COMMENTARY ON AUTHOR MICHAEL HEISER

ELECTION, SALVATION, UNBELIEF ETERNAL SECURITY

By Dr. Michael Heiser | Jan 8, 2011 | AAG, Election, NakedBible, Romans, Romans 9-11

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Detailed Commentary By Truthwatchers.com

MICHAEL HEISER'S GNOSTIC HERESY


ELECTION, SALVATION, UNBELIEF, ETERNAL SECURITY
 By Dr. Michael Heiser | Jan 8, 2011 | AAG, Election, NakedBible, Romans, Romans 9-11

[Comments within brackets from biblestudymanuals.net]

Go to table of contents to select points

[Michael Heiser]:

"Here we go. You’ll note by the end that I really don’t care for (or feel the need) to frame these issues they way they are typically framed.

[Proper framing must not be neglected! It must be via the normative rules of language, context and logic which Dr. Heiser apparently does not utilize, especially in the matter of not comparing two passages that are not of the same context as if they were . This is obvious because the format for his writings is not to interpret / explain the Bible in the order each of the 66 books was written in, explaining it in accordance with what the author himself has written without being influenced / changed by what is located elsewhere in another book by yet another author.]

III) Election and Salvation

The major point of my previous post on election was that it was not to be understood as synonymous with salvation.

[There are different contexts involving election and salvation. So this statement is nonsensical. Which election and which salvation ? There is a great need to study these two subjects so that one can make better interpretive judgments about what God is saying to us in His Word, the Bible. A sentence or two won't do]

IV) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

Rather, the saved were a subset of the elect.

[No where in the Bible does it stipulate or imply that "the saved were a subset of the elect." There are multiple definitions of these two words. The specific definitions have not been stipulated by Dr. Heiser that best fit the context of the subject and passages that support the conclusion that "
the saved were a subset of the elect," For example, according to the Bible, those individuals who are the elect of God for salvation unto eternal life will all choose to believe in Christ and be saved unto eternal life . So their status of being elect unto salvation unto eternal life will inevitably be realized in history as saved unto eternal life because God is Sovereign - His decrees are absolute. Hence the phrase "the saved were a subset of the elect" is nonsensical and unbiblical because it does not provide specific and necessary definitions of the words in view, nor take context into consideration nor does it recognize God's Absolute Sovereignty!!!!  ]

V) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

I then drew these conclusions:

Everyone saved was in fact elect
but not all the elect are saved.

[This is not true relative to salvation unto eternal life for individuals of any age. There are different kinds of salvation, some kinds are referred to as preservation, deliverance, etc - referring to the temporal life; others unto eternal life,  . So it is important to define ones terms in order to properly establish the context. If election of individuals unto salvation unto eternal life is in view, then it is true that all the elect relative to the reception of eternal life at first exist unsaved - under eternal condemnation until they believe while in their mortal, temporal lives . Whether they are born or unborn in the womb, they are unsaved under God's eternal condemnation until they choose believe unto eternal life, (ref. Jn 3:16-18) - a moment of faith alone in Christ alone is sufficient, despite author Dr. Michael Heiser's contention that one must perservere in the faith in order to stay / be saved . Note that those who die in the womb or die before accountability after being physically born will have eternal life because they have no chance to reject Jesus Christ and are therefore not erased from the Book of Life
. Nevertheless all of those who are God's elect for salvation unto eternal life, when they reach accountability will inevitably choose of their own volition to believe in Christ for forgiveness of sins and be saved before the end of their temporal lives; and they will verify God's Absolute Sovereignty in this matter to a man. No elect individual will ever remain unsaved throughout his mortal lifetime because God decreed that all the elect will choose of their own volition to believe and be saved unto eternal life in their temporal lives ]

VI) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

So, it is more accurate to say there was a remnant WITHIN the elect.

[I still need a more specific definition of the words remnant and elect to which you are referring - it's all about context, context, context. For example, a remnant of a certain group of people might be in view; for throughout history only the remnant of individuals - as opposed to whole groups of people - who are the only ones in that period of time who have been saved unto eternal life via a moment of faith alone in Christ alone comprise those individuals who have been decreed and therefore elected by God for salvation unto eternal life. And only those will choose to believe in Christ for forgiveness of sins be saved unto eternal life, regardless of the group of people they belong to in history. Their number will be very small compared to the whole population of people in view within the applicable context . And no one who is elect will not choose to be saved unto eternal life . Throughout history the vast majority of people will not choose to be saved and none of them are elect. Otherwise and in any other way, God's sovereignty would be flawed because only those whom He decreed and thereby elected to choose to believe unto eternal life will be saved. Those who are not elect will not ever choose to believe and be saved unto eternal life
.

On the other hand, Dr. Heiser may be referring to a remnant of Israel as God's chosen people. For not all of Israel throughout the ages is elect. Only a remnant of Israel of each generation has been decreed by God to believe and be saved and hence elected unto salvation unto eternal life and unto the physical preservation of a small number of the people of Israel throughout the ages via procreation in order to avoid extinction - with the exception that God has chosen / elected all of the last generation of Israelites - yet in the very near future - who will to a man exercise a moment of faith alone in Christ alone unto eternal life and thereby all be transformed into sinless, human beings, long lived, with a perfect knowledge of God's Word in fulfillment of the New Covenant . They will become a nation of priests co-ruling over the nations of the earth with Jesus Christ, the King of kings and Lord of lords. So only the remnant of generations of Israelites throughout the ages will in their temporal / mortal lives choose to believe in Christ and be saved unto eternal live and by their physical survival avoid extinction and enable Israel to fulfill the New Covenant with God and be His Chosen People in the Millennial Kingdom through a moment of faith alone in Christ alone. So far no entire generation of Israel has chosen to believe and be saved unto eternal life and thereby done their part to fulfill the New Covenant between God and Israel alone  but the end of the Church Age is approaching the beginning of the Day of the Lord unto the 7 year Tribulation Period followed immediately by Christ's Second Coming to the earth to begin His Millennial Rule.


VII) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

And so, the remnant is not synonymous with the elect.

[Again, this is a statement that is so broadbrushed and poorly defined that it is nonsensical and unbiblical. The question remains, which remnant and which elect group is being referred to? The word "synonymous" means the same. But remnant and elect are not synonymous and therefore are not interchangeable words. The relationship between the remnant and the elect depends upon context. Which remnant and which group of elect and which salvation is being referred to?
.

If Dr. Heiser is referring in some way to the salvation / preservation of a remnant of Israel from extinction throughout the ages so that God can fulfill His promise of the New Covenant to Israel which includes the salvation unto eternal life of every single individual of a future generation of Israel, then let's take a look at what the Bible has to say beginning with an excerpt on a study on election and related doctrines which sheds some light on this subject:

****** EXCERPT FROM STUDY ON ROMANS CHAPTER 11 ******

I) [Ro 11:1]:

(Ro 11:1 NKJV) "I say then, has God cast away His people? Certainly not! For I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin."

A) THE CONTEXT OF CHAPTER 10 CONTINUES INTO 11 OF GOD'S UNIQUE TEMPORAL PERSONAL RELATIONSHIP WITH GENERATIONS OF HIS CHOSEN PEOPLE, ISRAEL. CHAPTER 11 DOES NOT TEACH OF THE ATTAINMENT OR LOSS OF ETERNAL LIFE BY INDIVIDUALS AS SOME MAINTAIN. FOR SALVATION UNTO ETERNAL LIFE WAS NEVER OFFERED TO WHOLE GROUPS OF PEOPLE, BUT TO INDIVIDUALS, ONE AT A TIME

(Ro 10:16 NKJV) But they have not all obeyed the gospel, For Isaiah says, 'LORD, who has believed our report?' [Isa 53:1] (Ro 10:17 NKJV) So then faith comes by hearing, and hearing by the word of God. (Ro 10:18 NIV) But I ask: Did they not hear? Of course they did: 'Their voice has gone out into all the earth, their words to the ends of the world.' [Ps 19:4] (Ro 10:19 NKJV) But I say, did Israel not know? First Moses says: 'I will provoke you to jealousy by those who are not a nation, I will move you to anger by a foolish nation.' [Dt 32:21] (Ro 10:20 NIV) "And Isaiah boldly says, 'I was found by those who did not seek me; I revealed Myself to those who did not ask for Me.' [Isa 65:1] (Ro 10:21 NIV) But concerning Israel he says, 'All day long I have held out my hands to a disobedient and obstinate people.' [Isa 65:2] (Ro 11:1 NKJV) I say then, has God cast away His people? Certainly not! For I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin." =

Romans chapter 11 verses 1 & 2 state: (Ro 11:1 NKJV) "I say then, has God cast away His people? Certainly not! For I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. (Ro 11:2 NKJV) God has not cast away His people whom He foreknew. Or do you not know what the Scripture says of Elijah, how he pleads with God against Israel, saying." Hence the context of chapter 10 continues into 11 of God's unique temporal personal relationship with generations of His chosen people, Israel. So chapter 11 does not teach of the attainment or loss of eternal life by individuals as some maintain. For salvation unto eternal life was never offered to whole groups of people, but to individuals, one at a time. Notice the key word "people" as opposed to individuals which declares the subject under discussion: God's unique temporal personal relationship with His chosen people Israel. God is clearly declared by author Paul and the prophet Isaiah to whom Paul refers as not having permanently rejected His people Israel whom, Paul says, He foreknew to be His people forever. Hence there will be a fulfillment of all of God's promises concerning His chosen people Israel. This is corroborated by Paul's reference to Isaiah chapter 65 at the end of Romans chapter 10 which stipulates that the LORD will preserve a remnant of Israelites to fulfill His promises that His chosen people will inherit the Promised Land, He will be their God and they will be His people, (Isa 65:8-9) 

B) HAVING ALREADY REFERRED TO SCRIPTURE TO PROVIDE THE ANSWER, PAUL EMPHATICALLY ASKS THE QUESTION, 'HAS GOD CAST AWAY HIS PEOPLE ISRAEL?' THEN PAUL DECLARES HIS ANSWER, 'CERTAINLY NOT!'

(Ro 10:20 NIV) "And Isaiah boldly says, 'I was found by those who did not seek me; I revealed Myself to those who did not ask for Me.' [Isa 65:1] (Ro 10:21 NIV) But concerning Israel he says, 'All day long I have held out my hands to a disobedient and obstinate people.' [Isa 65:2] (Ro 11:1 NKJV) I say then, has God cast away His people? Certainly not! For I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin." =

Author Paul quoted from Deuteronomy and Isaiah at the end of Romans chapter 10 which indicate that the LORD hid His face from a generation of unfaithful ancient Israelites, declared them no longer His children and counted them for destruction, (Dt 32:21; Isa 65:1-2). On the other hand, the LORD declared that He would preserve a remnant of Israelites so as to have descendants to produce a future generation who would fulfill His promises that Israel would inherit the Promised Land, be His chosen people - faithful believers forever and He would be their God forever, (cf. Ro 10:20, Isa 65:1-18). Hence, Paul declares his answer to the question of whether God has cast away His people, Israel: "Certainly not!"

C) PAUL STATES THAT HE IS AN ISRAELITE, OF THE SEED OF ABRAHAM, OF THE TRIBE OF BENJAMIN IMPLYING EXPERTISE ON THE MATTER OF ISRAEL AND HER ETERNAL DESTINY

(Ro 10:20 NIV) "And Isaiah boldly says, 'I was found by those who did not seek me; I revealed Myself to those who did not ask for Me.' [Isa 65:1] (Ro 10:21 NIV) But concerning Israel he says, 'All day long I have held out my hands to a disobedient and obstinate people.' [Isa 65:2] (Ro 11:1 NKJV) I say then, has God cast away His people? Certainly not! For I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin." =

Paul also states that he is an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin implying his expertise on the matter of the destiny of Israel; hence his emphatic answer "Certainly not!" corroborating that God has NOT cast away His people, Israel.

II) [Ro 11:2-5]:

(Ro 11:2 NKJV) "God has not cast away His people whom He foreknew. Or do you not know what the Scripture says of Elijah, how he pleads with God against Israel, saying,

(Ro 11:3 NKJV) 'LORD, they have killed Your prophets and torn down Your altars, and I alone am left, and they seek my life'?

(Ro 11:4 NKJV) But what does the divine response say to him? 'I have reserved for Myself seven thousand men who have not bowed the knee to Baal.' [1 Kgs 19:18]

(Ro 11:5 NKJV) Even so then, at this present time there [has been] a remnant according to the election of grace"

A) FOREKNOWLEDGE = WHAT GOD KNOWS WITH CERTAINTY WILL COME TO PASS BECAUSE HE HAS DECREED IT AND WILL INTERVENE TO SEE TO IT THAT IT IS FULFILLED, I.E., THAT WHICH IS ACCORDING TO THE ELECTION OF GOD BEING STRICTLY BY HIS GRACE AND AS FULFILLED THROUGH HIM

(Ro 10:20 NIV) "And Isaiah boldly says, 'I was found by those who did not seek me; I revealed Myself to those who did not ask for Me.' [Isa 65:1] (Ro 10:21 NIV) But concerning Israel he says, 'All day long I have held out my hands to a disobedient and obstinate people.' [Isa 65:2] (Ro 11:1 NKJV) I say then, has God cast away His people? Certainly not! For I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. (Ro 11:2 NKJV) God has not cast away His people whom He foreknew. Or do you not know what the Scripture says of Elijah, how he pleads with God against Israel, saying, (Ro 11:3 NKJV) 'LORD, they have killed Your prophets and torn down Your altars, and I alone am left, and they seek my life'? (Ro 11:4 NKJV) But what does the divine response say to him? 'I have reserved for Myself seven thousand men who have not bowed the knee to Baal.' [1 Kgs 19:18] (Ro 11:5 NKJV) Even so then, at this present time there [has been] a remnant according to the election of grace" =

From the phrase "God has not cast away His people whom He foreknew" in Ro 11:2 we can determine by the references to Isaiah 65, (Ro 10:20-21) and to 1 Kgs 19, (Ro 11:4), that the meaning of foreknowledge is defined by Paul as a knowledge beforehand of events which are a result of God's decree - His plan and His instituting of that plan by direct intervention in order to insure its outcome. The passages indicate that a remnant of ancient Israelites would be preserved by the LORD so that His promise of a future generation of Israelites to occupy the promised land in the new heavens and the new earth as the LORD's chosen people forever would be fulfilled, (cf. Isa 65:8-9, 17-18 ). Notice that during Elijah's time, the LORD reserved for Himself seven thousand men who had not bowed the knee to Baal. This reservation by God of Israelites for Himself it is implied, is foreknown by God because He decreed it via His election and will intervene to see to it that it is fulfilled solely by grace through Him.

Having said that, Paul declares in Romans 11:5 that in the same way that the LORD foreknew the future generation of Israelites to be His chosen people - to be preserved for eternity to inherit the promised land, "so at this present time [i.e., in this present age] there [has been] a remnant of individuals [from all peoples] according to the election of grace" who will likewise be preserved for eternity. Notice that God has specifically elected, (chosen), by grace, i.e., by unmerited favor - by nothing that they would do themselves - a number of individuals to be a remnant destined for eternal life. For an individual to be part of a remnant by the election of the grace of the LORD evidently means that the LORD has foreknown him because He has chosen him by decree. This corroborates that God is proactive in what He foreknows will occur to the extent that He decrees, hence predestinates that occurrence and directly intervenes to make it come to pass. So individuals who make the specific choice of trusting in the gospel of their own volition are decreed to do just that and God intervenes to see that this comes to pass. Hence they are foreknown by the LORD to be a remnant destined to be preserved unto eternal life.

[J. Dwight Pentecost in his book, "Things Which Become Sound Doctrine," Revell Publishing, Westwood, N.J., 1965, pp. 138-9]:

"...Foreknowledge, as used in Scripture, refers to what God knows with certainty will come to pass because He has decreed that event. God knows all things, not only because He is an omniscient God, but because God by His decree has settled and established what will come to pass in fulfillment of His predetermined program. Foreknowledge, then, is the result of God's foreordination, or God's decree, of what would take place. God foreknows, not only what will take place, but the people who will be instruments in the fulfillment of His plan and His program. Foreknowledge has to do not only with what will take place but who will be included within the scope of God's program."

1) [Compare Isa 65:8-9, 15-18]:

(Isa 65:8 NIV) This is what the LORD says: "As when juice is still found in a cluster of grapes and men say, 'Don't destroy it, there is yet some good in it,' so will I do in behalf of My servants; I will not destroy them all.

(Isa 65:9 NIV) I will bring forth descendants from Jacob, and from Judah those who will possess My mountains; My chosen people will inherit them, and there will My servants live.

[Note the implication here that the LORD will not destroy all of the Israelites at any time in history so that in the future He can "bring forth descendants from Jacob, and from Judah those who will possess [His] mountains; [His] chosen people will inherit them, and there will [His] servants live [forever]," with a view to the eternal kingdom. Hence all generations of Israel are in view relative to never being totally destroyed so that the those of the people of Israel who are believers will inherit the the eternal kingdom]

(Isa 65:15 NIV) You will leave your name to My chosen ones as a curse; the Sovereign LORD will put you to death, but to his servants he will give another name.

(Isa 65:16 NIV) Whoever invokes a blessing in the land will do so by the God of truth; he who takes an oath in the land will swear by the God of truth. For the past troubles will be forgotten and hidden from My eyes.

(Isa 65:17 NIV) Behold, I will create new heavens and a new earth. The former things will not be remembered, nor will they come to mind.

(Isa 65:18 NIV) But be glad and rejoice forever in what I will create, for I will create Jerusalem to be a delight and its people a joy.' "

On the one hand the LORD revealed Himself to those who were not Israelites, (i.e., Gentiles), who neither asked for Him nor sought Him. In spite of the fact that they did not call on His name, He said to them 'Here am I, here am I', (Isa 65:1). On the other hand, all day long the LORD had held out His hands to generations of ancient Israelites but they were obstinate in their unfaithfulness, pursuing their own evil imaginations in disobedience to His commands to their own destruction, (Isa 65:11-12). So the LORD saw to it that a remnant of ancient Israelites would be preserved so that His decree and promise of a future generation of Israelites to occupy the promised land in the new heavens and the new earth as His chosen people forever would be fulfilled, (cf. Isa 65:8-9, 17-18). So the LORD intervenes so that a remnant of Israelites are not destroyed. Hence descendants of Israel will inherit the promised land and have eternal life in the new heavens and the new earth as He promised.

On the one hand the LORD revealed Himself to those who were not Israelites, (i.e., Gentiles), who neither asked for Him nor sought Him. In spite of the fact that they did not call on His name, He said to them 'Here am I, here am I', (Isa 65:1). On the other hand, all day long the LORD had held out His hands to generations of ancient Israelites but they were obstinate in their unfaithfulness, pursuing their own evil imaginations in disobedience to His commands to their own destruction, (Isa 65:11-12). So the LORD saw to it that a remnant of ancient Israelites would be preserved so that His decree and promise of a future generation of Israelites to occupy the promised land in the new heavens and the new earth, (v. 17), as His chosen people forever would be fulfilled, (cf. Isa 65:8-9, 17-18), ref. The New Covenant . So the LORD will continuously intervene so that the remnant of each generation of Israelites will not be destroyed, so as to leave no Israelites alive to fulfill His promise to them of the New Covenant which was made only to them - no one else . Hence physical descendants of Israel - of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob - will indeed inherit and occupy the promised land and have upernatural, sinless, long lived mortal lives in the millennial rule coruling the nations of the world with Jesus Christ as a nation of priests; and thereafter be transformed into immortal beings with eternal life in the new heavens and the new earth - all of which God had decreed, hence foreknew, predestined, called, (ref. Ro 8:28-30 ), and unilaterally ratified and fulfilled as a covenant with Abraham ; and the New Covenant (when all of a generation of Israel believes )]

VIII) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

It became clearer from other graphs and discussions that this particular graph and my comments referred to Israelites. We found that among the non-elect (Gentiles) there were many who were in fact saved.

[What are you talking about, the non-elect of any kind will never choose to believe and be saved unto eternal life??
Furthermore, God has not chosen any Gentiles to be parties to the New Covenant with Him. Only the House of Israel and the House of Judah have been chosen by God to be parties to that Covenant . Otherwise God is not sovereign, His decrees can be broken. Besides that you cannot mix contexts together as if they are the same thing. God chose Israel to be His people and He is not done with Israel. Gentiles have no part as party to the New Covenant which the parties are God and Israel alone ). The Church benefits from the New Covenant especially relative to Christ's atonement for the sins of all mankind, but it is comprised of both Jews and Gentiles in this age and the Church has her own destiny which is different to Israel's. The Church is not part of being the Chosen People of God to corule with Jesus Christ over the nations of the earth, . Often the word saved or words to that effect do not refer to the reception of eternal life, but to other things such as deliverance, preservation, eternal rewards, etc., . If you are speaking of Israel as God's Chosen people Israel and the preservation / deliverance of a remnant of them throughout the ages so that God will inevitably fulfill His New Covenant with them exclusively, then that is a different context which refers NOT TO an individual's salvation unto eternal life but rather to a particular generation of God's Chosen People who will descend from the remnants that were preserved down throughout the ages which will represent Him and rule with Him over the nations of the world during His rule - in essence the ratification and fulfillment of the New Covenant solely between God and Israel, namely the house of Judah and the House of Israel - NOT THE CHURCH! This New Covenant will be fulfilled as soon as every individual of a particular generation of Israel will choose to believe in Jesus Christ - hence all of a particular generation of Israel is in view which so far 100% of any generation of Israel has not believed - evidently at His Second Coming since that is all the time that is left in this age plus the 7 year Tribulation period, which will result in all of that generation of Israel to a man being transformed into long lived mortal perfectly sinless human beings each with a perfect knowledge of God's Word - a nation of priests to co-rule over the nations of the world with Christ beginning at the Millennial Kingdom . We believers of the church age, being part of the Body of Christ, are a different group comprised of Jew and Gentile during this age of grace - of the church the body of Christ - all of whom, both dead and alive will be resurrected / or transformed into resurrection bodies and raptured off the planet, brought back with Him to heaven and married to Jesus Christ in heaven as the Bride of Christ, returning with Him in His Second Coming to co-rule with Him over the Universe. It seems that Michael Heiser believes that the Church is going to replace Israel as His People. But that is just not the case. Guess he thinks God made yet another mistake and will not fulfill the New Covenant as He stipulated He would: with the House of Judah and the House of Israel, God's Chosen People of the generation of Israel that will all trust in Christ to a man - evidently at Christ's Second Coming. It's all about the details - the who, what, why, where, when, to whom of it = context]  

IX) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

We drew the conclusion from Paul’s language that Israel was set aside, that their unbelief was actually a key to Gentile salvation.

[But what does Scripture actually say on this matter:

JUST AS A REMNANT OF ISRAELITES THROUGHOUT HISTORY WAS FOREKNOWN BY DECREE OF THE LORD TO BE PRESERVED FOR ALL ETERNITY OUTSIDE OF PERSONAL MERIT; SO AT THE PRESENT TIME A REMNANT OF ALL PEOPLES HAS BEEN FOREKNOWN AND CHOSEN BY GOD ACCORDING TO THE ELECTION OF GRACE = THE CHOICE OF GOD WITHOUT REGARD TO PERSONAL MERIT, NOT BECAUSE HE KNEW THEY WOULD CHOOSE TO BELIEVE, BUT BECAUSE HE DECREED IT

(Ro 11:1 NKJV) I say then, has God cast away His people? Certainly not! For I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. (Ro 11:2 NKJV) God has not cast away His people whom He foreknew. Or do you not know what the Scripture says of Elijah, how he pleads with God against Israel, saying, (Ro 11:3 NKJV) 'LORD, they have killed Your prophets and torn down Your altars, and I alone am left, and they seek my life'? (Ro 11:4 NKJV) But what does the divine response say to him? 'I have reserved for Myself seven thousand men who have not bowed the knee to Baal.' [1 Kgs 19:18] (Ro 11:5 NKJV) Even so then, at this present time there ["gegonen" = has been] a remnant according to the election of grace" =

Paul declares that in the same way that the LORD foreknew the Israelites to be His chosen people - always to have a remnant of them to be preserved through tribulation against extinction by Him throughout the ages and then for all eternity - "so at this present time there ["gegonen" = has been] a remnant of individuals from the population of all mankind according to the election of grace" who will likewise be preserved through tribulation so that there will always be a remnant of believers in every age and then for all eternity. Notice that God foreknew via His specifically choosing by grace, i.e., by unmerited favor, i.e., by nothing that they would do themselves, a number of individuals from the population of all mankind to be a remnant to be destined for eternal life, (Ro 11:5). So for an individual to be part of a remnant by the election of the grace of the LORD evidently means that the LORD has foreknown him, in the sense of having determined beforehand that individual's eternal destiny, and thereby He has decreed his destiny to choose of his own volition to exercise a moment of faith in His Son for eternal life. This indicates that God is proactive in what He foreknows / determines beforehand what will occur to the extent that He decrees, hence predestinates that occurrence. So individuals who make the specific choice of trusting alone in Jesus Christ alone unto eternal life of their own volition have been decreed to do just that. Hence they are foreknown by decree of the LORD to be a remnant destined for certainty to be preserved from temporal destruction and unto eternal life because He will see to it that this will be accomplished yet without ever violating or intruding upon the volition of men.]

X) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

The apostasy of the elect led to many Gentiles being saved and, in fact, replacing those elect Israelites as Yahweh’s people, the inheritor’s of the Abrahamic promises (Galatians 3). The result was one people of God (Jew and Gentile = the “Church”). This meant in turn that the one people of God was therefore ultimately composed of elect and non-elect.

[No. An elect unto salvation unto eternal life person who becomes an apostate, i.e., one who trusted in Christ for salvation unto eternal life and then departed from that faith, can not ever lose his salvation because he had nothing to do with his salvation at all except to trust in God's One and only Son to do it all for him and all mankind ). Secondly, God's chosen people Israel in the sense of a generation of Israelites chosen by Him to fulfill His New Covenant will according to Scripture all to a man choose to trust alone in Christ alone unto eternal life whereupon God will transform them into perfect human beings without sin, great longevity and perfect knowledge of God's Word. Past generations of Israel did not to a man trust alone in a coming Messiah Savior, albeit a remnant of each generation did so as to preserve the race for that one generation of the future who will fulfill the New Covenant. Hence so far no generation of Israelites has been perfectly faithful as the New Covenant stipulates it will be. Nevertheless, Israel remains His chosen people because God said so in His Word repeatedly especially in those passages which have in view God's irrefutable, absolutely reliable covenant with His people who are described as the House of Judah and the House of Israel
- albeit it has been generations of unfaithfulness and generations of Israel who did not prove out to be God's Chosen Generation of His people up to this day. But when all a generation of Israel chooses to believe in Christ - 100% everyone, which has not occurred yet; then God's New Covenant with Israel and Israel alone will be ratified and fulfilled through His means alone . Although generations of Israel have come and gone, and generation after generation of Israel has sadly not proved out to be that generation of God's chosen people who will finally fulfill the New Covenant with God through a moment of faith alone in Christ alone and via God's transformation of their mortal bodies to become a nation of priests and corule with Jesus Christ over the nations of the world  as declared by the prophet Hosea , until then God will indeed save in the sense of preserve from physical destruction -  from extinction - the temporal race of Israelites throughout the ages so that the physical preservation of His chosen people will be available in the future, which is near in time to today, in order to fulfill His promises to them and them alone - not to any other people, as some contend. So each generation of Israel will have its remnant of those who are of God's elect and each elect Israelite of that generation will choose to believe in a coming Messiah Savior and be saved unto eternal life through His election through a moment of faith alone in Christ alone and procreate so that a remnant of Israelites throughout the ages so that all of a future generation of elect Israelites - all this time will be God's elect of His chosen people who will be physically alive and believe in Jesus Christ unto eternal life; whereupon, in fulfillment of the New Covenant, God will transform every single individual Israelite of that generation when Christ comes again to rule into a perfect, long lived, sinless people of mortal beings - each with a perfect knowledge of God's Word. And so all Israel will become a nation of priests over the nations of the world transformed into sinless, long lived human beings with a perfect knowledge of God's Word, co-ruling over the earth with the King of kings, and Lord of lords, Jesus Christ. So no Gentiles or any other peoples - all of whom are not elect relative to being God's Chosen People - are going to over ride the decrees and election of God relative to His New Covenant with His Chosen people]

XI) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

Paul, in prelude to his explanation of all this in Romans 9-11, gives us the famous “foreknowing, predestinating, justification, etc.” chain of concepts in Romans 8. There’s no indication that he was speaking only of Jews there, as what he says in Romans 8 is true of all believers.

[The context of Ro 8:28-30 is limited to church age believers as individual believers not as a group of people en masse, as it states at the beginning of the excerpt of Romans Chapter 8 quoted below . Although something elsewhere in Scripture may be true, even similar, in the text at hand it is not in view and therefore not to be forced into view when the context does not warrant it without a careful examination of other passages that prove out the similar or same applicability based on the similar proved out contexts; and that only under the auspices of careful, detailed parallel corroboration - not forcing one passage to include a context that is not in view such as of another group of people beside church age believers who are in Christ as no other believers are before the church age began.]
 
XII) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

The wording of Paul [in Ro 8:28-29] is interesting for the position I am suggesting. He does not use the word “election” in the description.

[In Ro 8:28, which reads, "And we know that God causes all things to work together for good to those who love God, to those who are called according to His purpose,"
the Greek word  "kletois" rendered "are called" means to be called out, invited, chosen, appointed - elected.
and in Ro 8:30, which reads, "and these whom He predestined, He also called: and these whom He called, He also justified; and these whom He justified, He also glorified," the Greek words "ekalesen" rendered "He called" also has election in view. Do this man even read carefully?
It is rendered "called," in this verse which indicates that those that God predestined to be conformed to the righteous image of His Son He called to believe in His Son's atonement unto a declaration of righteousness and eternal redemption, and then declared them glorified. To be called here means to be chosen, selected from the Greek noun "eklogen" meaning chosen, elected. 

The Greek word "ekalesen" rendered "He called" means called forth. In the case of verse 8:30, individuals were called forth by God to choose of their own volition to believe in His Son to be justified and glorified. And this occurred precisely in accordance with God's predestination - His decree. So those that God predestined to be conformed to the image of His Son, (v. 8:29), i.e., to be conformed to the righteousness of God in their experience; He called to believe in His Son's atonement unto justification, (being declared to have a righteousness from God which they all did of their own volition, (cf. Ro 3:21-24), resulting in eternal redemption and eternal life. This implies that God foreknew what would occur because He predetermined it by decree. Yet all was to be in accordance with the volition of the individual.

