayed,' 'has requested,' has interceded [in prayer] for, has supplicated, (cf., Genesis 23:8, Isaiah 53:12, 59:16, Jeremiah 7:16, 27:18, Job 21:15, Ruth 1:16).

So based on another available meaning for this verb, i.e., "has interceded [in prayer] for" an alternative meaning for Isa 53:6 is arrived at which better suits the Jewish point of view; namely, "[the LORD] has accepted His [the Servant Israel's] prayers for us all [the Gentile nations]," which meaning is arrived at despite not fitting the context in order to avoid conveying a message of vicarious atonement, and to promote a message of Israel's purification, redemption and exaltation as the servant of the LORD, which now includes Israel's intercessory prayer for the Gentiles as an act that, it is contended, will help to provide Israel with purification, redemption and exaltation.

According to this alternative popular Jewish interpretation, the Gentile nations, like stray sheep, left the path of their designated mission given to them by the LORD and will go beyond the limits that God set for them, and persecute the servant, Israel, relentlessly for centuries. But the Servant is neither Israel ; nor were the people relentlessly persecuted for centuries . Nevertheless, the popular Jewish interpretations contend that through all of their persecution, the Jewish people will pray and intercede on the Gentile's behalf as part of both of their redemptions.

An example of this is, they maintain, can be found in Jeremiah's letter to the Jewish exiles in Babylon, wherein he conveys to them God's message to pray for the peace of the cities in which they dwell:

a) [Compare Jer 29:7]:

(Jer 20:7 NASB) "Seek the welfare of the city where I have sent you into exile, and pray to the LORD on its behalf; for in its welfare you will have wellfare."

Although intercessory prayer is commanded by God for ones welfare, etc., it is never stipulated in Scripture as a means of forgiveness of sins.

So both popular Jewish interpretations of Isa 53:6 contradict a proper examination of the Bible . For Israel is improperly forced into the context via these interpretations in order to be the servant. But this is clearly not the case for the Servant at any time in chapters 42, 49 , 50 or in 52-53 ; nor in chapter 49 ; nor in chapter 11 as well . And by these interpretations, the iniquity that the LORD laid upon the Servant is manipulated away from being a substitutionary atonement; and instead it is viewed as relentless, undeserved, persecutory evil foistered upon Israel by the Gentile nations throughout the centuries in order to purify the generations of Israel from their sins.

But the contexts of Isa 49:1-13 and 52:1-53:12, (and chapters 42 & 50, etc.), support the Servant of the LORD as a single Individual, Who is born an Israelite, born of a woman, the Redeemer of Israel, the Holy One Of Israel Who is both God and Man: Isa 49:1-13  and Isa 9:6-7 , Who is described  in Isa 52:1-53:12 as the Servant of the LORD Who has brought salvation through His atonement for the sins of all mankind. He is the Salvation, and the Redeemer of Israel and of all mankind, (Isa 52:9-13) .

Despite the fact that the popular Jewish interpretations of Isa 53:6 avoid substitutionary atonement; the context of the passage up to this point is decidedly in favor of substitutionary atonement which is fully corroborated by Old Testament Scripture .

The popular Jewish interpretations maintain that God punished Israel wherein He often used Gentile nations as His "rod of discipline,"and they cite Scripture to support this:

b) [Compare Isa 10:5; cf. Jer 51:20]:

(Isa 10:5 NASB) "Woe to Assyria, the rod of My anger And the staff in whose hands is My indignation,"

c) [Compare Hab 1:6-12]:

(Hab 1:6 NASB) "For behold, I am raising up the Chaldeans, That fierce and impetuous people Who march throughout the earth To seize dwelling places which are not theirs.

(Hab 1:7 NASB) They are dreaded and feared; Their justice and authority originate with themselves.

(Hab 1:8 NASB) Their horses are swifter than leopards And keener than wolves in the evening. Their horsemen come galloping, Their horsemen come from afar; They fly like an eagle swooping down to devour.

(Hab 1:9 NASB) All of them come for violence. Their horde of faces moves forward. They collect captives like sand.

(Hab 1:10 NASB) They mock at kings And rulers are a laughing matter to them. They laugh at every fortress And heap up rubble to capture it.

(Hab 1:11 NASB) Then they will sweep through like the wind and pass on. But they will be held guilty, They whose strength is their god.

(Hab 1:12 NASB) Are You not from everlasting, O LORD, my God, my Holy One? We will not die. You, O LORD, have appointed them to judge; And You, O Rock, have established them to correct."

Furthermore, Israel will experience unparalleled persecution in the endtimes, (Ezek chs 38 & 39; Joel 3:9-14; Zeph 3:15-20; Dan 9:24-27 ).

From these passages the case is attempted to be made that the Gentile nations were used by God to punish Israel relentlessly for centuries, and that the Gentiles went beyond their specific mission from God and thereby caused Israel to suffer more than what God had intended.

And such suffering, even if God had ordained it, would not lead to Israel's purification unto holiness and faithfulness to the LORD resulting in their being redeemed, forgiven, lifted up and exalted, as it is contended. No where in Scripture does it teach that salvation unto eternal life is available through temporal suffering - deserved or undeserved. Even eternal suffering will not change an individual into a sinless being and qualify him to spend eternity with the LORD God. Either an individual is born without sin and leads a perfectly sinless life, or he accepts by faith the free gift of eternal life in God's provision through substitutionary atonement for him made by the Descendant (the Seed) of Abraham as Abraham did .

Furthermore, Israel has not suffered centuries of unwarranted persecution by the Gentile nations, as some contend. For there were times when the people of Israel were not under persecution, but blessing. And not all of her persecution was undeserved . Furthermore, without a sacrifice for sins, there can be no forgiveneness of sins, (Lev 17:11): a substitutionary atonement is needed and promised - through the Servant, the One Individual born of Israel, born of a woman, Who is without sin, (Isa 53:9, 11; 42:6; 49:2), and both God and Man, (Isa 9:6-7 ). And the Servant in this passage in Isa 52:1-53:12 is not Israel ).

K) 3333K (Isa 53:7-9) The Holy Arm Of The LORD, The Salvation Of Our God, His Servant, Despite His Innocence, He Has Been Oppressed And Afflicted. He Did Not Open His Mouth: Like A Lamb That Is Led To Slaughter - Like A Sheep That Is Silent Before Its Shearers. By Oppression And False Judgment He Has Been Taken Away, And Executed For The Transgressions Of All Mankind, To Whom That Punishment Was Due - Few Of Whom Considered Him At All. His Grave Was To Be With The Wicked, But He Was Buried In A Tomb Assigned For The Rich. He Had Done No Violence, Neither Was There Any Deceit In His Mouth - Without Sin

(Isa 53:7 NASB) "He [has been] oppressed and He is afflicted, Yet He [does not] open His mouth; Like a lamb that is led to slaughter, And like a sheep that is silent before its shearers, So He [does not] open His mouth."

  [He [the Servant] was oppressed - persecuted in the sense of one who is innocent, i.e., without sin, (Isa 42:6; 49:2; 53:9, 11). Yet He was persistently attacked as if guilty. And He was afflicted - tortured. And through this, the Arm = the Strength and Representative of God submitted to the sacrifice of Himself willingly as a sheep led to the slaughter - in silence, without complaint. It is implied here that there was absolutely no case against Him. Nevertheless He did not attempt to defend Himself, but went willingly to His sacrifice. He is "the salvation of our God," Who was sacrificed for the sins of the whole world, (Isa 52:10-13, 15; 53:4-12); so as to bring to mankind - Jew and Gentile alike - the availability of eternal and temporal peace and spiritual healing = eternal forgiveness of their sins, (ref. Isa 53:5) - all through believing in this availability through His atoning sacrifice for forgiveness of one's sins, (Isa 53:1), just as Abraham was accounted for righteousness when he believed .

1) The Popular Jewish Interpretation of Isa 53:7 Maintains That The Remnant Of Israel Has Been Relentlessly Massacred Like Sheep Being Slaughtered, A Symbolism That Is Reflected Throughout Scripture Which They Maintain Corroborates Their Interpretation

(Isa 53:7 NASB) "He [has been] oppressed and He is afflicted, Yet He [does not] open His mouth; Like a lamb that is led to slaughter, And like a sheep that is silent before its shearers, So He [does not] open His mouth."

The popular Jewish interpretation of Isa 53:7 is one that suggests a portrayal of the people of all generations of or the remnant of faithful believers of Israel being relentlessly massacred like sheep being slaughtered - a portrayal that is - they maintain - symbolic of Israel's history and experience throughout the ages at the hand of the Gentile nations which they contend is reflected elsewhere in Scripture as well, such as in Zech 11:4-7; Ps 44:11-26; Dan 9:24-27; Ezek chs 38-39; Joel 3:9-14; Zeph 3:15-20. But the context of these six passages and others, although they might reflect Israel's conflicts with Gentile nations, because of incompatible contexts they are not applicable to be compared with the passage at hand in Isaiah chapter 52-53, especially 53:7.

For from the beginning of Isaiah chapter 52, the context excludes Israel from being the Servant, and excludes thus the context of their being in conflict with the Gentile nations. Although Israel / Jacob - the people of Israel, are also called the servant of the LORD in other passages in Isaiah, (as well as others such as the prophets in Scripture; these other passages, such as Isaiah: 20:3, 41:8-9; 43:10; 44:1-2, 21, 26; 45:4; 48:20, have a different context from the four songs in Isaiah comprising chapters 42 , 49 , 50 and 52-53 . The "song" chapters and chapter 11 as well   all have in view the Servant as one Righteous, sinless Man, Who will suffer and die for the sins of all mankind, not because of the persecution of the Gentile nations against Him or Israel or anyone in order Himself to be purged from sins - for the Servant has no sins. No one from Israel - and no man except the sinless One, the Arm and salvation of the LORD - can save oneself from ones own sins, nor purge oneself to achieve perfect righteousness, repentance and salvation via persevering through relentless suffering at the hands of the Gentile nations or any agent. Nor can one transform oneself into a godly person. Nor can a generation of Israelites come back from the dead after suffering persecution that cuts them off from the land of the living, (Isa 53:8), and then take possession of the entire Promised Land forever in mortal bodies in order to fulfill God's New Covenant with them. They would already be dead! The people of Israel - and all mankind - need the Righteous Servant of the LORD as depicted in the song passages in Isaiah as well as in chapter 11 which teach that God will provide His unilateral action to do these things. It takes the Absolute Righteousness, Almighty Power, Perfect Justice and Absolute Sovereignty of the LORD to accomplish these things through One Perfectly Sinless Human born of a woman unto Israel in order to fulfill that New Covenant, (Isa 9:6-7). The people of Israel have no capacity do do these things themselves as shown by centuries of unfaithful history - nor does any Gentile, (Isa 64:6-7 ; cf. Gen 8:21; Eccl 7:20; Jer 17:9; Ps 51:5; Job 14:1-4). This is what is in view in the context of these four songs and corroborated by the many passages about the fulfillment of the New Covenant such as Jeremiah chapters 30-31, and Ezek chapters 36-37 .

So it is the Servant of the LORD - a single Jewish Individual, not collective Israel - Who is the Salvation of our God, the provider of Israel's redemption and the redemption / salvation of all mankind. It is He Who is the Holy Arm of the LORD Who will have been seen by all the nations to the ends of the earth, (Isa 49:1-13 ; 52:3, 7-10). It is He Who has sprinkled / washed away the sins of many nations in the sense of all mankind, (Isa 52:15, cf. 49:1-13 ); Who has borne their griefs and sorrows - the sins of all mankind, (Isa 53:4); Who has been pierced through for all of mankind's transgressions wherein the chastening / punishment for mankind's restoration to peace with God fell upon Him. And by His having been scourged - severely whipped - all mankind has been [spiritually] healed, (Isa 53:5). So the Servant has been put to physical death, (Isa 53:8); He has been crushed, He has been put to the grief due mankind, He has been made a guilt offering - a substitutionary atonement for the sins of all mankind - which is scriptural . Nevertheless the LORD will see His Seed and prolong His days - raising Him from the dead to live eternally in greatly exalted prosperity, (Isa 52:10, 13; 53:10). For He - the Servant - has justified many by bearing their iniquities, (Isa 53:11); has borne the sin of many [all mankind], [intercedes] for the transgressors [all mankind, in the sense of substitutionary atonement ], (Isa 53:12)]

(Isa 53:8 NASB) "[Because] of oppression and [because of] judgment He [the Servant will have been] taken away; And as for His generation, who [considers] that He was cut off out of the land of the living? For the transgressions of My people...

[מ in the word מִפֶּשַׁע (transliterated "mippeša',") altogether may be translated “for the transgression” or “because of the transgression,” of My people]

... [a blow [came] to Him.

[literally, "nega" = a stroke or "a blow." + [came is implied] + lām = to Him]

  [The Servant would be unjustifiably oppressed - unlawfully arrested, bound and taken away as a prisoner to die. He would evidently be illegally tried, judged and sentenced to die - not because of any sins of His own, (for He was without sin, (ref. Isa 42:6; 53:9, 11; 49:2); but for the sins of His people and not only for the sins of Israel, but for all mankind from the ends of the earth, (cf. Isa 52:1-10, 15), to whom such a punishment He received, was due. The phrase rendered, "And as for his generation, who considers that He was cut off out of the land of the living? For the transgression of My people [God's people, Israel] a blow [came] to Him," implies that those of His generation, His contemporaries did not consider that the reason for His death was in payment for the transgressions, the sins of the whole world, Jew and Gentile throughout the ages. Note that this verse cannot have in view Israel being the Servant of the LORD ; for the Servant will be cut off from the land of the living, leaving no one to inherit the Promised Land - a key point of fulfillment of the New Covenant, which gathers from the ends of the earth and restores a generation of mortal Israelites into the entire Promised Land . And even a figurative death of Israel has insurmountable problems in Scripture for those who interpret Israel to be the Servant in Isaiah chapters 42, 49, 50 and 52-53 and chapter 11 as well . Although the LORD viewed particular generations of His chosen people to be excluded from blessings, it neither excluded a future generation of Israelites from inheriting and being restored to the entire Promised Land, (Hos 1:10; 2:23); nor excluded them from being His chosen people if they repented and turned to Him. So Israel was never dead in the figurative sense either - in the sense of no longer His chosen people. There has always been, will always be a faithful remnant of Israelties throughout the ages which the LORD will preserve for eternal life as His chosen people since Abraham first believed and was declared righteous .

 2) [Compare Hos 1:10; 2:23]:

(Hosea 1:10 NASB) "Yet the number of the sons of Israel Will be like the sand of the sea, Which cannot be measured or numbered; And in the place Where it is said to them, "You are not My people," It will be said to them, "You are the sons of the living God."

(Hos 2:23 NASB) "I will sow her for Myself in the land. I will also have compassion on her who had not obtained compassion, And I will say to those who were not My people, 'You are My people!' And they will say, 'You are my God!' "

Furthermore, the verse literally stipulates that it was for the transgressions of "My people," Israel [as well as all the nations of the world, (Isa 52:10, 13)] that the Servant paid for in suffering, i.e., for which a blow came to the Servant. The blow to the Servant was not because of the transgressions of the Gentile nations which they committed in their persecution of Israel, as some contend. For the expression rendered "My people" cannot be understood as referring to transgressions of the Gentiles. God's chosen people will always be the descendants of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. Gentiles are never referred to by the LORD as "My people" anywhere in Scripture. The gymnastics to arrive at this misinterpretation is largely motivated by the rejection of the idea of substitutionary atonement by God for man. But this then rejects the premise of the New Covenant which God has promised He will unilaterally fulfill without any contribution from His people or anyone - totally by His grace through His Servant, Who is the New Covenant given to God's people, Israel and to the nations, (Isa 49:8 ; Isa 42:6 ).

The phrase rendered "And as for His generation who considers that He was cut off out of the land of the living?," implies the answer that only a few of those who were living at the time that the Arm of the LORD, the Servant of God was executed gave any consideration that He was the salvation of God: that His death - the blow which came to Him was in payment for the sins of "My people" - as well as all mankind, (Isa 42:6; 49:6; 52:10, 15) in order to provide for them the means to receive eternal life as Abraham did - by grace through faith ]

2) The Popular Jewish Interpretation Of Isa 53:8 Does Not Stand Up To Scripture Properly Interpreted

a) [Hebrew - English Interlinear]:

mē'ōser                            ȗmimmišpāt                     luqqāh                               wĕ'et-dr               m

Because of oppression  and because of judgment He will have been taken  and his generation  who


yĕśhēah          k      nigzar                mē'eres                hayyȋm    mippeša'

it will consider that  He was cut off  from the land of  the living  because of the transgressions of


'ammȋ        nega'       lām

my people  a blow    to Him

b) [Judaica Press Complete Tanach Isa 53:8]:

(Judaica Press Complete Tanach Isa 53:8) "From imprisonment and from judgment he is taken, and his generation who shall tell? For he was cut off from the land of the living; because of the transgression of my people, a plague befell [to] them."

Notice the difference with the text from a Christian Bible:

c) [Compare Isa 53:8]:

(Isa 53:8 NASB) "[Because] of oppression and [because of] judgment He [the Servant will have been] taken away; And as for His generation, who [considers] that He was cut off out of the land of the living? For the transgressions of My people...

[The prefixed preposition מ in the word מִפֶּשַׁע (transliterated "mippeša',") altogether may be translated “for the transgression” or “because of the transgression,”]

... [a blow [came] to Him.

[literally, "nega" = a stroke or "a blow." + [came is implied] + lām = to Him]

The debate involving this verse primarily concerns two matters:

i) [The Hebrew word לָמוֹ transliterated "lām" can be rendered "to Him" or "to them."]:

The Hebrew word לָמוֹ transliterated "lām" can be rendered "to Him" or "to them." The word consists of the preposition ל which is usually translated as “for,” or "to" combined with a rare pronominal suffix מו- which can be either 3rd person singular "to him," or plural, "to them," depending upon the context.

Some (most Jewish translations) translate the word לָמוֹ “to them,” indicating a plural object which they insist can only be plural; as in "For he [referring to the Servant as collective Israel] was cut off from the land of the living; because of the transgression of My people [which is forced to refer to the Gentiles, since the Servant is supposed to be Israel], a plague befell [to] them [referring to the Gentiles as "My people" in order to be consistent with the Servant being collective Israel. So in their viewpoint the verse indicates that it is a plague or a blow befalling to the Gentiles unto physical death.They obviously cannot render "My people" to be Israel because then all of the Jews would perish in a plague, and that would leave no one to exist in mortal bodies to inherit the Promised Land, thus voiding God's promises to Israel in the New Covenant.

But the word can also include a masculine, singular meaning as well:

[Compare Job 22:2]:

(Job 22:2 NKJV) "Can a man be profitable to God, Though he who is wise may [he] be profitable to himself?" = singular

(Job 22:2 Hebrew) הַלְאֵל יִסְכָּן גָּבֶר כִּי יִסְכֹּן עָלֵימֹו מַשְׂכִּיל;

[Compare Job 20:23b]:

(Job 20:23 NASB) "[When he fills his belly, God will send His fierce anger on him.] = singular

And will rain it on him while he is eating."

(Job 20:23b Hebrew) וְיַמְטֵר עָלֵימוֹ בִּלְחוּמוֹ.

So other versions which include most Christian translations, render the Hebrew word לָמוֹ (lām) in Isa 53:8 "to Him" indicating a 3rd person singular object; as in "He was cut off out of the land of the living; for the transgression of My people [Israel] a blow [came] to Him

[a blow which led to physical death, i.e., cut off out of the land of the living].

Although the word "nega' " can be rendered "plague," or "blow; it is best rendered "blow" because it best fits the context of "pierced," "bruised," from verse 5. And verse 8 also seems to convey more of a sudden death than a plague; although "sicknesses," "pains," and "plagued" are in view in vv. 3-4.