Thus all who are predestined are to be called. They are called by God's sovereign decree which is part of the process of predestinating something. And since it is a sovereign God Who does the predestinating, all who are called inevitably choose to believe in Jesus Christ of their own volition. Hence all who are called are justified, i.e., declared righteous. And those whom God justified, it is stipulated in the final phrase of verse 8:30, God glorified. The verb "glorified"is in the aorist tense referring to an action that has already been completed. The glorification of the believer has already been indicated in Romans, (cf. Ro 3:21-24; 5:1-2), as a sure thing in the future

This is why a simple cursory view of the passage is wholly insufficient - especially when one misses key words in that passage. For example, if a particular election is specifically applicable to individuals of this church age, then it cannot be applied to one kind of people or another or another time frame or dispensations / economy according to the Sovereignty of God. It is furthermore,  applicable to salvation unto eternal life and that kind of salvation for individuals alone. ]

XIII) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

He does not speak of Jew only. He tells us more broadly that God predestinated the salvation of … some … a remnant … the composition of which he will explain in the next three chapters, (Romans 9-11):

Romans 8


28 And we know that for those who love God all things work together for good, for those who are called according to his purpose. 29 For those whom he foreknew he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, in order that he might be the firstborn among many brothers. 30 And those whom he predestined he also called, and those whom he called he also justified, and those whom he justified he also glorified.

[Let's just see what Paul meant in Ro 8:28-30. Notice that there is a lot of what Paul wrote leading up to this passage, some of which might have a bearing on what the passage means and does not mean. Although it is far better to read from the beginning of the letter to the Roman believers, nevertheless here's an excerpt from Ro 8:28-30 with a few excerpts from key passages from Romans prior to chapter 8 that provide a more complete view of the context within Romans chapter 8:

**** EXCERPT FROM ROMANS CHAPTER 8 ****

XXII) [Ro 8:28]:

(Ro 8:28 YLT) "And we have known that to those loving God all things do work together for [godly] good, to those who are called according to [His] purpose"

A) PAUL AND HIS ASSOCIATES HAVE KNOWN THAT THE CHILDREN OF GOD -THOSE WHO ARE CALLED ACCORDING TO GOD'S PURPOSE - WHO CHOOSE TO LOVE GOD WILL HAVE ALL THINGS WORK TOGETHER FOR GODLY GOOD

(v. 8:28) "And we have known that to those loving God all things do work together for [godly] good, to those who are called according to [His] purpose" =

(v. 8:28 Greek) "Oidamen ...........de ..hoti tois .......agapOsin .......ton ........theon

.........................."We have known but .that [to] the .[ones] loving .[of the] .God ..

panta ......sunergei .........eis .agathon .tois ....kata .............prothesin

all things work together for .good ......to the .according to [His] purpose

.klEtois ..ousin."

.called ....being [ones]."

The phrase "Oidamen" rendered "We have known," is in the perfect tense which signfies a completed action in the past with ongoing results in the present. It is in the indicative mood, i.e., it speaks of having known a statement of fact. The word "we," refers to Paul the Author and Apostle and his associates. It is they who are in view as having known that the ones who love God will have all things work together for [godly] good. The word "good" here to be consistent with the context must refer to godly good, in conformity with God's righteousness. The Greek phrase in verse 8:28, "tois agapOsin ton theon" where "AgapOsin" is a present participle noun in the dative case, is literally "to the ones loving God" and is rendered "to those loving God" in the YLT. Hence the phrase refers to individuals who demonstrate a godly love for God. Since this is an activity only possible with children of God, i.e., believers because only they have the Spirit to lead them to this end, (cf. Ro 8:14), and because unbelievers are always controlled by the sin nature and cannot please God with godly love, (cf. Ro 8:8), then only children of God, i.e., believers are in view. And only those believers who maintain their love of God will have all things work together for good.

The last phrase of verse 8:28 clarifies that the verse is exclusively addressing children of God, i.e., believers with the Greek words "tois kata prothesin klEtois ousin" rendered in the YLT "to those who are called according to [His] purpose." The Greek word "klEtois," Str. # 2822, means called. It evidently refers to God's sovereign calling of certain individuals to faith in Christ unto justification and eternal redemption. Previous verses which have the same individuals in view as verse 8:28 indicate such individuals are heirs of God, and will be glorified with Jesus Christ if they suffer with Him for righteousness sake, (v. 8:17); are children of God, (v. 8:21); are described as having the firstfruit of the Spirit and the promise of eternal redemption, (v. 8:23); are saved, (v. 8:24); and saints, (v. 8:27). Hence we can conclude that those who are called to God's purpose in verse 8:28 are limited to believers. This implies that not all individuals are called of God according to His purpose because not all individuals become believers.

Finally verses 8:29-30 corroborate that believers are exclusively in view relative to God's calling according to His purpose in 8:28:

1) [Compare Ro 8:29-30]:

(v. 8:29 NKJV) "For whom He foreknew, He also predestined to be conformed to the image [of glory] of His Son, that He might be the firstborn among many brethren.

(v. 8:30 NKJV) Moreover whom He predestined, these He also called; whom He called, these He also justified; and whom He justified, these He also glorified."

The beginning of chapter 5 provides corroboration of the principle of all things working together for [godly] good to those believers who demonstrate their love for God via perseverance through suffering:

**** EXCERPT FROM ROMANS CHAPTER 5 ****

OR SKIP TO NEXT SECTION

THEREFORE SINCE WE HAVE BEEN JUSTIFIED, WE ARE STIPULATED AS BEING IN A POSITION OF NEW OPPORTUNITIES. WE ARE EXHORTED TO REJOICE IN OUR SUFFERINGS BECAUSE WE ARE TO KNOW THAT SUFFERING PRODUCES PERSEVERANCE; PERSEVERANCE, CHARACTER AND CHARACTER, A SURE HOPE OF THE ETERNAL GLORY OF GOD AND OF BEING DELIVERED THROUGH DAILY AFFLICTIONS BY GOD

(v. 5:1 NAS) "Therefore, having been justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ,, (v. 2 NIV) Through Whom we have gained access by faith into this grace in which we [had begun and] now stand. And we rejoice [boast] in the [sure] hope of the glory of God. (v. 3 NIV) Not only so, but we also rejoice in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance; (v. 4 NIV) perseverance, character; and character, hope." =

Therefore since we have been justified by faith, we are stipulated as being in a position of new opportunities. We are exhorted to rejoice in our sufferings because we are to know that suffering produces perseverance; perseverance, character and character, a sure hope of eternal glory of God and of being delivered through daily afflictions by God.

The word "hupomonEn" is rendered "endurance" or perseverance, (NIV, NAS), in the phrase "knowing that suffering produces perseverance."

It is thus implied that life's afflictions for we who have been justified can bring about a capacity for perseverance. This is provided that one trusts God in their circumstance of suffering and thereby comes out of those afflictions alive and whole - not all will. Surviving afflictions whole produces perseverance, which result is enabled through faith in God to us who have been justified.

The verse goes on to say that perseverance leads to "dokimEn", literally, "proof". "DokimEn" means tested or proved out. In this context, an individual is proved out or declared as successfully tested by persevering under afflictions and surviving intact, as a whole person, those afflictions. The word is thus rendered "proven character", (NAS), "character", (NIV).

**** END OF EXCERPT FROM ROMANS CHAPTER 5 ****

XXIII) [Ro 8:29]:

(Ro 8:29 NKJV) "For whom He foreknew, He also predestined to be conformed to the image of His Son, that He might be the firstborn among many brethren"

A) GOD FOREKNEW / DETERMINED BEFOREHAND WHO WOULD CHOOSE TO BELIEVE IN AND BECOME CONFORMED TO THE IMAGE OF HIS SON BECAUSE HE PREDESTINED IT. HE DECREED IT TO OCCUR SO THAT HIS SON MIGHT BE THE RIGHTEOUS FIRSTBORN AMONG MANY RIGHTEOUS BROTHERS

(v. 8:28 YLT) "And we have known that to those loving God all things do work together for [godly] good, to those who are called according to [His] purpose. (v. 8:29 NKJV) For whom He foreknew, He also predestined to be conformed to the image of His Son, that He might be the firstborn among many brethren" =

(v. 8:29 Greek) "hoti ........hous ...proegnO .........kai .proOrisen

.........................."Because .whom .He foreknew, also He predestined

summorphous tEs eikonos tou .....huiou autou eis to ...einai .auton

conformed to .the .image ...of the Son ...His, ...for the .to be Him

prOtotokon en pollois adelphois"

firstborn among many brothers."

God foreknew / determined beforehand who would choose to believe in and become conformed to the image of His Son because He predestined it.

[Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, G & C Merriam Co, Springfield, MA, 1980, p. 898]:

To predestine and to predestinate:

"to destine, decree, determine, appoint, or settle beforehand, to predestinate."

where decree means, [op. cit., p. 292]:

"1: An order usually having the force of law. 2. b. a foreordaining will"

where foreordain means, [op. cit., p. 446]:

"To dispose or appoint in advance. Predestine"

So God decreed / predestined it to occur so that His Son might be the righteous firstborn among many righteous brothers. The Greek word "proegnO" in the phrase "hoti hous proegnO kai proOrisen summorphous tEs eikonos tou huiou" rendered in the NKJV "For whom He foreknew, He also predestined to be conformed to the image of His Son" in verse 8:29 refers to God knowing beforehand who would become children of God, i.e., believers and be conformed to the image of His Son, i.e., with the promise of a perfectly righteous redeemed resurrection body. The phrase "He also predestined to be conformed to the image of His Son," in verse 8:29 contains the Greek word "proOrisen" in the phrase literally "Because whom He [God] foreknew He predestined" where proOrisen means "He [God] predestined." It signifies that the reason why God foreknew whom would become believers and become conformed to the image of His Son was that God predestined this result, i.e., He decreed it to come to pass. To decree something is to be sovereign in its outcome.

That is the significance of the word "proOrisen." So verse 8:29 indicates that God's foreknowledge was as a result of God's predestination - His predetermination of those who would choose to become believers, hence become children of God with the predestinated result of becoming conformed to the image of His Son. This conforming includes not only being credited with but actually experiencing a righteousness from God as the Son is righteous so that the Son might be the firstborn Righteous One among many righteous brethren. So those who would choose to become, of their own volition, children of God born of God, even before they choose to believe in Jesus Christ unto eternal redemption and eternal life, were called / chosen / elected to that destiny for God's purpose, (v. 8:28).

This is then explained further in verse 8:29: God knew beforehand that the children of God would believe and be justified, (cf. 3:21-24; 6:3, 8:1, 14, 21), because God predestined, i.e., predetermined beforehand that these individuals would choose of their own free will to believe and become children of God unto eternal life and be conformed to the image of His Son.

XXIV) [Ro 8:30]:

(Ro 8:30 NKJV) "Moreover whom He predestined, these He also called; whom He called, these He also justified; and whom He justified, these He also glorified."

A) THOSE THAT GOD PREDESTINED TO BE CONFORMED TO THE RIGHTEOUS IMAGE OF HIS SON HE CALLED TO BELIEVE IN HIS SON'S ATONEMENT UNTO A DECLARATION OF RIGHTEOUSNESS AND ETERNAL REDEMPTION, AND THEN DECLARED THEM GLORIFIED

(v. 5:1 NAS) "Therefore, having been justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, (v. 5:2 NKJV) through Whom also we have access by faith into this grace in which we stand, and rejoice in [sure] hope of the glory of God (Ro 6:5 NIV) For if [since] we [believers] have become united with Him in the likeness of His death, certainly we shall be also in the likeness of His resurrection. (v. 8:19 NKJV) For the earnest expectation of the creation eagerly waits for the revealing of the sons of God [unto glory]. (v. 8:20 ASV) For the creation was subjected to vanity, not of its own will, but by reason of Him who subjected it, in [the sure] hope (v. 8:21 ASV) that the creation itself also shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the liberty of the glory of the children of God. (v. 8:28 YLT) And we have known that to those loving God all things do work together for [godly] good, to those who are called according to [His] purpose. (v. 8:29 NKJV) For whom He foreknew, He also predestined to be conformed to the image [of glory] of His Son, that He might be the firstborn among many brethren. (v. 8:30 NKJV) Moreover whom He predestined, these He also called; whom He called, these He also justified; and whom He justified, these He also glorified." =

(v. 8:30 Greek) "hous ....de ..proOrisen .........toutous kai ..ekalesen

..........................."Whom .but He predestined .these ...also He called

kai hous ...ekalesen toutous kai ..edikaiOsen .hous ..de ...edikaiOsen

and whom He called these ...also He justified; whom .but .He justified,

toutous .kai ..edoxasen"

these ....also .He glorified"

Those that God predestined to be conformed to the righteous image of His Son He called to believe in His Son's atonement unto a declaration of righteousness and eternal redemption, and then declared them glorified.

The Greek word "ekalesen" rendered "He called" means called forth. In the case of verse 8:30, individuals were called forth by God to choose of their own volition to believe in His Son to be justified and glorified. And this occurred precisely in accordance with God's predestination - His decree. So those that God predestined to be conformed to the image of His Son, (v. 8:29), i.e., to be conformed to the righteousness of God in their experience; He called to believe in His Son's atonement unto justification, (being declared to have a righteousness from God which they all did of their own volition, (cf. Ro 3:21-24), resulting in eternal redemption and eternal life. This implies that God foreknew what would occur because He predetermined it by decree. Yet all was to be in accordance with the volition of the individual.

Thus all who are predestined are to be called. They are called by God's sovereign decree which is part of the process of predestinating something. And since it is a sovereign God Who does the predestinating, all who are called inevitably choose to believe in Jesus Christ of their own volition. Hence all who are called are justified, i.e., declared righteous. And those whom God justified, it is stipulated in the final phrase of verse 8:30, God glorified. The verb "glorified"is in the aorist tense referring to an action that has already been completed. The glorification of the believer has already been indicated in Romans, (cf. Ro 3:21-24; 5:1-2), as a sure thing in the future:

1) [Compare Ro 5:1-2]:

(Ro 5:1 NAS) "Therefore, having been justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, 

(v. 5:2 NKJV) through Whom also we have access by faith into this grace in which we stand, and rejoice in [sure] hope of the glory of God" =

a) We Who Have Become Justified Will Enter Into The Expression Of The Honor, Power And Holiness Of God

"And we rejoice [boast] in the [sure] hope of the glory of God." =

"glory of God" = "doxEs tou theou" = The expression of the honor, power & holiness of God.

Evidently those who have become justified will not just observe God's glory, they will enter into it. They can look forward to receiving, participating in and reflecting the glory of God. - the expression of the honor, power and holiness of God. For nothing can exist in eternity with God short of participating and reflecting the glory of God.

In consideration of God's omnipotence, one can indeed speak of this glorification as so absolutely assured that it can be spoken of in the aorist tense as having already taken place as a completed action.

Just as a reliable individual can legitimately say "Done" to a request to take care of someones house when one goes away on vacation, so one can say "done" when God's Word declares that believers are glorified because of God's promise and His absolute reliability.

2) [Compare Ro 6:5]:

(Ro 6:5 NIV) "For if [since] we [believers] have become united with Him in the likeness of His death, certainly we shall be also in the likeness of His resurrection."

a) SINCE BELIEVERS HAVE ACTUALLY BECOME UNITED WITH CHRIST IN HIS DEATH UNTO FORGIVENESS OF SINS THEY CERTAINLY SHALL BE RESURRECTED IN THE MANNER HE WAS - UNTO ETERNAL GLORY - A MOTIVATION TO WALK IN NEWNESS OF LIFE

(Ro 6:5a NIV) "For if [since] we [believers] have become united with Him in the likeness of His death" =

....................."ei gar sumphutoi .......gegonamen .........tO .....homoiOmati

....................."If for united together we have become .in the likeness

tou thanatou autou"

.......of death His"

This is a first class "If" clause best rendered "since":

"gegonanmen" = we have become, perfect tense, active voice, indicative mood which renders "ei" = since; thus stipulating a certainty that believers have indeed and forever (perfect tense) become united together in the likeness of His death. The significance of this is that the penalty and forgiveness for all believers' sins relative to eternal redemption by Christ Jesus is paid for once and for all; for believers are viewed by God as having died with Him.

"For if [since] we [believers] have become united with Him in the likeness of His death, certainly we shall be also in the likeness of His resurrection." =

Since believers are identified by God as having died with Christ on the cross for their sins relative to personal forgiveness, (Ro 5:20-6:4), then it follows that they have the certainty of being resurrected from the dead in the manner He was - to eternal glory.

**** END OF EXCERPT FROM ROMANS CHAPTER 8 ****]

XIV) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

Salvation, Unbelief, and Eternal Security

We now move to the next set of issues. If the saved are composed of the elect and the non-elect, brought into the family by God’s choice via Israel’s apostasy, what about the eternal security of the saved? 

[1) The saved unto eternal life are NOT composed of the elect and the non-elect relative to an individual's salvation unto eternal life at any time. ONLY THE ELECT WILL CHOOSE TO BELIEVE IN CHRIST AND BE SAVED. THE NON-ELECT WILL NOT SO CHOOSE

2) God's chosen people Israel ONLY comprise Israelites, no other people are included. God's New Covenant is exclusively and only with a generation of the House of Judah and the House of Israel who have been elect to a man who all of that generation will believe in Christ as Savior be saved and then be transformed in their mortal bodies to longlived, sinless, mortal beings with a perfect knowledge of God's Word ; albeit all mankind benefits from Christ's subsitutionary atonement. No Church Age believers, no Gentiles are included.

Further careful examination of Romans chapter 11 is required:

**** FURTHER EXCERPT FROM ROMANS CHAPTER 11 ****

III) [Ro 11:6]:

(Ro 11:6 NKJV) "[But] if by grace, [then it is] no longer of works; otherwise grace is no longer grace. But if it is of works, it is no longer grace; otherwise work is no longer work"

A) JUST AS WITH ISRAEL OF THE PAST, AT THE PRESENT TIME, A REMNANT FROM THE POPULATION OF ALL MANKIND HAS BEEN CHOSEN ACCORDING TO GOD'S ELECTION OF GRACE, (= UNMERITED FAVOR), TO RECEIVE ETERNAL LIFE. SO ETERNAL LIFE BEING BY GRACE CANNOT BE BY WORKS, OTHERWISE GRACE IS NO LONGER GRACE. ON THE OTHER HAND, IF ETERNAL LIFE, BEING OF THE ELECTION OF GOD'S GRACE, WERE BY WORKS THEN WORKS CAN NO LONGER BE WORKS

(Ro 11:1 NKJV) "I say then, has God cast away His people? Certainly not! For I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. (Ro 11:2 NKJV) God has not cast away His people whom He foreknew. Or do you not know what the Scripture says of Elijah, how he pleads with God against Israel, saying, (Ro 11:3 NKJV) 'LORD, they have killed Your prophets and torn down Your altars, and I alone am left, and they seek my life'? (Ro 11:4 NKJV) But what does the divine response say to him? 'I have reserved for Myself seven thousand men who have not bowed the knee to Baal.' [1 Kgs 19:18] (Ro 11:5 NKJV) Even so then, at this present time there ["gegonen" = has been] a remnant according to the election of grace (Ro 11:6 NKJV) [But] if by grace, [then it is] no longer of works; otherwise grace is no longer grace. But if it is of works, it is no longer grace; otherwise work is no longer work" =

Just as it was in the past from the population of Israel, so at the present time, a remnant from the population of all mankind has been chosen according to God's election of grace, (= unmerited favor), to receive eternal life. So eternal life being by grace cannot be by works, otherwise grace is no longer grace. On the other hand, if eternal life, being of the election of God's grace, were by works then works can no longer be works.

Paul emphasizes that God's election at the present time of a remnant from the population of all mankind by His grace unto eternal life was foreknown by Him just as it was with Israel of the past, (cf. Ro 11:2). That a remnant of the population of mankind has been preserved and is destined for eternal life was foreknown by God because He planned it and decreed that plan to come to pass which includes His intervention to implement that plan. Furthermore, God's election of grace unto eternal life is not in any way connected with any individual's meriting such activity. Hence whatever an individual does is mutually exclusive from that which motivates God's decrees, foreknowledge and intervention relative to the reception of eternal life - Jew or Gentile. Hence salvation unto eternal life being by grace, cannot at all involve any works, grace being mutually exclusive of works before, during and forever after the reception of eternal life. This excludes anything to do with demonstrating ones eternal destiny in order to verify its validity. Furthermore, the point is made absolutely clear that if salvation unto eternal life were connected with works at any time, directly or indirectly; then God could not provide it by His grace as unmerited favor; otherwise work is no longer work, i.e., grace and works are mutually exclusive.

IV) [Ro 11:7]:

(Ro 11:7 NAS) "What then? What Israel is seeking, it has not obtained, but those who were chosen obtained it, and the rest were hardened"

A) ISRAEL AND MANKIND THROUGHOUT HISTORY WILL LARGELY FAIL TO OBTAIN THE RIGHTEOUSNESS OF GOD UNTO ETERNAL LIFE. IF INDIVIDUALS SEEK IT AT ALL, THEY SEEK IT VIA THEIR OWN RIGHTEOUSNESS; IN THE CASE OF ISRAEL VIA WORKS OF THE LAW. ON THE OTHER HAND, REMNANTS OF INDIVIDUALS THROUGHOUT HISTORY WHO ARE CHOSEN BY THE GRACE OF GOD TO HAVE THE RIGHTEOUSNESS OF GOD UNTO ETERNAL LIFE WILL CHOOSE OF THEIR OWN VOLITION TO OBTAIN IT VIA A MOMENT OF FAITH ALONE IN CHRIST ALONE

(Ro 9:30 NKJV) "What shall we say then? That Gentiles, who did not pursue righteousness, have attained to righteousness, even the righteousness of faith; (Ro 9:31 NKJV) but Israel, pursuing the law of righteousness, has not attained to the law of righteousness. (Ro 9:32 NKJV) Why? Because they did not seek it by faith, but as it were, by the works of the law. For they stumbled at that stumbling stone. (Ro 9:33 NKJV) As it is written: 'Behold, I lay in Zion a stumbling stone and rock of offense, And whoever believes on Him will not be put to shame.' (Ro 10:1 NAS) Brethren, [fellow believers] my heart's desire and my prayer to God for them [Israelites, Ro 9:30-33] is for their salvation [from temporal destruction]. (Ro 10:2 NAS) For I testify about them that they have a zeal for God, but not in accordance with knowledge. (Ro 10:3 NKJV) For they being ignorant of God's righteousness, and seeking to establish their own righteousness, have not submitted to the righteousness of God. (Ro 10:4 NKJV) For Christ is the end of ... law [rules of behavior] for righteousness to everyone who believes." .... (Ro 11:1 NKJV) I say then, has God cast away His people? Certainly not! For I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. (Ro 11:2 NKJV) God has not cast away His people whom He foreknew. Or do you not know what the Scripture says of Elijah, how he pleads with God against Israel, saying, (Ro 11:3 NKJV) 'LORD, they have killed Your prophets and torn down Your altars, and I alone am left, and they seek my life'? (Ro 11:4 NKJV) But what does the divine response say to him? 'I have reserved for Myself seven thousand men who have not bowed the knee to Baal.' [1 Kgs 19:18] (Ro 11:5 NKJV) Even so then, at this present time there [has been] a remnant according to the election of grace (Ro 11:6 NKJV) [But] if by grace, [then it is] no longer of works; otherwise grace is no longer grace. But if it is of works, it is no longer grace; otherwise work is no longer work (Ro 11:7 NAS) What then? What Israel is seeking, it has not obtained, but those who were chosen obtained it, and the rest were hardened" =

Israel and mankind throughout history will largely fail to obtain the righteousness of God unto eternal life. If individuals seek it at all, they seek it via their own righteousness; in the case of Israel via works of the Law, (Ro 9:31-32; 10:3-4; 11:7). On the other hand, remnants of individuals throughout history who are chosen by the grace of God to have His righteousness unto eternal life will choose of their own volition to obtain it via a moment of faith alone in Christ alone.

B) THOSE OF ISRAEL AND ALL OF HUMANITY NOT CHOSEN BY GOD UNTO ETERNAL LIFE WILL PERSIST IN REJECTING GOD AND HIS GRACE, ESPECIALLY THE GIFT OF HIS RIGHTEOUSNESS UNTO ETERNAL LIFE BY FAITH, APART FROM WORKS. HENCE THEY WILL BE HARDENED BY GOD INTO THEIR WILLFUL STATE OF REJECTION OF HIM AND HIS GRACE

(Ro 1:18 NIV) "The wrath of God is revealed [to men] from heaven against all the godlessness and wickedness of men who suppress the truth by their wickedness... (Ro 1:21 NIV) For although they knew God, they neither glorified Him as God nor gave thanks to Him, but their thinking became futile and their foolish hearts were darkened... (Ro 1:23 NIV) and exchanged the glory of the immortal God for images made to look like mortal man and birds and animals and reptiles. (Ro 1:24 NIV) Therefore God gave them over in the sinful desires of their hearts to sexual impurity for the degrading of their bodies with one another. (Ro 9:17 NKJV) For the Scripture says to the Pharaoh, 'For this very purpose I have raised you up, that I may show My power in you, and that My name may be declared in all the earth. (Ro 9:18 NKJV) Therefore He has mercy on whom He wills, and whom He wills He hardens. (Ro 11:5 NKJV) Even so then, at this present time there [has been] a remnant according to the election of grace... (Ro 11:7 NAS) What then? What Israel is seeking, it has not obtained, but those who were chosen obtained it, and the rest were hardened" =

Despite the fact that God has always made it abundantly clear that a righteousness from God unto eternal life cannot be obtained via human effort, but only as a free gift by the grace of God through a moment of faith alone in Christ alone - a simple matter of a personal moment of choosing to believe; all of those not chosen by God throughout history will remain rebellious and persist in rejecting Him and hence be hardened by Him in their own willful rebelliousness. So all of the non-elect will refuse to choose to believe throughout their entire lifetimes to their own temporal and eternal destruction.

V) [Ro 11:8-10]:

(Ro 11:8 NAS) "Just as it is written, 'God gave them a spirit of stupor, eyes to see not and ears to hear not, down to this very day. [Dt 29:4, Isa 29:10]

(Ro 11:9 NAS) And David says, 'Let their table become a snare and a trap, and a stumbling block and a retribution to them.

(Ro 11:10 NAS) Let their eyes be darkened to see not, and bend their backs forever.' " [Ps 69:22-23]

A) GOD HARDENS THOSE WHO PERSIST IN THEIR REJECTION OF HIM AND HIS GRACE SALVATION. IN THE CASE OF RO 11:10 / PS 69:22-23, THIS HARDENING RESULTED IN GENERATIONS OF ISRAELITES DOWN TO THIS VERY DAY BEING SEALED IN THEIR OWN UNWILLFULNESS TO OBJECTIVELY SEE, HEAR AND BELIEVE IN GOD AND HIS GRACE SALVATION CAUSING GOD TO CAST THEM AWAY FROM FELLOWSHIP WITH HIM UNTO HIS WRATHFUL RETRIBUTION

(Ro 1:18 NIV) "The wrath of God is revealed [to men] from heaven against all the godlessness and wickedness of men who suppress the truth by their wickedness... (Ro 1:21 NIV) For although they knew God, they neither glorified Him as God nor gave thanks to Him, but their thinking became futile and their foolish hearts were darkened... (Ro 1:23 NIV) and exchanged the glory of the immortal God for images made to look like mortal man and birds and animals and reptiles. (Ro 1:24 NIV) Therefore God gave them over in the sinful desires of their hearts to sexual impurity for the degrading of their bodies with one another. (Ro 9:17 NKJV) For the Scripture says to the Pharaoh, 'For this very purpose I have raised you up, that I may show My power in you, and that My name may be declared in all the earth. (Ro 9:18 NKJV) Therefore He has mercy on whom He wills, and whom He wills He hardens. (Ro 11:7 NAS) What then? What Israel is seeking, it has not obtained, but those who were chosen obtained it, and the rest were hardened; (Ro 11:8 NAS) Just as it is written, 'God gave them a spirit of stupor, eyes to see not and ears to hear not, down to this very day. [Dt 29:4, Isa 29:10] (Ro 11:9 NAS) And David says, 'Let their table become a snare and a trap, and a stumbling block and a retribution to them. (Ro 11:10 NAS) Let their eyes be darkened to see not, and bend their backs forever.' [Ps 69:22-23]" =

God hardens those who persist in their rejection of Him and His grace salvation. In the case of Ro 11:10 / Ps 69:22-23, this hardening resulted in generation so Israelites down to this very day being sealed in their own unwillfulness to objectively see, hear and believe in God and His grace salvation causing God to cast them away from fellowship with Him unto His wrathful retribution.

Notice that the word "hardened" in Ro 11:7 NAS: "What then? What Israel is seeking, it has not obtained, but those who were chosen obtained it, and the rest were hardened" is clarified in the next three verses:

(Ro 11:8 NAS) Just as it is written, 'God gave them a spirit of stupor, eyes to see not and ears to hear not, down to this very day. [Dt 29:4, Isa 29:10] (Ro 11:9 NAS) And David says, 'Let their table become a snare and a trap, and a stumbling block and a retribution to them. (Ro 11:10 NAS) Let their eyes be darkened to see not, and bend their backs forever.' [Ps 69:22-23]."

God sovereignly saw to it that Israelites who were not chosen, (Ro 11:7), and in response to their continued willful ignorance and rejection of God and His grace provision of His righteousness unto eternal life through a moment of faith alone in Christ alone, had a spirit of stuper = a state of great diminution or suspension of mental capacity causing them to no longer have the ability to accept information which explains Who God is and how one can secure a righteousness from God unto eternal life. This spirit of stupor is to be imposed upon all the non-elect throughout history, (cf. Ro 1:23-24; 9:18).

This is corroborated in verses 9 & 10:

(Ro 11:9 NAS) "And David says, 'Let their table become a snare and a trap, and a stumbling block and a retribution to them. (Ro 11:10 NAS) Let their eyes be darkened to see not, and bend their backs forever.' " [Ps 69:22-23].

[Bible Knowledge Commentary, Walvoord and Zuck, Editors, USA, 1988, Victor Books, p. 482]:

"The second quotation (in Rom 11:9-10) is of Psalm 69:22-23, which predicts that the very things which should have been the source of nourishment and blessing to Israel (table means their blessings from the hand of God, which should have led them to Christ... ) became the occasion for their rejection of God (a snare and a trap, a stumbling block; cf. Rom 9:32-33) and God's judgment (retribution) on them. Because they refused to receive God's truth (cf. Isa 6:9-10...) their backs will be bent under the weight of guilt and punishment forever."

[Expositors, p. 117-18]:

"7-10 Here is set forth in the case of Israel according to the flesh the tragic consequences of persisting in the pattern of 'works.' Once again Paul cannot overlook Israel's 'earnestly' seeking to get from God what they prized. There is a clear connection with 10:3, which refers to the effort of Israel to attain righteousness in God's sight by their method rather than His. The elect obtained righteousness because they did not go about it the wrong way but depended on divine grace. While this was true in the past, Paul is apparently thinking mainly of the present situation (cf v. 5). In distinction from the elect, Israel as a whole has become hardened. The comparison between present and past, already made on the favorable side between the current remnant according to the election of grace and the 7,000 in Elijah's time, is now projected to cover the dark aspects of the situation.