So, contrary to the popular Jewish interpretation which limits the suffix to plural, the pronomial suffix מוֹ is not only a 3rd person, masculine plural suffix when joined with verbs, nouns, and words; but מוֹ is also a 3rd person, masculine singular suffix when joined with verbs, nouns, and words depending upon context:

For the מ and the ו (i.e., מוֹ) contain the masculine gender, plural and the masculine gender, singular, respectively. The מ indicates the 3rd person, masculine plural; and the ו indicates the 3rd person, masculine singular. Therefore, מוֹ indicates 3rd person, masculine, plural; and 3rd person, masculine, singular, depending upon context.

Since the context in Isa 53:8 from the beginning of the passage in chapter 52 has in view the Servant, ("He") Who is not collective Israel, but a single Jewish Individual, and since the Servant here in Isa 53:8 could not be collective Israel having suffered to death under Gentile persecution for generations / for centuries because the phrase "And as for his generation, who considers that he was cut off out of the land of the living?" as collective Israel would include many generations, not just one. And if all of Israel died it would leave no one to inherit the Promised Land, cancelling the New Covenant that the LORD made with Israel.

So it is the single individual Jew Who is the Salvation of our God, the provider of Israel's redemption and the redemption / salvation of all mankind. It is He Who is the Holy Arm of the LORD Who will have been seen by all the nations to the ends of the earth as the salvation of our God, the New Covenant to Israel, the Righteous One, the One Who will raise up the tribes of Jacob and restore the preserved ones of Israel - their salvation, and restore her to prosperity in the Promised Land (Isa 49:1-13 ; 52:3, 7-10). It is He Who has sprinkled / washed away the sins of many nations in the sense of all mankind, (Isa 52:15, cf. 49:1-13 ); Who has borne their griefs and sorrows - the sins of all mankind, (Isa 53:4); Who has been pierced through for all of mankind's transgressions wherein the chastening / punishment for mankind's restoration to peace with God fell upon Him. And by His having been scourged - severely whipped - all mankind has been [spiritually] healed, (Isa 53:5). So the Servant has been put to physical death, (Isa 53:8); He has been crushed, He has been put to the grief due mankind for mankind's iniquities, He has been made a guilt offering - a substitutionary atonement for the sins of all mankind - which is after all is said and done, scriptural . Nevertheless the LORD will see His Seed and prolong His days - raising Him from the dead to live eternally in greatly exalted prosperity, (Isa 52:10, 13; 53:10). For He - the Servant - has justified many by bearing their iniquities, (Isa 53:11); has borne the sin of many [all mankind], [intercedes] for the transgressors [all mankind, in the sense of substitutionary atonement ], (Isa 53:12)]

ii) The prefixed preposition מ in the word מִפֶּשַׁע (transliterated "mippeša',") altogether may be translated “for the transgression” or “because of the transgression,"]:

The prefixed preposition מ in the word מִפֶּשַׁע (transliterated "mippeša',") altogether may be translated “for the transgression” or “because of the transgression,” or "on account of the transgression," depending upon the context of the verse and passage that it is in.

The context of Isa 53:8 has been corroborated consistently by chapters 42 , 49 & 50 , and chapter 11 as well ; and especially from the beginning of chapter 52 to the end of 53 - of the Servant being a single Jewish Individual without sin; with attributes and functionality far beyond those of collective Israel - even far beyond the remnant of faithful believers - not the least of which are the washing / the cleansing of the sins, the salvation / redemption of Israel and of all the nations to the ends of the earth - the transforming all of mankind into godly people, the bringing about Israel's restoration to and rule over the entire Promised Land in unparalleled prosperity as the world's ruling nation forever . But first and foremost is the Servant being the One and only substitutionary atonement for the sins of all mankind, which after all is said and done, is Biblical ]

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(Isa 53:9 NKJV) "And it [has been made, (perfect tense)] His grave with the wicked - but with the rich at his death; Because he had done no violence, Nor was any deceit in his mouth."

  [The Arm of God was evidently an individual Man; a Descendant of Israel, (cf. Isa 9:6-7 ); without violence, lies or sin: "He had done no violence, neither was any deceit in His mouth." (Isa 53:9d; cf. Isa 53:11: "The Righteous One"). He was oppressed, taken prisoner, illegally tried, judged nevertheless and declared guilty although innocent, and executed as if wicked. He was to be buried in a mass grave assigned for the "wicked" - for those who are guilty of a capital offense, (cf. Jn 19:31). But He would be buried instead in a grave which was assigned to someone who was rich, (cf. Mt 27:57-61)

3) [The Popular Jewish Interpretation Of Isa 53:9 Examined]

(Isa 53:9 NKJV) "And it [has been made, (perfect tense)] His grave with the wicked - but with the rich at His death; Because He had done no violence, Nor was any deceit in His mouth."

The popular Jewish interpretation of Isa 53:9 maintains that there is a significant discrepancy in the first part of Isa 53:9 between the Christian translations of the Hebrew text and the Jewish translations relative to the Hebrew phrase בְּמֹתָיו (transliterated "bĕmōtāyw," rendered "at His death" which is literally in the 3rd person, singular in the Hebrew). The Jewish translations of "bĕmōtāyw" render the phrase to be "in his deaths," plural, citing a sense of an inherent plurality with a view toward the Servant being Israel, ("his"), who they consider to be a collective singular, i.e., a plurality of individuals. But then there was offered no explanation as to the interpretation of collective / plural Israel being in view in the other phrases of Isa 53:9: "His grave was assigned with wicked men," "He had done no violence" and "Nor was there any deceit in His mouth." Certainly collective Israel has more than one grave, is not innocent of committing sinful violent acts, and has more than one mouth which is not innocent of acts of a deceitful tongue.

On the other hand, Christian Bibles render the term "in [at] his death, in the singular form, because the term is 3rd person, singular in the Hebrew, and in accordance with the context of the entire passage from Isa 52:1-53:12 which has the Servant to be a singular individual Jew Who died for the sins of Israel and all mankind . In the portrayal of the Servant in the Christian Bible, the three other phrases in Isa 53:9 are wholly consistent with the context of a single Individual buried in a single grave - one prepared for a rich man. For not all Israelites have been buried in graves for the rich. And this Individual is without sin, not having done violence in a sinful manner, nor was there any deceit in His mouth, (Isa 42:6; 49:2; 53:9, 11). And not any other Israelite is without sin]

L) 3333L (Isa 53:10-11) Yet It Pleased The LORD To Bruise [Crush] Him / Cause Him To Suffer The Grief Of Such A Physical And Spiritual Death As To Accomplish His Purpose Of An Offering For Sin For The Restoration Of Mankind To Himself Via The LORD's Servant's Atoning Sacrifice. Thereafter The LORD Shall Raise His Seed - His One And Only Son - From The Dead, And Prolong His Days Forever. And In His Hand, The LORD Will Take Pleasure In Prospering Him - In Exalting Him Forever

And As A Result Of The Anguish Of His Soul In His Physical And Spiritual Death For His Atonement For Sins, The Seed Of God, The Arm / The Servant Of The LORD, The One And Only Son Of God Will See What He Has Accomplished And Be Satisfied With That. For By The Knowedge - By A Moment Of Faith In Him - In His Atonement, The Righteous One - The One Without Sin Will Justify The Many - Those Who Have Believed, As He Has Borne Upon Himself Their Iniquities And Those Of All Mankind

(Isa 53:10 NASB) "But the LORD was pleased To crush Him, putting Him to grief; If He would render Himself as a guilt offering, He will see His offspring, He will prolong His days, And the good pleasure of the LORD will prosper in His hand."

  [It pleased the LORD to "bruise" [Heb "dakkĕ' = "to crush"] Him - to cause Him to suffer physical and spiritual death in the sense of being pleased to accomplish His purpose through His Servant of restoring mankind to Himself via an atoning sacrifice for the sins of all mankind through those that choose to believe, (Isa 53:1, , 11 ). This "offering for sin," where the word for "guilt" or "sin offering," transliterated "AsAm" from the Hebrew, is used in Lev 5:15; 6:5; 19:21 and elsewhere to refer to a sacrificial offering to atone for ones sin. The statement, "When You [the LORD] make His [the Servant's] soul [life] an offering for sin," does not mean that the sacrifice of the Servant's life satisfied the wrath of God against the Servant's own sin, as some contend. For He was without sin, (Isa 42:6 ; 49:2 , 53:9 , 11 ). Hence collective Israel over the centuries cannot be the sinless Servant, (Isa 64:6-7 ; cf. Gen 8:21; Eccl 7:20; Jer 17:9; Ps 51:5; Job 14:1-4). On the other hand, the sinless Servant's life which culminated in His death was sufficient sacrifice / atonement for all sins wherein it satisfied the righteous demands of the LORD in order to make provision for the justification of any man who trusted in that atonement - Jew and Gentile. Thereafter He [the LORD] "shall see His Seed," in the sense of the LORD shall see the Servant - His Son in His Humanity, (Isa 9:6-7; Isa 49:5), be resurrected from the dead - no longer cut off out of the land of the living, (Isa 53:8); and He will prolong His days, referring to the Humanity of His One and only Son being raised from the dead to everlasting life. And the LORD shall take pleasure in prospering Him - in exalting Him forever, (ref. Isa 52:13) - all this by the hand of His Almighty power.

Note that the word rendered "Seed" does not refer to the seed of the Servant of the LORD in Isaiah 53:10 in the plural sense of the word so that those that believe in the Servant for salvation unto eternal life become children of God, born of God as in John 1:12, as some contend; because the context in Isaiah 53 does not address the issue of Jews and Gentiles becoming born of God, children of God when they believe in the One Who has provided atonement for ones sins. So the reader would not be informed within the context of the Book of Isaiah to draw that conclusion. On the other hand, the Seed as the One born of a woman, (Isa 49:1, 5), Who is both God and Man according to Isa 9:6-7, Isa 49:1-13 and Isa 52:1-53:12 build up the context to clearly support that the Seed is the One and only Son of God, born of a woman, both God and Man, the Redeemer of Israel, the Holy One of God, the Servant of the LORD, the Seed of God - Who has made atonement for the sins of all mankind; and through a moment of faith in Him alone each one will receive forgiveness of sins and eternal life.

So the physical death and burial of the Servant of the LORD - the Arm of the LORD - appeared to end His physical existence for those that executed and / or opposed Him relative to His Humanity, (not His Diety as the Son of God, cf. Isa 9:6-7). For Isaiah 53:8 stipulates that He was "cut off" in the sense of being cut off out of the land of the living. On the other hand, verse 10 stipulates that He [the LORD] "shall see His Seed, [in the singular sense of the word] He shall prolong His days," i.e., He will resurrect His Humanity and the LORD God will prolong His days, i.e., live on forever as the Son of God in His Humanity, (His Deity is by nature eternal). So the Servant will be blessed (prosper; cf. Isa. 53:12a) because of His obedience to the will and plan of the LORD by the hand of His Almighty power.

1) [The Popular Jewish Interpretation Of Isa 53:10]

(Isa 53:10 NASB) "But the LORD was pleased To crush Him, putting Him to grief; If He would render Himself as a guilt offering, He will see His offspring, He will prolong His days, And the good pleasure of the LORD will prosper in His hand."

The popular Jewish interpretation of Isa 53:10 maintains that the second phrase should be translated "if his [referring to the Servant as Israel] soul would acknowledge guilt" whereas the Christian Bible rendering such as in the NASB, "If He [referring to the Servant as an individual Jew - both God and Man ] would render Himself as a guilt offering." The Christian translation is linguistically accurate but rejected because the Jewish mindset behind their interpretation rejects the concept of substitutionary atonement, despite it being clearly biblical .

Whereupon the popular Jewish interpretation concludes that should Israel acknowledge her guilt, she will be rewarded: "he [referring to Israel] shall have descendants [or see progeny] in the sense of biological offspring, i.e., his physical descendants, his progeny. Although acknowledging ones guilt to the LORD, i.e., confession of ones sins to Him, may afford temporal forgiveness and temporal blessings, (ps 32 ), eternal life can only come by faith in God's promise of this through the faith of Abraham through a Messiah / Savior Descendant

But the context is of one single individual Who has been cut off from the land of the living, having chosen / rendered Himself as a guilt offering for mankind which is corroborated in the next verse. So the physical death and burial of the Servant of the LORD - the Arm of the LORD - ended His physical existence - a physical death of His Humanity, (not His Diety as the Son of God, cf. Isa 9:6-7). For Isaiah 53:8 stipulates that He was "cut off" in the sense of being cut off out of the land of the living. So if collective Israel is in view in Isa 53:11 as the Servant, then all of a generation of Israel is destined to be cut off from the land of the living, preventing her restoration to the Promised Land in mortal bodies; and hence the failure of God to fulfill the New Covenant - God's promise to Israel and all mankind. On the other hand, verse 10 stipulates that He [the LORD] "shall see His Seed, [in the singular sense of the word], He shall prolong His days," i.e., He will resurrect His Humanity and the LORD God will prolong His days, i.e., live on forever as the Son of God in His Humanity, (His Deity is by nature eternal - see "Mighty God," "Everlasting Father" in Isa 9:6-7 ). So the Servant will be blessed (prosper; cf. Isa. 53:12a) because of His obedience to the will and plan of the LORD by the hand of His Almighty power.

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(Isa 53:11 NASB) "As a result of the anguish of His soul, He will see it and be satisfied; by [(the) knowledge of Him] the Righteous One, My Servant, will justify the many, As He will bear their iniquities."

  [As a result of the anguish of His [the Servant's] soul / of His life which has in view the suffering of being pierced for mankind's transgressions, crushed for all of their iniquities, (ref. Isa 53:4-7, 10 and especially 53:5 ), He [the LORD God] will be satisfied, i.e., propitiated by the Servant's actions which resulted in all of mankind's sins being satisfactorily atoned for without violating God's Righteousness and Justice.

For without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness of sins:

2) [Compare Lev 17:11]:

(Lev 17:11 NASB) "For the life of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it to you on the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood by reason of the life that makes atonement."]

Note that the phrase in Isa 53:7 rendered "by the knowledge of Him," has the Hebrew word transliterated "beda'att" = which can mean subjectively "by His knowledge," or objectively "by the knowledge of Him." According to the Masoretic markings, the phrase links to the words which follow it and thus it is best rendered "by [the] knowledge of Him" as opposed to "by His knowledge." So the former, rather than the latter rendering best suits the context:

Since the context of this passage, (Isa 52:1-53:12) has One - a single Human Being in view - Who would provide Himself as a subsitutionary atonement, i.e., a sacrifice for the sins of all mankind by bearing all of their iniquities, as the last phrase in the verse stipulates, (Isa 53:11c); so that a Savior, the knowledge of Whom - and not a Teacher who has knowledge - would justify, i.e., declare righteous, those of mankind who have a knowledge of Him doing this for them, in the sense of those who believe in Him for it, (cf. Isa 50:10-11 ; 53:1);

and since the context of this passage cannot  have in view the Servant solely by His knowledge - solely by means of what He would know - automatically justify the many without any participation or volition on their part because that would violate the perfect Justice and Righteousness of God;

and since any alternative for God's provision of justification to an individual without the individual's consent and without exacting payment for the individual's sins would also violate the perfect Justice of God Who cannot forgive sins without exacting payment for them or trusting in a substitutionary atonement for him as Abraham did ;

then the correct rendering for the phrase in question in Isa 53:11 would be that one is justified by the knowledge of Him, i.e., by a moment of faith alone in Who He is and what He did - that He [the Servant] bore ones iniquities for justification / God's declaration of one being Righteous resulting in everlasting life.

Note that the Servant of God in Isa 53:11 is stipulated as "the Righteous One" implying sinlessness - an absolutely necessary personal attribute in order to qualify to be an acceptable atoning sacrifice for the sins of mankind. Anyone of Humankind less than perfect would neither qualify as a substitutionary atonement for sins, (Exod 12:5 ), nor be able to satisfy the Justice and Righteousness of God, (ruling out collective Israel being the Servant in this passage).

So a singular, masculine individual human being is in view in Isa 52:1-53:11 Who was wounded not only for the "people" of Israel but for "many nations," i.e., all mankind, (ref. Isa 52:10, 15; 53:5-6, 10-11); in order that those of "all the nations," those to "all the ends of the earth," may see, i.e., may be provided with the salvation of our God, (ref. Isa 49:6; 52:10). Hence all of mankind's transgressions are in view, with no limitations as some contend. For verses 5 & 6 and 10  & 11 of Isa 53 stipulate that He was pierced for all of mankind's iniquities - with no limitations stipulated, i.e., for all sins committed both conscious and unaware, past, present and future for all time.

Consider Isa 53:11 as the core message of the gospel upon which message all of the gospel passages in the bible are based: By the knowledge of Him, i.e., by a moment of faith in the Righteous Servant of God bearing their iniquities, an individual will be justified, i.e., declared to have the eternal righteousness of God unto [for] eternal life.

So here in Isaiah 52:13-53:11 is contained the gospel of eternal life. Israelites especially should know the content of Isaiah 53, since it was given to them first in order to know, understand and witness to all mankind. If any individual, Jew or Gentile, in any age understands and accepts by a moment of faith alone in the Servant alone as it is presented in Isaiah chapter 53 they would be justified unto an eternal righteouness of God unto [for] eternal life.

The last verse of this passage of Isa 52:1-53:12 completes and corroborates Isa 53:11 as follows:

1) [Isa 53:11-12]:

(Isa 53:11 NASB) "As a result of the anguish of His soul, He will see it and be satisfied; by [(the) knowledge of Him] the Righteous One, My Servant, will justify the many, As He will bear their iniquities.

(Isa 53:12 NKJV) Therefore I will divide Him a portion with the great, And He shall divide the spoil with the strong, Because He [has] poured out His soul unto death, And He [has been] numbered with the transgressors, And He [has borne] the sin of many, And [intercedes] for the transgressors."

Notice that the Servant has borne the sin of many, and [intercedes] for the transgressors. This is not sinful Israel being purified of her own sins, or enlightening the world about God and the Torah in order to receive forgiveness and be exalted, as some contend. In view in Isa 52:1-53:12 is a Righteous / sinless Individual Who is qualified to and pays the penalty for the transgressions of all of mankind throughout the ages - something which sinful Israel is not qualified to do]

2) [The Popular Jewish Interpretation Of Isa 53:11 Forces The Servant To Be Collective Israel. The People Will Be Justified By Suffering Unjustly At The Hands Of The Gentile Nations And By Instructing The Gentile Nations In God's Law. Rebuttal in Blue

(Isa 53:11 NASB) "As a result of the anguish of His soul, He will see it and be satisfied; by [(the) knowledge of Him] the Righteous One, My Servant, will justify the many, As He will bear their iniquities."

According to the popular Jewish interpretation of Isa 53:11, Israel will eventually discover and understand that God has had a special purpose in allowing such wickedness by the (Gentile) nations that leads to her persecution over centuries - evidently a purification of sins that does not require atonement for sins, whereupon they will no longer rebel against God's actions anymore, but repent into godly, faithful behavior and become purified of all sins and be exalted by the LORD forever as His chosen people.

[The Servant as collective Israel cannot be in view in Isa 53:7-11 because the Servant will be executed - cut off from the land of the living, (Isa 53:8). So if Israel was the Servant, the people would all have died and thus have failed to fufill God's promise of the New Covenant of restoring a generation of alive Israelites in mortal bodies in the Promised Land . Furthermore, repentance does not erase past sins, nor result in forgiveness; nor is it possible in sinful mortal bodies to repent at all, (Isa 64:6-7 ). Forgiveness unto eternal life requires a substitutionary atonement - the Servant via a moment of faith in Him, (ref. "by the knowledge of Him the Righteous One, My Servant, will justify the many, as He will bear the iniquities," (Isa 53:11b)]

So in the end it is contended that Israel will vindicate mankind by her vicarious sufferings at the hand of the Gentile nations; and through her suffering she will somehow attain the knowledge of God and the Torah, a theme, they contend, often encountered in the Hebrew Bible in terms of Israel being a light unto the (Gentile) nations and teaching them (e.g., Exodus 19:5-6; Isaiah 42:6, 60:3, 61:6-9; Zechariah 8:13, 23).