The failure of the bulk of Israel to attain divine righteousness and their being hardened instead, is in line with OT history. By the device of quoting, Paul throws the weight of Scripture behind his presentation... In the first quotation, he weaves together two passages (Deut 29:4 and Isa 29:10) so as to provide illustration from two periods. In Deuteronomy, it is the testimony of the eyes that is stressed; the people have seen the wonders of the Exodus time and the miracles of the nation's preservation in the wilderness, but from these experiences they did not derive a heart of loving trust in God. In Isaiah, the background is the faithful testimony of the prophets. Yet the people shut their ears to the voice of God through these spokesmen. As a consequence, God sent them a spirit of stupor. The verb (katanussOmai) from which the word 'stupor' comes means 'to prick'... It is clear that God did not give His people deaf ears to mock them any more than He gave them blind eyes to taunt them. What was involved was a judicial punishment for failure to use God given faculties to perceive His manifested power and to glorify Him...

David's word of imprecation follows in Ro 11:9, 10, taken from Psalm 69:22,23. He suffers reproach and torment from his enemies, who are also viewed as the enemies of the Lord. Apparently their feasts are times for special outbreaks of blasphemy. David prays that the Lord will make their table their snare so as to entrap them. Then comes the prayer for the darkening of the eyes that have looked with complacency and even glee at the sufferings of the one whom God has permitted to be smitten."

The Greek word "trapeza" rendered "table" in Ro 11:9 in the NAS refers to blessings from the hand of God, (cf. Ps 69:22-23). Instead of receiving the intended blessings which God had provided for them through His grace, including a righteousness from God unto eternal life through faith alone, the majority of Israelites stumbled and persistently rejected God's blessings out of unbelief. This caused the blessings to become a snare and a trap to them, hence the LORD brought the spirit of stupor upon them to freeze them in their rebelliousness unto eternal & wrathful retribution, (Ro 11:9-10 from Ps 69:22-33]

1) [Compare Dt 29:1-6 (cf. Ro 11:8)]:

(Dt 29:1 NIV) "These are the terms of the covenant the LORD commanded Moses to make with the Israelites in Moab, in addition to the covenant he had made with them at Horeb.

(Dt 29:2 NIV) Moses summoned all the Israelites and said to them: Your eyes have seen all that the LORD did in Egypt to Pharaoh, to all his officials and to all his land.

(Dt 29:3 NIV) With your own eyes you saw those great trials, those miraculous signs and great wonders.

(Dt 29:4 NIV) But to this day the LORD has not given you a mind that understands or eyes that see or ears that hear.

(Dt 29:5 NIV) During the forty years that I led you through the desert, your clothes did not wear out, nor did the sandals on your feet.

(Dt 29:6 NIV) You ate no bread and drank no wine or other fermented drink. I did this so that you might know that I am the LORD your God."

[The focus is on the experience of the ancient Israelites in their deliverance by the LORD from slavery in Egypt under Pharaoh - supernatural victories over great trials, miraculous signs and great wonders. According to a song given by the LORD to Moses which recited those experiences, the Israelites did not have a mind that could understand, nor eyes that could see or nor ears that could hear so that they could truly understand and trust in the LORD. Evidently, the Israelites were not capable of comprehending or trusting in Who the LORD was until the LORD Himself provided that understanding. Their minds and all human minds are so willfully flawed that they are unable to know the LORD and trust in Him on their own even when experiences are provided by the LORD that clearly point to Him]

2) [Compare Isa 29:1-11, (Ro 11:8)]:

(Isa 29:1 NIV) "Woe to you, Ariel, Ariel, the city where David settled! [i.e., Jerusalem]. Add year to year and let your cycle of festivals go on.

(Isa 29:2 NIV) Yet I will besiege Ariel; she will mourn and lament, she will be to me like an altar hearth.

(Isa 29:3 NIV) I will encamp against you all around; I will encircle you with towers and set up my siege works against you.

(Isa 29:4 NIV) Brought low, you will speak from the ground; your speech will mumble out of the dust. Your voice will come ghostlike from the earth; out of the dust your speech will whisper.

(Isa 29:5 NIV) But your many enemies will become like fine dust, the ruthless hordes like blown chaff. Suddenly, in an instant,

(Isa 29:6 NIV) the LORD Almighty will come with thunder and earthquake and great noise, with windstorm and tempest and flames of a devouring fire.

(Isa 29:7 NIV) Then the hordes of all the nations that fight against Ariel, that attack her and her fortress and besiege her, will be as it is with a dream, with a vision in the night -

(Isa 29:8 NIV) as when a hungry man dreams that he is eating, but he awakens, and his hunger remains; as when a thirsty man dreams that he is drinking, but he awakens faint, with his thirst unquenched. So will it be with the hordes of all the nations that fight against Mount Zion.

[Bible Knowledge Commentary, OT, Walvoord & Zuck, Victor Books, USA, 1987, p. 1078]:

"Though Jerusalem is where festivals were celebrated before God (Isa 29:1), the city would be besieged and fighting and bloodshed would turn it into a virtual altar hearth.

Though the Assyrians under Sennacherib surrounded Jerusalem in 701 B.C. it was if God had done so. (I... I... I...My, vv. 2-3). Being humiliated (brought low), Jerusalem spoke softly rather than in loud tones. Though Jerusalem would be surrounded it would not be taken at this time. This assurance should have encouraged the people to trust God and to worship Him properly... Jerusalem's protection described in these verses refers to her deliverance from Assyria.. by God's sovereign intervention was Jerusalem spared... 29:5-8 refers to the Assyrian soldiers becoming like... dust and chaff when they were slaughtered... At the end of the Tribulation when nations (vv. 7, 8) will attack Jerusalem ... the LORD Almighty will come and destroy each attacking nation. The threat of those nations will vanish like a dream. When the Assyrian soldiers were destroyed in Isaiah's day... rather than turning back to God the nation got more deeply involved in sin"]

(Isa 29:9 NIV) Be stunned and amazed, blind yourselves and be sightless; be drunk, but not from wine, stagger, but not from beer.

(Isa 29:10 NIV) The LORD has brought over you a deep sleep: He has sealed your eyes (the prophets); he has covered your heads (the seers).

(Isa 29:11 NIV) For you this whole vision is nothing but words sealed in a scroll. And if you give the scroll to someone who can read, and say to him, 'Read this, please,' he will answer, 'I can't; it is sealed.'

(Isa 29:12 NIV) Or if you give the scroll to someone who cannot read, and say, 'Read this, please,' he will answer, 'I don't know how to read.' "

So due to her unfaithfulness and willful ignorance of God, the LORD brought a "deep sleep" over a generation of unfaithful Israelites; He sealed the eyes of her prophets and covered the heads of the seers [to block their visions, (29:10]. Information from God's Word was sealed up. It became unintelligible to Israel as if they did not know how to read, (v. 29:11).

3) [Compare Ps 69:1-24, (cf Ro 11:10)]:

(Ps 69:1 NIV) Save me, O God, for the waters have come up to my neck.

(Ps 69:2 NIV) I sink in the miry depths, where there is no foothold. I have come into the deep waters; the floods engulf me.

(Ps 69:3 NIV) I am worn out calling for help; my throat is parched. My eyes fail, looking for my God.

(Ps 69:4 NIV) Those who hate me without reason outnumber the hairs of my head; many are my enemies without cause, those who seek to destroy me. I am forced to restore what I did not steal.

(Ps 69:5 NIV) You know my folly, O God; my guilt is not hidden from You.

(Ps 69:6 NIV) May those who hope in You not be disgraced because of me, O Lord, the LORD Almighty; may those who seek You not be put to shame because of me, O God of Israel.

(Ps 69:7 NIV) For I endure scorn for Your sake, and shame covers my face.

(Ps 69:8 NIV) I am a stranger to my brothers, an alien to my own mother's sons;

(Ps 69:9 NIV) for zeal for Your house consumes me, and the insults of those who insult You fall on me.

(Ps 69:10 NIV) When I weep and fast, I must endure scorn;

(Ps 69:11NIV) when I put on sackcloth, people make sport of me.

(Ps 69:12 NIV) Those who sit at the gate mock me, and I am the song of the drunkards.

(Ps 69:13 NIV) But I pray to You, O LORD, in the time of Your favor; in Your great love, O God, answer me with Your sure salvation.

(Ps 69:14 NIV) Rescue me from the mire, do not let me sink; deliver me from those who hate me, from the deep waters.

(Ps 69:15 NIV) Do not let the floodwaters engulf me or the depths swallow me up or the pit close its mouth over me.

(Ps 69:16 NIV) Answer me, O LORD, out of the goodness of Your love; in Your great mercy turn to me.

(Ps 69:17 NIV) Do not hide Your face from Your servant; answer me quickly, for I am in trouble.

(Ps 69:18 NIV) Come near and rescue me; redeem me because of my foes.

(Ps 69:19 NIV) You know how I am scorned, disgraced and shamed; all my enemies are before You.

(Ps 69:20 NIV) Scorn has broken my heart and has left me helpless; I looked for sympathy, but there was none, for comforters, but I found none.

(Ps 69:21 NIV) They put gall in my food and gave me vinegar for my thirst.

(Ps 69:22 NIV) May the table set before them become a snare; may it become retribution and a trap.

(Ps 69:23 NIV) May their eyes be darkened so they cannot see, and their backs be bent forever.

(Ps 69:24 NIV) Pour out Your wrath on them; let Your fierce anger overtake them."

Individuals of a particular generation of Israelites are in view - enemies of David - who were unfaithful and godless, i.e., who willfully rejected the "table set before them," (Ps 69:22), i.e., the grace blessings that the LORD freely provided for them. Hence the blessings became a snare of retribution for them instead: the LORD darkened their eyes to the truths they willfully rejected about Him, (Ps 69:23a). He "bent their backs," so as to fix them in their state of sinful attitude toward Him forever in an eternal destiny subject to His wrath and fierce anger, (Ps 69:23b-24).

*** EXCERPTS FROM ROMANS CHAPTERS 1 & 9 RE:

GOD HARDENING INDIVIDUALS IN THEIR OWN REBELLIOUSNESS ***

SEXUAL IMPURITY IS AN EXPECTED OUTGROWTH OF GODLESS AND WICKED BEHAVIOR WHEREIN GOD GIVES THE IMMORAL UNBELIEVER OVER TO SUCH DESIRES IMPLYING TEMPORAL SELF-DESTRUCTION ...

(Ro 1:18) "The wrath of God is revealed [to men] from heaven against all the godlessness and wickedness of men who suppress the truth by their wickedness... (Ro 1:21) For although they knew God, they neither glorified Him as God nor gave thanks to Him, but their thinking became futile and their foolish hearts were darkened... (Ro 1:23) and exchanged the glory of the immortal God for images made to look like mortal man and birds and animals and reptiles. (Ro 1:24) Therefore God gave them over in the sinful desires of their hearts to sexual impurity for the degrading of their bodies with one another." =

The word "Therefore" which begins verse 24 concludes for the reader what was begun in verse 18 which has in view God's wrath being revealed from heaven against all godlessness and wickedness of all mankind of all ages, especially immoral unbelievers:

The godless and wicked behavior of all mankind, especially immoral unbelievers suppresses the truth about God leading to futile thinking, a darkened heart, (mind), and the exchange of the glory of the immortal God for images of idols; whereupon God gives them over in the sinful desires of their hearts to sexual impurity for the degrading of their bodies, one with another. Hence sexual impurity is a potential outgrowth of godless and wicked behavior and God will give the godless, wicked individual over to such sinful desires implying temporal self-destruction.

The wrath of God is thus revealed from heaven against all godlessness and wickedness of men who are immoral unbelievers who suppress the truth by their wickedness, (v. 18), in one way, as stipulated in v. 24, via God's giving such men over in the sinful desires for the degrading of their bodies with one another to their temporal self-destruction, (v. 24).

PAUL CONTINUES TO DEFEND THE SOVEREIGNTY AND HOLINESS OF GOD RELATIVE TO THE PLAGUES GOD PUT UPON PHARAOH AND EGYPT AND GOD'S HARDENING OF PHARAOH'S HEART IN THIS MATTER

(v. 9:6 YLT) "And it is not possible that the word of God hath failed; for not all who [are] of Israel are these Israel (v. 9:7 YLT) nor because they are seed of Abraham [are] all children, but 'In Isaac shall a seed be called to thee' [Gen 21:12], (v. 9:8 YLT) that is, the children of the flesh - these [are] not children of God; but the children of the promise are reckoned for seed. (v. 9:9 NIV) For this was how the promise was stated: 'At the appointed time [it takes for a life to be born from conception] I will return, and Sarah will have a son.' [Gen 18:10, 14] ( v. 9:10 YLT) And not only [so], but also Rebecca, having conceived by one, [lit., "by one conception"] [by] Isaac our father - (v. 9:11 YLT) (for they being not yet born, neither having done anything good or evil, that the purpose of God, according to choice, might remain; not of works, but of Him who is calling,) it was said to her - (v. 9:12 YLT) 'The greater shall serve the lesser;' [Gen 25:23] (v. 9:13 YLT) according as it hath been written, 'Jacob I did love, and Esau I did hate.' " [Mal 1:1-3] (v. 14 NKJV) "What shall we say then? Is there unrighteousness with God? Certainly not! (v. 15) For He says to Moses, 'I will have mercy on whomever I will have mercy, and I will have compassion on whomever I will have compassion.' " [Ex 33:19] (v. 9:16 NIV) It does not, therefore, depend on man's desire or effort, but on God's mercy. (v. 9:17 NKJV) For the Scripture says to the Pharaoh, 'For this very purpose I have raised you up, that I may show My power in you, and that My name may be declared in all the earth.' (v. 9:18 NKJV) Therefore He has mercy on whom He wills, and whom He wills He hardens." =

As God imposed one plague after another upon Egypt, Pharaoh responded to each with rebellion, deception and recalcitrant insolence toward God and Israel - refusing to let her go, (Ex 7-9:12). Note that Pharaoh's responses were of his own free will; and God's hardening of Pharaoh's heart, (Ex 7:3; 9:12) brought out Pharaoh's rebellious nature all the more, in effect, sealing him to his own temporal and eternal destruction.

**** END OF EXCERPTS (ROMANS CHAPTERS 1 & 9) ****

VI) [Ro 11:11-12]:

(Ro 11:11 NAS) "I say then, they did not stumble so as to fall, did they? May it never be! But by their transgression salvation has come to the Gentiles, to make them jealous.

(Ro 11:11 Greek) "LegO oun ...mE eptaisan ...............hina pesOsin = aorist

..............................."I say ..then, Not did they stumble .that .they might fall?

mE genoito .....alla tO ......autOn paraptOmati hE sOtEria

Not may it be! but .by the their ...offense ..........the salvation


tois ....ethnesin eis .to ..parazElOsai ................autous."

to the nations, .for the to provoke to jealousy them."

(Ro 11:12 NAS) Now if their fall is riches for the world, and their failure riches for the Gentiles, how much more their fullness!"

A) GENERATIONS OF ISRAELITES HAVE STUMBLED IN UNFAITHFULNESS, REJECTING GOD AND HIS GRACE SALVATION; BUT ISRAEL WILL NEVER EXPERIENCE A PERMANENT FALLING / CASTING AWAY FROM GOD, FOR THROUGHOUT HISTORY GOD WILL PRESERVE THE POPULATION OF ISRAELITES FROM EXTINCTION THROUGH THE SURVIVAL OF REMNANTS OF ISRAELITES WHO WILL CONSEQUENTLY BECOME A GENERATION OF FAITHFUL BELIEVERS SO AS TO FULLFILL HIS PROMISE OF A FUTURE ETERNAL KINGDOM RULED BY AN ETERNAL GENERATION OF FAITHFUL ISRAELITE BELIEVERS TO BE FOREVER HIS CHOSEN PEOPLE TO REPRESENT HIM AND HIS GRACE SALVATION TO THE WORLD

(Ro 11:1 NKJV) "I say then, has God cast away His people? Certainly not! For I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. (Ro 11:2 NKJV) God has not cast away His people whom He foreknew. Or do you not know what the Scripture says of Elijah, how he pleads with God against Israel, saying, (Ro 11:3 NKJV) 'LORD, they have killed Your prophets and torn down Your altars, and I alone am left, and they seek my life'? (Ro 11:4 NKJV) But what does the divine response say to him? 'I have reserved for Myself seven thousand men who have not bowed the knee to Baal.' [1 Kgs 19:18] (Ro 11:11 NAS) I say then, they did not stumble so as to fall, did they? May it never be! But by their transgression salvation has come to the Gentiles, to make them jealous. (Ro 11:12 NAS) Now if their fall is riches for the world, and their failure riches for the Gentiles, how much more their fullness!" =

Previously in Romans 11:1, author Paul answered his question, "Has God cast away His people" in the sense of Israel permanently no longer in fellowship with Him hence never again to represent Him on earth relative to Who He is and His grace salvation. And Paul's answers were an emphatic, "Certainly, not!" and "God has not cast away His people whom He foreknew." Note that the phrase "whom He foreknew" implies that God absolutely will follow through on His promise that Israel of the future will forever be His chosen people a people of faithful believers who will represent Him and His grace salvation to the world. Now in Romans 11:11, Paul answers the same question, emphatically and in the negative: The Greek text of Ro 11:11 literally says "I say then, Not did they stumble that they might fall?" where the Greek phrase "hina pesOsin," literally "that they might fall" and rendered in the NAS, "so as to fall" is in the aorist tense, subjunctive mood which portrays the potential of a completed action of falling - a permanent falling away from God. And Paul's answer in the emphatic negative "mE genoito" = absolutely not! All generations of Israel have not completely, i.e., permanently fallen away from God. So the message of Ro 11:11 is that generations of Israelites have stumbled in unfaithfulness, rejecting God and His grace salvation; but Israel will never experience a permanent falling / casting away from God, (Ro 11:1, 11), for throughout history God will preserve the population of Israelites from extinction through the survival of remnants of Israelites who consequently will become a generation of faithful believers so as to fulfill His promise of a future eternal kingdom ruled by an eternal generation of faithful Israelite believers to be forever His chosen people to represent Him and His grace salvation to the world, (cf. Ro 9:27).

[BKC, op. cit., p. 483]:

"11:11-12. Paul asked still another question he anticipated from his readers. Did they stumble (cf. 9:32) so as to fall beyond recovery? Literally, the Greek says simply, 'Did they stumble so that they fell?' But the tense of the verb 'fell' and its contrast with the verb translated 'stumble' imply the idea of falling beyond recovery. Once again the question in Greek was worded to elicit a negative answer, and for the 10th and last time in Romans, Paul responded, Not at all! (mE genoito)... "They" refers to 'the others' (v. 7), the majority of the people of Israel, excluding the 'remnant chosen by grace' (v. 5)."

*** EXCERPT FROM ROMANS CHAPTER 9 ***

JUST AS THE LORD PREVENTED EXTINCTION OF THE NORTHERN ISRAELITE POPULATION BY PRESERVING A REMNANT OF THEM - WHO WOULD THEN BELIEVE IN AND BE TRUE TO THE FAITH OF ABRAHAM IN A MESSIAH-SAVIOR DESCENDANT THROUGH ISAAC UNTO ETERNAL LIFE HENCE TRULY RELY ON THE LORD; AND HENCE PRESERVE HIS RIGHTEOUSNESS BY FULFILLING HIS COVENENT WITH ABRAHAM AND HIS SEED ISRAEL OF A FUTURE GENERATION OF ISRAELITE DESCENDANTS OF ALL TRIBES WHO WOULD DWELL FOREVER WITH THE LORD IN THE PROMISED LAND; SO GOD INSURES THAT THERE WILL ALWAYS BE PRESERVED (SAVED FROM TEMPORAL DESTRUCTION AND PREMATURE PHYSICAL DEATH) A REMNANT OF INDIVIDUALS WHO WOULD BE FAITHFUL BELIEVERS IN EVERY AGE, JEWS AND GENTILES, I.E., ALL MANKIND, AND HENCE PRESERVE THE HUMAN RACE FROM EXTINCTION SO AS TO FULFILL HIS RIGHTEOUSNESS AND HIS PROMISES TO MANKIND

(v. 9:21 NKJV) Does not the potter have power over the clay, from the same lump to make one vessel for honor and another for dishonor? (v. 9:22 ASV) What if God, willing to show His wrath, and to make His power known, endured with much longsuffering, vessels of wrath fitted unto destruction: (v. 9:23 NKJV) and that He might make known the riches of His glory on the vessels of mercy, which He had prepared beforehand for glory, (v. 9:24 NKJV ) even us whom He called, not of the Jews only, but also of the Gentiles? (v. 9:25 NKJV) As He says also in Hosea: 'I will call them My people, who were not My people, And her beloved, who was not beloved.' [Hos 2:23] (v. 9:26 NKJV) And it shall come to pass in the place where it was said to them, ' You are not My people,' There they shall be called sons of the living God.' [Hos 1:10] (v. 9:27 NKJV) Isaiah also cries out concerning Israel: 'Though the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea, The remnant will be saved. [Isa 10:22] (v. 9:28 NKJV) For He will finish the work and cut it short in righteousness, Because the LORD will make a short work upon the earth.' (v. 9:29 NKJV) And as Isaiah said before: 'Unless the LORD of Sabaoth [lit., hosts] had left us a seed, [= descendants], We would have become like Sodom, And we would have been made like Gomorrah [Isa 1:9]. ' " =

The sovereignty of God in choosing to demonstrate the riches of His glory with vessels He created to receive His mercy and glory: believers throughout history, Jews and Gentiles, (vv. 9:21-24), continues to be in view in Romans chapter 9. []

In Romans 9:27-29, author Paul addresses his (and our) time in history with a perspective of passages he quotes from Hosea and Isaiah. These passages refer to the salvation from premature physical death of a remnant of ancient Israelites who were part of the Northern Kingdom which kingdom was attacked and conquered by Assyria - hence preserving the northern tribes of Israel from extinction. The ancient remnant was described in those passages as returning to the LORD, the Mighty God, and truly relying on Him, (cf. Isa 10:20-23), i.e., being faithful believers. They were enabled by the LORD to return to their land.

So just as the LORD prevented the extinction of the Northern Israelite population by preserving a remnant of them - who would then believe in and be true to the faith of Abraham in a Messiah-Savior Descendant through Isaac unto eternal life hence truly rely on the LORD; hence preserve His righteousness by fulfilling His covenent with Abraham and his seed Israel of a future generation of Israelite descendants of all tribes who would dwell forever with the LORD in the promised land; so God insures that there will always be preserved (saved from temporal destruction and premature physical death) a remnant of individuals who would be faithful believers in every age, Jews and Gentiles, i.e., all mankind, and hence preserve the human race from extinction so as to fulfill His righteousness and His promises to mankind.

The phrase "in righteousness" in verse 9:28: "For He [the LORD] will finish the work [of disciplining the Israelites with Assyria] and cut it short in righteousness [so that the Israelites would not all be wiped out as in Sodom and Gomorrah, (v. 9:29)] refers to the LORD's maintaining His righteousness by preserving His covenant with Abraham and his seed Israel and by implication, His promises to all mankind.

Had the LORD not intervened to save the remnant from extinction there would have been another Sodom and Gomorrah with no Israelites from the northern ten tribes left to descend from, (Ro 9:29), and fulfill the covenant God made with Abraham and his seed Israel, thus impugning the righteousness of God, because He would not be able to fulfill His promises to Israel. Note that since Lot and his family were not of the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah but of the family of Abraham, all of the inhabitants of those cities perished leaving no descendants alive.

ALTHOUGH THE PARTICULAR REMNANT OF THE TEN TRIBES OF THE ANCIENT ISRAELITES WAS SAVED FROM TEMPORAL DESTRUCTION PREVENTING EXTINCTION OF THEIR TRIBES AND THEN THEY TURNED FROM BEING GODLESS UNBELIEVERS TO BEING FAITHFUL BELIEVERS, TRULY RELIANT UPON THE LORD; NOT ALL ISRAELITES REMAINING ALIVE THROUGHOUT THE AGES WILL BE FAITHFUL BELIEVERS

(v. 9:21 NKJV) Does not the potter have power over the clay, from the same lump to make one vessel for honor and another for dishonor? (v. 9:22 ASV) What if God, willing to show His wrath, and to make His power known, endured with much longsuffering, vessels of wrath fitted unto destruction: (v. 9:23 NKJV) and that He might make known the riches of His glory on the vessels of mercy, which He had prepared beforehand for glory, (v. 9:24 NKJV ) even us whom He called, not of the Jews only, but also of the Gentiles? (v. 9:25 NKJV) As He says also in Hosea: 'I will call them My people, who were not My people, And her beloved, who was not beloved.' [Hos 2:23] (v. 9:26 NKJV) And it shall come to pass in the place where it was said to them, ' You are not My people,' There they shall be called sons of the living God.' [Hos 1:10] (v. 9:27 NKJV) Isaiah also cries out concerning Israel: 'Though the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea, The remnant will be saved. [Isa 10:22] (v. 9:28 NKJV) For He will finish the work and cut it short in righteousness, Because the LORD will make a short work upon the earth.' (v. 9:29 NKJV) And as Isaiah said before: 'Unless the LORD of Sabaoth [lit., hosts] had left us a seed, [= descendants], We would have become like Sodom, And we would have been made like Gomorrah [Isa 1:9]. ' " =

Although the particular remnant of the ten tribes of the ancient Israelites was saved from temporal destruction preventing extinction of their tribes and then they turned from being godless unbelievers to being faithful believers, truly reliant upon the LORD, (cf. Isa 10:20); authors Isaiah and Paul are not saying that all Israelites throughout the ages remaining alive will be faithful believers. All Israelites are born unbelievers, and each must choose to believe in the faith of Abraham in a Messiah-Savior Descendant unto eternal life in his mortal lifetime in order to become a believer; and then he must truly rely on the LORD to have his life preserved from temporal destruction and from premature physical death. Not all Israelites will do that and will suffer temporal destruction and premature physical death.

So Paul is referring to passages in Hosea and Isaiah in order to say that just as God saved a remnant of ancient Israelites who would trust and rely on Him and hence be saved from temporal destruction, premature physical death and extinction of the tribes; so in this age, Jews and Gentiles will be preserved from temporal destruction and premature physical death for being faithful in ones lifestyle to the faith one expressed in Jesus Christ unto eternal life.

*** END OF EXCERPT FROM ROMANS CHAPTER 9 ***

VI cont.) [Ro 11:11-12 cont.]:

(Ro 11:11 NAS) "I say then, they did not stumble so as to fall, did they? May it never be! But by their transgression salvation has come to the Gentiles, to make them jealous.

(Ro 11:12 NAS) Now if their fall is riches for the world, and their failure riches for the Gentiles, how much more their fullness!"

B) ISRAEL'S TRANSGRESSION AS EVIDENCED BY HER UNFAITHFULNESS TOWARD GOD CAUSED THE LORD TO CUT HER OFF FROM TEMPORAL SALVATION / BLESSINGS AND PROVIDE THEM TO THE GENTILES INSTEAD, IN ORDER TO BEST SERVE HIS PURPOSES OF:

(1) PROCLAIMING HIMSELF AND HIS GRACE SALVATION TO MANKIND AND

(2) DISCIPLINING ISRAEL BY MAKING HER JEALOUS OF HIS WORKING WITH AND BLESSING GENTILES INSTEAD OF HER

(Ro 3:1) What advantage, then, is there in being a Jew, or what value is there in circumcision? (Ro 3:2) Much in every way! First of all, they [the Jews] have been entrusted with the very words of God. (Ro 9:1 YLT) Truth I say in Christ, I lie not, my conscience bearing testimony with me in the Holy Spirit, (Ro 9:2 YLT) that I have great grief and unceasing pain [= sorrow] in my heart - (Ro 9:3 ASV) For I could wish that I myself were anathema from Christ for my brethren's sake, my kinsmen according to the flesh: (Ro 9:4 YLT) who are Israelites, whose [is] the adoption, and the glory, and the covenants, and the lawgiving, and the service, and the promises, (Ro 9:5 ASV) whose [are] the fathers, and from whom [is] the Christ, according to the flesh, who is [sovereign] over all, [Who is] God blessed forever. Amen ... (Ro 9:27 NKJV) Isaiah also cries out concerning Israel: 'Though the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea, The remnant will be saved. [Isa 10:22] (Ro 9:28 NKJV) For He will finish the work and cut it short in righteousness, Because the LORD will make a short work upon the earth.' (Ro 9:29 NKJV) And as Isaiah said before: 'Unless the LORD of Sabbath [lit., hosts] had left us a seed, [= descendants] We would have become like Sodom, And we would have been made like Gomorrah. [Isa 1:9]' (Ro 9:30 NKJV) What shall we say then? That Gentiles, who did not pursue righteousness, have attained to righteousness, even the righteousness of faith; (Ro 9:31 NKJV) but Israel, pursuing the law of righteousness, has not attained to the law of righteousness. (Ro 9:32 NKJV) Why? Because they did not seek it by faith, but as it were, by the works of the law. For they stumbled at that stumbling stone. (Ro 9:33 NKJV) As it is written: 'Behold, I lay in Zion a stumbling stone and rock of offense, And whoever believes on Him will not be put to shame.' (Ro 10:1 NAS) Brethren, [fellow believers] my heart's desire and my prayer to God for them [Israelites, vv. 9:30-33] is for their salvation [from temporal destruction and premature physical death] (Ro 10:2 NAS) For I testify about them that they have a zeal for God, but not in accordance with knowledge. (Ro 10:19 NKJV) But I say, did Israel not know? First Moses says: 'I will provoke you to jealousy by those who are not a nation, I will move you to anger by a foolish nation.' [Dt 32:21]... (Ro 11:11 NAS) I say then, they did not stumble so as to fall, did they? May it never be! But by their transgression salvation has come to the Gentiles, to make them jealous." =

Note that the Greek noun "paraptOmati," which literally means "offense" is translated "transgression" in the NAS in Ro 11:11. It describes an entire people, Israel, who over the centuries have been characterized as having largely been persistently unfaithful to the LORD. They have continually committed offenses, i.e., transgressions or violations of known commands of God. A single offense or transgression that the entire historical group of all generations of Israelites all committed at once cannot be in view, because a single offense does not fit the context in the book of Romans of generations of Israel being generally unfaithful. Rather, "paraptOmati" has a plural sense to it, describing multiple violations of known commands of God over a period of time in order to continue to describe the unfaithful generations of Israel who have been disciplined by God over the ages. Just as one can say that one has sin in ones life which refers to multiple sins, so one can say Israel has transgression or offense which refers to multiple transgressions or offenses over a period of time. This is consistent with the context begun in Romans chapter 9 portraying a history of Israel continuously being unfaithful to God which led to the LORD removing temporal salvation from Israel and providing it for the Gentiles as part of a group comprised of Gentiles and Jews.