[Israel repeatedly failed to accurately enlighten mankind of the message of Scripture. Furthermore, Scripture does not teach that mankind can be vindicated, i.e., justified / declared righteous before God via persevering through unrelenting, undeserved persecution from others. For this would be insufficient payment for sins before God. Scripture teaches that without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness of sins:

a) [Compare Lev 17:11]:

(Lev 17:11 NASB) "For the life of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it to you on the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood by reason of the life that makes atonement."

Nor can one be vindicated through the knowledge of God or the Torah because it leaves ones sins unatoned for / unpaid for by anyone. The passages cited do not prove that knowledge will lead to salvation, except via a moment of faith alone in the atoning sacrifice of the Servant for them alone:

b) [Exodus 19:5-6]:

(Exod 19:5 NASB) " 'Now then, if you will indeed obey My voice and keep My covenant, then you shall be My own possession among all the peoples, for all the earth is Mine;

(Exod 19:6 NASB) and you shall be to Me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.' These are the words that you shall speak to the sons of Israel."

This passage requires Israel to obey God's voice and keep God's Covenant of the Law, i.e., to act in a godly / righteous manner all the time in order to be God's own possession, which Israel did not do - and won't do until all of a generation of Israel will trust in the substitutionary atonement of the Messiah as He comes again to earth ; whereupon all of that generation of Israel will be transformed into a godly people   - God fulfilling the New Covenant unilaterally . This is God's plan of justification through faith alone in a Descendant of Abraham which Abraham is the example for Jew and Gentile  .

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c) [Isa 42:1-6]:

(Isa 42:1 NASB) "Behold, My Servant, whom I uphold; My chosen one in whom My soul delights. I have put My Spirit upon Him; He will bring forth justice to the nations.

[The Servant cannot here be collective Israel throughout the centuries because not all of Israel have received the Spirit of God. Furthermore, Israel was not always delighting the soul of God.]

(Isa 42:2 NASB) He will not cry out or raise His voice, Nor make His voice heard in the street.

(Isa 42:3 NASB) A bruised reed He will not break And a dimly burning wick He will not extinguish; He will faithfully bring forth justice.

(Isa 42:4 NASB) He will not be disheartened or crushed Until He has established justice in the earth; And the coastlands will wait expectantly for His law.

[Note that the Law here refers to the Law and the Justice of the Servant to be established on the earth by the Servant, the Righteous One, Who by nature is both God and Man, (ref. Isa 9:6-7 ), and not by Israel who is by nature unlawful and unjust]

[Bible Knowledge Commentary, Walvoord & Zuck, Editors, Victor Books, USA, 1988]:

"42:1-4. Some ... say My Servant here refers to Israel, which is clearly the case in verse 19. True, Israel was upheld and chosen by the Lord, and was His delight. However, the statements in verses 1b-4 suggest that here the Servant is the Messiah. This One has the Spirit of God on Him (cf. 11:2), and He will bring justice to the nations (cf. 9:7; 11:3-4; 16:5). He will be gentle (42:2-3a) - most people would break a weak, useless reed, but He will not do so - and He will be faithful (v. 3b) and not... discouraged (v. 4). He gave the Law in which the islands (i.e., people in remote parts; cf. 41:1) will... hope. ...God's Servant... did what Israel could never do. He perfectly carried out the will of the Father so that people everywhere may believe in the Holy One of Israel"]

(Isa 42:5 NASB) Thus says God the LORD, Who created the heavens and stretched them out, Who spread out the earth and its offspring, Who gives breath to the people on it And spirit to those who walk in it,

(Isa 42:6 NASB) I am the LORD, I have called You in righteousness, I will also hold You by the hand and watch over You, And I will appoint You as a covenant to the people, As a light to the nations,

[Notice that the LORD God called the Servant in righteousness and appointed Him as a covenant to the people, and as a light to the (Gentile nations). Only One Who is without sin can be called in Righteousness to be a covenant to the people, and as a light to the (Gentile nations), and "to faithfully bring forth justice" in the world, (Isa 42:1), (cf. Isa 42:6; 49:2; 53:9, 11). The New Covenant was the LORD's covenant with Israel, His people, as a light to the nations - the Gentiles - with the capacity of God alone to unilaterally fulfill that covenant as promised, (ref. Ezek 36:24-27 and Jer 31:31-34 ). So collective Israel cannot be the Servant Who must have the capacity of God, be Absolutely Righteous . One Who has been appointed by the LORD as the New Covenant to Israel cannot be Israel. Otherwise, the Servant has been appointed as a covenant to himself to fulfill with himself Who is God alone!]

[Bible Knowledge Commentary, Walvoord & Zuck, Editors, Victor Books, USA, 1988]:

"42:5-7. The Lord promised to assist the Servant in His mission, which God can do because He is the Creator (cf. 40:12-14, 26). He created the immense heavens and the earth (cf. 44:24; 45:12, 18; 48:13; 51:13, 16) and life in it, including man, giving him breath. Speaking to His Servant (42:6-7) God assured Him that He had been called to perform the will of God. To be called... in righteousness (as Cyrus also would be, 41:2), meant to be responsible to do God's righteous will. Of course the Messiah, unlike Cyrus, lived a righteous life (for He is God). Because the Lord would take hold of the Servant's hand the Messiah would have the power to carry out God's will.

Also the Servant was assured that He would be a covenant for the people (cf. 49:8). He would fulfill God's covenant promises to Israel, and would also be a light (cf. 42:16) for the Gentiles (cf. Isa. 49:6). Spiritually unredeemed Israel and the Gentiles are blind, and they are captives... in darkness. Though Cyrus would be the servant to release Jewish captives from exile, the Messiah gives spiritual release (cf. 61:1), sight, and light to those who trust Him. (On eyes being opened; cf. Isa. 32:3; 35:5.) This spiritual salvation to both Jews and Gentiles will eventuate in the glorious messianic kingdom."]

d) [Isa 60:1-3; 61:6-9]:

(Isa 60:1 NASB) "Arise, shine; for your light has come, And the glory of the LORD has risen upon you.

(Isa 60:2 NASB) For behold, darkness will cover the earth And deep darkness the peoples; But the LORD will rise upon you And His glory will appear upon you.

(Isa 60:3 NASB) Nations will come to your light, And kings to the brightness of your rising."

[Israel is in view here as the restored world's leading nation, a light to the Gentiles as a result of the unilateral fulfillment of the New Covanent by the Servant of the LORD ]

[Bible Knowledge Commentary, Walvoord & Zuck, Editors, Victor Books, USA, 1988]:

"60:1-3. Because of the Lord's redeeming work (59:19a, 20-21), light (blessing) will fall on Israel, who in turn is to shine forth, as a spiritual light to the nations, revealing God's Word and glory to them. In that way, she will be instrumental in removing the spiritual darkness that pervades the world (cf. 29:18...). When the Lord returns to live among His people (Isa. 60:2) the nations will be attracted to the light of His glory (cf. vv. 19-20) and will flock to Israel for the light (the blessings of salvation from spiritual darkness). This will occur in the Millennium. Though everyone entering the Millennium will be saved, people will be born during that 1,000-year period of time. Many of them will come to salvation because of God's work on Israel's behalf"]

(Isa 61:1 NASB) "The Spirit of the Lord GOD is upon me, Because the LORD has anointed me To bring good news to the afflicted; He has sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, To proclaim liberty to captives And freedom to prisoners; 

(Isa 61:2 NASB) To proclaim the favorable year of the LORD And the day of vengeance of our God; To comfort all who mourn,

(Isa 61:3 NASB) To grant those who mourn in Zion, Giving them a garland instead of ashes, The oil of gladness instead of mourning, The mantle of praise instead of a spirit of fainting. So they will be called oaks of righteousness, The planting of the LORD, that He may be glorified."

[Bible Knowledge Commentary]:

61:1-3. In verse 1 all three Persons of the Trinity are mentioned: the Spirit... the Sovereign Lord, and the Messiah. Three factors indicate that Me refers to the Messiah: (1) The association of the Holy Spirit with the anointing points to Jesus Christ. After being anointed with oil, Israel's first two kings, Saul and David, were blessed with the Spirit's ministry (1 Sam. 10:1, 10; 16:13). Similarly Christ was anointed by the Holy Spirit (Matt. 3:16-17) to be Israel's King. The Hebrew word for Messiah (māšaḥ) means "the Anointed One," and Christ (christos, from chriō, "to anoint") is the Greek equivalent of māšaḥ. (2) Part of this passage (Isa. 61:1-2a) was read by Jesus (Luke 4:18-19) in reference to Himself. (3) The mission of this Anointed One was Jesus' ministry: to preach good news, to heal and free (Isa. 61:1; cf. 42:7), to proclaim... favor and... vengeance (61:2), and to comfort (vv. 2-3). When Jesus read from this passage He stopped in the middle of the sentence, after the word "favor" (Luke 4:18-19). By doing this He was showing that His work would be divided into two advents. In His First Advent He did the things mentioned in Isaiah 61:1-2a; in His Second Advent He will do the things in verses 2b-3. When He returns He will bring judgment on unbelievers (Micah 5:15; Rev. 19:15-20); this will be the day of God's "vengeance" (cf. Isa. 34:8; 35:4; 63:4). But the Messiah will also "comfort" Israel, for she will have undergone great persecution, the Great Tribulation, in the preceding years (cf. Dan. 7:21, 24-25; Rev. 12:13-17).

When the Messiah comes He will change believing Israelites' sadness to joy, a truth Isaiah mentioned frequently. In place of ashes, put on one's head as a sign of mourning (cf. 2 Sam. 13:19; Es. 4:1; Dan 9:3), they will wear a crown. Light olive oil, when applied to one's face and hair, would soothe him and brighten his spirits (cf. Pss. 23:5; 45:7; 104:15; Ecc. 9:8; Matt. 6:17; Heb. 1:9), thus dispelling mourning. Another sign of joy is a bright garment (cf. Ecc. 9:7-8). Israel will be righteous (cf. Isa. 54:14; 58:8; 60:21; 62:1-2) and like stalwart oak trees will display God's splendor (cf. 35:2; 46:13; 49:3; 55:5; 60:9, 21; 62:3)."]

(Isa 61:4 NASB) Then they will rebuild the ancient ruins, They will raise up the former devastations; And they will repair the ruined cities, The desolations of many generations.

(Isa 61:5 NASB) Strangers will stand and pasture your flocks, And foreigners will be your farmers and your vinedressers.

(Isa 61:6 NASB) But you will be called the priests of the LORD; You will be spoken of as ministers of our God. You will eat the wealth of nations, And in their riches you will boast.

(Isa 61:7 NASB) Instead of your shame you will have a double portion, And instead of humiliation they will shout for joy over their portion. Therefore they will possess a double portion in their land, Everlasting joy will be theirs.

(Isa 61:8 NASB) For I, the LORD, love justice, I hate robbery in the burnt offering; And I will faithfully give them their recompense And make an everlasting covenant with them.

(Isa 61:9 NASB) Then their offspring will be known among the nations, And their descendants in the midst of the peoples. All who see them will recognize them Because they are the offspring whom the LORD has blessed"

[Bible Knowledge Commentary]:

"61:4-9. After the Messiah's Second Advent Israel will rebuild her ruined cities, even those that had been destroyed many years before. Israel will be so revered that Gentiles (aliens and foreigners) will join her (cf. 14:1; 60:10) in her farming and shepherding. As a nation of priests each one will know the Lord, and have access to Him, and mediate on behalf of others, as did the Levitical priests. This was to be one of Israel's functions in the world (Ex. 19:6), but unfortunately she will not fully carry out that responsibility till in the Millennium. Nations will bring their wealth to Israel (see comments on Isa. 60:5, 11). The double portion refers to the inheritance the eldest son in a family would receive from his father's estate (Deut. 21:17). The eldest son was given special honor. Similarly Israel, like the Lord's firstborn (Ex. 4:22), will be honored. Because of these blessings and God's giving Israel an everlasting covenant (the New Covenant; cf. Jer. 32:40; Ezek. 16:60; 37:26; Heb. 13:20), people everywhere will acknowledge that she is indeed God's special people."

e) [Zech 8:1-23]:

(Zech 8:1 NASB) "Then the word of the LORD of hosts came, saying, 

(Zech 8:2 NASB) Thus says the LORD of hosts, 'I am exceedingly jealous for Zion, yes, with great wrath I am jealous for her.' 

(Zech 8:3 NASB) Thus says the LORD, 'I will return to Zion and will dwell in the midst of Jerusalem. Then Jerusalem will be called the City of Truth, and the mountain of the LORD of hosts will be called the Holy Mountain.' 

(Zech 8:4 NASB) Thus says the LORD of hosts, 'Old men and old women will again sit in the streets of Jerusalem, each man with his staff in his hand because of age. 

(Zech 8:5 NASB) 'And the streets of the city will be filled with boys and girls playing in its streets.'

(Zech 8:6 NASB) Thus says the LORD of hosts, 'If it is too difficult in the sight of the remnant of this people in those days, will it also be too difficult in My sight?' declares the LORD of hosts. 

(Zech 8:7 NASB) Thus says the LORD of hosts, 'Behold, I am going to save My people from the land of the east and from the land of the west; 

(Zech 8:8 NASB) and I will bring them back and they will live in the midst of Jerusalem; and they shall be My people, and I will be their God in truth and righteousness.' 

(Zech 8:9 NASB) Thus says the LORD of hosts, 'Let your hands be strong, you who are listening in these days to these words from the mouth of the prophets, those who spoke in the day that the foundation of the house of the LORD of hosts was laid, to the end that the temple might be built. 

(Zech 8:10 NASB) 'For before those days there was no wage for man or any wage for animal; and for him who went out or came in there was no peace because of his enemies, and I set all men one against another.

(Zech 8:11 NASB) 'But now I will not treat the remnant of this people as in the former days,' declares the LORD of hosts.

(Zech 8:12 NASB) 'For there will be peace for the seed: the vine will yield its fruit, the land will yield its produce and the heavens will give their dew; and I will cause the remnant of this people to inherit all these things. 

(Zech 8:13 NASB) 'It will come about that just as you were a curse among the nations, O house of Judah and house of Israel, so I will save you that you may become a blessing. Do not fear; let your hands be strong.' 

(Zech 8:14 NASB) For thus says the LORD of hosts, 'Just as I purposed to do harm to you when your fathers provoked Me to wrath,' says the LORD of hosts, 'and I have not relented,

[Notice that Israel's persecution was not always undeserved, ]

(Zech 8:15 NASB) so I have again purposed in these days to do good to Jerusalem and to the house of Judah. Do not fear! 

(Zech 8:16 NASB) 'These are the things which you should do: speak the truth to one another; judge with truth and judgment for peace in your gates. 

(Zech 8:17 NASB) 'Also let none of you devise evil in your heart against another, and do not love perjury; for all these are what I hate,' declares the LORD."

(Zech 8:18 NASB) Then the word of the LORD of hosts came to me, saying, 

(Zech 8:19 NASB) Thus says the LORD of hosts, 'The fast of the fourth, the fast of the fifth, the fast of the seventh and the fast of the tenth months will become joy, gladness, and cheerful feasts for the house of Judah; so love truth and peace.'

(Zech 8:20 NASB) Thus says the LORD of hosts, 'It will yet be that peoples will come, even the inhabitants of many cities. 

(Zech 8:21 NASB) 'The inhabitants of one will go to another, saying, "Let us go at once to entreat the favor of the LORD, and to seek the LORD of hosts; I will also go."

(Zech 8:22 NASB) 'So many peoples and mighty nations will come to seek the LORD of hosts in Jerusalem and to entreat the favor of the LORD.' 

(Zech 8:23 NASB) Thus says the LORD of hosts, 'In those days ten men from all the nations will grasp the garment of a Jew, saying, "Let us go with you, for we have heard that God is with you."

Also, as was noted in the analysis of Isaiah 53:4, Israel was the victim who unjustly bore the penalties from the iniquities of others.

[Israel is neither the Servant of Isa 52:1-53:12   nor has she suffered centuries of unrelenting, unwarranted persecution by the Gentiles which will lead to her purification unto holiness and faithfulness to the LORD resulting in her being lifted up and exalted, as it is contended. Israel's purification will be unilaterally accomplished by the Servant - the God Man of Isa chapters 42 , 49 , 50 , 52-53 as well as 11   as a result of His substitutionary atonement for all of mankind's sins via as each individual exercises faith in that atonement, (Isa 53:1, 11). For there were times when the people of Israel were not under persecution, but blessing. And not all of her persecution was undeserved .

Furthermore, all of the generation of Israel at the time when they will all at once choose to believe in the salvation of the LORD through His Servant will experience the fulfillment of the New Covenant, (ref. Zech 12:10-14 ) to be restored forever to the Promised Land, redeemed from sin, transformed into obedient and faithful people to God, saved unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, (ref. Jer 31:31-34 and Ezek 36:24-27 . They will not merit their own salvation by their having suffered at the hand of Gentiles or by perfect repentant behavior, but by faith alone in the Servant alone, (Isa 53:11) as Abraham did centuries before . For neither sufficient temporary suffering nor righteous, repentant behavior are possible with mortal sinful man:

f) [Compare Isa 64:6-7; cf. Gen 8:21; Eccl 7:20; Jer 17:9; Ps 51:5; Job 14:1-4]:

(Isa 64:6 NASB) "For all of us have become like one who is unclean, And all our righteous deeds are like a filthy garment; And all of us wither like a leaf, And our iniquities, like the wind, take us away.

(Isa 64:7 NASB) There is no one who calls on Your name, Who arouses himself to take hold of You; For You have hidden Your face from us And have delivered us into the power of our iniquities."

Present righteous / repentant behavior can neverpay for past sins - even if it involves the enlightenment of mankind relative to the Law of God. Nor can suffering unwarranted persecution for any amount of time at the hand of the Gentiles be sufficient to transform one into a righteous being qualified to have eternal life with God. Hence there is the need for substitutional atonement through the Servant of the LORD, if anyone wants to be saved from their sins and have eternal life. Since no man is without sin except the Servant Himself, (Isa 53:9, 11; 42:6; 49:2). On this alone, Israel could not be the Servant. Nevertheless, a single individual born of Israel of the Seed of God will be without sin, (Isa 9:6-7; 11:1-16; 3:10; 42:6; 53:9, 11; 49:2). He is the only One capable of fulfilling the New Covenant for all mankind - Himself alone! So salvation can only be totally by the grace of God,Who will unilaterally fulfill every stipulation of the New Covenant through His Servant - even the faith that all of that generation of Israel will choose of their own volition to express in the Servant of the LORD will be by the grace, sovereignty and election of God ]

The (Gentile) nations' own misdeeds were what inflicted the excessive suffering on Israel. The Jewish people have been forced to carry ills and pains because of the direct actions of the (Gentile) nations throughout history, and they have suffered (and continue to suffer) the results of the (Gentile) nations' sickness. The (Gentile) nations have held that the Jews are cursed by God, and they were (and still are) determined to see that the Jews suffer the consequences of this supposed curse that is upon them.

[There has been conflict between Israel and the Gentile nations of the world throughout the years, but none of it can be instrumental in purifying Israel or the world of sins, nor is it in view in Isa 52:1-53-12 . The Servant is not collective Israel or a remnant faithful of believers, as some contend. The Servant of the LORD is a single individual born of a woman, an Israelite, both Man and God . Since Covenant Law demands punishment for sins committed , Israel's temporal persecution will be insufficient for eternal forgiveness; and her spiritual enlightenment and repentant behavior even if possible with sinful man will fall short as well. So since sinful Israel cannot provide anything acceptable to God in order to be forgiven of her sins, and since Scripture teaches that the Servant will be cut off out of the land of the living; then the Servant, if Israel, will not be able to fulfill the New Covenant as God promised. On the other hand, since Israel is not the Servant according to Scripture, and since it will take a substitutionary atonement of a Righteous Man to take upon Himself the sins of Israel and of all mankind as depicted in Isaiah 52:1-53:12, and since that Covenant extends to the nations to the ends of the earth, then there is a certain hope of redemption because man has nothing to do with it except to believe in the Servant for it - Jew or Gentile]

M) 3333M (Isa 53:12) Therefore, In View Of The Victory Over Sin Via The Atoning Sacrifice Of The Seed Of The LORD, The LORD Will Divide Him A Portion Of That Victory Commensurate With The Great And The Strong; Because He Has Poured Out His Soul Unto Death For That Victory. While Numbered With The Transgressors, He Bore The Sin Of Many - Of All Of Mankind, And Intercedes For The Transgressors - Which Numbers All Of Mankind

(Isa 53:12 NKJV) "Therefore I will divide Him a portion with the great, And He shall divide the spoil with the strong, Because He [has] poured out His soul unto death, And He [has been] numbered with the transgressors, And He [has borne] the sin of many, And [intercedes] for the transgressors."