So the salvation in view in Romans 11:11 is a temporal one, a deliverance of a group of people from temporal difficulties unto godly fellowship and blessings and greater longevity. It cannot be referring to salvation unto eternal life coming to the Gentiles because salvation unto eternal life had been available to all mankind, before Jews existed, shortly after Adam and Eve were expelled from the garden of Eden, (Gen 3:14-21).

Before the LORD moved His temporal salvation and blessings to Gentiles, the Israelites had them as part of God's unique temporal personal relationship with them which included His plan to promulgate the truth about Himself, His grace and the gospel through Israel, (Ro 3:1; 9:1-5). But in the light of Israel's unfaithfulness, it would now be the Gentiles as a group who were designated to receive God's unique temporal personal with them including His temporal salvation unto blessings in order to promulgate God's plan to represent Him and His grace salvation to the world. Note that Israelites are not portrayed in Ro 11:11 as excluded from having the availability of eternal life. They are portrayed as no longer under God's temporal salvation unto fellowship and blessings from Him. Furthermore, Israel was at that time so unspiritual as to not be able to discern who did have salvation unto eternal life and who did not, hence they wouldn't have been able to be jealous of those Gentiles who had received eternal life as opposed to those who had not. On the other hand, certain Gentiles who chose to become faithful believers who were then delivered from temporal difficulty unto visible godly temporal blessings as God's representative people on the earth instead of Israel would easily be discerned by unspiritual Israel and hence give them reason to be jealous, (Ro 11:11). Note that the fact that those particular Gentiles were faithful believers would not be discernible by the unspiritual Israelites. Hence temporal salvation of the Gentiles as a group of people representing God is in view in Ro 11:11 NAS.

So the transgression of particular generations of Israelites in history, i.e., their persistent unfaithfulness toward God caused the LORD to cut Israel off from His group salvation - His deliverance from destruction and difficulty unto blessings and from personal fellowship with Him; whereupon God moved to provide these to all mankind outside of the nation Israel to Gentiles and Jews who were faithful servants of the LORD through faith in Christ. This then includes Gentiles. A unique group comprised of faithful servants of the LORD of Jews and Gentiles alike will receive God's temporal salvation and personal fellowship as a group as once faithful Israel did, in order to serve His purpose of proclaiming Himself and His grace salvation. This evidently was to be done in such a manner as to make Israel jealous in order to save some of them, (Ro 11:11, 13).

*** EXCERPTS FROM ROMANS CHAPTERS 3, 9 & 10 RE: TEMPORAL SALVATION OF ISRAEL ***

MUCH IN EVERY WAY IS THE ADVANTAGE OF BEING A JEW - THE VALUE OF CIRCUMCISION. FIRST OF ALL THEY HAVE BEEN ENTRUSTED WITH THE VERY WORDS OF GOD AS CONVEYED TO THEM DIRECTLY AND THROUGH OTHERS AS RECORDED IN SCRIPTURE GIVING THEM THE RESPONSIBILTY TO OBEY, REPRESENT GOD AND CONVEY THOSE WORDS TO THE WORLD

(Ro 3:1) What advantage, then, is there in being a Jew, or what value is there in circumcision? (Ro 3:2) Much in every way! First of all, they have been entrusted with the very words of God." =

Paul provides a "first of all" answer to his question of "What advantage is there in being a Jew, or what value is there in circumcision" with "Much in every way! First of all, they have been entrusted with the very words of God", (Ro 3:2).

Notice that both questions, "What advantage is there in being a Jew?", "Or what value is there in circumcision?" are anwered by the one answer in verse 3:2, hence both questions are intimately related and have Jews in view. The phrase "First of all" in verse 3:2 which begins the verse which answers the questions posed in Ro 3:1, implies that there is more than one answer to the questions. The entire passage, however, only provides this one answer. Other answers can be found elsewhere in Scripture.

Verse 3:2 stipulates that there is much advantage in being a Jew and much value in being circumcised in every way! The phrase "The very words of God" refers to the actual words of God spoken directly to the Israelites and relayed to them through others in times past, especially to and through Abraham and the patriarchs, Moses, the prophets and the Law, and most especially those actual words of God recorded in Scripture. The concept of being entrusted with the very words of God conveys the responsibility of faith and obedience to them and preservation and communication of those words to the world. This responsibility was implied in vv. 2:17-25, wherein the Jew, the one who is circumcised, is directed to obey the Law as an Israelite and as the mandate of his circumcision in order to represent the righteousness of God to the world giving value to his circumcision.

TO THE ISRAELITES: THEIRS IS THE ADOPTION BY GOD AS SONS, AND THE GLORY OF GOD TO EXPERIENCE ON EARTH AND IN HEAVEN, AND THE COVENANTS GOD HAS MADE WITH THEM, AND THE LAW GIVING, AND THE PRIVILEGE OF SERVICE OF WORSHIP OF GOD IN THE TABERNACLE AND THE TEMPLE, AND THE PROMISES WHICH ARE CONNECTED WITH THE COVENANTS GOD GAVE TO THE DESCENDANTS OF ABRAHAM THROUGH ISAAC AND JACOB

(Ro 9:1 YLT) Truth I say in Christ, I lie not, my conscience bearing testimony with me in the Holy Spirit, (Ro 9:2 YLT) that I have great grief and unceasing pain [= sorrow] in my heart. (Ro 9:3 ASV) For I could wish that I myself were anathema from Christ for my brethren's sake, my kinsmen according to the flesh: (Ro 9:4a YLT) who are Israelites, whose [is] the adoption, and the glory, and the covenants, and the lawgiving, and the service, and the promises, (Ro 9:5 ASV) whose [are] the fathers, and from whom [is] the Christ, according to the flesh, who is [sovereign] over all, [Who is] God blessed forever. Amen"

[To the Israelites: theirs is the adoption by God as sons, and the glory of God to experience on earth and in heaven, and the covenants God has made with them, and the Law giving, and the privilege of service of worship of God in the tabernacle and the temple, and the promises which are connected with the covenants God gave to the descendants of Abraham through Isaac and Jacob. Note the unique blessings that God provided for the Israelite people as part of His special and unique group salvation of them in order for them to be His people - His representative on earth to proclaim truths about Him and His grace, especially His salvation unto eternal life a moment of faith alone in His one and only Son alone]

PAUL DECLARES TO HIS BROTHERS, I.E., FELLOW BELIEVERS THAT HIS HEART'S DESIRE AND PRAYER TO GOD FOR THE ISRAELITES IS THAT THEY MAY BE SAVED, I.E., PRESERVED FROM PREMATURE PHYSICAL DEATH AND TEMPORAL DESTRUCTION BY BECOMING BELIEVERS WHO TRULY RELY ON THE LORD

(Ro 9:1 YLT) "Truth I say in Christ, I lie not, my conscience bearing testimony with me in the Holy Spirit, (Ro 9:2 YLT) that I have great grief and unceasing pain [= sorrow] in my heart - (Ro 9:3 ASV) For I could wish that I myself were anathema from Christ for my brethren's sake, my kinsmen according to the flesh: (Ro 9:4a YLT) who are Israelites, ... (Ro 9:27 NKJV) "Isaiah also cries out concerning Israel: 'Though the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea, The remnant will be saved. [Isa 10:22] (Ro 9:28 NKJV) For He will finish the work and cut it short in righteousness, Because the LORD will make a short work upon the earth.' (Ro 9:29 NKJV) And as Isaiah said before: 'Unless the LORD of Sabbath [lit., hosts] had left us a seed, [= descendants] We would have become like Sodom, And we would have been made like Gomorrah. [Isa 1:9]' (Ro 9:30 NKJV) What shall we say then? That Gentiles, who did not pursue righteousness, have attained to righteousness, even the righteousness of faith; (Ro 9:31 NKJV) but Israel, pursuing the law of righteousness, has not attained to the law of righteousness. (Ro 9:32 NKJV) Why? Because they did not seek it by faith, but as it were, by the works of the law. For they stumbled at that stumbling stone. (Ro 9:33 NKJV) As it is written: 'Behold, I lay in Zion a stumbling stone and rock of offense, And whoever believes on Him will not be put to shame.' (Ro 10:1 NAS) Brethren, [fellow believers] my heart's desire and my prayer to God for them [Israelites, vv 9:30-33] is for their salvation [from temporal destruction and premature physical death] (Ro 10:2 NAS) For I testify about them that they have a zeal for God, but not in accordance with knowledge." =

Paul declares to his brothers, i.e., fellow believers, that his heart's desire and prayer to God for the Israelites is that they may be saved, i.e., preserved from premature physical death and temporal destruction by becoming faithful believers who truly rely on the LORD, (vv. 9:30-33).

Notice that Paul had earlier expressed great grief and unceasing pain in the Holy Spirit, wishing that he himself were anathema from Christ for his brethren Israelites' sake, his kinsmen, (Ro 9:1-4a). In Ro 10:1-2, Paul stipulates that his earnest desire and prayer to God for the Israelites stems from the fact that he was an Israelite himself, one who had rejected Christ. The Israelites were zealous for God but their zeal was not based on knowledge, i.e., not based on the truth about attaining righteousness through exercising a moment of the faith of Abraham in a Messiah-Savior Descendant for eternal life and then truly relying on Him in order to be individually saved from temporal destruction and premature physical death.

Note that temporal salvation of a remnant of people unto godly blessings has a prerequisite of believing unto salvation for eternal life and faithfulness to that faith for each individual of that remnant which opportunity is afforded to every individual. And the ultimate salvation of the whole future generation of all Israel has in view all Israelites becoming faithful believers to represent God forever as His chosen people.

*** END OF EXCERPTS FROM ROMANS 3, 9 & 10 ***

VI cont.) [Ro 11:11-12 cont.]:

(Ro 11:11 NAS) "I say then, they did not stumble so as to fall, did they? May it never be! But by their transgression salvation has come to the Gentiles, to make them jealous.

(Ro 11:12 NAS) Now if their fall is riches for the world, and their failure riches for the Gentiles, how much more their fullness!"

C) ISRAEL'S TEMPORARY FALLING AWAY FROM THE LORD TRANSLATED INTO RICHES, I.E., TEMPORAL BLESSINGS FOR THE WORLD - TO A UNIQUE GROUP COMPRISED OF FAITHFUL SERVANTS OF THE LORD OF JEWS AND GENTILES ALIKE. AND IN THE FUTURE, SO MUCH THE MORE WILL ISRAEL'S TEMPORARY FALLING AWAY TRANSLATE INTO ISRAEL'S FULLNESS WHEN THE FULL NUMBER OF JEWS DECREED AND CHOSEN BY GOD TO BECOME FAITHFUL BELIEVERS AND SERVANTS OF THE LORD COMPRISES HER PERFECT COMPLETION OF BEING GOD'S CHOSEN PEOPLE. THIS TIME FOREVER

(Ro 11:1 NKJV) "I say then, has God cast away His people? Certainly not! For I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. (Ro 11:2 NKJV) God has not cast away His people whom He foreknew. Or do you not know what the Scripture says of Elijah, how he pleads with God against Israel, saying, (Ro 11:3 NKJV) 'LORD, they have killed Your prophets and torn down Your altars, and I alone am left, and they seek my life'? (Ro 11:4 NKJV) But what does the divine response say to him? 'I have reserved for Myself seven thousand men who have not bowed the knee to Baal.' [1 Kgs 19:18] (Ro 11:5 NKJV) Even so then, at this present time there ["gegonen" = has been] a remnant according to the election of grace ... (Ro 11:11 NAS) I say then, they did not stumble so as to fall, did they? May it never be! But by their transgression salvation has come to the Gentiles, to make them jealous. (Ro 11:12 NAS) Now if their fall is riches for the world, and their failure riches for the Gentiles, how much more their fullness!" =

Since Ro 11:11 says, "But by their [Israel's] transgression [temporal] salvation has come to the Gentiles;" and since Ro 11:12 says that Israel's fall and failure is riches for Gentiles and the world then we can conclude that Gentiles and Jews receive such temporal salvation which includes a special temporal relationship with the LORD when they become faithful servants of the LORD. It has already been established that such a group of individuals who have been called to and have become faithful servants of the LORD belong to Jesus Christ, (Ro 1:5-6), and receive such riches as the LORD's temporal salvation. Israel's temporary falling away from the LORD translated into riches, i.e., temporal blessings for the world - to a unique group comprised of faithful servants of the LORD of Jews and Gentiles alike. The riches are bestowed in order to serve His purposes of promulgating the truth about Himself and His grace salvation to the world. Hence the group must comprise faithful servants of the LORD. But then Paul exclaims, "How much more their [the Israelites'] fullness" where the Greek word "plErOma" rendered "fullness" in the NAS means the completed or perfected end of Israel when she will finally fulfill God's promise to have all Israel completely and perfectly faithful to Him as His chosen people for the rest of eternity, (Ro 11:1-5).

VII) [Ro 11:13-14]:

(Ro 11:13 NKJV) "For I speak to you Gentiles; inasmuch as I am an apostle to the Gentiles, I magnify ["doxazO" = glorify] my ministry,

(Ro 11:14 NKJV) if ["pOs" = perhaps] I may provoke to jealousy those who are my flesh and save some of them"

A) PAUL MAGNIFIED = GLORIFIED HIS MINISTRY TO THE GENTILES IN FRONT OF FELLOW JEWS SO THAT HIS WORK MIGHT COME TO THEIR ATTENTION IN ORDER TO PROVOKE THEM TO JEALOUSY AND SAVE SOME OF THEM FROM TEMPORAL DESTRUCTION - THIS TIME AS PART OF A UNIQUE GROUP OF FAITHFUL SERVANTS OF THE LORD OUTSIDE OF ISRAEL AND COMPRISED OF JEWS AND GENTILES ALIKE

(v. 10:1 NAS) "Brethren, [fellow believers] my heart's desire and my prayer to God for them [Israelites, vv. 9:30-33] is for their salvation [from temporal destruction]. (Ro 10:19 NKJV) But I say, did Israel not know? First Moses says: 'I will provoke you to jealousy by those who are not a nation, I will move you to anger by a foolish nation.' [Dt 32:21] (Ro 11:11 NAS) I say then, they did not stumble so as to fall, did they? May it never be! But by their transgression [temporal] salvation has come to the Gentiles, to make them jealous. (Ro 11:13 NKJV) For I speak to you Gentiles; inasmuch as I am an apostle to the Gentiles, I magnify ["doxazO" = glorify] my ministry. (Ro 11:14 NKJV) if ["pOs" = perhaps] I may provoke to jealousy those who are my flesh and save some of them" =

Paul magnified = glorified his ministry to the Gentiles in front of fellow Jews so that his work might come to their attention in order to provoke them to jealousy and save some of them from temporal destruction - this time as part of a unique group of faithful servants of the LORD outside of Israel and comprised of Jews and Gentiles alike

Notice that Paul is speaking to Gentiles in his letter to the Romans. He declared himself to have a ministry appointed by God, (Ro 1:1-4; Gal 2:6-8 ) as "an apostle to the Gentiles." In view of this, Paul continued, in Ro 11:13-14, the train of thought begun in Ro 10:19 and restated in Ro 11:11, of his doing the LORD's work wherein "[temporal] salvation has come to the Gentiles, to make them [Israel] jealous." Paul states in Ro 11:14 that he deliberately magnified, i.e., brought glory to his ministry by openly declaring details of it to the world, implying how God was the power behind him. Paul did this so that his ministry might come to the attention of fellow Jews in order to "provoke to jealousy those who are [his] flesh, [i.e., fellow Israelites] and save some of them," i.e., [= preserve some of them as part of a unique group comprised of both Jew and Gentile from temporal destruction. This unique group of faithful servants of the LORD outside of Israel would be comprised of Jew and Gentile alike. Although Paul's actions were intended to provoke some of his fellow Israelites to jealousy leading them to express a moment of the faith of Abraham in a Messiah-Savior Descendant through Isaac, Jesus Christ, so as to receive salvation unto eternal life and then to be faithful to that faith so as to receive God's blessings and temporal salvation and the personal fellowship with the LORD as part of a unique group of faithful servants; Paul himself provided neither salvation, he was only an instrument through whom the grace of God worked to make those provisions. So to be saved in the context of chapters 9 through 11, means to be preserved as a unique group of people comprised of Jew and Gentile, faithful servants of the LORD - from temporal destruction and premature physical death for being faithful in ones lifestyle to the faith one expressed in Jesus Christ unto eternal life.

VIII) [Ro 11:15-16]:

(Ro 11:15 NKJV) For if their being cast away is the reconciling of the world, what will their acceptance be but life from the dead?

(Ro 11:16 NKJV) For if the firstfruit is holy, the lump is also holy; and if the root is holy, so are the branches. [Num 15:20]"

A) GOD'S CASTING AWAY OF GENERATIONS OF UNFAITHFUL, UNBELIEVING ISRAELITES FROM HIS UNIQUE, PERSONAL, TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIP WITH THEM AS A GROUP OF PEOPLE PROMPTED GOD'S RECONCILING FROM THE WHOLE WORLD TO HIMSELF A GROUP COMPRISED OF GENTILES AND JEWS WHO BECOME FAITHFUL BELIEVERS UNTO THEIR OWN UNIQUE, PERSONAL, TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIP WITH THE LORD

(v. 10:1 NAS) "Brethren, [fellow believers] my heart's desire and my prayer to God for them [Israelites, vv. 9:30-33] is for their salvation [from temporal destruction]. (Ro 10:19 NKJV) But I say, did Israel not know? First Moses says: 'I will provoke you to jealousy by those who are not a nation, I will move you to anger by a foolish nation.' [Dt 32:21] (Ro 11:1 NKJV) I say then, has God cast away His people? Certainly not! For I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. (Ro 11:2 NKJV) God has not cast away His people whom He foreknew. Or do you not know what the Scripture says of Elijah, how he pleads with God against Israel, saying, (Ro 11:3 NKJV) 'LORD, they have killed Your prophets and torn down Your altars, and I alone am left, and they seek my life'? (Ro 11:4 NKJV) But what does the divine response say to him? 'I have reserved for Myself seven thousand men who have not bowed the knee to Baal.' [1 Kgs 19:18] (Ro 11:5 NKJV) Even so then, at this present time there [has been] a remnant according to the election of grace. (Ro 11:11 NAS) I say then, they did not stumble so as to fall, did they? May it never be! But by their transgression salvation has come to the Gentiles, to make them jealous. (Ro 11:12 NAS) Now if their fall is riches for the world, and their failure riches for the Gentiles, how much more their fullness! (Ro 11:13 NKJV) For I speak to you Gentiles; inasmuch as I am an apostle to the Gentiles, I magnify ["doxazO" = glorify] my ministry. (Ro 11:14 NKJV) if ["pOs" = perhaps] I may provoke to jealousy those who are my flesh and save some of them (Ro 11:15 NKJV) For if their being cast away is the reconciling of the world, what will their acceptance be but life from the dead?" =

Notice that Romans 11:11 indicates that by their transgression, i.e., their persistent unfaithfulness through a number of generations, the people of Israel became estranged from God. And by this transgression, Israel lost her temporal salvation unto her own unique personal fellowship with God which temporal salvation was provided by God to the Gentiles as a group to make Israel jealous. And then notice that Romans 11:12 indicates that Israel's failure brought riches for Gentiles and the world. And finally, Ro 11:15 stipulates that Israel's being cast away as a result of her failure to be faithful results in the reconciling of the world. Hence the reconciling of the world and Gentiles includes riches and temporal salvation. So Gentiles became part of God's reconciliation of the world - reconciliation to a unique temporal fellowship with Him of that group of the world, predominately by population Gentiles but also Jews - since they are also part of the population of the world, i.e., all individuals who choose to become faithful believers and servants of the LORD. Although God's temporal salvation / reconcilation came to the Gentiles to make Israel as a people jealous, among other reasons, Jews were still afforded the opportunity to be part of God's reconcilation of the world as part of that group comprised of predominately Gentiles by becoming faithful believers and servants of the LORD.

Since Romans 11:14 states that Paul intended to provoke fellow Jews to jealousy of his ministry to the Gentiles so that he might save some of them referring to salvation as a group from temporal destruction and difficulties unto godly fellowship and blessings; and since Romans 11:15, Paul parallels the temporary casting away of the people of Israel unto estrangement with God with their temporary loss of temporal salvation as a group of people, then such a loss has become the "reconciling of the world" wherein that phrase is portrayed as a restablishment of the temporal salvation of all individuals with God as a unique group of people comprised both of Jew and Gentile who have become faithful believers and servants to the LORD, now His chosen people to represent Him.

Although eternal reconciliation is not specifically in view in this verse, the temporal reconciliation with God has a prerequisite of expressing a moment of faith alone in the faith of Abraham in a Messiah-Savior Descendant that came through Isaac unto eternal life, Jesus Christ, and then being faithful to that faith.

Finally, in Romans 11:15b, Paul asks and answers the question, 'How much more will Israel's acceptance of that faith and being faithful to it result in their return to temporal salvation / reconciliation to fellowship with God?' Answer: like them all being raised to life from the dead.

Since a literal physical raising from the dead of every individual of a future generation of Israelites brought about by each ones accepting the truth of the faith of Abraham in a Messiah-Savior Descendant while physically alive cannot logically and contextually be in view in Ro 11:15; then the Greek phrase "zOE ek nekrOn" rendered in verse 11:15 NKJV "what will their [future Israel's] acceptance be but life from the dead" must be figurative or spiritual but not literally physical. What is in view is the transformation of every member of an entire future generation of a nation of the Israelite people from being spiritually dead and godless in their lifestyle to a lifestyle that is spiritually alive and faithful to God, to a group lifestyle that is characterized by a unique personal relationship with the LORD as His chosen people - "like life from the dead."

B) THE WORD "FIRSTFRUIT" IS USED TO CHARACTERIZE REMNANTS OF FAITHFUL SERVANTS OF THE LORD TO BE HOLY = SET APART TO GOD AND HENCE PRESERVED FROM DESTRUCTION THROUGHOUT THE AGES SO THAT A FUTURE GENERATION OF ISRAELITES WILL SURVIVE TO BE GOD'S CHOSEN PEOPLE. THE REMNANTS ARE DECREED TO CHOOSE TO BE OF THE FAITH OF ABRAHAM IN A MESSIAH-SAVIOR DESCENDANT THROUGH ISAAC, JESUS CHRIST, UNTO ETERNAL LIFE AND BE FAITHFUL TO THAT FAITH

(v. 10:1 NAS) "Brethren, [fellow believers] my heart's desire and my prayer to God for them [Israelites, vv. 9:30-33] is for their salvation [from temporal destruction]. (Ro 10:19 NKJV) But I say, did Israel not know? First Moses says: 'I will provoke you to jealousy by those who are not a nation, I will move you to anger by a foolish nation.' [Dt 32:21] (Ro 11:1 NKJV) I say then, has God cast away His people? Certainly not! For I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. (Ro 11:2 NKJV) God has not cast away His people whom He foreknew. Or do you not know what the Scripture says of Elijah, how he pleads with God against Israel, saying, (Ro 11:3 NKJV) 'LORD, they have killed Your prophets and torn down Your altars, and I alone am left, and they seek my life'? (Ro 11:4 NKJV) But what does the divine response say to him? 'I have reserved for Myself seven thousand men who have not bowed the knee to Baal.' [1 Kgs 19:18] (Ro 11:5 NKJV) Even so then, at this present time there [has been] a remnant according to the election of grace. (Ro 11:11 NAS) I say then, they did not stumble so as to fall, did they? May it never be! But by their transgression salvation has come to the Gentiles, to make them jealous. (Ro 11:13 NKJV) For I speak to you Gentiles; inasmuch as I am an apostle to the Gentiles, I magnify ["doxazO" = glorify] my ministry. (Ro 11:14 NKJV) if ["pOs" = perhaps] I may provoke to jealousy those who are my flesh and save some of them (Ro 11:15 NKJV) For if their being cast away is the reconciling of the world, what will their acceptance be but life from the dead? (Ro 11:16 NKJV) For if the firstfruit is holy, the lump is also holy; [Num 15:17-21] and if the root is holy, so are the branches." =

Verse 11:16 begins with the word rendered "For" meaning 'because,' in explanation of the point author Paul made in verses 11:1-10, i.e., that God has chosen Israel to be His people. Paul explains, that despite Israel's unfaithfulness over the ages, God has reserved and made holy, i.e., set apart for Himself, a remnant of Israelites, to be saved / preserved from destruction throughout the ages so that a future generation of Israelites will survive to be His chosen people forever. The remnants are decreed by God to choose to be of the faith of Abraham in a Messiah-Savior Descendant through Isaac, Jesus Christ, unto eternal life and to be faithful to that faith. So the LORD will see to it by direct intervention that a future generation of Israelites will be preserved and become His faithful servants, in fellowship with Him, and receive the riches of His eternal and temporal blessings, and to represent Him and His righteousness to all humanity forever.

The word rendered "firstfruit" in Rom 11:16 NKJV represents in ancient Israelite agriculture, the first of the harvest of grain which is secured and formed into bread dough and then offered to God as part of the whole lump of dough - figuratively speaking - that would be produced by the entire crop when it is all harvested and processed into dough. And notice that it is God to Whom the offering of the firstfruits is made - to be declared holy, i.e., set apart to God as representing the whole harvest, i.e., the whole "lump," as holy and set apart to God. Furthermore, the word "firstfruit" is used in verse 11:16 to characterize the remnants of Israelites which God directly intervenes to save, i.e., to preserve from destruction throughout the ages seeing to it that they choose to become faithful servants of Him and in order to insure the survival of the Jewish race unto that future generation that God has promised will forever be His people and His faithful servants. The word rendered "the lump" refers to those Israelites, of whom the remnants are a first representative part, who will be His chosen people, holy and set apart to choose to be of the faith of Abraham in a Messiah-Savior Descendant through Isaac, Jesus Christ unto eternal life, and be faithful to that faith. The text in Romans 11:16 further declares that if the firstfruit, the remnant, is declared to be holy, the remnant being representative of the whole body of the future generation of Israel, then that whole body, the lump, is declared to be holy, set apart to God, choosing to be His faithful servants.

Note that this implies that not all Israelites will be His chosen people and that the power behind what makes the remnant and the future generation of faithful Israelites is God Himself.

[Jameison, Faucett and Brown, commentary]:

"The Israelites were required to offer to God the first-fruits of the earth - both in their raw state, in a sheaf of newly reaped grain (Lev 23:10, 11), and in their prepared state, made into cakes of dough (Num 15:19-21) - by which the whole produce of that season was regarded as hallowed [= holy, set apart to God]... as to it the word 'lump' best applies... as the separation unto God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob from the rest of mankind, as the parent stem of their race, was as real an offering of first-fruits as that which hallowed [made holy, set apart to God] the produce of the earth, so, in the divine estimation, it was as real a separation of the mass or "lump" of that nation in all time to God."

1) [Compare Numbers 15:17-21]:

(Num 15:17) '''The LORD said to Moses,

(Num 15:18) "Speak to the Israelites and say to them: 'When you enter the land to which I am taking you

(Num 15:19) and you eat the food of the land, present a portion as an offering to the LORD.

(Num 15:20) Present a cake from the first of your ground meal and present it as an offering from the threshing floor.

(Num 15:21) Throughout the generations to come you are to give this offering to the LORD from the first of your ground meal.' " '''

Note that the offering of firstfruits of a harvest to God was done as part of the lump of dough which comes from the entire harvest.

[BKC op. cit., p. 233]:

"12:17-21. The second set of regulations pertains to the offering of the firstfruits of harvest. When the people entered the land of Canaan and began to enjoy its produce, they were to show their devotion to the LORD by presenting to Him a cake baked from the first cutting of the grain."

C) JUST AS THE SOURCE OF LIFE OF THE PLANT, ITS ROOT, LEADS TO SUSTAINING LIFE IN THE BRANCHES; SO THE SOURCE OF HOLINESS, I.E., BEING SET APART TO FAITHFULNESS TO GOD IN REMNANTS AND GENERATIONS OF FAITHFUL BELIEVERS, IS GOD HIMSELF, HIS RIGHTEOUS CHARACTER AND SOVEREIGN POWER

(v. 10:1 NAS) "Brethren, [fellow believers] my heart's desire and my prayer to God for them [Israelites, vv. 9:30-33] is for their salvation [from temporal destruction]. (Ro 10:19 NKJV) But I say, did Israel not know? First Moses says: 'I will provoke you to jealousy by those who are not a nation, I will move you to anger by a foolish nation.' [Dt 32:21] (Ro 11:1 NKJV) I say then, has God cast away His people? Certainly not! For I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. (Ro 11:2 NKJV) God has not cast away His people whom He foreknew. Or do you not know what the Scripture says of Elijah, how he pleads with God against Israel, saying, (Ro 11:3 NKJV) 'LORD, they have killed Your prophets and torn down Your altars, and I alone am left, and they seek my life'? (Ro 11:4 NKJV) But what does the divine response say to him? 'I have reserved for Myself seven thousand men who have not bowed the knee to Baal.' [1 Kgs 19:18] (Ro 11:5 NKJV) Even so then, at this present time there [has been] a remnant according to the election of grace. (Ro 11:11 NAS) I say then, they did not stumble so as to fall, did they? May it never be! But by their transgression salvation has come to the Gentiles, to make them jealous. (Ro 11:13 NKJV) For I speak to you Gentiles; inasmuch as I am an apostle to the Gentiles, I magnify ["doxazO" = glorify] my ministry. (Ro 11:14 NKJV) if ["pOs" = perhaps] I may provoke to jealousy those who are my flesh and save some of them (Ro 11:15 NKJV) For if their being cast away is the reconciling of the world, what will their acceptance be but life from the dead? (Ro 11:16 NKJV) For if the firstfruit is holy, the lump is also holy; [Num 15:17-21] and if the root is holy, so are the branches." =

The Greek phrase "kai ei hE rhiza hagia kai hoi kladoi" in Ro 11:16 rendered "and if [since] the root is holy, so are the branches" in the NKJV compares the source of sustenance and quality of life of the branches of a tree being its root with the source of holiness, i.e., the source of that which sets groups of people apart to God to be faithful believer / servants of the LORD being God Himself. Especially in view in this matter is God's righteous character, power and sovereignty which He will exercise in order to fulfill His promise of a future generation of faithful forever Israelites.