  [In chapter 52, Isaiah indicated that the LORD's Servant, portrayed as the LORD's Holy Arm of Salvation made bare for all mankind to see Him in Isa 52:10, is described in v. 13 as One Who acts wisely. God's Servant - His Holy Arm of salvation - will have the wisdom to accomplish successfully what God has sent Him to do - to provide for the availability of Salvation to Israel and to all mankind, (cf. Isa 49:1-6; 52:5), through a moment of faith in Him for it, (Isa 52:10 & 53:1). The Servant's wisdom was incredibly self-denying. It meant accepting the determined will of God and willingly shouldering a burden of unimaginable suffering to make salvation possible for mankind. This evidently will result in His supreme exaltation. For there is a threefold emphatic repetition in this regard, "He is exalted, and has been lifted up and has been greatly exalted." The Servant of the LORD will be exalted as only God will be exalted - seated at the Right Hand of God.

So in Isa 53:12, the Servant of the LORD, having willingly followed the LORD's plan of salvation for mankind - having poured out Himself, lit., His soul, unto death, His Servant will have been greatly exalted as it stated in Isa 52:13. And as part of that exaltation,  the LORD said to Isaiah as recorded in Isa 53:12, "I will divide Him a portion with the great, And He shall divide the spoil with the strong," pictures a general after winning a battle, sharing goods taken from the enemy. Because He was numbered with the transgressors, that is, was considered a sinner, i.e., because He allowed Himself to go to His death letting Himself be identified with sinful humankind - though He was treated as a rebel,  and bore the sin of many, that is, everyone - all mankind, (cf. Isa. 53:6); He was to be exalted. And the phrase rendered, "And He shall divide the spoil with the strong," implies that He will allow believers to share in the benefits of that exaltation. And because He is alive (cf. v. 10). And now He has made intercessions / prayers to God for transgressors.

So the Servant of the LORD will receive an inheritance of the dominion of the earth which will evidently be restored to mankind with the Servant of the LORD Who is both God and Man as Sovereign Ruler, (ref. Isa 9:6-7). And He will share His inheritance with all who have believed in Him for forgiveness of sins, (cf. Isa 53:1, 11) - the fulfillment of the New Covenant, (ref. ).

Notice that there is no restriction as to the number or kinds of sins borne by the Arm of the LORD, as some contend. All the sins of all of mankind are in view - past, present and future - before one believes and after one believes, (ref Isa 52:15). Because of the victory of the Seed of the LORD over sin, every individual human being has the opportunity to be eternally reconciled with God via a moment of faith alone in the sacrificial work of the Seed relative to sin alone. (Isa 53:1 , 11 ; cf. Isa 10:20-23 ; 50:10-11 ). Finally, the Servant here cannot be Israel who will have "poured out His soul unto death" by having "borne the sin of many" as some contend. If all of Israel has died, that would not leave anyone of Israel to be restored in physical, mortal bodies to the Promised Land to receive "a portion with the great," and to "divide the spoil with the strong." And there would be no Israelite alive to fulfill the New Covenant that the LORD made with His chosen people .

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1) [Compare Isa 11:1-5 ]:

(v. 1) "A shoot will come up from the stump of Jesse; from his roots a Branch will bear fruit.

(v. 2) The Spirit of the LORD will rest on Him-- the Spirit of wisdom and of understanding, the Spirit of counsel and of power, the Spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD -

(v. 3) and He will delight in the fear of the LORD. He will not judge by what He sees with His eyes, or decide by what He hears with His ears;

(v. 4) but with righteousness He will judge the needy, with justice He will give decisions for the poor of the earth. He will strike the earth with the rod of His mouth; with the breath of His lips He will slay the wicked.

(v. 5) Righteousness will be His belt and faithfulness the sash around His waist."

Notice that a descendant of Jesse, David's father, is through the line of David. Hence this Man Who is God will be a descendant of David Who will rule the earth.

The rest of the passage indicates that a generation of Israelites of both Judah and Ephraim (Israel) together will be recovered from the four corners of the earth to possess the Promised Land by the "Shoot from the stem of Jesse," ;  i.e., by the Servant of the LORD Who will sprinkle many nations, bear mankind's iniquities, justify the many , and in fulfillment of and as the Personification and Actualization of New Covenant which the LORD God unilaterally made with His chosen people Israel forevermore .

2) The Popular Jewish Interpretation Of Isa 53:12 Contends That The Servant Is Collective Israel Baring Her Soul To Death; That Israel Will Continue To Intercede For The Transgressors In The Sense Of Pray For Them; That Israel As God's Servant Will Be Compensated For Having Had To Carry The Ills Inflicted Upon Them By The Gentile Nations Throughout The Centuries - Bearing The Results Of The Wicked Acts Of Others Upon Them; That They Will Be Rewarded For Choosing This Fate Rather Than To Abandon The Jewish Faith And Follow Other gods Their Forefathers Had Not Known. Rebuttal In Blue Font

"(Isa 53:12 NKJV) "Therefore I will divide Him a portion with the great, And He shall divide the spoil with the strong, Because He [has] poured out His soul unto death, And He [has been] numbered with the transgressors, And He [has borne] the sin of many, And [intercedes] for the transgressors."

The popular Jewish interpretation of Isa 53:12 goes as follows:

"Apart from a change in tenses in the last phrase, the two translations are reasonably consistent. The Hebrew phrase תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר הֶעֱרָה לַמָּוֶת נַפְשׁ ו (TAhat aSHER he'eRAH la'MAvet naphSHO), is generally rendered in two ways by Jewish sources, (a) "... because he has bared his soul to death ...," and (b) "... because he poured out his soul to death ...". The KJV renders it, "... because he hath poured out his soul unto death ...," which agrees with the latter of the common Jewish renditions. The somewhat subtle difference here does not significantly impact context. The latter of the two Jewish renditions is based on a single instance of the root verb ערה (Ayin-RESH-HEH) in a different conjugation at Genesis 24:20, where it is rendered as "... she poured out [her jug] ..." in reference to Rebecca (even here one can say that pouring out of a container is tantamount to exposing whatever was contained in it). In two other instances, at Leviticus 20:18,19, where the verb appears exactly as in Isaiah 53:12, הֶעֱרָה , it is rendered as "... he has bared [her source] ..." and "... he would be baring [his flesh] ...", respectively. In every other application of this verb in the Hebrew Bible, a total of 16 cases excepting Genesis 24:20, particularly in the five other applications by Isaiah – Isaiah 3:17, 19:7, 22:6, 32:11,15 – the verb is used in the context of baring or exposing something. Therefore, it is reasonable to conclude that the former of the above two Jewish renditions, "... because he has bared his soul to death ...," is more consistent with its general usage both by Isaiah and throughout the rest of the Hebrew Bible.

[Taking a survey / census on this word in other passages of Scripture and using the meaning of the word most popular elsewhere as the meaning of the word in Isa 53:12 is not logical, nor grammatical, nor contextual. The best meaning for this word is the meaning that best fits the context.

The Hebrew word transliterated "he'ĕr" according to Hebrew dictionaries which reflect the proper use of the word, may indeed portray "having poured out." It is in the perfect mood, portraying a completed action as follows "having poured out His soul unto death" as opposed to the possibility of the word meaning "having bared His soul to death" which death would not necessarily be a logical end to talking about oneself! In view of the context which already pervades Isaiah chapters 52-53 of a substitutionary atonement for the sins of all mankind , there has not been developed anywhere in this passage of two chapters that the Servant has been baring His soul in the sense of revealing details about His Person / His personal life to the world, as opposed to fulfilling His mission to be the Salvation of the world in the sense of being an atoning sacrifice for sins - sprinkling many nations, washing away their sins evidently via having borne mankind's griefs and carried their sorrows, having been pierced through for mankind's transgressions - the iniquity of us all falling upon Him, to His physical and spiritual death, as a guilt offering in order to justify many - through knowledge / faith in Him, bearing their iniquities / their sins, (Isa 52:10, 15; 53:4-6, 10-12). Most of the world was not well acquainted with the details of His soul at all, (Isa 53:2-3); but the pouring out of His soul in the sense of giving all that He had, physically and spiritually and emotionally to fulfill His mission of atonement for mankind's sins unto death for the justification of many is certainly in view from the beginning of the passage]

This rendition also removes the subtlety built into the Christian interpretation aimed at advancing the concept of human vicarious atonement.

[An agenda to filter out any interpretation that is feasible because it might imply human vicarious atonement is neither logical, linguistically accurate, nor true to the context. Nor is substitutionary atonement unbiblical ]

The last phrase in the verse, rendered as "... and he will [continue to] intercede for the transgressors." in the Jewish translation, and as "... and made intercession for the transgressors." in the KJV, requires comment. It was previously noted in the analysis of Isaiah 53:6, the root verb פגע is used in the Hebrew in two different contexts. Both translations agree on its application here, in Isaiah 53:12, but they differ on the tenses. The verb used here is יַפְגּי ע (yafGI'a), the 3rd-person singular, masculine, future tense conjugation of the root verb פָּגַע in the hif'IL stem (the active causative form of the Hebrew verb). The significance of the correct tense here is that, in His response to the (Gentile) nations, God expects Israel to continue in its role as intercessor on their behalf. This is, in fact, still the case today as well.
Most Jewish congregations recite, usually in the vernacular, a prayer for the government. The text varies from congregation to congregation.

[The Hebrew word  יַפְגּיע transliterated "yapga" which means intercede in this context, considering the previous phrase to which it is connected which is rendered "And He has borne the sin of many." This verb, rendered "has borne" is in the perfect tense - a completed action portrayed as a future event - evidently a one-time for all time event. On the other hand, "yapga" rendered "intercedes" in Isa 53:12 is in the imperfect mood which indicates an incomplete / an ongoing action as a future event of not only prayer but of ongoing atonement / forgiveness of sins when they are committed by believers for temporal and eternal forgiveness, (Ps 32, 1 Jn 1:1-9). For forgiveness of ones sins is not possible unless it is backed by atonement, i.e., payment for those sins. Scripture teaches that without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness of sins:

a) [Compare Lev 17:11]:

(Lev 17:11 NASB) "For the life of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it to you on the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood by reason of the life that makes atonement."]

Isaiah 53:12 foretells that the people of Israel, as God's servant, will be compensated for having had to carry the ills afflicted on them throughout the ages, and will be rewarded for choosing this fate rather than abandon the Jewish faith and follow other gods their forefathers had not known. As was previously noted, the idea that Israel has borne the results of the wicked acts of others is not a new concept, neither is the fact that exiled Jews have interceded and prayed on behalf of those who ruled over them.

[Isa 53:12 does not have the people of Israel in view as God's Servant at all. Israel is God's servant for other purposes , but not for what is stated in Isa 53:12, namely the Servant being an individual Jew having poured out His soul unto death, having borne the sin of many, and an ongoing interceding for the transgressors . If Israel were in view, then she would have died and a future generation of Israel would not have been able to be restored in the Promised Land, and the New Covenant would remain forever unfulfilled.

There is no passage in Scripture that indicates that Israel was promised to be compensated for having had to carry the ills afflicted upon them throughout the ages by the Gentile nations, much less receive eternal life without having to pay for the sins they inevitably committed. Even the good deeds of righteousness that mortal men may attempt to perform would be unacceptable by God in order to earn rewards of any kind, (Isa 64:6-7 ; cf. Gen 8:21; Eccl 7:20; Jer 17:9; Ps 51:5; Job 14:1-4), much less Israel's restoration into the Promised Land and eternal life in the Kingdom of God.

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Furthermore, Israel has had such an egregious history of abandoning the faith and following other gods, (ref. Dt 31:17-18; Jer 1:1-16; 2:20; 3:1ff; 4:1; 7:18-19; 19:1-13; Isa 59:1-14; Ezek 8:17; 11:1-20; 16:26-59; 36:16-21; 31ff; 1 Kgs 19:18; 2 Kgs 23:1-20, Zech 8:14; etc.); that there is no chance that the people of Israel - or any people - will ever be rewarded for their faithfulness under their own auspices. Salvation cannot be a reward, it must be a gift, by grace through faith alone - as Abraham learned it would be through his Seed, a descendant Who would make provision for his righteousness through a substitutionary atoning sacrifice . This was pictured for Abraham by his son Isaac upon on the altar when a ram appeared on the scene, (Gen 22). This is why the people of Israel and all mankind need the grace of God in order to fulfill the New Covenant which God unilaterally made and will unilaterally fulfill for them - without any help from Israel or mankind .

Finally, although it is true that Israel did intercede in prayer for her enemies, (cf., Jeremiah 27:18), it is not in view in Isa 53:12 because the Servant in view in this verse and the entire passage comprising chapters 52 & 53 is not Israel ]

The Jewish people will finally be vindicated, a vision that Ezekiel expresses so eloquently:

The ArtScroll Siddur [Kol Yaakov], p. 451, Published by Mesorah Publications, Ltd. (1997). Ezekiel 34:27-30 – (27) "And the tree of the field will give forth its fruit and the land will give forth its produce, and they will know that I am the Lord when I break the bars of their yoke and rescue them from those who enslave them. (28) And they will no longer be a prey to the nations, and the beasts of the earth will not devour them, and they will dwell securely, with no one frightening them. (29) And I shall establish for them a plantation for renown, and they will no longer be hidden because of hunger in the land, and they will no longer bear the disgrace of the nations. (30) And they will know that I, the Lord their God, am with them, and they are My people, the house of Israel," says the Lord God."

[The passage in Ezek 34:27-30 does not establish that the restoration of a generation of the people of Israel will be a vindication of their righteousness and faithfulness to the LORD throughout the centuries. It has already been established that Israel has an egregiously unfaithful history indicating her incapacity to restore herself to godliness and thus vindicate herself . The passages that do address the New Covenant more thoroughly indicate that it is the LORD alone Who will unilaterally bring about Israel's restoration  through a substitutionary atonement by the Servant in view in Isa chapters 52-53 , Who is both God and Man

******


Old Testament Prophecies In Isa 52:13-53:12
Fulfilled in Jesus Christ

Isa 52:13
The Servant exalted
Acts 1:8-11; Eph 1:19-22; Phil 2:5-9
Isa 52:14  
The Servant shockingly abused   
Luke 18:31-34; Matt 26:67-68
Isa 52:15   
Nations startled by message of the Servant  
Luke 18:31-34; Matt 26:67-68
Isa 52:15  
His blood shed sprinkles nations   
Heb 9:13-14; Rev 1:5
Isa 53:1  
His people would not believe Him   
John 12:37-38
Isa 53:2   
Appearance of an ordinary man  
Phil 2:6-8
Isa 53:3a   
Despised   
Luke 4:28-29
Isa 53:3b     Rejected     Matt 27:21-23
Isa 53:3c     Great sorrow and grief     Matt 26:37-38; Luke 19:41; Heb 4:15
Isa 53:3d   Men hide from being associated with Him     Mark 14:50-52
Isa 53:4a    He would have a healing ministry     Matt 8:16-17
Isa 53:4b     Thought to be cursed by God     Matt 26:66; 27:41-43
Isa 53:5a     Bears penalty for mankind's iniquities     2 Cor 5:21; Heb 2:9; Jn 19:37
Isa 53:5b     His sacrifice provides peace between man and God     Col 1:20
Isa 53:5c His sacrifice would heal man of sin     1 Pet 2:24
Isa 53:6a     He would be the sin-bearer for all mankind    1 John 2:2; 4:10
Isa 53:6b     God's will that He bear sin for all mankind     Gal 1:4
Isa 53:7a     Oppressed and afflicted     Matt 27:27-31
Isa 53:7b    Silent before his accusers    Matt 27:12-14
Isa 53:7c     Sacrificial lamb     John 1:29; 1 Pet 1:18-19
Isa 53:8a    Confined and persecuted     Matt 26:47-27:31
Isa 53:8b    He would be judged     John 18:13-22
Isa 53:8c     Killed     Matt 27:35
Isa 53:8d     Dies for the sins of the world     1 John 2:2
Isa 53:9a     Buried in a rich man's grave     Matt 27:57
Isa 53:9b     Innocent and had done no violence    Luke 23:41; John 18:38
Isa 53:9c     No deceit in his mouth     1 Pet 2:22
Isa 53:10a     God's will that He die for mankind    John 18:11
Isa 53:10b  An offering for sin     Matt 20:28; Gal 3:13
Isa 53:10c      Resurrected and live forever     Rom 6:9
Isa 53:10d    He would prosper     John 17:1-5
Isa 53:11a    God fully satisfied with His suffering     John 12:27
Isa 53:11b    God's servant would justify man     Rom 5:8-9, 18-19
Isa 53:11c       The sin-bearer for all mankind     Heb 9:28
Isa 53:12a   
Exalted by God because of his sacrifice     Matt 28:18
Isa 53:12b    He would give up his life to save mankind     Luke 23:46
Isa 53:12c   
Numbered with the transgressors     Mark 15:27-28
Isa 53:12d      Sin-bearer for all mankind     1 Pet 2:24
Isa 53:12e   
Intercede to God in behalf of mankind
Luke 23:34; Rom 8:34

IV) 4444 KEY PASSAGES THAT HAVE THE NEW COVENANT IN VIEW

INTRODUCTION

None of the New Covenant can be fulfilled without the complete and forever restoration of a generation of Israel in sinless, mortal faithfulness. And secondly, salvation unto eternal life today is not free of sins accompanied by a full knowledge of God's commandments and absolute faithfulness to them as specifically stipulated in God's New Covenant. These two situations - the absence today of the total fulfillment of the New Covenant including the complete and final restoration of Israel in the Promised Land, and the absence of individuals who are without sin and totally faithful to God's commandments must then be a product of the Servant of Isa 52-53, (Jesus Christ) Who is Personification of the New Covenant operating OUTSIDE OF AND BEFORE HIS FULFILLMENT OF HIS COVENANT WITH THAT LAST GENERATION OF ISRAEL, and not any kind of fulfillment of the New Covenant - in essence an ongoing fulfillment of the Adamic and Abrahamic Covenants relative to salvation unto eternal life to all the families of the earth. This would account for the differences in how individuals are saved from Adam to Abraham through today without trying to manipulate the stipulations of the New Covenant into being fulfilled before its time!

A) 4444A (Dt 27-28; 29:1; 30:1-20) The Palestinian Covenant Includes God's Future Promise To Unilaterally Circumcise The Hearts Of His People Israel So That They Will Love Him With All Their Heart And Soul, Resulting In Complete Obedience To Him; And By That They Will Live Out The Years Of Their Temporal Lives And Have Eternal Life In The Eternal Kingdom Of God, Fulfilling The Abrahamic Covenant For Those Of The Faith Of Abraham In A Coming Messiah Savior Through His Seed

1) 4444A1 [Compare Dt 27-28; 29:1; 30:1-20]:

The Palestinian Covenant which the LORD gave the second generation of Israel in the Palestinian Covenant in the Book of Deuteronomy, has contained within it what is in view in Jeremiah chapters 30-31 - the LORD's unilateral promise to restore Israel and Judah in the Promised land. For the people of the nation Israel had not and would not in the future under their own auspices be able keep the Mosaic Law - the old covenant, after generations of failure. So the LORD God stipulated that He would accomplish this unilaterally, i.e., by grace in the Palestinian Covenant as well.

(Dt 27-28)

[Deuteronomy chapters 27-28 speak of blessings and curses for Israel's past history of obedience and disobedience to God - to the Law of Moses]

(Dt 29:1 NASB) These are the words of the covenant which the LORD commanded Moses to make with the sons of Israel in the land of Moab, besides the [Mosaic Law] covenant which He had made with them at Horeb."