*** KEY EXCERPTS FROM ROMANS 11:1-5 WHICH POINT TO GOD'S INTERVENTION TO ACCOMPLISH HIS PURPOSES AND PROMISES ***

FOREKNOWLEDGE = WHAT GOD KNOWS WITH CERTAINTY WILL COME TO PASS BECAUSE HE HAS DECREED IT AND WILL INTERVENE TO SEE TO IT THAT IT IS FULFILLED, I.E., THAT WHICH IS ACCORDING TO THE ELECTION OF GOD BEING STRICTLY BY HIS GRACE AND AS FULFILLED THROUGH HIM

(Ro 11:1 NKJV) I say then, has God cast away His people? Certainly not! For I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. (Ro 11:2 NKJV) God has not cast away His people whom He foreknew. Or do you not know what the Scripture says of Elijah, how he pleads with God against Israel, saying, (Ro 11:3 NKJV) 'LORD, they have killed Your prophets and torn down Your altars, and I alone am left, and they seek my life'? (Ro 11:4 NKJV) But what does the divine response say to him? 'I have reserved for Myself seven thousand men who have not bowed the knee to Baal.' [1 Kgs 19:18] (Ro 11:5 NKJV) Even so then, at this present time there [has been] a remnant according to the election of grace" =

From the phrase "God has not cast away His people whom He foreknew" in Ro 11:2 we can determine by the references to Isaiah 65, (Ro 10:20-21) and to 1 Kgs 19, (Ro 11:4), that the meaning of foreknowledge is defined by Paul as a knowledge beforehand of events which are a result of God's decree - His plan and His instituting of that plan by direct intervention in order to insure its outcome. The passages indicate that a remnant of ancient Israelites would be preserved by the LORD so that His promise of a future generation of Israelites to occupy the promised land in the new heavens and the new earth as the LORD's chosen people forever would be fulfilled, (cf. Isa 65:8-9, 17-18 ). Notice that during Elijah's time, the LORD reserved for Himself seven thousand men who had not bowed the knee to Baal. This reservation by God of Israelites for Himself it is implied, is foreknown by God because He decreed it via His election and will intervene to see to it that it is fulfilled solely by grace through Him.

JUST AS A REMNANT OF ISRAELITES THROUGHOUT HISTORY WAS FOREKNOWN BY DECREE OF THE LORD TO BE PRESERVED FOR ALL ETERNITY OUTSIDE OF PERSONAL MERIT; SO AT THE PRESENT TIME A REMNANT OF ALL PEOPLES HAS BEEN FOREKNOWN AND CHOSEN BY GOD ACCORDING TO THE ELECTION OF GRACE = THE CHOICE OF GOD WITHOUT REGARD TO PERSONAL MERIT

(Ro 11:1 NKJV) I say then, has God cast away His people? Certainly not! For I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. (Ro 11:2 NKJV) God has not cast away His people whom He foreknew. Or do you not know what the Scripture says of Elijah, how he pleads with God against Israel, saying, (Ro 11:3 NKJV) 'LORD, they have killed Your prophets and torn down Your altars, and I alone am left, and they seek my life'? (Ro 11:4 NKJV) But what does the divine response say to him? 'I have reserved for Myself seven thousand men who have not bowed the knee to Baal.' [1 Kgs 19:18] (Ro 11:5 NKJV) Even so then, at this present time there ["gegonen" = has been] a remnant according to the election of grace" =

Paul declares that in the same way that the LORD foreknew the Israelites to be His chosen people - always to have a remnant of them to be preserved through tribulation against extinction by Him throughout the ages and then for all eternity - "so at this present time there ["gegonen" = has been] a remnant of individuals from the population of all mankind according to the election of grace" who will likewise be preserved through tribulation so that there will always be a remnant of faithful believers in every age and then for all eternity. Notice that God foreknew via His specifically choosing by grace, i.e., by unmerited favor, i.e., by nothing that they would do themselves, a number of individuals from the population of all mankind to be a remnant to be destined for eternal life as servants of the LORD, (Ro 11:5; Ro 9:27, Isa 10:20). So for an individual to be part of a remnant by the election of the grace of the LORD evidently means that the LORD has foreknown him because He has decreed his destiny to be a servant of the LORD and eternal life. This corroborates that God is proactive in what He foreknows will occur to the extent that He decrees, hence predestinates that occurrence. So individuals who make the specific choice of trusting alone in Jesus Christ alone unto eternal life of their own volition have been decreed to do just that. Hence they are foreknown by decree of the LORD to be a remnant destined for certainty to be preserved unto eternal life because He will see to it that this will be accomplished yet through the volition of each individual.

*** END OF KEY EXCERPTS ***

C cont.) JUST AS THE SOURCE OF LIFE OF THE PLANT, ITS ROOT, LEADS TO SUSTAINING LIFE IN THE BRANCHES; SO THE SOURCE OF HOLINESS, I.E., BEING SET APART TO FAITHFULNESS TO GOD IN REMNANTS AND GENERATIONS OF FAITHFUL BELIEVERS, IS GOD HIMSELF, HIS RIGHTEOUS CHARACTER AND SOVEREIGN POWER

(v. 10:1 NAS) "Brethren, [fellow believers] my heart's desire and my prayer to God for them [Israelites, vv. 9:30-33] is for their salvation [from temporal destruction]. (Ro 10:19 NKJV) But I say, did Israel not know? First Moses says: 'I will provoke you to jealousy by those who are not a nation, I will move you to anger by a foolish nation.' [Dt 32:21] (Ro 11:1 NKJV) I say then, has God cast away His people? Certainly not! For I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. (Ro 11:2 NKJV) God has not cast away His people whom He foreknew. Or do you not know what the Scripture says of Elijah, how he pleads with God against Israel, saying, (Ro 11:3 NKJV) 'LORD, they have killed Your prophets and torn down Your altars, and I alone am left, and they seek my life'? (Ro 11:4 NKJV) But what does the divine response say to him? 'I have reserved for Myself seven thousand men who have not bowed the knee to Baal.' [1 Kgs 19:18] (Ro 11:5 NKJV) Even so then, at this present time there [has been] a remnant according to the election of grace. (Ro 11:11 NAS) I say then, they did not stumble so as to fall, did they? May it never be! But by their transgression salvation has come to the Gentiles, to make them jealous. (Ro 11:13 NKJV) For I speak to you Gentiles; inasmuch as I am an apostle to the Gentiles, I magnify ["doxazO" = glorify] my ministry. (Ro 11:14 NKJV) if ["pOs" = perhaps] I may provoke to jealousy those who are my flesh and save some of them (Ro 11:15 NKJV) For if their being cast away is the reconciling of the world, what will their acceptance be but life from the dead? (Ro 11:16 NKJV) For if the firstfruit is holy, the lump is also holy; [Num 15:17-21] and if the root is holy, so are the branches." (cont.) =

So it is God Himself Who provides holiness to the remnant and to the generation of future Israelites within their volition and cooperation. Logically speaking, the future generation of Israel which will be faithful servants of the LORD cannot be the root which provides its own holiness nor that of the Israelite remnant firstfruits throughout past ages.

The next two verses, (Ro 11:17-18), clarify that Israel and all groups of people are only branches which are supported by the root, God Himself:

IX) [Ro 11:17-18]:

(Ro 11:17 NKJV) "And if some of the branches were broken off, and you, being a wild olive tree, were grafted in among them, and with them became a [fellow] partaker of the root and fatness of the olive tree,

(Ro 11:18 NKJV) do not boast against the branches. But if you do boast, remember that you do not support the root, but the root supports you."

A) IF SOME BRANCHES / GENERATIONS OF UNFAITHFUL ISRAELITES WERE BROKEN OFF / CAST FROM GOD'S TEMPORAL SALVATION AS HIS CHOSEN PEOPLE - BROKEN OFF FROM THEIR UNIQUE TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIP WITH THE LORD; AND 'YOU' A BRANCH FROM A WILD OLIVE TREE / A GENTILE REPRESENTING A UNIQUE GROUP OF GENTILE-JEWISH FAITHFUL BELIEVERS IS GRAFTED IN, 'DO NOT BOAST' BECAUSE IT DOESN'T DEPEND UPON YOU, BUT UPON THE ROOT = GOD HIMSELF

(Ro 11:1 NKJV) "I say then, has God cast away His people? Certainly not! For I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. (Ro 11:2 NKJV) God has not cast away His people whom He foreknew. Or do you not know what the Scripture says of Elijah, how he pleads with God against Israel, saying, (Ro 11:3 NKJV) 'LORD, they have killed Your prophets and torn down Your altars, and I alone am left, and they seek my life'? (Ro 11:4 NKJV) But what does the divine response say to him? 'I have reserved for Myself seven thousand men who have not bowed the knee to Baal.' [1 Kgs 19:18] (Ro 11:11 NAS) I say then, they did not stumble so as to fall, did they? May it never be! But by their transgression salvation has come to the Gentiles, to make them jealous. (Ro 11:13 NKJV) For I speak to you Gentiles; inasmuch as I am an apostle to the Gentiles, I magnify ["doxazO" = glorify] my ministry. (Ro 11:14 NKJV) if ["pOs" = perhaps] I may provoke to jealousy those who are my flesh and save some of them (Ro 11:15 NKJV) For if their being cast away is the reconciling of the world, what will their acceptance be but life from the dead? (Ro 11:16 NKJV) For if the firstfruit is holy, the lump is also holy; [Num 15:17-21] and if the root is holy, so are the branches. (Ro 11:17 NKJV) And if some of the branches were broken off, and you, being a wild olive tree, were grafted in among them, and with them became a [fellow] partaker of the root and fatness of the olive tree, (Ro 11:18 NKJV) do not boast against the branches. But if you do boast, remember that you do not support the root, but the root supports you." =

Paul continues the context of the gain or loss of temporal salvation of whole generations / groups of people which salvation results in a unique temporal relationship of that generation of people with God as that group remains faithful to Him. Paul illustrates this by using the imagery of the grafting in and the cutting off of branches from natural and wild olive trees and the source of their sustenance, the root of the natural tree. Natural branches represent ancient Israel of the period of time beginning when Israel was declared to be God's chosen people. Branches from the wild olive tree represent the group comprised of faithful believers in the current time of when Paul was writing his epistle. Such a group of faithful believers comprised of Gentiles and Jews in Paul's current time and age comes from the population of the world as a result of the temporal reconciliation of the world to God due to His casting away of unfaithful generations of Israel, (Ro 11:15). On the other hand, Paul is specifically addressing the Gentiles in this new group of faithful believers which has been grafted into the natural olive tree, (Ro 11:13) into its own unique temporal relationship with the LORD. The phrase in Ro 11:17, "If some of the [natural] branches were broken off," refers to those generations of ancient Isreal which were unfaithful, and as a consequence, were cast away from their unique, personal, temporal relationship with Himself as His chosen people; and from the availability of God's temporal salvation from destruction, (Ro 10:19; Dt 32:5), resulting in their discipline and estrangement from God. Note the word "some" in the phrase "If some of the [natural] branches were broken off" in verse 11:17 indicates that not all Israelites were broken off from the olive tree of temporal fellowship and blessing with the LORD. This implies that some remnants of Israel were faithful believer / servants as part of an unfaithful generation of Israel; and some generations of Israel were faithful believer / servants of the LORD and hence remained 'connected to the tree and sustained by the root', i.e., experienced God's temporal salvation and were preserved in their unique, personal, temporal relationship with the LORD and sustained by Him. Paul further states that just as a wild olive tree, (which represents faithful believers of the world of Paul's current generation, both Jews and Gentiles as a group together), can be grafted into the natural olive tree and with the natural branches of Israel that remain be "a [fellow] partaker of the root and fatness of the olive tree" - the root referring to the LORD; so branches of the natural olive tree, referring to a future generation of faithful Israel can be grafted in to become "a [fellow] partaker of the root and the fatness of the olive tree," once more God's chosen people, Israel. Then comes Paul's warning that the new generation of faithful individuals from the world comprised predominately of Gentiles and also of Jews as God's representatives on the earth must not become arrogant and boast against the natural branches having been broken off, but remain humble and faithful to the LORD because it is the root, the LORD Who supports them in their position, not the other way around. For they can be broken off from the tree just as the natural branches were, i.e., just as some generations of ancient Israel were estranged from God in the past.

X) [Ro 11:19-21]:

(Ro 11:19 NKJV) "You will say then, 'Branches were broken off that I might be grafted in.'

(Ro 11:20 NKJV) Well said. Because of unbelief they were broken off, and you stand by faith. Do not be haughty, but fear.

(Ro 11:21 NKJV) For if God did not spare the natural branches, He may not spare you either.' "

A) BECAUSE OF UNBELIEF, GENERATIONS OF ISRAEL WERE BROKEN OFF FROM THEIR UNIQUE TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIP WITH THE LORD, BUT THE NEW FOUND GROUP OF GENTILE / JEWISH FAITHFUL BELIEVERS OF PAUL'S TIME WHO NOW STAND IN THEIR OWN UNIQUE RELATIONSHIP WITH THE LORD, INSTEAD OF ISRAEL, MUST NOT BE HAUGHTY, BUT INSTEAD FEAR GOD WHO DID NOT SPARE THE NATURAL BRANCHES, ISRAEL, WHEN SHE DEMONSTRATED UNBELIEF. HENCE HE MAY NOT SPARE THEM EITHER IMPLYING THAT THEY MUST CONTINUE IN THE FAITH

(Ro 11:1 NKJV) "I say then, has God cast away His people? Certainly not! For I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. (Ro 11:2 NKJV) God has not cast away His people whom He foreknew. Or do you not know what the Scripture says of Elijah, how he pleads with God against Israel, saying, (Ro 11:3 NKJV) 'LORD, they have killed Your prophets and torn down Your altars, and I alone am left, and they seek my life'? (Ro 11:4 NKJV) But what does the divine response say to him? 'I have reserved for Myself seven thousand men who have not bowed the knee to Baal.' [1 Kgs 19:18] (Ro 11:11 NAS) I say then, they did not stumble so as to fall, did they? May it never be! But by their transgression salvation has come to the Gentiles, to make them jealous. (Ro 11:13 NKJV) For I speak to you Gentiles; inasmuch as I am an apostle to the Gentiles, I magnify ["doxazO" = glorify] my ministry. (Ro 11:14 NKJV) if ["pOs" = perhaps] I may provoke to jealousy those who are my flesh and save some of them (Ro 11:15 NKJV) For if their being cast away is the reconciling of the world, what will their acceptance be but life from the dead? (Ro 11:16 NKJV) For if the firstfruit is holy, the lump is also holy; [Num 15:17-21] and if the root is holy, so are the branches. (Ro 11:17 NKJV) And if some of the branches were broken off, and you, being a wild olive tree, were grafted in among them, and with them became a [fellow] partaker of the root and fatness of the olive tree, (Ro 11:18 NKJV) do not boast against the branches. But if you do boast, remember that you do not support the root, but the root supports you; (Ro 11:19 NKJV) You will say then, 'Branches were broken off that I might be grafted in.' (Ro 11:20 NKJV) Well said. Because of unbelief they were broken off, and you stand by faith. Do not be haughty, but fear. (Ro 11:21 NKJV) For if God did not spare the natural branches, He may not spare you either.' " =

The personal pronoun "you" in verses 11:18-21 is singular and refers to an individual Gentile who is part of and represents the Gentile / Jewish group of faithful believers. The Greek phrase "Te pistei hestEkas" rendered "and you stand by faith" in Ro 11:20 NKJV is literally, "by the faith have [you] stood." The Greek verb "hestEkas" is in the perfect tense which conveys the message to the individual Gentile, and to all individuals that comprise the Gentile /Jewish faithful believers of Paul's age, that he has to this point stood by faith but that faith must be maintained to continue standing in such a unique temporal relationship with the LORD. Because of unbelief, generations of Israel were broken off from their unique temporal relationship with the LORD, but the new found group of Gentile / Jewish faithful believers of Paul's time who now stand in their own unique relationship with the LORD by faith instead of Israel is warned by Paul not to be haughty, i.e., arrogant about their new found relationship with the LORD replacing Israel. They are instead to fear God Who Paul declared did not spare the natural branches, Israel, when she demonstrated unbelief. This implies that the Gentile / Jewish believers may also waiver in their faith. Hence Paul is saying that the LORD will not spare the group of Gentile / Jewish faithful believers from temporal destruction and loss of their temporal relationship with Him any more than He spared past generations of unfaithful Israel unless they do continue in the faith.

Paul addresses an expected objection to the point he made to faithful Gentile believers, (who are part of the new found group of Gentile / Jewish faithful believers of Paul's contemporary age), not to boast of their new found unique temporal position of fellowship with God at the expense of those generations of unbelieving Israel being broken off from their unique, personal, temporal relationship with God, (Ro 11:18-20). Paul admonishes such objectors that branches of the natural olive tree, i.e., faithful believers - especially faithful Gentile believers of that new found, Gentile / Jewish group who are portrayed as the grafted in wild branches, don't support the root, but the root, i.e., the LORD, supports them. Verse then 11:19 states that some objector "Will [still] say, 'Branches were broken off that I might be grafted in.' " This arrogantly implies that the faithful Gentile-Jewish believers who have temporarily replaced Israel at Paul's time and age in history, as God's chosen people, merited being grafted into their own unique temporal fellowship and blessings with God over Israel. In Ro 11:20, Paul answers this objection beginning with, "Well said," indicating that the objector's answer was accurate relative to God's turning His back on past generations of Israel, breaking off those branches of His chosen people from fellowship due to their "unbelief" = their unfaithfulness; which led to the generation of Gentile / Jewish believers "stand[ing] by faith "being grafted in[to]" their own unique temporal relationship with God. Whereupon, Paul repeats his warning about being blatantly and disdainfully proud: "Do not be haughty, but fear [God]. For if God did not spare the natural branches, He may not spare you either." This implies that the newly grafted in branches of the group of faithful Gentile / Jewish believers of Paul's time and age are just as liable to be broken off for unbelief as Israel was. This statement implies that every group of individuals that is in fellowship with God has the potential of being unfaithful at any given moment and remains faithful only by the grace of God - for it is the root which supports the branches, not the other way around, (Ro 11:18).

XI) [Ro 11:22-24]:

(Ro 11:22 NKJV) "Therefore consider the goodness and severity of God: on those who fell, severity; but toward you, goodness, if you continue in His goodness. Otherwise you also will be cut off.

(Ro 11:23 NKJV) And they also, if they do not continue in unbelief, will be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again.

(Ro 11:24 NKJV) For if you were cut out of the olive tree which is wild by nature, and were grafted contrary to nature into a cultivated olive tree, how much more will these, who are natural branches, be grafted into their own olive tree?"

A) CONSIDER THE SEVERITY OF GOD IN HIS RESPONSE TO GENERATIONS OF ISRAEL WHICH FELL INTO CONTINUED UNBELIEF WHEREUPON HE CUT THEM OFF FROM THEIR UNIQUE TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIP WITH HIM. ON THE OTHER HAND, CONSIDER THE GOODNESS OF GOD WHICH HE EXPRESSED TOWARD THOSE GROUPS OF PEOPLE WHO CONTINUED TO BE FAITHFUL TO HIS GOODNESS AS HE ENABLED THEM TO CONTINUE IN THEIR TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIP WITH HIM. FINALLY, CONSIDER HOW MUCH MORE READILY ISRAEL WILL BE GRAFTED BACK INTO HER UNIQUE RELATIONSHIP WITH THE LORD WHEN SHE NO LONGER CONTINUES IN UNBELIEF

(Ro 11:2a NKJV) "God has not cast away His people whom He foreknew... (Ro 11:11 NAS) "I say then, they did not stumble so as to fall, did they? May it never be!But by their transgression salvation has come to the Gentiles, to make them jealous. (Ro 11:13 NKJV) For I speak to you Gentiles; inasmuch as I am an apostle to the Gentiles, I magnify ["doxazO" = glorify] my ministry. (Ro 11:14 NKJV) if ["pOs" = perhaps] I may provoke to jealousy those who are my flesh and save some of them. (Ro 11:15 NKJV) For if their being cast away is the reconciling of the world, what will their acceptance be but life from the dead? (Ro 11:16 NKJV) For if the firstfruit is holy, the lump is also holy; [Num 15:17-21] and if the root is holy, so are the branches. (Ro 11:17 NKJV) And if some of the branches were broken off, and you, being a wild olive tree, were grafted in among them, and with them became a [fellow] partaker of the root and fatness of the olive tree, (Ro 11:18 NKJV) do not boast against the branches. But if you do boast, remember that you do not support the root, but the root supports you; (Ro 11:19 NKJV) You will say then, 'Branches were broken off that I might be grafted in.' (Ro 11:20 NKJV) Well said. Because of unbelief they were broken off, and you stand by faith. Do not be haughty, but fear. (Ro 11:21 NKJV) For if God did not spare the natural branches, He may not spare you either.' (Ro 11:22 NKJV) Therefore consider the goodness and severity of God: on those who fell, severity; but toward you, goodness, if you continue in His goodness. Otherwise you also will be cut off. (Ro 11:23 NKJV) And they also, if they do not continue in unbelief, will be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again. (Ro 11:24 NKJV) For if you were cut out of the olive tree which is wild by nature, and were grafted contrary to nature into a cultivated olive tree, how much more will these, who are natural branches, be grafted into their own olive tree?" =

Consider the severity of God in His response to generations of Israel which fell into continued unbelief whereupon He cut them off from their unique temporal relationship with Him. On the other hand, consider the goodness of God which He expressed toward those groups of people who continued to be faithful to His goodness as He enabled them to continue in their temporal relationship with Him. Finally, consider how much more readily Israel will be grafted back into her unique relationship with the LORD when she no longer continues in unbelief.

Paul concludes his answer to a proposed objector who might arrogantly defend his boasting about his group comprised of people of the world, (Ro 11:15), i.e., predominately Gentile but also Jewish believers of this age replacing Israel as God's chosen people, by saying " 'Branches were broken off that I might be grafted in,' " (Ro 11:19b). Paul's focus is mainly on the Gentile component of that group of people, (Ro 11:13). And Paul says in Ro 11:22, "Therefore [= in conclusion] consider the goodness and severity of God: on those who fell [= referring to those generations of unfaithful Israel who were cast away from fellowship with the LORD]; but toward you [Gentile and Jewish faithful believers of Paul's age with a focus on the Gentile component], goodness, if you continue in His goodness." So if Gentile faithful believers, (as well as Jewish faithful believers), remain faithful to the goodness - the righteousness that characterizes God; then God will bless them all as a group with His goodness. Hence Paul reminds today's group of Gentile and Jewish faithful believers with an emphasis on addressing the Gentiles, that nothing is finalized, there is a need to remain faithful to God; "Otherwise," [Paul says], you [too] will be cut off," (Ro 11:22c). Furthermore, Paul indicates that Israel can at any time [and definitely will in the future as Paul has already stipulated, (cf Ro 11:16)] be grafted back into their unique fellowship with the LORD as His chosen people "if they do not continue in unbelief, for [Paul says] God is able to graft them in again," (Ro 11:23). Hence, Israel's being cut off from her unique temporal fellowship with God will last only as long as she remains unfaithful to the faith of Abraham in a Messiah-Savior Descendant through Isaac, Jesus Christ unto eternal life. Furthermore, Paul compares how much easier it will be for Israel, a natural branch to be grafted back in by God "into their own ['natural'] olive tree", i.e., into their own unique fellowship with Himself, than for the group of Gentile / Jewish believers - branches from a wild olive tree - branches which are not acclimated to the natural olive tree, i.e., that particular order of things that God designed for Israel.

1) [Compare Ro 11:2-5]:

(Ro 11:2 NKJV) "God has not cast away His people whom He foreknew. Or do you not know what the Scripture says of Elijah, how he pleads with God against Israel, saying,

(Ro 11:3 NKJV) 'LORD, they have killed Your prophets and torn down Your altars, and I alone am left, and they seek my life'?

(Ro 11:4 NKJV) But what does the divine response say to him? 'I have reserved for Myself seven thousand men who have not bowed the knee to Baal.' [1 Kgs 19:18]

(Ro 11:5 NKJV) Even so then, at this present time there [has been] a remnant according to the election of grace"

a) God's Foreknowledge = What God Knows With Certainty Will Come To Pass Because He Has Decreed It And Will Intervene To See To It That It Is Fulfilled, i.e., That Which Is According To The Election Of God Being Strictly By His Grace And As Fulfilled Through Him

So God has not cast away His people [Israel] whom He foreknew, hence decreed to be His people forever. He will intervene to see to it that a future generation of Israel becomes faithful believers and His people forever. In the same way, the group of Gentile-Jewish faithful believers of Paul's time receive God's temporal salvation and fellowship by His grace as His chosen representatives to the world of Himself and His grace salvation.

XII) [Ro 11:25-27]:

(Ro 11:25 NAS) "For I do not want you, brethren, to be uninformed of this mystery - so that you will not be wise in your own estimation - that a partial hardening has happened to Israel until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in;

(Ro 11:26 NAS) and so all Israel will be saved; just as it is written, 'The Deliverer will come from Zion, He will remove ungodliness from Jacob; [Isa 59:20-21; 27:9]

(Ro 11:27 NKJV) For this is My covenant with them, When I take away their sins. [Isa 59:21; Jer 31:33]' "

A) THE PHRASE "THE FULLNESS OF THE GENTILES HAS COME IN RO 11:25b REFERS TO THE NUMBER OF GENTILES WHOM GOD HAS CHOSEN TO BECOME FAITHFUL SERVANTS OF THE LORD AS PART OF A GROUP OF INDIVIDUALS FROM THE WORLD RECONCILED WITH GOD IN A UNIQUE TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIP WITH THE LORD TO REPRESENT HIM AND HIS GRACE GOSPEL TO THE WORLD, WHO WERE PREVIOUSLY DESCRIBED AS SAINTS, SET APART TO BELONG TO JESUS CHRIST

(Ro 1:5 NIV) "Through Whom we have received grace and apostleship to bring about the obedience of faith [in the gospel, vv. 1 & 2] among all the Gentiles for His name's sake. (Ro 1:6 NIV) And you also are among those who are called to belong to Jesus Christ." (Ro 7 NIV) To all in Rome who are loved by God and called to be saints: Grace and peace to you from God our Father and from the Lord Jesus Christ. (Ro 1:8 NIV) First, I thank my God through Jesus Christ for all of you, because your faith is being reported all over the world.... (Ro 8:29 NKJV) For whom He foreknew, He also predestined to be conformed to the image [of glory] of His Son, that He might be the firstborn among many brethren. (Ro 8:30 NKJV) Moreover whom He predestined, these He also called; whom He called, these He also justified; and whom He justified, these He also glorified. (Ro 11:2a NKJV) "God has not cast away His people whom He foreknew... (Ro 11:11 NAS) "I say then, they did not stumble so as to fall, did they? May it never be! But by their transgression salvation has come to the Gentiles, to make them jealous. (Ro 11:13 NKJV) For I speak to you Gentiles; inasmuch as I am an apostle to the Gentiles, I magnify ["doxazO" = glorify] my ministry. (Ro 11:14 NKJV) if ["pOs" = perhaps] I may provoke to jealousy those who are my flesh and save some of them. (Ro 11:15 NKJV) For if their being cast away is the reconciling of the world, what will their acceptance be but life from the dead? (Ro 11:16 NKJV) For if the firstfruit is holy, the lump is also holy; [Num 15:17-21] and if the root is holy, so are the branches. (Ro 11:17 NKJV) And if some of the branches were broken off, and you, being a wild olive tree, were grafted in among them, and with them became a [fellow] partaker of the root and fatness of the olive tree, (Ro 11:18 NKJV) do not boast against the branches. But if you do boast, remember that you do not support the root, but the root supports you; (Ro 11:19 NKJV) You will say then, 'Branches were broken off that I might be grafted in.' (Ro 11:20 NKJV) Well said. Because of unbelief they were broken off, and you stand by faith. Do not be haughty, but fear. (Ro 11:21 NKJV) For if God did not spare the natural branches, He may not spare you either.' (Ro 11:22 NKJV) Therefore consider the goodness and severity of God: on those who fell, severity; but toward you, goodness, if you continue in His goodness. Otherwise you also will be cut off. (Ro 11:23 NKJV) And they also, if they do not continue in unbelief, will be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again. (Ro 11:24 NKJV) For if you were cut out of the olive tree which is wild by nature, and were grafted contrary to nature into a cultivated olive tree, how much more will these, who are natural branches, be grafted into their own olive tree? (Ro 11:25 NAS) For I do not want you, brethren, to be uninformed of this mystery - so that you will not be wise in your own estimation - that a partial hardening has happened to Israel until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in." =

The phrase "The fullness of the Gentiles has come in," in Ro 11:25b NAS, refers to the number of Gentiles whom God has chosen to become faithful servants of the LORD as part of a group of individuals from the world reconciled to God, (Ro 11:15), in a unique temporal relationship with the LORD to represent Him and His grace gospel to the world; who were previously described as having believed in the gospel, (Ro 1:5), saints, set apart to belong to Jesus Christ, (Ro 1:5-7), having demonstrated their faithfulness to the LORD, (Ro 1:8). Note that trusting in Christ unto eternal life is a prerequisite to become a faithful servants of the LORD.

This reconciliation made available to the world which included the Gentiles was as a result of Israel's transgression and being cast out of her temporal relationship with the LORD. Paul had already implied that the Gentiles he addresses in his letter to the Roman believers, are a part of this group, (cf. Ro 11:30). He also indicated that the Gentiles he addresses in his letter have believed in the gospel and are part of a unique body of believers who belong to Jesus Christ, (Ro 1:5-7), to be conformed to the image of His Son, (cf Ro 8:29).

B) PAUL UNVEILS A MYSTERY TO GENTILE BELIEVERS TO DISPEL THE POSSIBILITY THAT THEY THINK THEY MERITED THEIR NEW FOUND RELATIONSHIP WITH THE LORD OVER ISRAEL BECAUSE GOD CAUSED A PARTIAL / TEMPORARY HARDENING OF ISRAEL UNTIL A PREDESTINED NUMBER OF GENTILES, WHO HAVE BEEN CALLED BY GOD, BECOME FAITHFUL BELIEVERS IN GOD AND HIS GRACE SALVATION AND COME INTO A UNIQUE TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIP WITH HIM AS PART OF A GROUP OF FAITHFUL SERVANTS FROM ALL PEOPLES OF THE WORLD, GENTILE AND JEW ALIKE

(Ro 8:29 NKJV) "For whom He foreknew, He also predestined to be conformed to the image [of glory] of His Son, that He might be the firstborn among many brethren. (Ro 8:30 NKJV) Moreover whom He predestined, these He also called; whom He called, these He also justified; and whom He justified, these He also glorified. (Ro 11:2a NKJV) "God has not cast away His people whom He foreknew... (Ro 11:11 NAS) "I say then, they did not stumble so as to fall, did they? May it never be!But by their transgression salvation has come to the Gentiles, to make them jealous. (Ro 11:13 NKJV) For I speak to you Gentiles; inasmuch as I am an apostle to the Gentiles, I magnify ["doxazO" = glorify] my ministry. (Ro 11:14 NKJV) if ["pOs" = perhaps] I may provoke to jealousy those who are my flesh and save some of them. (Ro 11:15 NKJV) For if their being cast away is the reconciling of the world, what will their acceptance be but life from the dead? (Ro 11:16 NKJV) For if the firstfruit is holy, the lump is also holy; [Num 15:17-21] and if the root is holy, so are the branches. (Ro 11:17 NKJV) And if some of the branches were broken off, and you, being a wild olive tree, were grafted in among them, and with them became a [fellow] partaker of the root and fatness of the olive tree, (Ro 11:18 NKJV) do not boast against the branches. But if you do boast, remember that you do not support the root, but the root supports you; (Ro 11:19 NKJV) You will say then, 'Branches were broken off that I might be grafted in.' (Ro 11:20 NKJV) Well said. Because of unbelief they were broken off, and you stand by faith. Do not be haughty, but fear. (Ro 11:21 NKJV) For if God did not spare the natural branches, He may not spare you either.' (Ro 11:22 NKJV) Therefore consider the goodness and severity of God: on those who fell, severity; but toward you, goodness, if you continue in His goodness. Otherwise you also will be cut off. (Ro 11:23 NKJV) And they also, if they do not continue in unbelief, will be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again. (Ro 11:24 NKJV) For if you were cut out of the olive tree which is wild by nature, and were grafted contrary to nature into a cultivated olive tree, how much more will these, who are natural branches, be grafted into their own olive tree? (Ro 11:25 NAS) For I do not want you, brethren, to be uninformed of this mystery - so that you will not be wise in your own estimation - that a partial hardening has happened to Israel until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in." =

(Ro 11:25 Greek) "ou ...gar thelO ......humas agnoein ... .........adelphoi

..............................."Not for .do I wish you ......to be ignorant, .brothers,

to ......mustErion .touto hina mE .Ete ...............par heautois .....phronimoi

of the mystery .....this, ..that .not .you may be ..in ...yourselves .wise

hoti pOrOsis .apo merous tO israEl ....gegonen ..........achris hou ....to

that hardness in ...part ...........to Israel has happened, until ..which .the

plErOma tOn ...ethnOn .eiselthE"

fulness .....of the nations .be come in"

Paul explains a mystery to his brethren. The Greek word "adelphoi" rendered "brethren" in the Ro 11:25 NAS in this context means fellow believers since Paul is a Jewish believer who is specifically addressing Gentile believers, (cf. Ro 11:13). The Greek word "mustErion" rendered "mystery" in the NAS, refers here to that which has been heretofore unknown. Paul explains this mystery to the group of faithful Gentile believers so that: "Hina mE Ete par heautois phronimoi," literally, [so] that not you may be in yourselves wise." The phrase is best rendered in the NAS, "So that you will not be wise in your own estimation [i.e., opinion]." So Paul's purpose in revealing a particular mystery to 'brethren' believers who are Gentiles is so that they might not otherwise arrive at an opinion they arrogantly think is wise, (11:25); namely that natural branches i.e., Israelites were broken off from their unique personal temporal relationship with the LORD so that a group of faithful Gentile believers "might be grafted in" because the Gentiles merited their new found temporal relationship with the LORD, (Ro 11:19). So Paul's previous answer in Ro 11:18-24 still stood: The Gentiles' new found relationship with the LORD was not merited by them. It was due exclusively to the grace of God, (11:18-24). Paul declares that the LORD is the supporting root, not any Israelite or Gentile branch, (11:18). If God did not spare the natural branches [of unfaithful Israel], He may not spare the Gentiles either, (11:21). If the Gentiles do not continue by the grace of God in His goodness, they will be cut off like the Israelites were, (11:22). Furthermore, as the Israelites do not continue in unbelief, they will be grafted back in again without any regard for the new found position of the Gentiles, (11:23).

The mystery, Paul explains, is that a partial hardening has happened to Israel until the fullness of the nations, i.e., until the predestined number of Gentiles, who have been called by God, become faithful believers in God and His grace salvation unto eternal life, (11:25). Note that this is not about salvation unto eternal life but temporal salvation, although salvation unto eternal life is a prerequisite. Furthermore, it cannot be said that the introduction of the availability of eternal salvation is in view because Gentiles have had eternal salvation available to them since shortly after Adam and Eve were expelled from the Garden.

*** EXCERPT FROM RO 8:29-30 ***

THOSE THAT GOD PREDESTINED TO BE CONFORMED TO THE RIGHTEOUS IMAGE OF HIS SON HE CALLED TO BELIEVE IN HIS SON'S ATONEMENT UNTO A DECLARATION OF RIGHTEOUSNESS AND ETERNAL REDEMPTION, AND THEN DECLARED THEM GLORIFIED

(Ro 5:1 NAS) "Therefore, having been justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, (Ro 5:2 NKJV) through Whom also we have access by faith into this grace in which we stand, and rejoice in [sure] hope of the glory of God (Ro 6:5 NIV) For if [since] we [believers] have become united with Him in the likeness of His death, certainly we shall be also in the likeness of His resurrection. (Ro 8:19 NKJV) For the earnest expectation of the creation eagerly waits for the revealing of the sons of God [unto glory]. (Ro 8:20 ASV) For the creation was subjected to vanity, not of its own will, but by reason of Him who subjected it, in [the sure] hope (Ro 8:21 ASV) that the creation itself also shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the liberty of the glory of the children of God. (Ro 8:28 YLT) And we have known that to those loving God all things do work together for [godly] good, to those who are called according to [His] purpose. (Ro 8:29 NKJV) For whom He foreknew, He also predestined to be conformed to the image [of glory] of His Son, that He might be the firstborn among many brethren. (Ro 8:30 NKJV) Moreover whom He predestined, these He also called; whom He called, these He also justified; and whom He justified, these He also glorified." =

(Ro 8:30 Greek) "hous ....de ..proOrisen .........toutous kai ..ekalesen

..........................."Whom .but He predestined .these ...also He called

kai hous ...ekalesen toutous kai ..edikaiOsen .hous ..de ...edikaiOsen

and whom He called these ...also He justified; whom .but .He justified,

toutous .kai ..edoxasen"

these ....also .He glorified"

Those that God predestined to be conformed to the righteous image of His Son He called to believe in His Son's atonement unto a declaration of righteousness and eternal redemption, and then declared them glorified.

The Greek word "ekalesen" rendered "He called" means called forth. In the case of verse 8:30, individuals were called forth by God to choose of their own volition to believe in His Son to be justified and glorified. And this occurred precisely in accordance with God's predestination - His decree. So those that God predestined to be conformed to the image of His Son, (Ro 8:29), i.e., to be conformed to the righteousness of God in their experience; He called to believe in His Son's atonement unto justification, (being declared to have a righteousness from God which they all did of their own volition, (cf. Ro 3:21-24), resulting in eternal redemption and eternal life. This implies that God foreknew what would occur because He predetermined it by decree. Yet all was to be in accordance with the volition of the individual.

Thus all who are predestined are to be called. They are called by God's sovereign decree which is part of the process of predestinating something. And since it is a sovereign God Who does the predestinating, all who are called inevitably choose to believe in Jesus Christ of their own volition. Hence all who are called are justified, i.e., declared righteous. And those whom God justified, it is stipulated in the final phrase of verse 8:30, God glorified. The verb "glorified"is in the aorist tense referring to an action that has already been completed. The glorification of the believer has already been indicated in Romans, (cf. Ro 3:21-24; 5:1-2), as a sure thing in the future."

*** END OF EXCERPT FROM RO 8:29-30 ***

So God continues to harden generations of Israelites who persist in their rejection of being faithful to Him and His grace salvation. All but the remnants of Israelites throughout history have been hardened and cast away from their unique personal, temporal relationship with the LORD. This hardening resulted in generations of Israelites down to this very day being sealed in their own unwillfulness to objectively see, hear and believe in God and His grace salvation causing God to cast them away from fellowship with Him unto His wrathful retribution.

This is the natural state of man. Without God's intervention, no group of people would choose to believe in and be faithful to the LORD, especially relative to His grace salvation through His Son, the Messiah-Savior Descendant of Abraham, through Isaac unto eternal life. Note that in the time of Paul's ministry to the Gentiles and until the end of the age, all individuals of the world, Gentiles and Jews alike, who become faithful servants of God become members of a new found group comprised of Gentiles and Jews who are given by God a unique temporal personal fellowship with Him as His chosen people to represent Him and His grace salvation to the world, (Ro 11:15).

Paul had already implied that the Gentiles he addresses in his letter to the Roman believers, are a part of this group, (cf. Ro 11:30). He also indicated that the Gentiles he addresses in his letter have believed in the gospel and are part of a unique body of believers who belong to Jesus Christ, (Ro 1:5-7), to be conformed to the image of His Son, (Ro 8:29).

*** EXCERPTS FROM ROMANS 11:7-10 ***

GOD HARDENS THOSE WHO PERSIST IN THEIR REJECTION OF HIM AND HIS GRACE SALVATION. IN THE CASE OF RO 11:10 / PS 69:22-23, THIS HARDENING RESULTED IN GENERATIONS OF ISRAELITES, DOWN TO THIS VERY DAY, BEING SEALED IN THEIR OWN UNWILLFULNESS TO OBJECTIVELY SEE, HEAR AND BELIEVE IN GOD AND HIS GRACE SALVATION CAUSING GOD TO CAST THEM AWAY FROM FELLOWSHIP WITH HIM UNTO HIS WRATHFUL RETRIBUTION UPON THOSE GENERATIONS FOREVER

(Ro 1:18 NIV) "The wrath of God is revealed [to men] from heaven against all the godlessness and wickedness of men who suppress the truth by their wickedness... (Ro 1:21 NIV) For although they knew God, they neither glorified Him as God nor gave thanks to Him, but their thinking became futile and their foolish hearts were darkened... (Ro 1:23 NIV) and exchanged the glory of the immortal God for images made to look like mortal man and birds and animals and reptiles. (Ro 1:24 NIV) Therefore God gave them over in the sinful desires of their hearts to sexual impurity for the degrading of their bodies with one another. (Ro 9:17 NKJV) For the Scripture says to the Pharaoh, 'For this very purpose I have raised you up, that I may show My power in you, and that My name may be declared in all the earth. (Ro 9:18 NKJV) Therefore He has mercy on whom He wills, and whom He wills He hardens. (Ro 11:7 NAS) What then? What Israel is seeking, it has not obtained, but those who were chosen obtained it, and the rest were hardened; (Ro 11:8 NAS) Just as it is written, 'God gave them a spirit of stupor, eyes to see not and ears to hear not, down to this very day. [Dt 29:4, Isa 29:10] (Ro 11:9 NAS) And David says, 'Let their table become a snare and a trap, and a stumbling block and a retribution to them. (Ro 11:10 NAS) Let their eyes be darkened to see not, and bend their backs forever.' [Ps 69:22-23]" =

God hardens those who persist in their rejection of Him and His grace salvation. In the case of Ro 11:10 / Ps 69:22-23, this hardening resulted in generations of Israelites, down to this very day, being sealed in their own unwillfulness to objectively see, hear and believe in God and His grace salvation causing God to cast them away from fellowship with Him unto His wrathful retribution upon those generations forever.

Notice that the word "hardened" in Ro 11:7 NAS: "What then? What Israel is seeking, it has not obtained, but those who were chosen obtained it, and the rest were hardened" is clarified in the next three verses:

(Ro 11:8 NAS) Just as it is written, 'God gave them a spirit of stupor, eyes to see not and ears to hear not, down to this very day. [Dt 29:4, Isa 29:10] (Ro 11:9 NAS) And David says, 'Let their table become a snare and a trap, and a stumbling block and a retribution to them. (Ro 11:10 NAS) Let their eyes be darkened to see not, and bend their backs forever.' [Ps 69:22-23]."

God sovereignly saw to it that Israelites who were not chosen and in response to their continued willful ignorance and rejection of God and His grace provision of His righteousness unto eternal life through a moment of faith alone in Christ alone, had a spirit of stupor = a state of great diminution or suspension of mental capacity causing them to no longer have the ability to accept information which explains Who God is and how one can secure a righteousness from God unto eternal life. This spirit of stupor is to be imposed upon all the non-elect throughout history, (cf. Ro 1:23-24; 9:18).

This is corroborated in verses 9 & 10:

(Ro 11:9 NAS) "And David says, 'Let their table become a snare and a trap, and a stumbling block and a retribution to them. (Ro 11:10 NAS) Let their eyes be darkened to see not, and bend their backs forever.' " [Ps 69:22-23].

*** END OF EXCERPTS FROM RO 11:7-10 ***

C) GOD WILL CONTINUE TO PARTIALLY HARDEN, I.E., HARDEN CERTAIN BUT NOT ALL GENERATIONS OF ISRAEL IN THEIR UNBELIEF UNTIL A PREDESTINED NUMBER OF GENTILES, WHO HAVE BEEN CALLED BY GOD, BECOME FAITHFUL SERVANTS OF THE LORD AT WHICH TIME ISRAEL'S DELIVERER / REDEEMER FROM ZION WILL COME TO REMOVE HER UNGODLINESS AND RESTORE ISRAEL - A FUTURE GENERATION - TO BEING FAITHFUL SERVANTS OF THE LORD FOREVER. SO THAT ALL OF THAT GENERATION OF ISRAEL WILL BE ETERNALLY AND TEMPORALLY SAVED

(Ro 11:2a NKJV) "God has not cast away His people whom He foreknew... (Ro 11:11 NAS) "I say then, they did not stumble so as to fall, did they? May it never be! But by their transgression salvation has come to the Gentiles, to make them jealous. (Ro 11:13 NKJV) For I speak to you Gentiles; inasmuch as I am an apostle to the Gentiles, I magnify ["doxazO" = glorify] my ministry. (Ro 11:14 NKJV) if ["pOs" = perhaps] I may provoke to jealousy those who are my flesh and save some of them. (Ro 11:15 NKJV) For if their being cast away is the reconciling of the world, what will their acceptance be but life from the dead? (Ro 11:16 NKJV) For if the firstfruit is holy, the lump is also holy; [Num 15:17-21] and if the root is holy, so are the branches. (Ro 11:17 NKJV) And if some of the branches were broken off, and you, being a wild olive tree, were grafted in among them, and with them became a [fellow] partaker of the root and fatness of the olive tree, (Ro 11:18 NKJV) do not boast against the branches. But if you do boast, remember that you do not support the root, but the root supports you; (Ro 11:19 NKJV) You will say then, 'Branches were broken off that I might be grafted in.' (Ro 11:20 NKJV) Well said. Because of unbelief they were broken off, and you stand by faith. Do not be haughty, but fear. (Ro 11:21 NKJV) For if God did not spare the natural branches, He may not spare you either.' (Ro 11:22 NKJV) Therefore consider the goodness and severity of God: on those who fell, severity; but toward you, goodness, if you continue in His goodness. Otherwise you also will be cut off. (Ro 11:23 NKJV) And they also, if they do not continue in unbelief, will be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again. (Ro 11:24 NKJV) For if you were cut out of the olive tree which is wild by nature, and were grafted contrary to nature into a cultivated olive tree, how much more will these, who are natural branches, be grafted into their own olive tree? (Ro 11:25 NAS) For I do not want you, brethren, to be uninformed of this mystery - so that you will not be wise in your own estimation - that a partial hardening has happened to Israel until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in (Ro 11:26 NAS) and so all Israel will be saved; just as it is written, 'The Deliverer will come from Zion, He will remove ungodliness from Jacob;' [Isa 59:20-21; 27:9; Jer 31:34]" =

Paul indicates in Ro 11:25 by the phrase "pOrOsis apo merous tO IsraEl gegonen" rendered "a partial hardening has happened to Israel" in the NAS that such a hardening is not for all generations of Israel, hence partial. He stipulates in Ro 11:25 that God caused a partial / temporary hardening of Israel until a predestined number of Gentiles, who have been called by God, become faithful believers in God and His grace salvation and come into their own unique temporal relationship with the LORD; whereupon "All [of a future generation of] Israel will be saved," i.e., reconciled once more in her own unique personal relationship with the LORD as faithful servants to represent Him and His grace salvation to the whole world forever as God's chosen people, (cf. Ro 11:26). Note that a prerequisite of becoming faithful servants of the LORD is to be saved unto eternal life through a moment of faith alone in Christ alone. The timing of this great reconciliation is when, as Paul quotes in Ro 11:26 from Isa 59:20-21 from the Septuagint translation, "The Deliverer will come from Zion [Israel], He will remove ungodliness from Jacob."

D) THE FUTURE SALVATION / RECONCILIATION OF ISRAEL WITH THE LORD WILL OCCUR WHEN THE DELIVERER / REDEEMER, BOTH GOD AND JEWISH MESSIAH MAN WILL FULFILL HIS COVENANT WITH ISRAEL: TO TAKE AWAY HER SINS AND REMOVE HER UNGODLINESS SO THAT SHE WILL BECOME A NATION OF FAITHFUL SERVANTS TO THE LORD TO REPRESENT HIM AND HIS GRACE SALVATION TO THE WORLD FOREVER

(Ro 11:2a NKJV) "God has not cast away His people whom He foreknew... (Ro 11:11 NAS) "I say then, they did not stumble so as to fall, did they? May it never be! But by their transgression salvation has come to the Gentiles, to make them jealous. (Ro 11:14 NKJV) if ["pOs" = perhaps] I may provoke to jealousy those who are my flesh and save some of them. (Ro 11:15 NKJV) For if their being cast away is the reconciling of the world, what will their acceptance be but life from the dead? (Ro 11:23 NKJV) And they also, if they do not continue in unbelief, will be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again. (Ro 11:24 NKJV) For if you were cut out of the olive tree which is wild by nature, and were grafted contrary to nature into a cultivated olive tree, how much more will these, who are natural branches, be grafted into their own olive tree? (Ro 11:25 NAS) For I do not want you, brethren, to be uninformed of this mystery - so that you will not be wise in your own estimation - that a partial hardening has happened to Israel until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in. (Ro 11:26 NAS) and so all Israel will be saved; just as it is written, 'The Deliverer will come from Zion, He will remove ungodliness from Jacob; [Isa 59:20; 27:9] (Ro 11:27 NKJV) For this is My covenant with them, When I take away their sins. [Isa 59:21; Jer 31:33]' " =

Author Paul has repeatedly stipulated, in the book of Romans, that Israel has not been permanently and completely cast away from her unique, personal, temporal relationship with the LORD, (cf Ro 11:2a, 11, 15). God's preservation (temporal salvation) of faithful remnants of Israelites throughout the ages will make a future generation of Israelites possible. And that future generation will choose to reconcile with the LORD via a moment of faith alone in Jesus Christ alone, the Messiah-Savior Descendant of Abraham and then becoming faithful servants of God. And so future Israel will return to her former status of her unique, personal, temporal relationship with the LORD as His chosen people to represent Him and His grace salvation to the world. This time forever, (Ro 11:5; Isa 65:8-9; 15-18).

The phrase in Ro 11:26 NAS, "And so all Israel will be saved" refers to the temporal salvation / reconciliation of a future generation of Israel with the LORD - a restoration of her former unique temporal relationship with the LORD as His chosen people - a restoration of her former unique temporal relationship with the LORD as His chosen people, (Ro 11:5 and Isa 65. ). Note that a prerequisite of this temporal reconciliation is for every individual of the generation to express a moment of faith alone in Christ alone unto eternal life. In Ro 11:26, Paul further establishes that this temporal reconciliation will occur in the future when the "Deliverer will come from Zion." In verse 11:26, Paul quotes from the Septuagint (Greek) version of Isa 59:20 which has the Greek word, "ho rhuomenos", (present nominative participle, literally 'the delivering one' or the 'deliverer'), rendered "Deliverer" in the NAS. The Hebrew text of Isa 59:20 has the Hebrew word transliterated "ga' al" rendered "Redeemer" in the NKJV. Evidently the Deliverer / Redeemer will come from Zion, a term identified with Jerusalem and Israel signifying that He, their Messiah, will be a Jewish Man. The word rendered "Redeemer" in Isa 59:20 NKJV means the same thing as the word rendered "Deliverer" in the Septuagint Greek translation of the Hebrew text: One Who delivers the nation Israel from her sins, i.e., her Redeemer. The last part of verse 11:26 specifically stipulates "He will remove ungodliness from Jacob [= Israel]." Since only God can remove ungodliness, for man is neither sufficiently powerful nor holy, then the Deliverer / Redeemer is God, as well as a Israel's Jewish Messiah, a man. Furthermore, Ro 11:27 stipulates that the Deliverer / Redeemer is the One Who has made a covenant with Israel to take away her sins, corroborating that He is God.

1) [Compare Isa 59:1-21]:

(Isa 59:1 NKJV) "Behold, the LORD's hand is not shortened, That it cannot save; Nor His ear heavy, That it cannot hear.

[Note that a temporal salvation, more specifically God's deliverance of Israel from oppression of foreign invaders and captors, is in view]

(Isa 59:2 NKJV) But your [Israel's] iniquities have separated you from your God; And your sins have hidden His face from you, So that He will not hear.

[But temporal salvation would not be forthcoming to generations of ancient Israel for Isaiah declares that "Israel's iniquities have separated [her] from [her] God. And [her] sins have hidden His face from [her], so that He will not hear [her]." Evidently, God will remove ungodliness from Jacob [= Israel, cf. Isa 59:21]

(Isa 59:3 NKJV) For your hands are defiled with blood, And your fingers with iniquity; Your lips have spoken lies, Your tongue has muttered perversity.

(Isa 59:4 NKJV) No one calls for justice, Nor does any plead for truth. They trust in empty words and speak lies; They conceive evil and bring forth iniquity.

(Isa 59:5 NKJV) They hatch vipers' eggs and weave the spider's web; He who eats of their eggs dies, And from that which is crushed a viper breaks out.

(Isa 59:6 NKJV) Their webs will not become garments, Nor will they cover themselves with their works; Their works are works of iniquity, And the act of violence is in their hands.

(Isa 59:7 NKJV) Their feet run to evil, And they make haste to shed innocent blood; Their thoughts are thoughts of iniquity; Wasting and destruction are in their paths.

(Isa 59:8 NKJV) The way of peace they have not known, And there is no justice in their ways; They have made themselves crooked paths; Whoever takes that way shall not know peace. Sin Confessed

(Isa 59:9 NKJV) Therefore justice is far from us, Nor does righteousness overtake us; We look for light, but there is darkness! For brightness, but we walk in blackness!

(Isa 59:10 NKJV) We grope for the wall like the blind, And we grope as if we had no eyes; We stumble at noonday as at twilight; We are as dead men in desolate places.

(Isa 59:11 NKJV) We all growl like bears, And moan sadly like doves; We look for justice, but there is none; For salvation, but it is far from us.

(Isa 59:12 NKJV) For our transgressions are multiplied before You, And our sins testify against us; For our transgressions are with us, And as for our iniquities, we know them:

(Isa 59:13 NKJV) In transgressing and lying against the LORD, And departing from our God, Speaking oppression and revolt, Conceiving and uttering from the heart words of falsehood.

(Isa 59:14 NKJV) Justice is turned back, And righteousness stands afar off; For truth is fallen in the street, And equity cannot enter.

(Isa 59:15 NKJV) So truth fails, And he who departs from evil makes himself a prey. Then the LORD saw it, and it displeased Him That there was no justice.

(Isa 59:16 NKJV) He saw that there was no man, And wondered that there was no intercessor; Therefore His own arm brought salvation for Him; And His own righteousness, it sustained Him.

(Isa 59:17 NKJV) For He put on righteousness as a breastplate, And a helmet of salvation on His head; He put on the garments of vengeance for clothing, And was clad with zeal as a cloak.

(Isa 59:18 NKJV) According to their deeds, accordingly He will repay, Fury to His adversaries, Recompense to His enemies; The coastlands He will fully repay.

(Isa 59:19 NKJV) So shall they fear The name of the LORD from the west, And His glory from the rising of the sun; When the enemy comes in like a flood, The Spirit of the LORD will lift up a standard against him.

(Isa 59:20 NKJV) 'The Redeemer ['Deliverer', Septuagint] will come to Zion, And to those who turn from transgression in Jacob,' Says the LORD.

(Isa 59:21 NKJV) 'As for Me,' says the LORD, 'this is My covenant with them: My Spirit who is upon you, and My words which I have put in your mouth, shall not depart from your mouth, nor from the mouth of your descendants, nor from the mouth of your descendants' descendants,' says the LORD, 'from this time and forevermore.' "

[Notice that the Redeemer / Deliverer will come to Zion - to Israel - to those who turn from transgression in Jacob [Israel]. This implies that all of that future generation of Israel have turned from transgression, i.e., they have accepted via a moment of faith in Jesus Christ as their Redeemer to Deliver them from their sins at which time He comes to Redeem them and enable them to live according to the Spirit of God upon them in accordance with the words of God which He has put in their mouths forever]

[BKC, OT, p. 1115]:

"Because of the depravity of the nation, national salvation and prosperity would have to come from God's initiative. In chapter 59 the LORD again spoke of the people's sins and His provision of salvation because of the Abrahamic Covenant.

(1) The LORD's ability to save. 59:1 The prophet reminded the nation that the LORD could save them in spite of their difficult circumstances. He is powerful enough - His arm (cf. v. 16...) is not ... short. And He is caring enough - He is not dull of hearing. This implies that Israel simply needed to call out to God and He would come to her rescue.

(2) Israel's spiritual depravity (59:2-15a). 59:2-8. However, though the LORD could save them, the nation's sins had separated them from the LORD... Though He could hear them (Isa 59:1) He chose not to (v. 2). Sin prevents prayer from being answered... Those sins included murder, lying, injustice (cf. Isa 59:9, 11, 14-15), and planning evil (vv. 3-4). Their actions were like those of deadly poisonous snakes (vipers and an adder), for they were harming each other. Just as people can see through cobwebs, which therefore are inappropriate for clothing (v. 6), so God could see through the evil deeds of these people and judge them. In a hurry to do evil things, they were bringing ruin to others (v. 7) and were constantly traveling down evil paths. As a result they knew no peace (cf. 48:22; 57:20-21.

59:9-15a. Here the prophet, using first-person plural pronouns (us... we ... our), identified with the people (cf. 6:5). Israel was so corrupt spiritually, without justice (cf. 59:4, 11, 14-15) and righteousness, that it was as if they were in darkness and were blind and dead. As a result, the oppressed were angry like growling bears and moaned like doves. They wanted justice and help but found none (v. 11). Isaiah confessed that the people were noted for their many... sins, deliberate rebellion (cf. 1:5; 58:1) against the LORD, lying, injustice, and dishonesty (59:12-15a).

(3) The LORD's promise to help Israel (59:15b-21). 59:15b-16a. Because of her depraved condition (vv. 2-15a), no one but the LORD could save the nation. Being displeased with her injustice (cf. vv. 4, 9, 11, 14), He realized there was no one to intercede on her behalf. Isaiah was not saying that the LORD did not want to get involved, but that Israel was totally incapable of helping herself. Only God could help her. This is true of salvation in any era. No one can save himself. Only God can forgive sin and change a person's heart.

59:16b-20. In His power (by His... arm; cf. v. 1...) God provided salvation, both spiritual and physical, for him (i.e., for Israel personified as a man). Like a warrior God goes forth to fight for His people. Righeousness is His breastplate and salvation is His helmet... God's other garments are vengeance and zeal. This verse (Isa 59:17) means that God supplies righteousness and salvation (cf. v. 16) for His people as He zealously executes vengeance on His enemies (v. 18). Because of this, people everywhere will acknowledge His glory, overpowering majesty, and strength (like a pent-up flood let loose). When the LORD executes judgment on His enemies (at Christ's Second Coming), the Messiah will go to Zion. He will be the Redeemer... of those Israelites who turn to Him in repentance (59:20). Showing their future hope, the nation was being encouraged to repent.

59:21. When the Messiah returns in judgment (v. 18), He will inaugurate His covenant ... pouring His Spirit on believing Israelites... and instilling His words within them..."

2) [Compare Isa 26:21-27:9]:

(Isa 26:21 NIV) "See, the LORD is coming out of His dwelling to punish the people of the earth for their sins. The earth will disclose the blood shed upon her; she will conceal her slain no longer.

(Isa 27:1 NKJV) In that day the LORD with His severe sword, great and strong, Will punish Leviathan the fleeing serpent, Leviathan that twisted serpent; And He will slay the reptile that is in the sea.

(Isa 27:2 NKJV) In that day sing to her, 'A vineyard of red wine!

(Isa 27:3 NKJV) I, the LORD, keep it, I water it every moment; Lest any hurt it, I keep it night and day.

(Isa 27:4 NKJV) Fury is not in Me. Who would set briers and thorns Against Me in battle? I would go through them, I would burn them together.

(Isa 27:5 NKJV) Or let him take hold of My strength, That he may make peace with Me; And he shall make peace with Me.

(Isa 27:6 NKJV) Those who come He shall cause to take root in Jacob; Israel shall blossom and bud, And fill the face of the world with fruit.

[Note that what is being portrayed is the time of the coming of the LORD from heaven to punish the people of the earth for their sins, (Isa 26:21). At that time the kingdoms of Jacob (Israel's Southern Kingdom, Judah), and Israel, (Israel's Northern Kingdom), will evidently "Take root... bud and blossom and fill all the world with fruit," (Isa 27:6)]

(Isa 27:7 NKJV) Has He struck Israel as He struck those who struck him? Or has He been slain according to the slaughter of those who were slain by Him?

(Isa 27:8 NKJV) In measure, by sending it away, You contended with it. He removes it by His rough wind In the day of the east wind.

(Isa 27:9 NKJV) Therefore by this the iniquity of Jacob will be covered; And this is all the fruit of taking away his sin: When he makes all the stones of the altar Like chalkstones that are beaten to dust, Wooden images and incense altars shall not stand.' "

[At the time of the LORD's punishing sin on the earth with temporal destruction, the iniquity of Jacob, i.e., the sins of all Israelites will be covered - be removed]

3) [Compare Jer 31:1-34]:

(Jer 31:1 NKJV) ''' "At the same time," says the LORD, "I will be the God of all the families of Israel, and they shall be My people."

(Jer 31:2 NKJV) Thus says the LORD: "The people who survived the sword Found grace in the wilderness- Israel, when I went to give him rest."

(Jer 31:3 NKJV) The LORD has appeared of old to me, saying: "Yes, I have loved you with an everlasting love; Therefore with lovingkindness I have drawn you.

(Jer 31:4 NKJV) Again I will build you, and you shall be rebuilt, O virgin of Israel! You shall again be adorned with your tambourines, And shall go forth in the dances of those who rejoice.

(Jer 31:5 NKJV) You shall yet plant vines on the mountains of Samaria; The planters shall plant and eat them as ordinary food.

(Jer 31:6 NKJV) For there shall be a day When the watchmen will cry on Mount Ephraim, "Arise, and let us go up to Zion, To the LORD our God."