(Dt 29:2-29)

[These verses are a review of Israel's past beginning with her exodus from Egypt through disasterous times because of forsaking the covenant of the Law, resulting in 40 years in the wilderness, a number of ensuing battles, adversities, the destruction of nations that arose against the Israelites and now to the point of a renewed covenant which emphasizes blessings to a new generation of Israelites when faithful to the Law and wrath and fury and curses when not]

(Dt 30:1 NASB) So it shall be when all of these things have come upon you, the blessing and the curse which I have set before you, and you call them to mind in all nations where the LORD your God has banished you,

(Dt 30:2 NASB) and you return to the LORD your God and obey Him with all your heart and soul according to all that I command you today, you and your sons

(Dt 30:3 NASB) then the LORD your God will restore you from captivity, and have compassion on you, and will gather you again from all the peoples where the LORD your God has scattered you

(Dt 30:4 NASB) If your outcasts are at the ends of the earth, from there the LORD your God will gather you, and from there He will bring you back. 

(Dt 30:5 NASB) The LORD your God will bring you into the land which your fathers possessed, and you shall possess it; and He will prosper you and multiply you more than your fathers.

(Dt 30:6 NASB) Moreover the LORD your God will circumcise your heart and the heart of your descendants, to love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul, so that you may live.

[Notice that this part of the Palestinian Covenant, (v. 6), contains a New Covenant unilaterally promised by the LORD wherein He Himself without contribution from anyone will unilaterally circumcise the hearts of the Israelites in the sense of giving them each a new will to obey Him in the place of their former unfaithfulness; and they will love Him with all their heart and soul implying complete obedience to him; and by that they will live, i.e., experience the abundant blessings including eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God in complete fulfillment of the Abrahamic covenant unilaterally through the LORD - through Abraham's Seed through a moment alone of faith alone in the Seed of Abraham alone - the One Who was to come, as Abraham their father did to fullfill God's covenant with him - the Messiah  (v. 26; cf. Ezek 11:1-20 ; Gen 22:18 ; Jer 31:31-34 ).

From the history of mankind from Adam and Eve to Abraham to the Israelites and mankind the world over, it is evident that man has not and will not live godly lives of their own volition unless the LORD circumcises their hearts to enable them to do so. Those that have this done are those who expressed the faith of Abraham in God's unilateral promise of eternal life in the Promised Land.

[BKC]:

"Dt 30:6. The promise that the Lord your God will circumcise your hearts (cf. 10:16) means that God will graciously grant the nation a new will to obey Him in place of their former spiritual insensitivity and stubbornness. After returning to the Promised Land with a new heart they will remain committed to the Lord and therefore will experience abundant blessing (live). Loving Him wholeheartedly (cf. Dt 30:16, 20; see comments on 6:5), they would not fall back into apostasy as they had done before. A new heart is an essential feature of the New Covenant (cf. Ezek. 36:24-32), which will not be fulfilled for Israel as a nation until the return of Jesus Christ (cf. Jer. 31:31-34)."]

(Dt 30:7 NASB) The LORD your God will inflict all these curses on your enemies and on those who hate you, who persecuted you. 

(Dt 30:8 NASB) And you shall again obey the LORD, and observe all His commandments which I command you today.

[This implies Israel's future disobedience to the LORD's commandments which necessitated the LORD's unilateral action to circumcise the hearts of the sons of Israel, (ref. Dt 30:6]

(Dt 30:9 NASB) Then the LORD your God will prosper you abundantly in all the work of your hand, in the offspring of your body and in the offspring of your cattle and in the produce of your ground, for the LORD will again rejoice over you for good, just as He rejoiced over your fathers; 

(Dt 30:10 NASB) if you obey the LORD your God to keep His commandments and His statutes which are written in this book of the law, if you turn to the LORD your God with all your heart and soul.

[BKC]:

"30:7-10. All the prosperity mentioned here (cf. 28:4) would come on Israel because under the New Covenant the nation will finally be enabled to obey the Lord wholeheartedly (cf. all your heart and all your soul in 30:6; 6:5)."]

(Dt 30:11 NASB) For this commandment which I command you today is not too difficult for you, nor is it out of reach.

(Dt 30:12 NASB) It is not in heaven, that you should say, 'Who will go up to heaven for us to get it for us and make us hear it, that we may observe it?' 

(Dt 30:13 NASB) Nor is it beyond the sea, that you should say, 'Who will cross the sea for us to get it for us and make us hear it, that we may observe it?' 

(Dt 30:14 NASB) But the word is very near you, in your mouth and in your heart, that you may observe it. 

(Dt 30:15 NASB) See, I have set before you today life and prosperity, and death and adversity; 

(Dt 30:16 NASB) in that I command you today to love the LORD your God, to walk in His ways and to keep His commandments and His statutes and His judgments, that you may live and multiply, and that the LORD your God may bless you in the land where you are entering to possess it

(Dt 30:17 NASB) But if your heart turns away and you will not obey, but are drawn away and worship other gods and serve them

(Dt 30:18 NASB) I declare to you today that you shall surely perish. You will not prolong [your] days in the land where you are crossing the Jordan to enter and possess it.

[Notice that obedience to the LORD results in temporal blessing and disobedience in temporal destruction]

(Dt 30:19 NASB) I call heaven and earth to witness against you today, that I have set before you life and death, the blessing and the curse. So choose life in order that you may live, you and your descendants, 

(Dt 30:20 NASB) by loving the LORD your God, by obeying His voice, and by holding fast to Him; for this is your life and the length of your days, that you may live in the land which the LORD swore to your fathers, to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, to give them."

[The Palestinian Covenant was made between God and Israel right before Moses died and Israel entered the Promised Land. Hence it was made after the Mosaic Covenant and after Israel had wandered in the wilderness for forty years until the generation that had refused to enter the Promised Land the first time had passed away. The covenant would serve the new generation of Israelites as a reminder of their special covenant relationship with God originally ratified unilaterally with Abraham. It was the LORD's promise to restore the fortunes of Israel - make them more prosperous and more numerous than their fathers as they walked in his ways, and kept His commands, decrees and laws. Then the LORD will have compassion on the Israelites and gather them from all the nations where the LORD had scattered them to the land that belonged to their fathers. And the LORD will put curses on Israel's enemies. The focus of this covenant is on what God is going to do more than what Israel is supposed to do. While Israel's prosperity is closely tied to their obedience to God's command and they will still be punished for their disobedience to God, there is coming a day when God will return them to the land and they will possess it and God will bless them forever and through the New Covenant wherein He will circumcise their hearts and the hearts of their descendants - those that have been justified by faith as Abraham was according to the Abrahamic Covenant - so that they may love Him with all their heart and with all their soul, and live forever in the Eternal kingdom - in possession of the land that the LORD promised them]

B) 4444B (Gen 15:4-6) The Covenant Of Abraham Was Unilaterally Ratified By God When Abraham Believed In God's Promise Of Innumerable Descendants Through His Seed To Be Supernaturally Provided For By God Through Abraham's Seed - All Of This Being Relative To The LORD's Promise To Abraham And His Descendants Of Inheriting The Promised Land At Which Time When Abraham Believed God Accounted It To Abram And To All Men Of The Seed Of Abraham Of That Same Faith For Righteousness Unto Eternal Life In The Promised Land

1) 4444B1 [Compare Gen 15:4-6]:

(Gen 15:4 NKJV) "And behold, the word of the LORD came to him, saying, 'This one shall not be your heir, but one who will come from your own body shall be your heir.' (Gen 15:5 NKJV) Then He brought him outside and said, 'Look now toward heaven, and count the stars if you are able to number them.' And He said to him, 'So shall your descendants [lit. seed] be.' (Gen 15:6 NKJV) And he believed in the LORD, and He accounted it to him for righteousness." =

So when Abram believed in God's promise of innumerable descendants that he would evidently see and experience, God acounted it to Abraham for righteousness unto eternal life, i.e., the perfect righteousness of God. So Abraham was credited with God's perfect righteousness in conjunction with His promise to Abraham and innumerable descendants of receiving the promised land forever which God's righteousness is evidently required in order to have eternal life in order to inherit the promised land forever. Note that it was received by a moment of faith alone in the LORD's promise alone, tantamount to trusting in the Seed / Descendant of Abraham Who would make such provision so that God might be justified in fulfilling His promise - such provision being the payment for the sins of those whom God will justify unto righteousness apart from their own sinfulness because of such provision. In effect, since the offer is legitmately and righteously made to all the families of the world wherein all the families of the world may be blessed, (Gen 12:1-3 ), then all mankind have had their sins paid for. So it cannot be misconstrued that Abraham or anyone else besides the Seed of Abraham was expected to do anything in order to be perfectly righteous in his lifestyle in order to receive eternal life from God. There is no stipulation to that effect in the passage or anywhere in Scripture.

Gen 15:5-6 is not just a picture of Abram's countless descendants living long after he died with him having gone into the Lake of Fire. There would be no purpose if Abraham would never see them in person, i.e., have eternal life and instead be eternally confined and condemned to the Lake of Fire? This demonstration by the LORD was a picture of His promise to Abraham of eternal life - eternal life with countless descendants over an eternity of time through an individual seed - descendant supernaturally provided for in order to make all of this possible - for Abram was still childless, impotent and Sarai barren.

C) 4444C (2 Sam 7:8-17) [God's Covenant With David]:

(2 Sam 7:8 NASB) "Now therefore, thus you shall say to My servant David, 'Thus says the LORD of hosts, "I took you from the pasture, from following the sheep, to be ruler over My people Israel.

(2 Sam 7:9 NASB) I have been with you wherever you have gone and have cut off all your enemies from before you; and I will make you a great name, like the names of the great men who are on the earth.

(2 Sam 7:10 NASB) I will also appoint a place for My people Israel and will plant them, that they may live in their own place and not be disturbed again, nor will the wicked afflict them any more as formerly, 

(2 Sam 7:11 NASB) even from the day that I commanded judges to be over My people Israel; and I will give you rest from all your enemies. The LORD also declares to you that the LORD will make a house for you. 

(2 Sam 7:12 NASB) When your days are complete and you lie down with your fathers, I will raise up your descendant after you, who will come forth from you, and I will establish his kingdom.

(2 Sam 7:13 NASB) He shall build a house for My name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. 

(2 Sam 7:14 NASB) I will be a father to him and he will be a son to Me; when he commits iniquity, I will correct him with the rod of men and the strokes of the sons of men, 

(2 Sam 7:15 NASB) but My lovingkindness shall not depart from him, as I took it away from Saul, whom I removed from before you. 

(2 Sam 7:16 NASB) Your house and your kingdom shall endure before Me forever; your throne shall be established forever.

(2 Sam 7:17 NASB) In accordance with all these words and all this vision, so Nathan spoke to David."

[BKC]:

God had called David from inauspicious beginnings to be a shepherd of God's people (v. 8). Likewise, God had gathered Israel to Himself and would plant them securely in their own land. The house to be built for David would be a royal house, a dynasty of kings. It would originate with him but would never end (v. 16). The kingdom and its throne would be permanent, a realm over which the Son of David would reign forever (cf. 23:5).

The promise that David and his seed would be kings fulfilled the even more ancient Abrahamic Covenant blessing that the patriarchs would be the fathers of kings (Gen. 17:6, 16; 35:11). To Judah, great-grandson of Abraham, was given the explicit pledge that a promised ruler would come from Judah (Gen. 49:10). Samuel anointed this one from Judah, David himself, of whom the Lord said, "He is the one" (1 Sam. 16:12). David was aware of his election by God and of the theological significance of that election as part of the messianic line that would result in a divine Descendant and King (Pss. 2:6-7; 110; cf. Ethan's words in Ps. 89:3-4). The prophets also attested to the Davidic Messiah, the One who would rule over all and forever on His throne (Isa. 9:1-7; 11:1-5; Jer. 30:4-11; Ezek. 34:23-24; 37:24-25; Amos 9:11-15).

The promise that the people of the Lord, David's kingdom Israel, would have an enduring land of their own was also based on earlier commitments of the Lord. The seed of Abraham, God said, would be given Canaan as a home forever (Gen. 13:15; 15:18; 17:8; Deut. 34:4).

As for a temple, David would not be allowed to build it, but his son after him would have the honor of doing so (2 Sam. 7:12-13). That this refers to a literal house and not a dynasty is clear from the context, which speaks of the results that would follow if the son would be disobedient to the Lord (vv. 14-15). This could not be true of the King who is spoken of as the climactic figure of the Davidic dynastic line. These verses, then, are a good example of an Old Testament passage in which some elements find fulfillment in the immediate future (Solomon and other strictly human descendants of David), while other elements will be realized only in the more distant future (Jesus Christ, the Son of David; cf. Luke 1:31-33)."

[EXPOSITOR'S]:

5-7 The messenger formula ("This is what the Lord says," v.5) pinpoints Nathan as the mediator of the divine oracle to David. In contrast to his title as "the king" in the opening verses of the chapter (see comment on vv.1-3), David is now referred to by the Lord as "my servant David" (vv.5, 8; see comment on 3:18; cf. also 1 Kings 11:13, 32, 34, 36, 38, 14:8; 2 Kings 19:34; 20:6; Jer 33:21-22, 26; Ezek 34:23-24), a description that he willingly and humbly accepts (v.26). The only other occurence [sic] of this precise phrase, "my servant N.," in the whole of the Deuteronomic work is "my servant Moses" in the words of Yahweh to Joshua when he takes over the leadership of Israel [Josh 1:2, 7]. Not even Joshua himself merits the title.... This calls attention to David's importance—he merits comparison with Moses—and the important new thing, the institution of the Davidic monarchy, which begins with him. (McCarthy, "2 Samuel 7 and Deuteronomic History," p. 132; cf. Gerbrandt, p. 170) The substantive contents of the present literary unit (vv.5-7) are framed by two questions asked by the Lord, both of which pertain to building a temple for him (vv.5, 7). The first—"Are you the one to build me a house to dwell in?"—has been interpreted in a variety of ways (for a typical list, cf. Gerbrandt, p. 162). After examining a number of ancient extrabiblical Near Eastern texts that deal with the building/rebuilding/repairing of temples, Michiko Ita concludes: The real issue is that both the initiative to build a temple and the choice of the person for the task must come from God and not from an individual king.... First, God has not commanded the building of a temple either to any of the past leaders or to David himself (vss 6-7). Second, the choice of the person is God's affair. God's denial—put in the interrogative form (vs 5)—concerns the person of David and not the temple itself. The emphatic position of the pronoun (h'th) makes this point more than clear. Moreover, this denial of David results in the positive choice of his successor in vs 13, where the emphatic hw' ybnh ["He is the one who will build"] is to be noted as a counterpart of the emphatic denial in vs 5. ("A Note on 2 Sam 7," in A Light Unto My Path: Old Testament Studies in Honor of Jacob M. Myers Gettysburg Theological Studies 4; edd. Howard N. Bream, Ralph D. Heim, and Carey A. Moore [Philadelphia: Temple University, 1974], p. 406; cf. Carlson, p. 109). That the question in v.5 expects a negative answer is clear not only from the succeeding context but also from the LXX's Ou sy ("Not you") and from the Chronicler's parallel: "You are not the one" (1 Chronicles 17:4). Needless to say, the prohibition of v.5 is merely temporary. "This is confirmed by the later verses in the chapter, by verses such as 1 Kings 5:3-5, as well as by the positive emphasis on the temple throughout the remainder of the history" (Gerbrandt, p. 162). David's son Solomon (see comments on vv.12-13) would eventually build the Lord's house (cf. 1 Kings 5:3-5; 6:1). In the broader context, at least two reasons are given for the fact that David himself did not build the temple: (1) He is too busy waging war with his enemies (1 Kings 5:3); (2) he is a warrior who has shed much blood (1 Chronicles 22:8; 28:3). The reasons are complementary rather than contradictory, the first being practical and the second theological (cf. similarly Walter C. Kaiser, Jr., "The Blessing of David: The Charter for Humanity," in The Law and the Prophets: Old Testament Studies Prepared in Honor of Oswald Thompson Allis ed. John H. Skilton [Nutley: Presbyterian and Reformed, 1974], p. 304 n. 21). Neither reason dims David's vision, however (cf. similarly Ps 132:1-5), and before his death he makes extensive preparations for the temple that would eventually be built by Solomon (cf. 1 Chronicles 22:2-5; 28:2). But the time for construction has not yet arrived. The tabernacle still suffices as the Lord's dwelling (v.6). Although David is "living" (yshb) in a palace (v.1), the Lord has never "dwelt" (yshb; thus also "dwell" in v.5) in a permanent house, not "from the day" (cf. Judg 19:30) he "brought the Israelites up out of Egypt" (v.6)—a common phrase recalling the miracles of the Exodus redemption (cf. 1 Sam 8:8; 10:18; Deut 20:1; Josh 24:17; for additional examples cf. Cross, Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic, p. 253; see comment on 1 Sam 12:6). The Lord has been content with "moving from place to place" (hthlk; cf. v.7, "moved"; cf. also Deut 23:14, "moves about"), demonstrating his continuing desire to "walk" (hthlk) among his people (Lev 26:12; cf. Gen 3:8). Referred to as "tent(-curtain[s])" in v.2 (see Notes), the tabernacle is called both a "tent" ('ohel) and a "dwelling" (mishkan) in v.6. The latter term is commonly translated "tabernacle" in the OT (cf. Exod 25:9) and occurs elsewhere in association with the former (cf. Exod 26:12-13), especially in the phrase "tent over the tabernacle" (Exod 26:7; 36:14; 40:19). The irony in v.6 must not be missed: Although God condescends to accompany his people on their journey with a tent as his dwelling (v.6b), a tent carried by them, all along they have in fact been carried by him (v.6a). Like the first, the second question in the present literary unit (vv.5-7) expects a negative answer (see comment on v.5). Beginning with the word "did," it implies that the Lord never required the Israelites to build him a "house of cedar" (v.7; see comment on v.2). "Any of their rulers" translates 'ahad shibte yisra'el which is literally "one of the tribes of Israel." Since the same Hebrew phrase occurs in 15:2 in its literal sense, Philippe de Robert wants to translate it the same way here ("Judges ou Tribus en 2 Samuel VII 7?" VetTest 21, 1 [1971]: 116-18; cf. also the LXX's phylen ["tribe"]). As S.R. Driver had already pointed out long ago, however (Notes on the Books of Samuel, p. 274), there is no example of any tribe having been divinely commissioned to "shepherd" (see 5:2 and comment; cf. also 24:17) Israel (but cf. Kirkpatrick, who suggests that "tribes" may be understood "of the different tribes which through the Judges and leaders chosen from them successively attained the supremacy, as Ephraim in the time of Joshua, Dan in the days of Samson, Benjamin in the reign of Saul" [The Second Book of Samuel, p. 98; cf. 1 Chronicles 28:4; Ps 78:67-68]). Many commentators therefore substitute shopte ("judges," "leaders") for shibte on the basis of 1 Chronicles 17:6 (where the LXX, however, has phylen) and the subsequent context (vv.10-11; cf. McCarthy, "2 Samuel 7 and Deuteronomic History," p. 133 and n. 7; S.R. Driver, Notes on the Books of Samuel in loc.). The best solution to the problem would seem to be that of Patrick V. Reid, who suggests revocalizing the MT's shibte as shobte "a denominative qal participle... of shebet meaning ‘the one who wields a staff,’” thus “staff bearers,” which “fits the imagery of the passage much better than ‘judges.’ One would expect that the persons bearing the shepherd's staff would be commissioned ‘to shepherd’” (“shbty in 2 Samuel 7:7,” CBQ 37, 1 [1975]: 18; cf. pp. 17-20 for full argumentation; cf. similarly McCarter, II Samuel; cf. also the use of shebet ["scepter"] as a metaphor for authoritative rule in the messianic texts Gen 49:10; Num 24:17). The NIV's "rulers" (v.7; "ruler" in v.8 renders a different Heb. word) is a term general enough to capture the basic idea. "People" used with reference to Israel is an important Leitmotif in the chapter (cf. independently Carlson, p. 118), employed four times in each half (vv.7, 8, 10, 11; vv. 23 [ter], 24; see also comment on 6:21). "The people of God is one of the most prominent themes in the Bible" (John Goldingay, Theological Diversity and the Authority of the Old Testament [Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1987], p. 59; for full discussion cf. pp. 59-96). "I will be your God, and you will be my people" or the equivalent is doubtless the most characteristic covenant expression in the entire OT (cf. v.24; Exod 6:7; Lev 26:12; Deut 26:17-18; Jer 7:23; 30:22; 31:1, 33; 32:38; Ezek 34:30; 36:28; 37:23; Hos 1:9-10; 2:23; cf. also Heb 8:10). 8-11a The repetition of the messenger formula (see comment on v.5) marks v.8 as the start of a new section of Nathan's oracle. Here, however, the word "Lord" (v.5) has been augmented by "Almighty," a regal title (see comment on 1 Sam 1:3) that stresses the Lord's function as covenant Suzerain of David, his "servant" vassal (see comment on v.5). Characteristically, David in his response to God willingly acknowledges both roles (vv.26-27). In Paul's citation of v.14a in 2 Corinthians 6:18, he similarly acknowledges the solemnity and importance of "Almighty" in describing the Lord in this context. The divine grant to David is divided into two parts: "promises to be realized during David's lifetime (2 Sam 7:8-11a) and promises to be fulfilled after his death (7:11b-16)" (Waltke, "The Phenomenon of Conditionality," p. 130). Verses 7b-8a constitute a brief historical prologue in which the Lord reviews his earlier blessings on his servant David. He begins by reminding David of where he found him: "I [emphatic] took you ... from following the flock" (v.8). At the time of David's earlier private anointing, Samuel had said, "Send for him" (1 Sam 16:11; lit., "Send and take him"); the Lord now observes that it was he himself who "took" David. As in the case of Amos, the Lord took him "from following the flock" (Amos 7:15, "from tending the flock"; same Heb. expression in both passages). Once a mere shepherd boy (see comment on 5:2; and on 1 Sam 16:11), David has been given a much weightier responsibility: to be "ruler" over the Lord's people Israel (see comments on 5:2; on 6:21; on 1 Sam 9:16; and on 10:1; cf. also Hezekiah in 2 Kings 20:5 ["leader"]). "Yahweh could use David, not because he was a great military leader, but because he was faithful. In this way a good king can be an agent by which the people are blessed" (Gerbrandt, p. 171). Verse 9 is linked to v.6 through the use of the durative form wa'ehyeh ("I have been"): As the Lord had been "moving from place to place" with his people (v.6; cf. also v.7), so he has been "with" (v.9; see v.3 and comment; cf. also Carlson, p. 114) David "wherever" he has gone (cf. v.7; 8:6, 14; Josh 1:7, 9). The Lord had promised to "cut off" David's enemies from before him (cf. also 1 Sam 20:15). Verses 9b-11a contain three elements: The Lord will (1) make David's "name great" (v.9b), (2) "provide a place" for Israel (v.10), and (3) give David "rest" from all his enemies (v.11a; Carlson, pp. 114-15). The divine promise to make the name of David great is a clear echo of the Abrahamic covenant (cf. Gen 12:2), which in turn stands in sharp contrast to the self-aggrandizing boasts of the builders of the tower of Babel: "so that we may make a name for ourselves" (Gen 11:4). An example of David's name becoming great is 8:13, where the narrator reports that David "became famous" (lit., "made a name"; cf. 1 Kings 1:47) after defeating the Edomites (cf. similarly 1 Sam 18:30). But again David testifies to his reliance on God's power as he affirms that redemption takes place in the context of God's determination to "make a name for himself" (vv.23, 26; cf. Jer 13:11; 32:20; see 1 Sam 12:22 and comment). That God would provide a "place" for his people (v.10) had been predicted long ago: "Every place where you set your foot will be yours: Your territory will extend from the desert to Lebanon, and from the Euphrates River to the western sea" (Deut 11:24; cf. Josh 1:3-4). "Since this promise is identical with that given to Abraham in Gen 15:18... the introduction of the maqom ["place'] idea in 7:10 [cf. also 1 Sam 12:8] implies that the Covenant made with Abraham is fulfilled through David" (Carlson, p. 116; cf. 8:1-4). And far from being temporary, the "place" that God would provide would be the land where he would "plant" them (v.10; cf. Exod 15:17; Pss 44:2; 80:8; Isa 5:2; Jer 2:21; Amos 9:15). Plant imagery is frequently applied to David's dynasty in the OT (e.g., Ps 80:15; Isa 11:1, 10; Jer 23:5; 24:5-6; 33:15; Ezek 19:10-14; Zech 3:8; 6:12; cf. Talmon, p. 218 n. 26). Having a home of their own, David and his countrymen will no longer "be disturbed" (v.10; i.e., "tremble" in fear [Deut 2:25; same Heb. verb in both cases]) by "wicked people" (lit., "sons of wickedness" [see comment on "wicked men" in 3:34], which contrasts with "Israelites" [lit., "sons of Israel"] in vv.6-7). Indeed, "wicked people will not oppress them anymore" (a phrase echoed in Ps 89:22), as had been their fate earlier in their history ("at the beginning"; cf. Gen 15:13, where the Lord predicts that Abraham's descendants would be "mistreated" [thus also Deut 26:6; same Heb. verb as that rendered "oppress" here] four hundred years—yet another link between the Abrahamic and Davidic covenants [cf. Carlson, p. 118]). Although oppression had been virtually endemic in Israel during the entire period of the "judges" (v.11; NIV mg.), such would no longer be the case. "David and his line are presented as the true successors of the judges who will bring on the lasting rest from Israel's enemies which the earlier leaders were unable to achieve" (McCarthy, "2 Samuel 7 and Deuteronomic History," p. 133; cf. Gerbrandt, p. 171 n. 186; Roth, "The Deuteronomic Rest Theology," p. 8; Howard, "The Case for Kingship," p. 113 n. 36). As always, of course, the ultimate Giver of the rest is God himself (v.11; see v.1 and comment). The Chronicler's parallel notes that the method the Lord would use to "give [David] rest from" all his enemies would be to "subdue" them (1 Chronicles 17:10). 11b-16 Just as the divine pronouncements in vv.5-7 and 8-11a are introduced with the messenger formula "This is what the Lord [Almighty] says," so also vv.11b-16? begin with the oracular preface "The Lord declares to you" as a means of introducing God's promises to David's descendants: a "house" (= dynasty, vv.11b, 16; cf. "offspring," v.12); a throne (vv.13, 16) and kingdom (vv.12-13, 16) that will last forever (vv.13, 16); a "house" (= temple, v.13); and a Father-son relationship (v.14) including a covenant love that will never be taken away (v.15). The importance of "house" in the sense of "dynasty" in Nathan's oracle is underscored by its appearance at the beginning (v.11b) and end (v.16) of the literary unit, thus serving to frame the whole. That "house" is used with two different meanings in these verses is clear from the verbs used with it: In v.11b the verb is `sh ("establish"; lit., "make"; cf. 1 Kings 2:24, where "made a house" is translated "founded a dynasty"), while in v.13 the verb is bnh ("build," as in v.5; see comment there). Although David is not to build a "house" (temple) for the Lord (v.5), the Lord will establish a "house" (dynasty) for David (v.11; cf. similarly Brueggemann, First and Second Samuel, p. 255). It is David's "offspring" (v.12) who will build the Lord's temple (v.13). All the promises in this section would be fulfilled after David's death, after his being laid to "rest" (v.12; lit., "lie down"; a different Heb. verb is used for "rest" in vv.1, 11) with his "fathers" (cf. 1 Kings 1:21; 2:10)—an expression used of Moses (Deut 31:16) and others (cf. Gen 47:30). It reflects the ancient Israelite practice of having multiple burials in family tombs (see comment on 2:32). "Like Abraham, David is receiving promises concerning a son yet unborn" (Gordon, I & II Samuel, p. 239). Saul's earlier plea to David not to cut off "my descendants" (lit., "my seed after me," 1 Sam 24:21; cf. Ruth 4:12 for "seed/offspring" applied to David's ancestor[s]) is reprised in the Lord's determination with respect to David to "raise up your offspring to succeed you" (lit., "your seed after you"; cf. similarly 1 Kings 15:4). The emphasis that David's offspring would "come from your own body" (lit., "loins" as the locus of procreation, v.12) forges yet another striking line to the Abrahamic covenant (cf. Gen 15:4), as does the repeated reference to Abraham's "seed/descendants after you/him" in Genesis 17:7-10, 19.

Although Carlson (p. 122) assumes that the offspring of v.12 is Absalom because of the occurrence of "is of my own flesh" (lit., "has come from my own loins") in 16:11, Symon Patrick long ago understood that the future tense in v.12 "shows that he speaks of one, who was not yet born, viz. Solomon: And that Absalom, Adonijah and the rest who pretended to the Kingdom, were not designed for it: Being already proceeded from him" (p. 395; cf. 3:2-5, which lists the sons born to David in Hebron). Furthermore, the Lord promises to "establish" (vv.12-13, 16; see 5:12 and comment; the verb is kwn different from that used in v.11 [see comment there]) the "kingdom" and throne of Solomon, not Absalom. Although Saul's kingdom could earlier have been theoretically "established" alongside that of David (see 1 Sam 13:13 and comment), such was not to be (cf. v.15). The possibility of understanding "seed" ("offspring," NIV) as either singular or plural (cf. Ps 89:4, 29, 36, where the Heb. word for "seed" is translated "line" in connection with the Davidic covenant) is exploited by Paul in Galatians 3:16: "The promises were spoken to Abraham and to his seed. The Scripture [Gen 12:7; 13:15; 24:7] does not say "and to seeds,' meaning many people, but "and to your seed,' meaning one person, who is Christ" (cf. also "the Seed" [= Christ] in Gal 3:19 and "Abraham's seed" [= Christians] in Gal 3:29). The trajectory from the Abrahamic covenant through the Davidic covenant to the New Covenant in Christ is strengthened by the repetition of words such as "seed" used in a messianic sense (cf. similarly John M.G. Barclay, Obeying the Truth: A Study of Paul's Ethics in Galatians [Edinburgh: T. and T. Clark, 1988], p. 89; cf. also John 7:42 and NIV mg. there; Acts 13:23 ["descendants"]; cf. further Dale Goldsmith, "Acts 13 33-37: A Pesher on 2 Samuel 7," JBL 87, 3 [1968]: 321-24).

Unlike vv.11 and 16, v.13 uses "house" in the sense of a building (cf. also vv.1-2 ["palace"], 5-7), in this case a house of worship, a temple. David's offspring (v.12)—"he" (emphatic, v.13), answering to the emphatic "you" (David) of v.5 (see comment there)—has been designated to build a temple for the Lord's "Name" (i.e., his presence, v.13 [for "name" = "presence" cf. John 1:12]; see comment on 6:2; cf. also 1 Kings 3:2; 5:3, 5; 8:16, 18-19, 44, 48; 9:7). "Within the [Deuteronomic] History this ["he'] is an obvious reference to Solomon. This verse could be interpreted both as a justification for Solomon's building the temple, and as a sign legitimating his rise to the throne (the one who builds the temple is the God-chosen successor to David)" (Gerbrandt, p. 163; cf. Brueggemann, David's Truth, pp. 75-76). Indeed, "1 Kings 6-8 is the fulfilment of the oracular promise in 7:13a, cf. 1 Kings 8:14-21, 24" (Carlson, p. 120; Gerbrandt, p. 165). As for v.13b, it promises that the Davidic dynasty, throne, and kingdom will endure "forever" (a fact mentioned seven times in ch. 7: vv.13b, 16a, 16b, 24, 25, 29a, 29b; cf. also 22:51; 1 Kings 2:33, 45; 1 Chronicles 22:10; Ps 89:4).

Not the least because they are cited twice in the NT (2 Cor 6:18; Heb 1:5), the Lord's words in v.14a are doubtless the best known as well as the most solemn in the entire chapter: "I [emphatic] will be his father, and he [emphatic] will be my son." In its original setting the son is Solomon, as the subsequent context makes clear (cf. also 1 Chronicles 22:9-10). The statement in the first instance was not a formula of begetting but of adoption (Edmond Jacob, Theology of the Old Testament [New York: Harper, 1958], p. 236; cf. also Pss 2:7; 89:26; Shalom M. Paul, "Adoption Formulae: A Study in Cuneiform and Biblical Legal Clauses," Maarav 2, 2 [1980]: pp. 173-85; Anthony Phillips, "Another Example of Family Law," VetTest 30, 2 [1980]: 240-41). The formula "provides both the judicial basis for the gift of the eternal dynasty (compare Pss 2:7-8; 89) and the qualification that disloyal sons will lose YHWH's protection (compare 1 Kings 6:12-13; 9:4, 6-7)" (Waltke, "The Phenomenon of Conditionality," p. 131; cf. Weinfeld, "The Covenant of Grant," p. 190). Because of its typological use in 2 Corinthians 6:18 and Hebrews 1:5, v.14a has long been considered messianic in a Christological sense. The Qumran text known as 4Q Florilegium, an eschatological midrash primarily on vv.10b-14a (although other OT passages, including Ps 2:1, are also treated in it), demonstrates that the Dead Sea sectarians also understood v.14a to be messianic (for text cf. J.M. Allegro, "Fragments of a Qumran Scroll of Eschatological Midrashim" JBL 77, 4 [1958]: 350-54; Yigael Yadin, "A Midrash on 2 Sam. vii and Ps. i—ii [4Q Florilegium]," IEJ 9 [1959]: 95-98; for a literate and readily accessible translation, cf. Vermes, The Dead Sea Scrolls in English, pp. 245-47). William R. Lane observes that 4Q Florilegium divides naturally into two parts, the first of which concentrates mainly on vv.10b-14a and deals with "the establishment of the true house of Israel under the Davidic Messiah and the subsequent era of peace" and the second with "the wicked and their affliction of the elect during the final struggle" ("A New Commentary Structure in 4Q Florilegium," JBL 78, 4 [1959]: 344).

Needless to say, the Qumran sectarians interpreted the OT "prooftexts" according to their own agenda. The fact that they understood v.14a messianically, however, is surely significant for the NT passages that do the same. No longer is it possible to insist that the NT writers overstepped their bounds in claiming that the divine sonship of the Messiah (in their case, Jesus) is adumbrated in 2 Samuel 7, Psalm 2, and elsewhere. They were making use of well-established, exegetical methodologies that had long been recognized in Jewish scholarly circles. Indeed, 4Q Florilegium "suggests that the Qumran community... inherited a messianic reading of [Nathan's] oracle from earlier times.... Christian and Qumran interpreters shared a basic approach to the verses, but their exegesis led in rather different directions" (Donald Juel, Messianic Exegesis: Christological Interpretation of the Old Testament in Early Christianity [Philadelphia: Fortress, 1988], pp. 61-62; cf. also pp. 87-88).

At the same time, what is particularly striking about the 4Q Florilegium commentary is that it betrays no embarrassment regarding the use of father-son imagery in v.14. That is notable only in light of later targumic and rabbinic tradition that took great pains to ensure that the imagery from this text be understood as figurative. Later tradition was hesitant to use "son" to speak of the Messiah; the Qumran interpreter shows no such reservations. (ibid., p. 68.; cf. also p. 78)

Like 4Q Florilegium, Hebrews 1:5 also quotes v.14a and Psalm 2 (this time, however, Ps 2:7: "You are my Son; today I have become your Father"). The author of Hebrews uses the two texts to demonstrate that Jesus, the Son of God, "became as much superior to the angels as the name he has inherited is superior to theirs" (Heb 1:4) when he "sat down at the right hand of the Majesty in heaven" (Heb 1:3). Furthermore, "the "Son of God' is a title applied to Jesus by the gospel writers to highlight his messianic and divine origin as the fulfilment of such Old Testament prophecies as Psalm 2:7 and 2 Samuel 7:14" (Craig L. Blomberg, The Historical Reliability of the Gospels [Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1987], p. 251). And such passages as Luke 1:32-33 reverberate with echoes of Nathan's oracle: "[Jesus] will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High. The Lord God will give him the throne of his father David, and he will reign over the house of Jacob forever; his kingdom will never end." At the same time, "son" in v.14a could be understood by NT writers in a collective sense, as 2 Corinthians 6:18 demonstrates: "I will be a Father to you, / and you will be my sons and daughters, / says the Lord Almighty" (see NIV mg.). Murray J. Harris notes: "What God promised to Solomon through David and to Israel through Solomon (cf. Jer 31:9) finds its fulfillment in what God is to the community of believers through Christ (Gal 3:26; 4:6)" (comment at 2 Cor 6:18). Father-son imagery representing God's relationship to the people of Israel is common in the OT. Besides Jeremiah 31:9, it is found in such texts as Exodus 4:22-23; Deuteronomy 14:1; 32:6, 19; Isaiah 1:2; 30:1; 43:6; 45:10; 63:16; 64:8; Jeremiah 3:19; Hosea 1:10; 11:1; and Malachi 1:6; 2:10.

A further aspect of the father-son metaphor is its covenant setting. In Mesopotamia, for example, "employment of familial metaphors to express political ties was... a well-known phenomenon in the diplomatic lexicon of the second millennium. Thus abbutu "fathership' signifies suzerainty, marutu "sonship'—vassalship" (Paul, "Adoption Formulae," p. 177). The use of "father" for God and "son" for Solomon in v.14a is thus entirely appropriate in what has justifiably come to be known as the Davidic covenant. At the same time the most characteristic of all covenant formulas—"I will be your God, and you will be my people"—is taken from "the sphere of marriage/adoption legal terminology like its Davidic counterpart in II Sam. VII, 14" (Weinfeld, "The Covenant of Grant," p. 200).

Although the Davidic king was to enjoy the unique relationship of being the Lord's "son," he would thereby be brought "all the more firmly within the constraints of Yahweh's fatherly discipline" (Gordon, I & II Samuel, p. 239), as v.14b indicates. The Lord would use men as agents of divine judgment on Solomon (and his dynastic successors) "when he does wrong" (cf. Solomon's words in 1 Kings 8:47 in their context). It is not an idle promise: "The rod" (v.14b; cf. also Ps 89:32) of divine wrath would fall on Jerusalem and her citizens because of the sins of David's descendants (cf. Lam 3:1). The Chronicler's parallel leaves out v.14b entirely because of his characteristic desire to display the Davidic dynasty in the best possible light. His omission of the negative threat makes it tempting to assume that Hebrews 1:5, referring to the sinless Christ, cites 1 Chronicles 17:13 rather than 2 Samuel 7:14 (cf. Reymond, Jesus, Divine Messiah, p. 11 n. 6). Symon Patrick, however, prefers to call v.14 "a mixt [sic] Prophecy, some part of which belongs to Christ, and the other part to Solomon and his Successors in the Kingdom of Israel" (p. 395). But neither expedient seems necessary. Although the NT leaves no doubt that v.14a is fulfilled typologically in Jesus, it is also clear that in its original setting the entire verse refers to the Lord's adoption of Solomon (and his royal descendants) as his son/vassal: "The son given into adoption has the duties of a son (= respecting his parents) but also has the privileges of a son: he has to be treated like the son of a free citizen and not like a slave.... What is then meant in II Sam. VII, 14 is that when David's descendants sin they will be disciplined like rebellious sons by their father but they will not be alienated" (Weinfeld, "The Covenant of Grant," pp. 192-93). Such an understanding in no way denies the interpretation that Solomon, the type, prefigures Jesus, the antitype.