[BKC, OT, p. 1169]:

"The national restoration of Israel (31:2-22)...

31:2-6. God assured the Northern Kingdom that He will restore her. Those who had survived the sword (probably Assyria's destruction of Israel) will yet experience God's favor as He leads them into the desert for their new Exodus (cf. 16:14-15...). The turmoil of their long years of exile will cease when God intervenes to give rest to the nation Israel.

The motivation for God's future restoration of the nation is His everlasting love ('ahabh) which He will freely bestow on His people.. and His loving-kindness (hesed...). God had made a covenant with Abraham... and another covenant with the nation Israel... and He vowed to stay faithful to His commitments. Israel could look forward to experiencing God's blessing.

Jeremiah drew three word-pictures that will characterize God's restoration of Israel. First, it will be a time of renewed joy. Israel will once again take up her tambournines and dance with the joyful. The times of sadness will cease when the Captivity ends... Second, it will be a time of peace and prosperity as the people plant their vineyards on the hills of Samaria. Free from external threats, they will be able to enjoy their fruit... Third, it will be a time of renewed commitment to the LORD. The watchmen stationed on the hills of Ephraim will summon the people to go up to Zion to worship the LORD.]

(Jer 31:7 NKJV) For thus says the LORD: "Sing with gladness for Jacob, And shout among the chief of the nations; Proclaim, give praise, and say, " O LORD, save Your people, The remnant of Israel!"

(Jer 31:8 NKJV) Behold, I will bring them from the north country, And gather them from the ends of the earth, Among them the blind and the lame, The woman with child And the one who labors with child, together; A great throng shall return there.

(Jer 31:9 NKJV) They shall come with weeping, And with supplications I will lead them. I will cause them to walk by the rivers of waters, In a straight way in which they shall not stumble; For I am a Father to Israel, And Ephraim is My firstborn.

[BKC, cont.]:

"31:7-9. God's restoration will be accompanied by songs of joy and the praises of the people for His deliverance. No one will be too far away for the LORD to restore him; God will gather His people from the ends of the earth. Also no one will be too insignificant for the LORD to deliver him; God will restore the blind and the lame along with expectant mothers. As God leads these people on their new Exodus into Israel He will provide for their every need. He will guide the people beside streams of water ... and they will travel on a level path so they will not stumble. God will do all this because of His special relationship to Israel. He is Israel's father ... and Ephraim (emphasizing the Northern tribes of Israel)... Jeremiah used the image of a father / son relationship to show God's deep love for His people...."]

(Jer 31:10 NKJV) "Hear the word of the LORD, O nations, And declare it in the isles afar off, and say, "He who scattered Israel will gather him, And keep him as a shepherd does his flock."

(Jer 31:11 NKJV) For the LORD has redeemed Jacob, And ransomed him from the hand of one stronger than he.

(Jer 31:12 NKJV) Therefore they shall come and sing in the height of Zion, Streaming to the goodness of the LORD - For wheat and new wine and oil, For the young of the flock and the herd; Their souls shall be like a well-watered garden, And they shall sorrow no more at all.

(Jer 31:13 NKJV) "Then shall the virgin rejoice in the dance, And the young men and the old, together; For I will turn their mourning to joy, Will comfort them, And make them rejoice rather than sorrow.

(Jer 31:14 NKJV) I will satiate the soul of the priests with abundance, And My people shall be satisfied with My goodness," says the LORD.

[BKC, cont.]

["31:10-14. Israel's regathering (like a flock of sheep...) will be accompanied by a renewal of God's material blessings. Those who will be restored to the land will rejoice in the bounty of crops (cf. Jer 31:5) and flocks. Jeremiah compared Israel's material wealth to a well-watered garden that was producing in abundance ... This outpouring of blessing will produce gladness ... comfort, and joy (cf. Jer 31:4, 7)."]

(Jer 31:15 NKJV) Thus says the LORD: "A voice was heard in Ramah, Lamentation and bitter weeping, Rachel weeping for her children, Refusing to be comforted for her children, Because they are no more."

(Jer 31:16 NKJV) Thus says the LORD: "Refrain your voice from weeping, And your eyes from tears; For your work shall be rewarded, says the LORD, And they shall come back from the land of the enemy.

(Jer 31:17 NKJV) There is hope in your future, says the LORD, That your children shall come back to their own border.

(Jer 31:18 NKJV) "I have surely heard Ephraim bemoaning himself: "You have chastised me, and I was chastised, Like an untrained bull; Restore me, and I will return, For You are the LORD my God.

(Jer 31:19 NKJV) Surely, after my turning, I repented; And after I was instructed, I struck myself on the thigh; I was ashamed, yes, even humiliated, Because I bore the reproach of my youth."

(Jer 31:20 NKJV) Is Ephraim My dear son? Is he a pleasant child? For though I spoke against him, I earnestly remember him still; Therefore My heart yearns for him; I will surely have mercy on him, says the LORD.

[BKC, cont.]:

["31:15-20. The nation's future hope will contrast sharply with her present misery. The cry from Ramah was one of mourning and great weeping as Jeremiah pictured Rachel weeping for her children. To what was Jeremiah referring? Ramah was a town five miles north of Jerusalem, and Rachel was Joseph and Benjamin's mother. Joseph was the father of Ephraim and Manasseh, who became the two major tribes in the Northern Kingdom of Israel. Thus Jeremiah was picturing the weeping of the women of the Northern Kingdom as they watched their children being carried into exile in 722 B.C. However, Jeremiah could also have had the 586 B.C. deportation of Judah in view because Ramah was the staging point for Nebuchadnezzar's deportation (cf. 40:1). In all likelihood these women were crying because they would never see their children again. But as the women of Israel and Judah wept for their exiled children, God offered a word of comfort. There was hope for their future because their children would return to their own land. God would bring about a restoration...

Jeremiah ended this section by recording Israel's cry of contrition that she will recite when she returns to the land. Though she had strayed (Jer 31:19) she will repent. When she returns to her God she will be ashamed and humiliated because of her sin. God in turn will express His great compassion for the wayward but returning nation...."]

(Jer 31:21 NKJV) "Set up signposts, Make landmarks; Set your heart toward the highway, The way in which you went. Turn back, O virgin of Israel, Turn back to these your cities.

(Jer 31:22 NKJV) How long will you gad about, O you backsliding daughter? For the LORD has created a new thing in the earth - A woman shall encompass a man."

[31:21-22. God called on the captives to set up road signs and guideposts as they traveled to Babylon and to remember the road they would take. They would need this information during His promised restoration so they could return to their towns. This time of promised restoration will be so remarkable that it will be as if God will create a new thing on earth. That new event is described proverbially by the clause, a woman will surround a man.... The woman here is Israel (v. 21). She had been unfaithful, but in the future she will finally seek out her God and ask to be united with Him.]

(Jer 31:23 NKJV) Thus says the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel: "They shall again use this speech in the land of Judah and in its cities, when I bring back their captivity: 'The LORD bless you, O home of justice, and mountain of holiness!

(Jer 31:24 NKJV) And there shall dwell in Judah itself, and in all its cities together, farmers and those going out with flocks.

(Jer 31:25 NKJV) For I have satiated the weary soul, and I have replenished every sorrowful soul.'

(Jer 31:26 NKJV) After this I awoke and looked around, and my sleep was sweet to me.

[BKC, cont.]

["2) The national restoration of Judah.

31:23-26. When God will restore the nation of Israel, He will also reverse the fortunes of Judah. Those living in the land of Judah will again invoke a blessing on Jerusalem (God's righteous dwelling) and the temple area (the sacred mountain... ). The land itself will be repopulated, and God will meet every need."]

(Jer 31:27 NKJV) "Behold, the days are coming," says the LORD, "that I will sow the house of Israel and the house of Judah with the seed of man and the seed of beast.

(Jer 31:28 NKJV) And it shall come to pass, that as I have watched over them to pluck up, to break down, to throw down, to destroy, and to afflict, so I will watch over them to build and to plant, says the LORD.

(Jer 31:29 NKJV) In those days they shall say no more: 'The fathers have eaten sour grapes, And the children's teeth are set on edge.'

(Jer 31:30 NKJV) But every one shall die for his own iniquity; every man who eats the sour grapes, his teeth shall be set on edge.

[BKC, cont.]

[3) The establishment of a new relationship with Israel and Judah (31:27-40).

(The rest of the chapter focuses on the new relationship God will establish with His people. Jeremiah used the same Hebrew phrase to introduce the three sections that form this unit. Each section begins with hinnEh yAmm bA'm (lit., 'Behold, days are coming.' vv. 27, 31, 38...) In the third occurence the word for 'coming' was omitted, but it is clear that Jeremiah intended for the reader to supply it. Jeremiah used this phrase to introduce three aspects of the LORD's new relationship with His people.

31:27-30. God vowed to provide a new beginning for His covenant people. In this new age God will plant the nations of Israel and Judah with the offspring of men and animals. Jeremiah again uses agricultural and architectural mataphors to illustrate God's work... God had judged Judah for her sin, but He will reverse that judgment.

"God's work for the nation will silence a proverb that was common in Jeremiah's day.. Those facing judgment in Jeremiah's day felt they were being unfairly punished by God for their ancestors' sins. Though the fathers had eaten sour grapes, it was the children who experienced the effects of having their teeth... set on edge. This proverb was false because it implied that God was unrighteous. God's justice will guarantee that each guilty person will die for his own sin"]

(Jer 31:31 NKJV) "Behold, the days are coming," says the LORD, "when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah -

(Jer 31:32 NKJV) not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt, My covenant which they broke, though I was a husband to them," says the LORD.

(Jer 31:33 NKJV) "But this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days," says the LORD: "I will put My law in their minds, and write it on their hearts; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people.

(Jer 31:34 NKJV) No more shall every man teach his neighbor, and every man his brother, saying, 'Know the LORD,' for they all shall know Me, from the least of them to the greatest of them," says the LORD. "For I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin I will remember no more." '''

[The temporal salvation / restoration of a future generation of Israel is in view, wherein the LORD will remember their sins no more. Their iniquity will be forgiven]

[BKC, cont.]

31:31-37. In addition to a new beginning God promised to make a New Covenant with His people. This New Covenant was expressly for the house of Israel (the Northern Kingdom) and the house of Judah (the Southern Kingdom). It would not be like the covenant God had made with Israel's forefathers at the time of the Exodus because that covenant had been broken by the people (cf. 11:1-8). The earlier covenant God referred to was the Mosaic Covenant contained in the Books of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. Twice God had announced a seeries of punishments or 'curses' that would be invoked on those who violated His Law... The final judgment would be a physical deportation from the land of Israel. With the destruction of Jerusalem in 586 B.C. this final 'curse' was completed. God had set a holy standard of conduct before the people, but because of their sinful hearts they couldn't keep those standards. A change was needed.

God's New Covenant will involve an internalization of His Law. He will put His Law in their minds and on their hearts, not just on stones... There will be no need to exhort people to know the LORD because they will already all know God... God's New Covenant will give Israel the inner ability to obey His righteous standards and thus to enjoy His blessings... In Old Testament times the Holy Spirit did not universally indwell all believers. Thus one different aspect of the New Covenant is the indwelling of the Holy Spirit in all believers...

A second aspect of the New Covenant will be God's provision for sin. ...as part of the New Covenant God will forgive Israel's wickedness and remember their sins no more...

To underscore Israel's permanence because of this New Covenant, God compared her existence to that of the heavens and the earth. As God had appointed the sun to shine by day and the moon and stars to shine by night... so He had appointed Israel as His chosen nation.... The power God displayed in creating the universe was the power that He exercises in preserving Israel as a nation."]

XIII) [Ro 11:28-29]:

(Ro 11:28 NKJV) "Concerning the gospel they [generations of unfaithful Israelites] are enemies for your sake, but concerning the election they are beloved for the sake of the fathers.

(Ro 11:29 NKJV) For the gifts and the calling of God are irrevocable."

A) ACCORDING TO GOD'S ELECTION, CERTAIN GENERATIONS OF ISRAEL, BECAUSE OF THEIR WILLFUL UNBELIEF AND CONSEQUENT UNFAITHFULNESS TO THE LORD, ARE TO BE HARDENED IN THEIR STATE OF ENMITY WITH HIM UNTIL A CHOSEN NUMBER OF GENTILES BECOMES RECONCILED TO THE LORD; WHEREUPON ALL OF A FUTURE GENERATION OF ISRAEL WILL BE SAVED AND RECONCILED TO THE LORD. THE RECONCILED GENTILES ARE PART OF A GROUP COMPRISED OF FAITHFUL SERVANTS FROM THE WORLD - GENTILE AND JEW ALIKE - TO REPRESENT GOD AND HIS GRACE SALVATION IN A UNIQUE TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIP WITH THE LORD

(Ro 11:2a NKJV) "God has not cast away His people whom He foreknew... (Ro 11:11 NAS) "I say then, they did not stumble so as to fall, did they? May it never be!But by their transgression salvation has come to the Gentiles, to make them jealous. (Ro 11:13 NKJV) For I speak to you Gentiles; inasmuch as I am an apostle to the Gentiles, I magnify ["doxazO" = glorify] my ministry. (Ro 11:14 NKJV) if ["pOs" = perhaps] I may provoke to jealousy those who are my flesh and save some of them. (Ro 11:15 NKJV) For if their being cast away is the reconciling of the world, what will their acceptance be but life from the dead? (Ro 11:16 NKJV) For if the firstfruit is holy, the lump is also holy; [Num 15:17-21] and if the root is holy, so are the branches. (Ro 11:17 NKJV) And if some of the branches were broken off, and you, being a wild olive tree, were grafted in among them, and with them became a [fellow] partaker of the root and fatness of the olive tree, (Ro 11:18 NKJV) do not boast against the branches. But if you do boast, remember that you do not support the root, but the root supports you; (Ro 11:19 NKJV) You will say then, 'Branches were broken off that I might be grafted in.' (Ro 11:20 NKJV) Well said. Because of unbelief they were broken off, and you stand by faith. Do not be haughty, but fear. (Ro 11:21 NKJV) For if God did not spare the natural branches, He may not spare you either.' (Ro 11:22 NKJV) Therefore consider the goodness and severity of God: on those who fell, severity; but toward you, goodness, if you continue in His goodness. Otherwise you also will be cut off. (Ro 11:23 NKJV) And they also, if they do not continue in unbelief, will be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again. (Ro 11:24 NKJV) For if you were cut out of the olive tree which is wild by nature, and were grafted contrary to nature into a cultivated olive tree, how much more will these, who are natural branches, be grafted into their own olive tree? (Ro 11:25 NAS) For I do not want you, brethren, to be uninformed of this mystery - so that you will not be wise in your own estimation - that a partial hardening has happened to Israel until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in. (Ro 11:26 NAS) and so all Israel will be saved; just as it is written, 'The Deliverer will come from Zion, He will remove ungodliness from Jacob;' [Isa 59:20-21; 27:9] (Ro 11:27 NKJV) For this is My covenant with them, When I take away their sins.' (Ro 11:28 NKJV) Concerning the gospel they are enemies for your sake, but concerning the election they are beloved for the sake of the fathers." =

Paul declares in Romans 11:28, "Concerning the gospel they [unfaithful generations of Israelites] are enemies for your sake;" i.e., past generations of Israel and the Israel of Paul's day are "enemies" of God and His gospel of grace salvation. Previously, Paul stipulated that generations of Israel had been "broken off" = cast out of their unique temporal relationship with the LORD for unbelief and unfaithfulness, (Ro 11:2a, 15, 17), implying that they were at enmity with God and His gospel of grace salvation.

Romans 11:28 further implies that according to God's election, succeeding generations of Israel, because of their willful unbelief and consequent unfaithfulness to the LORD are to be hardened by God in their state of enmity with Him until a chosen number of Gentiles become reconciled to the LORD; whereupon all of a future generation of Israel will be saved and reconciled to Him. The reconciled Gentiles are part of a group comprised of faithful servants from the world - Gentile and Jew alike - to represent God and His grace salvation in a unique temporal relationship with the LORD, (cf. Ro 11:11, 15). Note that God's hardening of Israel is stipulated as a partial one in the sense that not all generations of Israel will be included.

Note that Romans 11:28 cannot be implying that only now do Gentiles have available to them the gospel of eternal life, for they have had that opportunity since Adam and Eve and Abraham, millennia ago .

B) GOD'S ELECTION OF ISRAEL TO BE HIS CHOSEN PEOPLE AND BELOVED IN HIS SIGHT FOREVER WAS PART OF HIS UNILATERAL PROMISE TO ABRAHAM, ISAAC AND JACOB, TO HAVE ISRAEL AS THEIR PEOPLE AS AN EVERLASTING INHERITANCE IN THE KINGDOM OF GOD

(Ro 4:13 NAS) "For the promise to Abraham or to his descendants that he would be heir of the world was not through law, but through the righteousness of faith... (Ro 11:2a NKJV) "God has not cast away His people whom He foreknew... (Ro 11:11 NAS) I say then, they did not stumble so as to fall, did they? May it never be! But by their transgression salvation has come to the Gentiles, to make them jealous. (Ro 11:14 NKJV) if ["pOs" = perhaps] I may provoke to jealousy those who are my flesh and save some of them. (Ro 11:15 NKJV) For if their being cast away is the reconciling of the world, what will their acceptance be but life from the dead? (Ro 11:20 NKJV) Well said. Because of unbelief they were broken off, and you stand by faith. Do not be haughty, but fear. (Ro 11:23 NKJV) And they also, if they do not continue in unbelief, will be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again. (Ro 11:24 NKJV) For if you were cut out of the olive tree which is wild by nature, and were grafted contrary to nature into a cultivated olive tree, how much more will these, who are natural branches, be grafted into their own olive tree? (Ro 11:25 NAS) For I do not want you, brethren, to be uninformed of this mystery - so that you will not be wise in your own estimation - that a partial hardening has happened to Israel until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in. (Ro 11:26 NAS) and so all Israel will be saved; just as it is written, 'The Deliverer will come from Zion, He will remove ungodliness from Jacob; (Ro 11:27 NKJV) For this is My covenant with them, When I take away their sins.' [Isa 59:20-21; 27:9] (Ro 11:28 NKJV) Concerning the gospel they are enemies for your sake, but concerning the election they are beloved for the sake of the fathers." =

The next phrase in Romans 11:28, "But concerning the election they are beloved for the sake of the fathers" has in view God's unilateral promise to Abraham, Isaac & Jacob that the descendants of Abraham through Isaac through Jacob are to be His chosen people, Israel, beloved in His sight. They have been chosen to be in a unique personal relationship with Him as His beloved faithful servants to represent Him and His grace gospel to the world forever, for the sake of the patriarchal fathers who will have them as their people as an everlasting inheritance in the Kingdom of God, (Ro 4:3).

*** EXCERPT FROM ROMANS CHAPTER 4 ***

THE LORD'S PROMISE TO ABRAHAM AND TO THOSE OF HIS PHYSICAL DESCENDANTS THROUGH ISAAC THROUGH JACOB, (JEWS), WAS FOR THEM TO HAVE ETERNAL LIFE AND BECOME ETERNAL HEIRS OF THE WORLD, NOT THROUGH LAW, (HUMAN DOING), BUT THROUGH THE RIGHTEOUSNESS OF FAITH

(v. 4:11 NAS) "and he [Abraham] received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he had while uncircumcised, that he might be the father of all who believe without being circumcised that righteousness might be reckoned to them, (v. 4:12 NAS) and the father of circumcision to those who not only are of the circumcision, but who also follow in the steps of the faith of our father Abraham which he had while uncircumcised. (v. 4:13 NAS) For the promise to Abraham or to his descendants that he would be heir of the world was not through law, but through the righteousness of faith" =

The Old Testament teaches that the LORD's promise to Abraham and to his physical descendants through Isaac through Jacob, (Jews), was for them to have eternal life and become eternal heirs of the world, not through law, (human doing), but through the righteousness of faith in Abraham's Messiah-Savior Descendant through Isaac through Jacob. Notice that the word rendered "law" in verse 4:13 is without the definite article and refers to rules of human conduct of which the Mosaic Law is the supreme example. Paul continues with the subject of being declared righteous before God apart from law, (human doing), but through faith by referring to what the Old Testament has to say on the matter. The result of being declared righteous before God has repeatedly been indicated as eternal life, (cp Ro 1:2-4; 16-17 ). Paul stipulates that Abraham and his physical descendants through Isaac through Jacob, (Jews), will become heirs, i.e, eternal inheritors or possessers of the world, not through law, (human doing), but through the righteousness of a moment of faith, i.e., through expressing a moment of faith alone in God's promise of a coming Messiah-Savior Descendant, the faith of Abraham, which results in their being declared righteous before God and their becoming eternal heirs of the world, (Ro 4:13).

*** END OF EXCERPT FROM ROMANS CHAPTER 4 ***

C) THE GIFTS AND CALLING OF GOD ARE IRREVOCABLE: ETERNAL LIFE IS A FREE GIFT TO WHOM ALL WHO ARE CALLED BY THE LORD TO RECEIVE WILL INEVITABLY CHOOSE TO BELIEVE IN CHRIST UNTO ETERNAL LIFE AND BE IRREVOCABLY SECURE IN IT. FURTHERMORE, GOD'S CALLING OF ISRAEL TO BE HIS CHOSEN PEOPLE AS PART OF HIS UNILATERAL COVENANT WITH THE PATRIARCHAL FATHERS, ABRAHAM, ISAAC AND JACOB IS IRREVOCABLE

(Ro 8:29 NKJV) "For whom He foreknew, He also predestined to be conformed to the image [of glory] of His Son, that He might be the firstborn among many brethren. (Ro 8:30 NKJV) Moreover whom He predestined, these He also called; whom He called, these He also justified; and whom He justified, these He also glorified. (Ro 11:2a NKJV) God has not cast away His people whom He foreknew... (Ro 11:11 NAS) I say then, they did not stumble so as to fall, did they? May it never be! But by their transgression salvation has come to the Gentiles, to make them jealous. (Ro 11:14 NKJV) if ["pOs" = perhaps] I may provoke to jealousy those who are my flesh and save some of them. (Ro 11:15 NKJV) For if their being cast away is the reconciling of the world, what will their acceptance be but life from the dead? (Ro 11:20 NKJV) Well said. Because of unbelief they were broken off, and you stand by faith. Do not be haughty, but fear. (Ro 11:24 NKJV) For if you were cut out of the olive tree which is wild by nature, and were grafted contrary to nature into a cultivated olive tree, how much more will these, who are natural branches, be grafted into their own olive tree? (Ro 11:25 NAS) For I do not want you, brethren, to be uninformed of this mystery - so that you will not be wise in your own estimation - that a partial hardening has happened to Israel until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in. (Ro 11:26 NAS) and so all Israel will be saved; just as it is written, 'The Deliverer will come from Zion, He will remove ungodliness from Jacob; [Isa 59:20-21; 27:9] (Ro 11:27 NKJV) For this is My covenant with them, When I take away their sins.' (Ro 11:28 NKJV) Concerning the gospel they are enemies for your sake, but concerning the election they are beloved for the sake of the fathers. (Ro 11:29 NKJV) For the gifts and the calling of God are irrevocable." =

In Ro 11:29, the phrase: "For the gifts and the calling of God are irrevocable," provides further explanation concerning God's gospel which offers eternal life as an irrevocable and free gift via a moment of faith alone in Christ alone, (cf. Ro 3:21-24 ; 8:29-29 ), to which all who are called by the LORD to believe will inevitably and irrevocably believe and be irrevocably secure in their salvation. Verse 11:29 also provides explanation relative to God's hardening of generations of Israel until the fullness, i.e., the full number, of Gentiles has come in = become faithful servants of the LORD, whereupon all of a future generation of Israel will be irrevocably saved, eternally and temporally when the Redeemer / Deliver comes to Zion. It further explains God's calling, i.e., election of Israel relative to her eternal and temporal relationship with Him; as well as God's unilateral and irrevocable covenant with the patriarchal fathers of Israel, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. It is implied that when God calls, His calls are sovereign and irrevocable even when it involves the volition of individuals and groups of people who are enabled by God to exercise that volition according to His will. Note that the Greek word "charismata" in Ro 11:29 rendered "gifts" in the NKJV refers to that which is received being unmerited, i.e., not dependent upon anything the recipient might do. Hence the covenant God made with Abraham which was confirmed with Isaac and Jacob was unilateral and irrevocable by nature. It depended solely upon the promises of God. So the gift of eternal life would be received irrevocably by those elect of God including Abraham, Isaac and Jacob whom God called to choose of their own volition to believe in a Messiah-Savior Descendant of Abraham through Isaac through Jacob. Furthermore, the election of God included the provision of a unique temporal relationship with the LORD to those who were enabled by God to be faithful servants to Him with Israel especially in view as God's chosen people.

XIV) [Ro 11:30-32]:

(Ro 11:30 NKJV) "For as you were once disobedient to God, yet have now obtained mercy through their disobedience,

(Ro 11:31 NKJV) even so these also have now been disobedient, that through the mercy shown you they also may obtain mercy.

(Ro 11:32 NKJV) For God has committed them all to disobedience, that He might have mercy on all."

A) ISRAEL'S DISOBEDIENCE GAVE OCCASION TO A GROUP CHOSEN BY GOD - COMPRISED OF INDIVIDUALS OF THE WORLD, GENTILES AND JEWS ALIKE - TO RECEIVE THE MERCY OF GOD AND BECOME FAITHFUL SERVANTS OF THE LORD, TO BE RECONCILED TO HIM BY HIS GRACE IN A UNIQUE TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIP AS HIS CHOSEN PEOPLE TO REPRESENT HIM AND HIS GRACE GOSPEL TO THE WORLD

(Ro 11:11 NAS) "I say then, they did not stumble so as to fall, did they? May it never be! But by their transgression salvation has come to the Gentiles, to make them jealous. (Ro 11:12 NAS) Now if their fall is riches for the world, and their failure riches for the Gentiles, how much more their fullness! (Ro 11:15 NKJV) For if their being cast away is the reconciling of the world, what will their acceptance be but life from the dead? (Ro 11:25 NAS) For I do not want you, brethren, to be uninformed of this mystery - so that you will not be wise in your own estimation - that a partial hardening has happened to Israel until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in. (Ro 11:26 NAS) and so all Israel will be saved; just as it is written, 'The Deliverer will come from Zion, He will remove ungodliness from Jacob; [Isa 59:20-21; 27:9] (Ro 11:27 NKJV) For this is My covenant with them, When I take away their sins.' (Ro 11:28 NKJV) Concerning the gospel they are enemies for your sake, but concerning the election they are beloved for the sake of the fathers (Ro 11:29 NKJV) For the gifts and the calling of God are irrevocable. (Ro 11:30 NKJV) For as you were once disobedient to God, yet have now obtained mercy through their disobedience, (Ro 11:31 NKJV) even so these also have now been disobedient, that through the mercy shown you they also may obtain mercy." =

Paul addresses Gentiles of the reconciled group of the world comprised of Gentiles and Jews, faithful servants of the LORD, (Ro 11:15). He tells them that they were once disobedient to God yet have now obtained God's mercy, (Ro 11:30) - a gracious, temporal reconciliation with the LORD as His chosen people to represent Him and His grace gospel. Paul indicates that the Gentiles' opportunity to be reconciled with God was as a result of the disobedience of generations of unbelieving Israelites through God's sovereign election and partial hardening of Israel, (Ro 11:15, 25). So Israel's disobedience gave occasion to a group chosen by God - comprised of individuals of the world, Gentiles and Jews alike - to become faithful servants of the LORD - to be reconciled to him by His grace in a unique temporal relationship as His chosen people to represent Him and His grace gospel to the world. Note that for a group of individuals to become faithful servants of the LORD, it requires each individual to express a moment of faith alone in Christ alone unto eternal life and then be enabled by the grace of God to be faithful, (Ro 9:30-33 ).

B) FUTURE GENERATIONS OF ISRAEL WILL OBTAIN GOD'S MERCY OF TEMPORAL DELIVERANCE / RECONCILIATION WITH THE LORD THROUGH THE MERCY SHOWN BY GOD TO THE GENTILES

(Ro 11:11 NAS) "I say then, they did not stumble so as to fall, did they? May it never be! But by their transgression salvation has come to the Gentiles, to make them jealous. (Ro 11:12 NAS) Now if their fall is riches for the world, and their failure riches for the Gentiles, how much more their fullness! (Ro 11:13 NKJV) For I speak to you Gentiles; inasmuch as I am an apostle to the Gentiles, I magnify ["doxazO" = glorify] my ministry, (Ro 11:14 NKJV) if ["pOs" = perhaps] I may provoke to jealousy those who are my flesh and save some of them. (Ro 11:15 NKJV) For if their being cast away is the reconciling of the world, what will their acceptance be but life from the dead? (Ro 11:25 NAS) For I do not want you, brethren, to be uninformed of this mystery - so that you will not be wise in your own estimation - that a partial hardening has happened to Israel until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in. (Ro 11:26 NAS) and so all Israel will be saved; just as it is written, 'The Deliverer will come from Zion, He will remove ungodliness from Jacob; [Isa 59:20-21; 27:9] (Ro 11:27 NKJV) For this is My covenant with them, When I take away their sins.' (Ro 11:28 NKJV) Concerning the gospel they are enemies for your sake, but concerning the election they are beloved for the sake of the fathers (Ro 11:29 NKJV) For the gifts and the calling of God are irrevocable. (Ro 11:30 NKJV) For as you were once disobedient to God, yet have now obtained mercy through their disobedience, (Ro 11:31 NKJV) even so these also have now been disobedient, that through the mercy shown you they also may obtain mercy." =

Due to the occasion of Gentiles receiving God's mercy as a result of committing Israel to her natural tendency to be disobedient, future generations of Israel will become the recipient of God's mercy of temporal deliverance / reconciliation with the LORD. This will occur when "the fullness of the Gentiles has come in," and "The Deliverer [Redeemer, Jesus Christ comes]... from Zion," (Ro 11:25-26).