Taken together, vv.14b-15? have often been understood to mean that the Davidic covenant is unconditional: No matter what David's descendants do (v.14b), the Lord's love will "never be taken away" from them (v.15). But although the verses "may point in that direction, it is striking that a passage so clearly grounded in the royal cults of that time would emphasize that Yahweh will punish the king for disobeying the law. This must be seen as at least qualifying the promise if not making it conditional. These verses point out that kings are not to use the Davidic promise as a justification for any style of behavior" (Gerbrandt, p. 164). At the same time, however, the "When" of v.14b gives way to the "But" of v.15. Brueggemann remarks:

Sound interpretation requires us to recognize that while the covenantal "if" is silenced in this theology, it has not been nullified. Therefore, interpretation must struggle with the tension of "if" and "nevertheless" that is present in the Bible, in our own lives, and in the very heart of God.... The historical process teaches us about the reality of judgment and condition, so that we know about the "if" of reality from our own experience. The other side of the tension, God's unconditional commitment, will be operative in biblical faith only if Nathan's bold oracle of "nevertheless" is sounded as the gospel. (First and Second Samuel, p. 259) All three verbs in v.15 ("be taken away," "took... away," "removed") are forms of the verb swr ("turn aside"), the second and third occurrences of which are identical (hasiroth i). The Lord promises that although he "turned aside" his love from Saul (whom the Chronicler in his parallel, reluctant to mention Saul by name, simply calls David's "predecessor" [1 Chronicles 17:13]), David's mortal enemy whom the Lord "turned aside" from before him, the divine love will never "turn aside" from David's seed ("offspring," v.12), David's son Solomon (and his descendants)—and ultimately great David's greater Son, Jesus Christ. Carlson notes that "the emphasized hesir element in v.15 derives from the previous description of Saul and David, cf. 1 Sam 16:14, 18:12, 28:15 f." (p. 122; see comments on 1 Sam 16:14; and on 28:15-16). In addition lo'-yasur ("will never be taken away") echoes the same phrase in Genesis 49:10 ("will not depart"; cf. Carlson, p. 108).

God's covenant with David assures him that his covenant "love" (hesed v.15; see comments on 2:6; on 1 Sam 20:8, and on 14-15; cf. Roger T. Beckwith, "The Unity and Diversity of God's Covenants," Tyndale Bulletin 33 [1987]: 102 n. 26) will never leave David's son as it had left Saul. An important emphasis in v.15 is the fact that it constitutes "an endorsement of the Davidic claim to the throne over against the Saulide and any others that may emerge" (Levenson, "The Davidic Covenant," p. 217). The word hesed becomes a virtual synonym for berit ("covenant") in later allusions to the Davidic covenant (cf. 22:51 ["unfailing kindness"]; 1 Kings 3:6 ["kindness"]; 2 Chronicles 6:42 ["great love"]; Ps 89:28, 33, 49; Isa 55:3; 1 Macc 2:57 [for the last reference, cf. Kruse, "David's Covenant," p. 148, who observes that eleos ("mercy") = hesed in this context; cf. further Pierre Bordreuil, "Les "Graces de David' et 1 Maccabees ii 57," VetTest 31, 1 [1981]: 73-76).

With respect to Isaiah 55:3 (cited in Acts 13:34 to demonstrate that Jesus' resurrection was further proof of God's covenant love to David), Walter C. Kaiser, Jr., makes the helpful observation that "the phrase hasde dawid hanne'emanim ["faithful love promised to David']... echoes 2 Sam 7:15-16: "My hesed I will not remove from him.... Sure [ne'man] are your house and your kingdom before me forever" ("The Unfailing Kindnesses Promised to David: Isaiah 55:3," JSOT 45 [1989]: 92). Verse 16 itself reprises earlier promises in the near context in summary fashion (for "house/dynasty" see comment on v.11b; for "kingdom" and "throne"—which are linked contextually to "house/dynasty"—and "forever" see comment on v.13b; for "established" see comment on v.12).

That David's "house" would "endure" (v.16) echoes Abigail's insight in 1 Samuel 25:28 (see comment on "lasting dynasty" there; see also comment on "firmly [established his] house" in 1 Sam 2:35; cf. 1 Kings 11:38 ["dynasty as enduring"]—the Heb. expression is virtually the same in all four passages). N'mn ("enduring," "true," "established," "confirmed") is applied also to the divine promises made to David (1 Kings 8:26; 1 Chronicles 17:23; 2 Chronicles 1:9; cf. further Mettinger, In Search of God, pp. 144-45, who calls attention to the fact that "Isaiah's address to the Davidide Ahaz [Isa 7:9]... contains a play on the Nathan prophecy"; cf. similarly Gordon, I & II Samuel, p. 240), which comprise the covenant itself (which "will never fail," Ps 89:28). Through Solomon (cf. 1 Chronicles 22:6-11; 28:5-7) and his descendants, David's throne would "be established" (kwn v.16; cf. 1 Kings 2:45 ["remain secure"]; Ps 89:37).

When A.G. Hebert wrote a book that he subtitled A Study of the Fulfilment of the Old Testament in Jesus Christ and His Church he could think of no better main title than The Throne of David (London: Faber and Faber, 1941). More than any other, Christ fulfills the promises of the Davidic covenant. "The failure of the kings generally leads not to disillusion with kingship but to the hope of a future king who will fulfill the kingship ideal—a hope which provides the most familiar way of understanding the significance of Jesus of Nazareth, the Christ coming in his kingdom" (Goldingay, Theological Diversity and the Authority of the Old Testament, p. 70). That the throne of David will remain "forever" (v.16) refers ultimately to "none but Christ, for David 's Kingdom had an end, but Christ's hath none" (Symon Patrick, p. 396; cf. Luke 1:31-33). In the words of Martin Luther, "his kingdom is forever." 17 Nathan's oracle (vv.5-16) having come to an end, a summary statement functions, together with the introduction (v.4), to frame the oracle itself. It was incumbent on a prophet to report "all the words" that the Lord commissioned him to proclaim (cf. Jer 42:4 ["everything"]), and Nathan keeps nothing back. "The task of the prophet, to convey the message of the Lord faithfully and accurately, is carried out by Nathan, though it involved contradicting what he had already said to David by way of personal opinion" (Baldwin, p. 217; see v.3 and comment).

The Lord's "revelation/vision" (hizzayon see v.4 and comment) to Nathan concerning David and his dynasty is perhaps referred to in Psalm 89:19 ("vision," hazon), which may allude also to the divine communication to Samuel in 1 Samuel 16:12.

D) [(Mt 21:43) The Kingdom Of God Will Be Taken Away From Unfaithful Jews And Given To Those Jews Who Are Faithful]:

(Mt 21:43 NASB) "Therefore I say to you, the kingdom of God will be taken away from you and given to a people, producing the fruit of it."

[BKC]

"Jesus said the kingdom of God was being taken away from those who heard Him, and it would be given to the people who would produce its fruit. The word for "people" (ethnei) is usually translated "nation." (It appears here without an article.) Two interpretations of this verse are often presented. One is that Jesus was saying the kingdom had been taken from the Jewish nation and would be given to Gentile nations who would produce the proper fruit of genuine faith. It is argued that since ethnei is singular, not plural, the word refers to the church which is called a nation in Romans 10:19 and 1 Peter 2:9-10. But the kingdom has not been taken completely away from Israel forever (Rom. 11:15, 25). And the church is not now inheriting the kingdom.

A better interpretation is that Jesus was simply saying the kingdom was being taken away from the nation Israel at that time, but it would be given back to the nation in a future day when that nation would demonstrate true repentance and faith. In this view Jesus was using the term "nation" in the sense of generation (cf. Matt. 23:36). Because of their rejection, that generation of Israel would never be able to experience the kingdom of God (cf. comments on 21:18-22). But a future generation in Israel will respond in saving faith to this same Messiah (Rom. 11:26-27), and to that future generation the kingdom will be given. By rejecting Jesus the Stone, these builders (Matt. 21:42) suffered judgment (he on whom it [the Stone] falls will be crushed). The religious leaders (then the chief priests and the Pharisees, v. 45; cf. v. 23) realized Jesus' remarks were directed toward them, and they tried their best to arrest Him. But they were afraid of the... people (cf. v. 26), who thought Jesus was a Prophet (cf. v. 11), so they were unable to act."

E) [Heb 8:6-13]:

(Heb 8:6 NKJV) "But now He has obtained a more excellent ministry, inasmuch as He is also Mediator of a better covenant, which was established on better promises. 

(Heb 8:7 NKJV) For if that first covenant had been faultless, then no place would have been sought for a second. 

(Heb 8:8 NKJV) Because finding fault with them, He says: "Behold, the days are coming, says the LORD, when I will make a New Covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah -

(Heb 8:9 NKJV) not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day when I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt; because they did not continue in My covenant, and I disregarded them, says the LORD. 

(Heb 8:10 NKJV) For this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, says the LORD: I will put My laws in their mind and write them on their hearts; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people.

(Heb 8:11 NKJV) None of them shall teach his neighbor, and none his brother, saying, 'Know the LORD,' for all shall know Me, from the least of them to the greatest of them. 

(Heb 8:12 NKJV) For I will be merciful to their unrighteousness, and their sins and their lawless deeds I will remember no more.

(Heb 8:13 NKJV) In that He says, "A New Covenant," He has made the first obsolete. Now what is becoming obsolete and growing old is ready to vanish away."

E) [Jn 3:3-6, 16]:

(Jn 3:3 YLT) "Jesus answered and said to him, '[Truly, truly] I say to [you], if any one [is] not ...born [again] from above, he is not able to see the [Kingdom] of God."

A) IN RESPONSE TO NICODEMUS' DECLARATION / QUESTION OF WHO HE WAS, JESUS TOLD NICODEMUS THAT HE MUST BE BORN AGAIN FROM ABOVE IN ORDER TO SEE, I.E., ENTER THE KINGDOM OF GOD. JESUS' AUTHORITATIVE TONE IMPLIED THAT HE WAS THE PROVIDER OF ETERNAL LIFE AND THE GATEWAY INTO THE KINGDOM OF GOD THROUGH FAITH IN HIM - THE MESSAGE HE HAD BEEN PREACHING TO THE CROWDS WHILE PERFORMING THE MIRACULOUS SIGNS WHICH NICODEMUS SPOKE OF. JESUS' ANSWER FURTHER IMPLIED THAT NICODEMUS AND HIS GROUP SHOULD HAVE BEEN FAMILIAR WITH JESUS' MESSAGE, IN VIEW OF THE FACT THAT THEY CONCLUDED THAT JESUS CAME FROM GOD AND GOD WAS WITH HIM BECAUSE OF THE MIRACULOUS SIGNS HE WAS PERFORMING. THEY WERE EVIDENTLY CONSIDERING THAT JESUS MIGHT BE THE ONE WHO WOULD COME TO ESTABLISH THE KINGDOM OF GOD ON EARTH

(Jn 1:12 YLT) "But as many [individuals of His own creation, (Jn 1:11a)] as did receive Him to them He gave authority to become sons [lit., children] of God - to those believing in His name: (Jn 1:13 YLT) who - not of blood nor of a will of flesh, nor of a will of man but - of God were begotten [born]... (Jn 2:23 NAS) Now when He was in Jerusalem at the Passover, during the feast, many believed in His name, observing His signs which He was doing. (Jn 2:24 YLT) and Jesus Himself was not trusting himself to them, because of His knowing all [men], (Jn 2:25 NKJV) and had no need that anyone should testify [to Him] of man, for He knew what was in man. ( Jn 3:1 YLT) And there was [a] man of the Pharisees, Nicodemus his name, [a] ruler of the Jews, (Jn 3:2 YLT) this one [Nicodemus, (v. 1)] came unto Him by night, and said to Him, 'Rabbi, we have known that from God [you have] come - a teacher, for no one these signs is able to do that [which you do] if God [is] not... with Him.' (Jn 3:3 YLT) Jesus answered and said to him, '[Truly, truly] I say to [you], if any one [is] not ...born [again] from above, he is not able to see the [Kingdom] of God." =

(Jn 3:3 Greek) "ApekrithE iEsous kai eipen autO ...'amEn amEn legO soi

.........................."Answered Jesus .and said .to him, 'Truly, truly ..I say to you,

ean mE tis ........gennEthE anOthen ..................ou dunatai idein ..tEn basileian tou .......Theou"

If ...not anyone .be born ...again [from above], not he can to see the .Kingdom .of [the] God."

In response to Nicodemus' declaration / question of Who He was: "We have known that from God [you have] come - a teacher, for no one these [miraculous] signs is able to do that [which You do] if God [is] not ...with Him;" Jesus told Nicodemus that he must be born again from above in order to see, i.e., enter the Kingdom of God, ("gennethe anothen" = lit. born from above, i.e., from heaven through God). So the phrase 'to see the Kingdom of God' here implies actually entering the eternal Kingdom of God as corroborated by Jn 3:5 which uses the word "enter" as opposed to just perceiving what the Kingdom of God is like, as some maintain.

1) [Compare Jn 3:5-6]:

(Jn 3:5 YLT) "Jesus answered, '[Truly, truly] I say to [you], if any one [is] not ...born [out] of water [figurative for being given a newborn spirit and cleansed from sins, (Ez 36:24-27)], and spirit [i.e., out of the spiritual realm] he is not able to enter into the [Kingdom] of God.

(Jn 3:6 YLT) that which [has] been born [out] of the flesh [i.e., out of the fleshly realm] is flesh [i.e., fleshly in character], and that which [has] been born [out] of the [spiritual realm] is spirit [i.e., spiritual in character].' "

Jesus' authoritative tone in His response to Nicodemus implied that He was the Provider of eternal life and the Gateway into the Kingdom of God through faith in Him - the message He had been preaching to the crowds while performing the miraculous signs which Nicodemus spoke of, (Jn 3:2) - a message of a spiritual birth from above, i.e., of being given a newborn spirit unto an eternal life familial relationship with God through believing in His name, (Jn 1:12-13; 2:23-25). Jesus' answer further implied that Nicodemus and his group should have been familiar with Jesus' message, in view of the fact that they concluded that Jesus came from God and God was with Him because of the miraculous signs He was performing. They were evidently considering that Jesus might be the One Who would come to establish the Kingdom of God on earth. Hence Jesus' response to Nicodemus was that one must be born again from above, i.e., be given a newborn spirit in order to see [enter] the Kingdom of God, (Ez 36:24-27). So Jesus' response did not refer to going through another physical birth as Nicodemus was then to speak of.

Since Jesus so readily used the term "Kingdom of God" without explanation as to its meaning in His answers to Nicodemus' inquiry; and since this term frequently appears in Scripture, (cf. Ps 45:6; 103:19; Isa 9:7; Dan 7:14), and since Nicodemus did not express anything that would indicate a lack of knowledge of the term; then Nicodemus, a teacher of Scripture to Israel, and his group should have known what Jesus was referring to

Furthermore, since Nicodemus had concluded that Jesus had come from God - that God was with Him, (Jn 3:1); and since the Jewish interrogators, most of whom were Pharisees like Nicodemus, had the coming Messiah in mind and even thought that John the Baptist might be the Messiah to come, (Jn 1:24); and since Jesus immediately referred to Nicodemus' entrance into the Kingdom of God in answer to Nicodemus' inquiry as to Who Jesus as a Man from God Who had God with Him was; then it is implied that Nicodemus was inquiring if Jesus was the One to establish the Kingdom of God, i.e., if He was the Messiah to come.

Jesus' answer to Nicodemus' inquiry, (Jn 3:1), surprised Nicodemus: He indicated that Nicodemus was not going to enter the Kingdom of God unless he was born again from above. This is nothing new, for Jesus had already been preaching this message to the crowds as He performed the miraculous signs which Nicodemus spoke of. So Nicodemus should have known about His message. Note that many who did observe the miraculous signs believed in Jesus' name and became born again from above unto an eternal life familial relationship with God unto the eternal Kingdom of God.

Note that if Nicodemus had been one of the many in Jn 2:23 who 'saw the miraculous signs [Jesus] was doing and believed in His name;' that is to say, one of the many who understood Who He was and believed in His capacity to save them from their sins and thus 'see [enter] the Kingdom of God;' then Nicodemus would have understood Who Jesus was and He would not have needed to come to Jesus late at night to make his declaration / inquiry. So to know Jesus - Who He is - is to believe in His name to save one from ones sins and become born again unto an eternal life familial relationship with God. Author John covered this doctrine earlier in chapter one:

2) [Compare Jn 1:12-13]:

(v. 12) "Yet to all who received him, to those who believed in His name, he gave the right to become children of God--

(v. 13) children born not of natural descent, nor of human decision or a husband's will, but born of God."

III) [Jn 3:4]:

(Jn 3:4 YLT) " 'Nicodemus [says to] Him, 'How is a man able to be born [again], being old? Is he able into the womb of his mother a second time to enter and to be born?' "

A) NICODEMUS REMAINED IN A STATE OF WILLFUL IGNORANCE AND UNBELIEF IN WHAT JESUS HAD BEEN PREACHING TO THE CROWDS AND TO HIM: THAT UNLESS ONE WAS BORN AGAIN FROM ABOVE - A SPIRITUAL BIRTH OF RECEIVING A NEWBORN SPIRIT AND CLEANSING FROM ALL SINS - ONE COULD NOT SEE [ENTER] THE KINGDOM OF GOD, IMPLYING THAT JESUS WAS THE PROVIDER OF ETERNAL LIFE AND THE GATEWAY INTO THE KINGDOM OF GOD THROUGH FAITH IN HIM UNTO AN ETERNAL LIFE FAMILIAL RELATIONSHIP WITH GOD. HENCE NICODEMUS SAID TO JESUS, "HOW IS A MAN ABLE TO BE BORN [AGAIN], BEING OLD? IS HE ABLE INTO THE WOMB OF HIS MOTHER A SECOND TIME TO ENTER AND TO BE BORN?"

(Jn 1:12 YLT) "But as many [individuals of His own creation, (Jn 1:11a)] as did receive Him to them He gave authority to become sons [lit., children] of God - to those believing in His name: (Jn 1:13 YLT) who - not of blood nor of a will of flesh, nor of a will of man but - of God were begotten [born]... (Jn 2:23 NAS) Now when He was in Jerusalem at the Passover, during the feast, many believed in His name, observing His signs which He was doing. (Jn 2:24 YLT) and Jesus Himself was not trusting himself to them, because of His knowing all [men], (Jn 2:25 NKJV) and had no need that anyone should testify [to Him] of man, for He knew what was in man. (Jn 3:1 YLT) "And there was [a] man of the Pharisees, Nicodemus his name, [a] ruler of the Jews, (Jn 3:2 YLT) this one [Nicodemus, (v. 1)] came unto Him by night, and said to Him, 'Rabbi, we have known that from God [you have] come - a teacher, for no one these signs is able to do that [which you do] if God [is] not... with Him.' (Jn 3:3 YLT) Jesus answered and said to him, '[Truly, truly] I say to [you], if any one ...not be born [again] from above, he is not able to see the [Kingdom] of God. (Jn 3:4 YLT) Nicodemus [says to] Him, 'How is a man able to be born [again], being old? Is he able into the womb of his mother a second time to enter and to be born?' " =

Nicodemus remained in a state of willful ignorance and unbelief in what Jesus had been preaching to the crowds and to him: that unless one was born again from above - a spiritual birth of receiving a newborn spirit and cleansing from all sins - one could not see [enter] the Kingdom of God, implying that Jesus was the Provider of eternal life and Gateway into the Kingdom of God through faith in Him unto an eternal life familial relationship with God, (Jn 1:12-13; 2:23-25).

Nicodemus responded to Jesus' point about being born again from above in order to see [enter] the Kingdom of God with, "How is a man able to be born [again], being old? Is he able into the womb of his mother a second time to enter and to be born?" Nicodemus was evidently disturbed by Jesus' point. Once more he chose not to accept Who Jesus was, nor did he choose to believe in the concept of being born again from above - to receive a newborn spirit and cleansing from sins, (cf Ez 36:24-27). So Nicodemus' destiny did not yet include entering the Kingdom of God. In reply to Nicodemus, Jesus provided more instruction to Nicodemus so that he might choose to understand and believe as many who heard Jesus preach and observed His miraculous signs, (Jn 2:23-25):

IV) [Jn 3:5-6]:

(Jn 3:5 YLT) ""Jesus answered, '[Truly, truly] I say to [you], if any one [is] not ...born [out] of water [figurative for being given a newborn spirit and cleansed from sins, (Ez 36:24-27)], and spirit [i.e., out of the spiritual realm] he is not able to enter into the [Kingdom] of God.

(Jn 3:6 YLT) that which [has] been born [out] of the flesh [i.e., out of the fleshly realm] is flesh [i.e., fleshly in character], and that which [has] been born [out] of the [spiritual realm] is spirit [i.e., spiritual in character].' "

A) IN ANSWER TO NICODEMUS' QUESTION OF HOW A MAN IS ABLE TO BE BORN AGAIN FROM ABOVE, JESUS SAID THAT ANY ONE NOT BORN OF WATER - NEITHER GIVEN A NEWBORN SPIRIT NOR CLEANSED FROM SINS - IN THE SPIRITUAL REALM IS NOT ABLE TO ENTER THE KINGDOM OF GOD

(Jn 1:12 YLT) "But as many [individuals of His own creation, (Jn 1:11a)] as did receive Him to them He gave authority to become sons [lit., children] of God - to those believing in His name: (Jn 1:13 YLT) who - not of blood nor of a will of flesh, nor of a will of man but - of God were begotten [born]... (Jn 2:23 NAS) Now when He was in Jerusalem at the Passover, during the feast, many believed in His name, observing His signs which He was doing. (Jn 2:24 YLT) and Jesus Himself was not trusting himself to them, because of His knowing all [men], (Jn 2:25 NKJV) and had no need that anyone should testify [to Him] of man, for He knew what was in man. (Jn 3:1 YLT) And there was [a] man of the Pharisees, Nicodemus his name, [a] ruler of the Jews, (Jn 3:2 YLT) this one [Nicodemus, (v. 1)] came unto Him by night, and said to Him, 'Rabbi, we have known that from God [you have] come - a teacher, for no one these signs is able to do that [which you do] if God [is] not... with Him.' (Jn 3:3 YLT) Jesus answered and said to him, '[Truly, truly] I say to [you], if any one [is] not ...born [again] from above, he is not able to see the [Kingdom] of God. (Jn 3:4 YLT) Nicodemus [says to] Him, 'How is a man able to be born [again], being old? Is he able into the womb of his mother a second time to enter and to be born?' (Jn 3:5 YLT) Jesus answered, '[Truly, truly] I say to [you], if any one [is] not ...born [out] of water [figurative for being given a newborn spirit and cleansed from sins, (Ez 36:24-27)], and spirit [i.e., out of the spiritual realm] he is not able to enter into the [Kingdom] of God.' " =

(Jn 3:5 Greek) "ApekrithE ho IEsous AmEn amEn .legO soi .......ean mE .tis ........gennEthE ex....... .hudatos .

.........................."Answered .....Jesus, .Truly .truly ...I say to you, If ....not .anyone be born ....out of ..water ....

kai .[ex]..pneumatos ..................ou ..dunatia eiselthein .eis ..tEn basileian .tou Theou.

and [out] of spiritual [realm]......not .he can .to enter ....into .the Kingdom .of ...God.

In answer to Nicodemus' question of how a man is able to be born again from above, Jesus said that any one not born of water - neither given a newborn spirit nor cleansed from sins - in the spiritual realm is not able to enter the Kingdom of God:

[(Jn 3:5) "If any one [is] not ...born [out] of water [figurative for being given a newborn spirit and cleansed from sins, (Ez 36:24-27)], and spirit [i.e., out of the spiritual realm] he is not able to enter into the [Kingdom] of God."]

Note that the Greek noun "pneumatos" which is "pneuma" in the genetive case, can mean wind, breath; spirit, soul, self; disposition, spiritual realm or state; spirit (angelic, demonic, human), the Spirit (the Holy Spirit), depending upon the context. It is best rendered "out of the spiritual realm" in Jn 3:5 for the following reasons:

Since Jn 1:12-13 stipulates that one who believes in Jesus' name is born again from above by God to become an eternal child of God in the Kingdom of God; and since Jn 3:3 stipulates that any one who is not born again from above is not able to see the Kingdom of God; then the phrase in Jn 3:5, "If any one [is] not ...born [out] of water [figurative for being given a newborn spirit and cleansed from sins, (Ez 36:24-27)], and spirit [i.e., out of the spiritual realm] he is not able to enter into the [Kingdom] of God" makes being born again from above through God to enter the Kingdom of God equivalent to being born out of water and spirit from above through God to enter the Kingdom of God. So Jn 3:5 refers to a spiritual birth of receiving a newborn spirit and cleansing from all sins from above through God, implying that it takes place exclusively in the spiritual realm. So the saving work of God excludes anything of the physical world such as physical birth and physical water baptism. Furthermore, physical birth cannot be in view in the phrase "If anyone [is] not ... born [out] of water" in Jn 3:5 because:

1) Those who do not get to be physically born because they die in the womb will nevertheless enter the Kingdom of God.

2) To tell someone who has been physically born that he must be physically born in order to enter the Kingdom of God is both redundant and absurd because he already is physically born. If one were not physically born, aside from those in the womb, one wouldn't exist, much less be able to understand and comply with a requirement to become physically born.

This teaching is also substantiated in the Old Testament which Nicodemus, a teacher of Scripture to Israel, (cf. Jn 3:10), should have been familiar with:

1) [Compare Ez 36:24-27 from the Old Testament]:

(Ez 36:24 NKJV) "For I will take you [Israel, cf. Ez 36:22] from among the nations, gather you out of all countries, and bring you into your own land.

(Ez 36:25 NKJV) Then I will sprinkle clean water on you, and you shall be clean; I will cleanse you from all your filthiness and from all your idols."

[God foretold that after he took Israel from among the nations and brought her into her own land, (Ez 36:24); He would sprinkle clean water on her to cleanse her from her filthiness and idols, i.e., from her sins, especially idol worship. Since the concept of sprinkling clean physical water over all of Israel would not wash away her sins, nor even clean away all of her external filthiness, then the phrase "sprinkle clean water" must be figurative, and represent a spiritual cleansing - the work of God, (the Holy Spirit), in the spiritual realm. Note that for God to cleanse one of internal filthiness, i.e., all their sins, it is implied that God must make payment for them through His Personal atonement, (through God the Son, Jesus Christ).

The concept of sprinkling the water of cleansing to make an individual ceremonially clean appears in Scripture. For example, it was to be done to Levitical priests to purify them as part of a symbolic ritual which would represent the actual work of God in the spiritual realm of purifying them from temporal sins so they can qualify to serve God. This concept should have been familiar to Nicodemus:

a) [Compare Nu 8:5-7]:

(Nu 8:5 NIV) "The LORD said to Moses:

(Nu 8:6 NIV) 'Take the Levites from among the other Israelites and make them ceremonially clean.

(Nu 8:7 NIV) To purify them, do this: Sprinkle the water of cleansing on them; then have them shave their whole bodies and wash their clothes, and so purify themselves' "

1) cont.) [Ez 36:24-27 cont.]:

(Ez 36:26 NKJV) "I will give you a new heart and put a new spirit within you; I will take the heart of stone out of your flesh and give you a heart of flesh."

[Furthermore, as part of the work of God which is figuratively referred to as "sprinkling clean water [on Israel]," God foretold that He would provide all Israelites with a new heart and a newborn human spirit. The word heart here does not refer to the physical heart but to the minds and attitudes of every Israelite being redirected toward a willingness to love and be obedient to God.

The term "heart of stone" in the phrase "I will take the heart of stone out of your flesh" refers to Israel's attitude of coldness, hardness and consequent deliberate distancing from God. The work of God in providing Israel with a "new heart," i.e., a "heart of flesh" refers to God's work of enabling Israel to choose to be faithful, obedient and close to God. The phrase "I will ...put a new spirit within you" refers to God providing all of Israel with newborn human spirits; i.e., a spiritual birth of all Israel - becoming born again from above. Note that this is done by God as part of His work of sprinkling clean water on Israel in her spiritual cleansing, (Ez 36:25)]:

(Ez 36:27 NKJV) "I will put My Spirit within you and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you will keep My judgments and do [them]. "

In verse 27, God further explains as part of His work, which is figuratively referred to in Scripture as "sprinkling clean water" on Israel, that He will put His Spirit - the Holy Spirit - to indwell all Israelites and enable them each to willingly choose to walk in His statutes and keep His judgments.

B) BEING BORN OF WATER AND SPIRIT - BEING GIVEN A NEWBORN SPIRIT AND CLEANSED FROM SINS - IS EXCLUSIVELY OUT OF THE SPIRITUAL REALM; FOR IT IS THAT WHICH IS FLESH WHICH GIVES BIRTH EXCLUSIVELY TO FLESH AND IT IS THAT WHICH IS SPIRITUAL WHICH GIVES BIRTH EXCLUSIVELY TO THE NEWBORN HUMAN SPIRIT

(Jn 1:12 YLT) "But as many [individuals of His own creation, (Jn 1:11a)] as did receive Him to them He gave authority to become sons [lit., children] of God - to those believing in His name: (Jn 1:13 YLT) who - not of blood nor of a will of flesh, nor of a will of man but - of God were begotten [born]... (Jn 2:23 NAS) Now when He was in Jerusalem at the Passover, during the feast, many believed in His name, observing His signs which He was doing. (Jn 2:24 YLT) and Jesus Himself was not trusting himself to them, because of His knowing all [men], (Jn 2:25 NKJV) and had no need that anyone should testify [to Him] of man, for He knew what was in man. (Jn 3:1 YLT) And there was [a] man of the Pharisees, Nicodemus his name, [a] ruler of the Jews, (Jn 3:2 YLT) this one [Nicodemus, (v. 1)] came unto Him by night, and said to Him, 'Rabbi, we have known that from God [you have] come - a teacher, for no one these signs is able to do that [which you do] if God [is] not... with Him.' (Jn 3:3 YLT) Jesus answered and said to him, '[Truly, truly] I say to [you], if any one [is] not ...born [again] from above, he is not able to see the [Kingdom] of God. (Jn 3:4 YLT) Nicodemus [says to] Him, 'How is a man able to be born [again], being old? Is he able into the womb of his mother a second time to enter and to be born?' (Jn 3:5 YLT) Jesus answered, '[Truly, truly] I say to [you], if any one [is] not ...born [out] of water [figurative for being given a newborn spirit and cleansed from sins, (Ez 36:24-27)], and spirit [i.e., out of the spiritual realm] he is not able to enter into the [Kingdom] of God. (Jn 3:6 YLT) that which [has] been born [out] of the flesh [i.e., out of the fleshly realm] is flesh [i.e., fleshly in character], and that which [has] been born [out] of the [spiritual realm] is spirit [i.e., spiritual in character].' " =

(Jn 3:6 Greek) .to ...gegennEmenon ....ek .......tEs .sarkos sarx .estin .kai .to ..gegennEmenon ..

..........................The having been born .out of .the .flesh ...flesh ..is; ....and .the having been born

ek ......tou pneumatos ...............pneuma .....estin."

out of the spiritual [realm]........spirit ..........is."

The concept of being "born [out] of water [figurative for being given a newborn spirit and cleansed from sins, (Ez 36:24-27)], and spirit [i.e., out of the spiritual realm]" is corroborated by the next verse, Jn 3:6 which stipulates "that which [has] been born [out] of the flesh [i.e., out of the fleshly realm] is flesh [i.e., fleshly in character], and that which [has] been born [out] of the [spiritual realm] is spirit [i.e., spiritual in character]." So human beings give birth to human beings - a work which is exclusive to the physical world; and the Spirit gives birth to spirit, i.e., God the Holy Spirit gives birth to the new born human spirit - a work exclusive to the spiritual world.

The Greek word "sarx" rendered "flesh" in the YLT cannot mean man's fleshly or sinful nature because an individual's sin nature cannot give birth to another sin nature. Hence "flesh" in Jn 3:5 refers to that which is of the physical realm, more specifically the work of physical human beings who give birth to physical human beings in the physical realm. On the other hand, Jn 3:6 goes on to say that that which is of the spiritual realm, more specifically the work of God the Holy Spirit Whose work gives birth to the human spirit in the spiritual realm. So according to Jn 3:6, Jesus is evidently speaking of a spiritual birth from above, i.e., being given a newborn spirit brought about exclusively in the spiritual realm by the work of God the Holy Spirit, (cf Ez 36:26). It excludes anything to do with the physical realm, such as physical birth or water baptism. So the Greek word "hudatos" rendered "water" in Jn 3:5 is figurative for that which is of the spiritual realm, more specifically the work of God the Holy Spirit.

X) [Jn 3:16]:

(Jn 3:16 NIV) "For God so loved the world that he gave His One and Only Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish, but [should] have eternal life."

A) THE WORD RENDERED "FOR" IN JN 3:16 TIES WHAT WAS PREVIOUSLY PRESENTED IN THE GOSPEL OF JOHN TO JN 3:16, ESPECIALLY RELATIVE TO BEING SPIRITUALLY BORN FROM ABOVE IN THE SPIRITUAL REALM THROUGH THE SPIRIT OF GOD VIA A MOMENT OF FAITH ALONE IN THE SON OF MAN, JESUS CHRIST, BEING LIFTED UP [ON A CROSS] IN AN ATONING SACRIFICE FOR THE SINS OF THE WHOLE WORLD, WITH ALL MANKIND IN VIEW

(Jn 1:12 YLT) "But as many [individuals of His own creation, (Jn 1:11a)] as did receive Him to them He gave authority to become sons [lit., children] of God - to those believing in His name: (Jn 1:13 YLT) who - not of blood nor of a will of flesh, nor of a will of man but - of God were begotten [born]... (Jn 2:23 NAS) Now when He was in Jerusalem at the Passover, during the feast, many believed in His name, observing His signs which He was doing. (Jn 2:24 YLT) and Jesus himself was not trusting himself to them, because of his knowing all [men], (Jn 2:25 NKJV) and had no need that anyone should testify of man, for He knew what was in man. (Jn 3:5 YLT) Jesus answered, '[Truly, truly] I say to [you], if any one [is] not ...born [out] of water [figurative for being given a newborn spirit and cleansed from sins, (Ez 36:24-27)], and spirit [i.e., out of the spiritual realm] he is not able to enter into the [Kingdom] of God. (Jn 3:6 YLT) that which [has] been born [out] of the flesh [i.e., out of the fleshly realm] is flesh [i.e., fleshly in character], and that which [has] been born [out] of the [spiritual realm] is spirit [i.e., spiritual in character].' (Jn 3:14 NIV) [And] just as Moses lifted up the snake in the desert, so the Son of Man must be lifted up, (Jn 3:15 NKJV) that whoever believes in Him should not perish but [should] have eternal life. (Jn 3:16 NIV) For God so loved the world that he gave His One and Only Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish, but [should] have eternal life." =

(Jn 3:16 Greek) "HoutOs gar EgapEsen ho.Theos ton kosmon hOste ton Huion

............................"So ........for .loved ........the God ...the world ...that ....the Son

Hautou ton monogenE edOken"

His ......the .unique ......He gave

hina pas ...........ho .pisteuOn ..........eis auton mE .apolEtai .....all' .echE .......zOEn aiOnion"

that .everyone the .believing [one] in Him ....not .may perish, but may have life ....eternal."

The Greek word "Gar" in the first phrase of Jn 3:16 is rendered "For" in the NIV. It means "because," a conjunction which ties what is previously presented in Jn 3:1-15, especially vv. 3, 5-6 and 14-15, directly into v. 16; namely that being spiritually born from above in the realm of the spiritual results in eternal life in the kingdom of God through a moment of faith alone in the Son of Man, [Jesus'] being lifted up [on a cross] in an atoning sacrifice for the sins of the whole world, with all mankind in view.

B) IN VIEW OF WHAT WAS STIPULATED IN JN 3:14-15, WHICH CONTEXT CONTINUES ON INTO THE NEXT VERSE, THE PHRASE IN JN 3:16 RENDERED "FOR GOD SO LOVED THE WORLD THAT HE GAVE HIS ONE AND ONLY SON" INDICATES THAT IT WAS SO GREAT AN EXPRESSION OF GOD'S LOVE FOR ALL MANKIND WHICH MOTIVATED HIM TO MAKE PROVISION FOR ETERNAL LIFE FOR ALL MANKIND THROUGH AN ATONING SACRIFICE OF THE SON OF MAN, HIS ONE AND ONLY SON, JESUS CHRIST FOR THE SINS OF THE WHOLE WORLD WHICH ATONEMENT WAS AT THAT TIME YET TO BE COMPLETED WHEN JESUS WAS SPEAKING TO NICODEMUS. NOTE THAT THE TRIUNE GOD OF THE BIBLE, MORE SPECIFICALLY GOD THE FATHER, IS IN VIEW

(Jn 1:12 YLT) "But as many [individuals of His own creation, (Jn 1:11a)] as did receive Him to them He gave authority to become sons [lit., children] of God - to those believing in His name: (Jn 1:13 YLT) who - not of blood nor of a will of flesh, nor of a will of man but - of God were begotten [born]... (Jn 2:23 NAS) Now when He was in Jerusalem at the Passover, during the feast, many believed in His name, observing His signs which He was doing. (Jn 2:24 YLT) and Jesus himself was not trusting himself to them, because of his knowing all [men], (Jn 2:25 NKJV) and had no need that anyone should testify of man, for He knew what was in man. (Jn 3:5 YLT) Jesus answered, '[Truly, truly] I say to [you], if any one [is] not ...born [out] of water [figurative for being given a newborn spirit and cleansed from sins, (Ez 36:24-27)], and spirit [i.e., out of the spiritual realm] he is not able to enter into the [Kingdom] of God. (Jn 3:6 YLT) that which [has] been born [out] of the flesh [i.e., out of the fleshly realm] is flesh [i.e., fleshly in character], and that which [has] been born [out] of the [spiritual realm] is spirit [i.e., spiritual in character].' (Jn 3:14 NIV) [And] just as Moses lifted up the snake in the desert, so the Son of Man must be lifted up, (Jn 3:15 NKJV) that whoever believes in Him should not perish but [should] have eternal life. (Jn 3:16 NIV) For God so loved the world that he gave His One and Only Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish, but [should] have eternal life." =

In view of what was stipulated in Jn 3:14-15, which context continues on into the next verse, the Greek phrase "HoutOs gar EgapEsen ho Theos ton kosmon hOste ton Huion Hautou ton monogenE edOke" in Jn 3:16 rendered "For God so loved the world that He gave His one and only Son" in the NIV indicates that it was so great an expression of God's love for all mankind which motivated Him to make provision for eternal life for all mankind through an atoning sacrifice of the Son of Man, His one and only Son, Jesus Christ for the sins of the whole world, which atonement was at that time yet to be completed when Jesus was speaking to Nicodemus. In the absence of any contextual or grammatical indicators, Jn 3:16 continues to have everyone of the whole world in view. For it would be an absurd contradiction to conclude that the phrase "For God so loved the world" has only His love for the limited few who will choose to believe in His Son and have eternal life, hence that He hates the rest of humanity which He created.

The word "GOD" refers to the triune God as presented throughout the Bible; more specifically God the Father is especially in view as the verse portrays God Who gave His one and only Son in Jn 3:16. [ on the Trinity]

Due to its first position in Jn 3:16 in the Greek, the word "houtOs" rendered "so" in the NIV, modifies the aorist / completed action verb "EgapEsen," rendered "loved" which is in the indicative mood, portraying a statement of fact; and in the aorist tense, which together with the word "houtOs" rendered "so" convey a singularly great completed moment of the expression of God's love toward the world - all mankind of all ages. A moment that "God so loved the world" that He gave the Son of Man, His one and only Son, Jesus Christ for the world by lifting Him up in a once for all time atoning sacrifice for sins of the world as a provision for all mankind of all ages to provide the opportunity for each individual to choose to express a moment of faith alone in Christ alone for eternal life. The Greek verb "edOken" rendered "He gave" in the phrase "He gave His one and only Son" in Jn 3:16 in the NIV as well as the Greek verb "hupsOthEnai" rendered "to be lifted up" in Jn 3:14 in the NKJV are similarly aorist indicative (completed action / statement of fact, paralleling the aorist indicative verb "Egapesen" rendered "loved," and pointing to a once for all time completed action by God of giving the Son of Man, His one and only Son, Jesus Christ lifting Him up [on a cross] for the atonement of the sins of the whole world = for all mankind of all ages.