C) GOD HAS COMMITTED ALL GROUPS OF MANKIND, GENTILES AND JEWS ALIKE TO DISOBEDIENCE - THE NATURAL TENDENCY OF HUMANITY - THAT HE MIGHT HAVE MERCY ON THEM ALL - TEMPORAL DELIVERANCE / RECONCILIATION AND ETERNAL SALVATION SOLELY THROUGH THE GRACE OF GOD

(Ro 11:11 NAS) "I say then, they did not stumble so as to fall, did they? May it never be! But by their transgression salvation has come to the Gentiles, to make them jealous. (Ro 11:12 NAS) Now if their fall is riches for the world, and their failure riches for the Gentiles, how much more their fullness! (Ro 11:15 NKJV) For if their being cast away is the reconciling of the world, what will their acceptance be but life from the dead? (Ro 11:25 NAS) For I do not want you, brethren, to be uninformed of this mystery - so that you will not be wise in your own estimation - that a partial hardening has happened to Israel until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in. (Ro 11:26 NAS) and so all Israel will be saved; just as it is written, 'The Deliverer will come from Zion, He will remove ungodliness from Jacob; [Isa 59:20-21; 27:9] (Ro 11:27 NKJV) For this is My covenant with them, When I take away their sins.' (Ro 11:28 NKJV) Concerning the gospel they are enemies for your sake, but concerning the election they are beloved for the sake of the fathers (Ro 11:29 NKJV) For the gifts and the calling of God are irrevocable. (Ro 11:30 NKJV) For as you were once disobedient to God, yet have now obtained mercy through their disobedience, (Ro 11:31 NKJV) even so these also have now been disobedient, that through the mercy shown you they also may obtain mercy. (Ro 11:32 NKJV) For God has committed them all to disobedience, that He might have mercy on all." =

When God hardened generations of Israel in their unbelief and consequent unfaithfulness, in essence He committed them to their willful disobedience, (Ro 11:32). God did this so that the world, with Gentiles especially in view, the latter also being characterized as disobedient, would obtain God's mercy in spite of their transgressions. On the other hand, future generations of Israel through the mercy God bestowed upon the Gentiles, will also obtain mercy.

Paul explains that God has committed all groups of mankind, Jews and Gentiles alike to disobedience - their natural and willful tendency - that He might have mercy on them all. The result of His committment to disobedience is their hardened determination to be what they naturally are: willfully disobedient to God, making them all candidates for His mercy - temporal deliverance / reconciliation and eternal salvation solely through the grace of God.

*** EXCERPT FROM RO 11:11-12 ***

ISRAEL'S TRANSGRESSION AS EVIDENCED BY HER UNFAITHFULNESS TOWARD GOD CAUSED THE LORD TO CUT HER OFF FROM TEMPORAL SALVATION / BLESSINGS AND PROVIDE THEM TO THE GENTILES INSTEAD, IN ORDER TO BEST SERVE HIS PURPOSES OF:

(1) PROCLAIMING HIMSELF AND HIS GRACE SALVATION TO MANKIND AND

(2) DISCIPLINING ISRAEL BY MAKING HER JEALOUS OF HIS WORKING WITH AND BLESSING GENTILES INSTEAD OF HER

(Ro 10:19 NKJV) But I say, did Israel not know? First Moses says: 'I will provoke you to jealousy by those who are not a nation, I will move you to anger by a foolish nation.' [Dt 32:21]... (Ro 11:11 NAS) I say then, they did not stumble so as to fall, did they? May it never be! But by their transgression salvation has come to the Gentiles, to make them jealous." =

Note that the Greek noun "paraptOmati," which literally means "offense" is translated "transgression" in the NAS in Ro 11:11. It describes an entire people, Israel, who over the centuries have been characterized as having largely been persistently unfaithful to the LORD. They have continually committed offenses, i.e., transgressions or violations of known commands of God. A single offense or transgression that the entire historical group of all generations of Israelites all committed at once cannot be in view, because a single offense does not fit the context in the book of Romans of generations of Israel being generally unfaithful. Rather, "paraptOmati" has a plural sense to it, describing multiple violations of known commands of God over a period of time in order to continue to describe the unfaithful generations of Israel who have been disciplined by God over the ages. Just as one can say that one has sin in ones life which refers to multiple sins, so one can say Israel has transgression or offense which refers to multiple transgressions or offenses over a period of time. This is consistent with the context begun in Romans chapter 9 portraying a history of Israel continuously being unfaithful to God which led to the LORD removing temporal salvation from Israel and providing it for the Gentiles instead, until a future generation of Israel is reconciled to God as His chosen people forever.

So the salvation in view in Romans 11:11 is a temporal one, a deliverance of a group of people from temporal difficulties unto godly fellowship and blessings and greater longevity. It cannot be referring to salvation unto eternal life coming to the Gentiles because salvation unto eternal life had been available to all mankind, before Jews existed

Before the LORD moved His temporal salvation and blessings to a group of faithful servants from the world, i.e., Gentiles and Jews, the Israelites as a nation had them as part of God's unique temporal personal relationship with Him which included His plan to promulgate the truth about Himself and His grace gospel through Israel, (Ro 3:1; 9:1-5). But in the light of generations of Israel's unfaithfulness, the relationship God would have would now be with Gentiles as a group who were designated to have God's unique temporal personal with Him including His temporal salvation unto blessings in order to promulgate His plan to represent the LORD and His grace salvation to the world. Note that individual Israelites are not portrayed in Ro 11:11 as being excluded from having the availability of eternal life. Note that later verses imply that Israelites from the period of Paul's time in history who trusted in Christ unto eternal life were included in the group of the world reconciled to God, Jews and Gentiles alike who are declared as personally belonging to Jesus Christ in a unique relationship with Him, (Ro 1:5-6; 11:15). On the other hand, Israelties are being portrayed in Ro 11:11 as no longer under God's temporal salvation unto fellowship and blessings from Him. Furthermore, Israel was at that time so unspiritual as to not be able to discern who did have salvation unto eternal life and who did not, hence they wouldn't have been able to be jealous of those Gentiles who had received eternal life as opposed to those who had not. On the other hand, certain Gentiles who chose to become faithful believers who were then delivered from temporal difficulty unto visible godly temporal blessings as God's representative people on the earth instead of Israel would easily be discerned by unspiritual Israel and hence give them reason to be jealous, (Ro 11:11). Note that the fact that those particular Gentiles were faithful believers would not be discernible by the unspiritual Israelites. Hence temporal salvation of the Gentiles as a group of people representing God is in view in Ro 11:11 NAS.

So the transgression of particular generations of Israelites in history, i.e., their persistent unfaithfulness toward God caused the LORD to cut Israel off from His group salvation - His deliverance from destruction and difficulty unto blessings and personal fellowship with Him and move to provide these to all mankind outside of the nation Israel. This then includes Gentiles. A unique group comprised of faithful servants of the LORD of Jews and Gentiles alike will receive God's temporal salvation and personal fellowship as a group as once faithful Israel did, in order to serve His purpose of proclaiming Himself and His grace salvation. This evidently was to be done in such a manner as to make Israel jealous to save some of them.

*** END OF EXCERPT FROM RO 11:11-12 ***

XV) [Ro 11:33-36]:

(Ro 11:33 NKJV) "Oh, the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are His judgments and His ways past finding out! [Isa 40:13]

(Ro 11:34 NKJV) For who has known the mind of the LORD? Or who has become His counselor?

(Ro 11:35 NKJV) Or who has first given to Him And it shall be repaid to him? [Job 41:11]

(Ro 11:36 NKJV) For of Him and through Him and to Him are all things, to whom be glory forever. Amen."

A) IN LIGHT OF GOD'S MERCY TOWARD MAN, CONSIDER THE UNENDING DEPTH OF THE RICHES OF GOD'S WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE, HIS UNSEARCHABLE JUDGMENTS (DECREES), AND HIS UNFATHOMABLE WAYS WHEREIN NO ONE CAN BE HIS COUNSEL, NOR BE IN HIS DEBT: FOR OF HIM AND THROUGH HIM AND TO HIM ARE ALL THINGS, TO WHOM BE GLORY FOREVER. AMEN!

(Ro 11:2 NKJV) "God has not cast away His people whom He foreknew. Or do you not know what the Scripture says of Elijah, how he pleads with God against Israel, saying... (Ro 11:29 NKJV) For the gifts and the calling of God are irrevocable (Ro 11:32 NKJV) For God has committed them all to disobedience, that He might have mercy on all (Ro 11:33 NKJV) Oh, the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are His judgments and His ways past finding out! [Isa 40:13] (Ro 11:34 NKJV) For who has known the mind of the LORD? Or who has become His counselor? (Ro 11:35 NKJV) Or who has first given to Him And it shall be repaid to him? [Job 41:11] (Ro 11:36 NKJV) For of Him and through Him and to Him are all things, to whom be glory forever. Amen." =

Paul expounds upon the depths of the riches of the wisdom and knowledge of God, especially re: the temporal and eternal destinies of generations of Israelites and Gentiles as God's decrees and election are sovereignly fulfilled. Paul further exclaims how unsearchable - how unfathomable - are God's judgments, i.e., His decrees, and how His ways are past finding out. He emphasizes the unknowable wisdom and knowledge of God - a knowledge without limit and beyond the capacity of man to learn all of, with the rhetorical questions in Ro 11:34, "For who has known the mind of the LORD?" and "Who has become His counselor?" Then verse 11:35 asks, "Who has first given to Him and it shall be repaid to Him." The answer implied: 'No one,' - all blessings flowing from God are by His grace. God owes no one and answers to no one. All that He does is by His grace = unmerited favor. His wisdom is beyond the reach of anyone. Verse 11:36 then ends chapter 11 with an affirmation of God's omnipotent and eternal power and glory: "For of Him and through Him and to Him are all things, to Whom be glory forever. Amen."

1) [Compare Isa 40:13 NKJV]:

"Who has directed the Spirit of the LORD, Or as His counselor has taught Him?"

2) [Compare Job 41:11 NKJV]:

"Who has preceded Me, that I should pay him? Everything under heaven is Mine."

[BKC, p. 486-7]:

"As Paul ended his discussion on the revelation of God's righteousness in His sovereign choice, he burst forth in a doxology of praise to God. He exclaimed, Oh, the depth of the riches of the wisdom and knowledge of God! The plan of God for the salvation of all people demonstrates God's infinite knowledge and His ability to use it wisely. God has revealed some of His judgments and His paths ('ways') so that people may know them, but it is humanly impossible to exhaust them. Beyond tracing out translates the one word anexichniastoi, which means 'incapable of being traced by footprints'...

The apostle then quoted Isaiah 40:13, which shows that God is the sole Designer of His wise plan. No one knows His mind or gives Him advice. This is followed by a free quotation from Job 41:11, which testifies to God's sole responsibility for His acts. God is indeed the Sovereign of all things, the One to Whom all creatures are accountable and Whom all should glorify. He is under no obligation to repay anyone, for no one has ever given Him anything. Paul concluded, For from Him and through Him and to Him are all things. God is the first Cause, the effective Cause, and the final Cause of everything. His deep ways are beyond man's discovering (Rom 11:33); beyond man's knowing (v. 34a), beyond man's counseling (v. 34b), and beyond man's giving (v. 35). 'All things' come from Him and by means of Him... and are for Him and His glory... Therefore, To Him be the glory forever! Amen ... God is the only proper One to magnify... The all-sovereign God deserves the praise of all His creatures."]  

XV) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

I need to make a couple observations as a prelude to what I’ll say — and I urge you to think about whether you agree or not.  I also ask that you read carefully.

1. Apostasy is an evil act of rebellion (i.e., it’s wicked in God’s eyes).

[No, apostasy is defined as "An abandonment of what one has voluntarily professed; a total desertion of departure from one’s faith, principles, or party; esp., the renunciation of a religious faith;" Webster's 1913 Unabridged English Dictionary. Therefore, it may or may not be evil /wicked in God's eyes. For example, I abandoned my unbelief in Jesus Christ and trusted in Him for eternal life. Have I committed and evil act of rebellion. This Michael doesn't even pay attention to the accurate meanings of words]


XVI) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

2. Apostasy is a subset of general wickedness (i.e., other sins are wicked as well, showing disloyalty to God).

[Again, not paying attention to the true meaning of the word "apostasy."  General wickedness does not always include departure from what one believes. So apostasy overlaps general wickedness when the context is about a departure from one's faith or godly principles, it is not a subset of it!!]

XVII) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

3. The OT gives us examples of people who really did believe in Yahweh but who committed evil acts (murder, adultery, etc.; think of David here).

[Wrong again. Believers who commit evil acts such as murder, adultery, etc; such as David did; DID NOT DEPART FROM THE FAITH WHICH RESULTED IN LOSS OF ETERNAL LIFE. They departed from being faithful. There's a difference. No believer can claim to have not sinned or have no sin at any time in their lives, can they? 
; albeit when they do sin it is as if they are not being faithful during those times of committing sins. Some believers will sin more than others throughout their lives; but they will still be secure in their salvation unto eternal life; albeit their eternity will be that much the poorer in heaven due to their lack of eternal rewards because of lack of faithful service to God during their temporal lives. Secondly, salvation unto eternal life is NOT dependent upon continued faithfulness or any faithfulness at all. It is eternally secure on the basis of a moment of faith alone in Christ alone plus nothing else! . Even if a believer apostasizes, i.e., departs from trusting in Christ, his apostasy cannot cause him to lose his salvation; albeit his eternity will be that much the poorer!]

XVIII) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

4. Therefore, it seems that, of all acts of wickedness, the one that results in Yahweh’s rejection is unbelief - a forsaking of Him as one’s God in favor of another god or no god at all).

[All of the sins of all mankind throughout the whole world for all ages are paid for including unbelief because of Christ's propitiation / payment for the sins of the whole world - all mankind regardless of how many kinds and times one committed sin - even the sin of unbelief, (1 Jn 2:2). There is no sin that has not been paid for - even the sin of unbelief has been paid for! On the other hand, no sins are forgiven of one until one expresses a moment of faith alone in Christ alone in that propitiation . Once one has expressed that moment of faith alone in Christ alone, one has received complete and total forgiveness of all of one's sins PAST, PRESENT & FUTURE no matter what one does after that moment even to apostasize into total unbelief
! So the only thing that keeps an individual of accountable age from receiving the free gift of eternal life - which once received by faith alone can never be lost even if totally forsaken in unbelief / even in the light of total apostasy to unbelief - is not ever having expressed a moment of faith alone in Christ alone - His payment / propitiation - for the sins of the whole world IN THE FIRST PLACE!

So if an individual never believes in Jesus, even for a moment which is all that is required in order to be totally secured in an eternal destiny of eternal life, his sins are nevertheless paid for! But that individual who never once expressed a moment of faith alone in Christ alone will nevertheless face the judgment of God until eternal condemnation unto the Lake of Fire!  But this eternal condemnation was not for him to pay for his own sins, because Christ has already made that payment on the cross. But he will suffer eternal condemnation because he does not have the Righteousness of God credited to him because he never once expressed a moment of faith alone in Christ alone for eternal life!  So he never received the gift of God's perfect Righteousness. He now must live a perfect life on his own in order to have eternal life. His sins are not an issue at all, for they have been paid for by the Son of God, Jesus Christ Himself; but they were nevertheless not forgiven! So why is he not admitted into heaven but thrown into the Lake of Fire? Answer: Because he is not righteous enough to earn his way into heaven, having refused to believe in and receive the gift of the perfect Righteousness of God by faith which God will then would have transformed him into a perfect human being with that Righteousness of Christ in his eternal experience. So since he is not found in the Book of Life - his name having been erased from that book because he died without ever having trusted in Christ  - the Book which contains only those at the end of the ages that have trusted alone in Christ alone and have His perfect Righteousness credited to his account thus qualifying him to enter into heaven once he is given a perfect resurrection body accordingly, then other books must be opened for the one who never chose to believe in Christ for forgiveness of sins during his mortal lifetime. These other books have the account of his life on earth which will inevitably fall short of God's Perfect Righteousness, whereupon he will be sent into the Lake of Fire unto God's eternal condemnation because he maintains his old nature within his resurrected old sin natured body and is judged on that basis - his old nature, corrupt, flawed and ready to commit more sins he did throughout his mortal lifetime - as did all mankind except Jesus Himself in His Humanity! So aren't you who believed in Jesus alone for eternal life glad that God will transform you into a perfect eternal human being that will only choose to do righteousness.
So reconsider Dr. Heiser's statement requoted below as false and unbiblical.

XIX) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

Therefore, it seems that, of all acts of wickedness, the one that results in Yahweh’s rejection is unbelief - a forsaking of Him as one’s God in favor of another god or no god at all).

[Acts of lawlessness do not result in condemnation of a believer, never having believed leads to eternal condemnation]


XX) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

5. The person in number 4 could legitimately be called an unbeliever with respect to Yahweh as the true God.


[Not true. An individual who sins may or may not be a believer. For no believer leads a life of sinless perfection even for a day - even for a moment. No believer - no one who has expressed a moment of faith alone in Christ alone - leads a perfect life without sin. And when a believer sins he is as an unbeliever in those moments when he sins; but only in the sense of the temporal life, not the eternal life which is perfectly secured via that first moment of faith alone in Jesus Christ alone ].

XXI) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

It is interesting that Paul does in fact relate the forsaking of elect Israelites to their unbelief. This is perhaps most clearly articulate in Romans 11:20-23:

20 . . . They [the elect Israelites who were set aside] were broken off because of their unbelief, but you stand fast through faith. So do not become proud, but fear. 21 For if God did not spare the natural branches, neither will he spare you. 22 Note then the kindness and the severity of God: severity toward those who have fallen, but God’s kindness to you, provided you continue in his kindness. Otherwise you too will be cut off. 23 And even they, if they do not continue in their unbelief, will be grafted in, for God has the power to graft them in again. 24 For if you were cut from what is by nature a wild olive tree, and grafted, contrary to nature, into a cultivated olive tree, how much more will these, the natural branches, be grafted back into their own olive tree.

What do we learn here?

1. That the Israelites, who were elect, forfeited salvation because of their unbelief (see Jude 5 here as well). As elect people, if they would have believed, they would have been (spiritually) saved and not condemned as unfaithful.

[Israel as a group of people are in view who are God's chosen / elect people forever, a future generation of whom will all individually to a man all & one by one choose to believe and be saved unto eternal life and be transformed into God's chosen people to be a nation of priests of all the nations. Only a remnant of them throughout the age of the Law would individually choose to believe in Christ unto eternal life and represent God and enable the people not to become extinct.]

XXII) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

2. If God was able and willing to set aside these elect who did not believe, He will not spare “you”.

[Totally misses the point of Romans chapter 11. God's election of an individual for salvation unto eternal life through a moment of faith alone in Christ alone is one thing; election of a whole nation of people for representing God on the earth as His chosen people to represent themselves as faithful examples to God to all the nations of the earth is yet another. The latter will finally be accomplished in a generation of Israel after repeated failures of previous generations of Israel by God, no other people, and not the Church either as some contend will replace Israel as God's chosen people of the New Covenant , when all of a generation of Israelites - yet future - will choose to believe in Jesus Christ at His Second Coming prompting Him to transform each and every Israelite of that generation into sinless perfect human mortal beings who will live hundreds of years, know the Bible perfectly and be a nation of priests to the nations of the world in the Millennial rule for Jesus Christ. Notice that eternal life is received on the basis of believing - a single moment of mental assent. Representing God on the earth as an ongoing activity of being faithful / obedient to God is another - a lifestyle of godly obedience in activity not simply a moment of mental assent. Individuals who are the elect of God for salvation unto eternal life will always and to a man choose to believe in Christ for eternal life - one by one. The nation / the people - the whole group of the people of Israel was chosen / elected by God to represent Him on the earth requiring each and every single one of them to be examples of faithfulness to God to the rest of the world which first and foremost required each and every one of them to choose to express a moment of faith a
lone in the coming / having come Messiah Savior Jesus Christ alone unto eternal life, prompting God's transformation of each and every one of them into a nation of godly priests each one to have a perfect, sinless, mortal body capable of living hundreds of years with a perfect knowledge of God's Word - ratification and implementing of the New Covenant God promised to make solely between Himself and Israel alone - no other parties to it . Over the years, Israel has had her chances - many of them - over hundreds of years. They have repeatedly failed to unanimousily express a moment of faith alone in the Messiah Christ alone in each generation and then become perfectly faithful / examples to the world to the commandments of God as represented in the Law of Moses. So God has repeatedly cut off many generations of Israel from that responsibility even to the point of declaring that Israel - generations of Israel were no longer God's Chosen People yet a future generation of Israel will once again be God's chosen people - this time forever ]

XXIII) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

2. If God was able and willing to set aside these elect who did not believe, He will not spare “you”. Who is Paul addressing? Gentiles who were allowed entrance into the people of God through faith. Paul says God expects them to “continue in his kindness” — in my view, this refers to God’s offer of salvation to them — the non-elect.

[Contrary to Michael Heiser's implication that God set aside the elect who did not believe, the elect - those particular elect individuals unto eternal life [not in view is a generation of God's Chosen people Israel] will always choose to believe because God is sovereign and absolute in every one of His decrees [and so will a particular generation of Israel believe and become perfectly faithful to God - yet future]. So every single individual who God has decreed and thereby elected unto salvation unto eternal life - a certain number of Jews and Gentiles throughout the ages from Adam and Eve on through the Church Age and throughout the Millennial Rule - will inevitably choose of his own volition to believe and be saved unto eternal life - without failure! And the non-elect will not choose to believe without exception! Otherwise God is not Absolutely Sovereign . It would also be against His essence to contradict Himself and renege on His decree and election of Israel as His chosen people and not see to it that a particular chosen generation of Israel will indeed believe and become His chosen people . So it is a future generation of Israel which will all choose to believe in Jesus Christ for salvation unto eternal life and be transformed into perfect, long lived mortal beings who know the Scriptures perfectly and forever serve as His chosen people throughout the Millennual Rule and beyond on the earth as a nation of priests for all the nations of the world. What Dr. Heiser has done is to cherry pick and misinterpret whole passages in Scripture and make up his own theology which indicates that God has failed to see to it that all Israel has chosen to believe in His Son for salvation and therefore He set them aside despite His decrees going against His Absolutely Righteous Integrity! By the way, there is a difference between election of individuals - Jew and Gentile - unto salvation unto eternal life and election of a group of people such as Israel - a generation of Israel to be His Chosen People who will all choose to be saved unto eternal life and be prefectly without sin and know God's Word perfectly
.

XXIV) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

2 cont. If God was able and willing to set aside these elect who did not believe, He will not spare “you”. Who is Paul addressing? Gentiles who were allowed entrance into the people of God through faith. Paul says God expects them to “continue in his kindness” — in my view, this refers to God’s offer of salvation to them — the non-elect.

[Heiser's "
If God was able and willing to set aside these elect who did not believe, He will not spare “you.” Who is Paul addressing? Gentiles who were allowed entrance into the people of God through faith" is a misrepresentation of Scripture. In Ro 11:11-12 to which Heiser refers, groups of people not single individuals are in view, i.e., chosen / elect to represent God as His chosen people on the planet. This is not an election unto salvation unto eternal life passage message to individuals but an election unto a group of people chosen to represent God on the planet - which inevitably requires that each and every individual one of that particular group of people must express a moment of faith alone in the Messiah Savior Jesus Christ alone for forgiveness of sins and then be transformed into perfect / sinless mortal beings of great mortal longevity with a perfect knowledge of God's Word in order to function as God's faithful representatives on earth. This points to the New Covenant that God will inevitably make with Israel and not the church as the latter is not stipulated as a party to the New Covenant with God ; albeit the church had a shot at representing God on earth through faith and faithfulness and did not fare well. Today the church is in apostasy and disaray, hardly representative of God and the gospel of faith alone in God's Son alone for eternal life! Temporal discipline not eternal destruction is in view of those whom God has chosen who are UNfaithful in their representation of God on the earth, as history has shown with Israel, and later with the church which was evidently temporarily grafted in which has not been much better at being faithful to God and will raptured in resurrection bodies and brought back to heaven while the Tribulation period continues the last 7 years of the Mosaic Law period when Israel will finally and unamimously believe in the coming Jesus Christ in His Second Coming and be transformed as prophesied :

[Ro 11:11-12]:

(Ro 11:11 NAS) "I say then, they did not stumble so as to fall, did they? May it never be! But by their transgression salvation has come to the Gentiles, to make them jealous.

(Ro 11:12 NAS) Now if their fall is riches for the world, and their failure riches for the Gentiles, how much more their fullness!"

A) GENERATIONS OF ISRAELITES HAVE STUMBLED IN UNFAITHFULNESS, REJECTING GOD AND HIS GRACE SALVATION; BUT ISRAEL WILL NEVER EXPERIENCE A PERMANENT FALLING / CASTING AWAY FROM GOD, FOR THROUGHOUT HISTORY GOD WILL PRESERVE THE POPULATION OF ISRAELITES FROM EXTINCTION THROUGH THE SURVIVAL OF REMNANTS OF ISRAELITES WHO WILL CONSEQUENTLY BECOME FAITHFUL BELIEVERS SO AS TO FULLFILL HIS PROMISE OF A FUTURE ETERNAL KINGDOM RULED BY AN ETERNAL GENERATION OF FAITHFUL ISRAELITE BELIEVERS TO BE FOREVER HIS CHOSEN PEOPLE TO REPRESENT HIM AND HIS GRACE SALVATION TO THE WORLD

B) ISRAEL'S TRANSGRESSION AS EVIDENCED BY HER UNFAITHFULNESS TOWARD GOD CAUSED THE LORD TO CUT HER OFF FROM TEMPORAL SALVATION / BLESSINGS AND PROVIDE THEM TO THE GENTILES INSTEAD, IN ORDER TO BEST SERVE HIS PURPOSES OF:

(1) PROCLAIMING HIMSELF AND HIS GRACE SALVATION TO MANKIND AND

(2) DISCIPLINING ISRAEL BY MAKING HER JEALOUS OF HIS WORKING WITH AND BLESSING GENTILES INSTEAD OF HER

C) ISRAEL'S TEMPORARY FALLING AWAY FROM THE LORD TRANSLATED INTO RICHES, I.E., TEMPORAL BLESSINGS FOR THE WORLD - TO A UNIQUE GROUP COMPRISED OF FAITHFUL SERVANTS OF THE LORD OF JEWS AND GENTILES ALIKE. AND IN THE FUTURE, SO MUCH THE MORE WILL ISRAEL'S TEMPORARY FALLING AWAY TRANSLATE INTO ISRAEL'S FULLNESS WHEN THE FULL NUMBER OF JEWS DECREED AND CHOSEN BY GOD TO BECOME FAITHFUL BELIEVERS AND SERVANTS OF THE LORD COMPRISES HER PERFECT COMPLETION OF BEING GOD'S CHOSEN PEOPLE. THIS TIME FOREVER"

XI) [Ro 11:22-24]:

(Ro 11:22 NKJV) "Therefore consider the goodness and severity of God: on those who fell, severity; but toward you, goodness, if you continue in His goodness. Otherwise you also will be cut off.

(Ro 11:23 NKJV) And they also, if they do not continue in unbelief, will be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again.

(Ro 11:24 NKJV) For if you were cut out of the olive tree which is wild by nature, and were grafted contrary to nature into a cultivated olive tree, how much more will these, who are natural branches, be grafted into their own olive tree?"

A) CONSIDER THE SEVERITY OF GOD IN HIS RESPONSE TO GENERATIONS OF ISRAEL WHICH FELL INTO CONTINUED UNBELIEF WHEREUPON HE CUT THEM OFF FROM THEIR UNIQUE TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIP WITH HIM. ON THE OTHER HAND, CONSIDER THE GOODNESS OF GOD WHICH HE EXPRESSED TOWARD THOSE GROUPS OF PEOPLE WHO CONTINUED TO BE FAITHFUL TO HIS GOODNESS AS HE ENABLED THEM TO CONTINUE IN THEIR TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIP WITH HIM. FINALLY, CONSIDER HOW MUCH MORE READILY ISRAEL WILL BE GRAFTED BACK INTO HER UNIQUE RELATIONSHIP WITH THE LORD WHEN SHE NO LONGER CONTINUES IN UNBELIEF

(Ro 11:2a NKJV) "God has not cast away His people whom He foreknew... (Ro 11:11 NAS) "I say then, they did not stumble so as to fall, did they? May it never be!But by their transgression salvation has come to the Gentiles, to make them jealous. (Ro 11:13 NKJV) For I speak to you Gentiles; inasmuch as I am an apostle to the Gentiles, I magnify ["doxazO" = glorify] my ministry. (Ro 11:14 NKJV) if ["pOs" = perhaps] I may provoke to jealousy those who are my flesh and save some of them. (Ro 11:15 NKJV) For if their being cast away is the reconciling of the world, what will their acceptance be but life from the dead? (Ro 11:16 NKJV) For if the firstfruit is holy, the lump is also holy; [Num 15:17-21] and if the root is holy, so are the branches. (Ro 11:17 NKJV) And if some of the branches were broken off, and you, being a wild olive tree, were grafted in among them, and with them became a [fellow] partaker of the root and fatness of the olive tree, (Ro 11:18 NKJV) do not boast against the branches. But if you do boast, remember that you do not support the root, but the root supports you; (Ro 11:19 NKJV) You will say then, 'Branches were broken off that I might be grafted in.' (Ro 11:20 NKJV) Well said. Because of unbelief they were broken off, and you stand by faith. Do not be haughty, but fear. (Ro 11:21 NKJV) For if God did not spare the natural branches, He may not spare you either.' (Ro 11:22 NKJV) Therefore consider the goodness and severity of God: on those who fell, severity; but toward you, goodness, if you continue in His goodness. Otherwise you also will be cut off. (Ro 11:23 NKJV) And they also, if they do not continue in unbelief, will be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again. (Ro 11:24 NKJV) For if you were cut out of the olive tree which is wild by nature, and were grafted contrary to nature into a cultivated olive tree, how much more will these, who are natural branches, be grafted into their own olive tree?" =

Consider the severity of God in His response to generations of Israel which fell into continued unbelief whereupon He cut them off from their unique temporal relationship with Him. On the other hand, consider the goodness of God which He expressed toward those groups of people who continued to be faithful to His goodness as He enabled them to continue in their temporal relationship with Him. Finally, consider how much more readily Israel will be grafted back into her unique relationship with the LORD when she no longer continues in unbelief.

Paul concludes his answer to a proposed objector who might arrogantly defend his boasting about his group comprised of people of the world, (Ro 11:15), i.e., predominately Gentile but also Jewish believers of this age replacing Israel as God's chosen people, by saying " 'Branches were broken off that I might be grafted in,' " (Ro 11:19b). Paul's focus is mainly on the Gentile component of that group of people, (Ro 11:13). And Paul says in Ro 11:22, "Therefore [= in conclusion] consider the goodness and severity of God: on those who fell [= referring to those generations of unfaithful Israel who were cast away from fellowship with the LORD]; but toward you [Gentile and Jewish faithful believers of Paul's age with a focus on the Gentile component], goodness, if you continue in His goodness." So if Gentile faithful believers, (as well as Jewish faithful believers), remain faithful to the goodness - the righteousness that characterizes God; then God will bless them all as a group with His goodness. Hence Paul reminds today's group of Gentile and Jewish faithful believers with an emphasis on addressing the Gentiles, that nothing is finalized, there is a need to remain faithful to God; "Otherwise," [Paul says], you [too] will be cut off," (Ro 11:22c). Furthermore, Paul indicates that Israel can at any time [and definitely will in the future as Paul has already stipulated, (cf Ro 11:16)] be grafted back into their unique fellowship with the LORD as His chosen people "if they do not continue in unbelief, for [Paul says] God is able to graft them in again," (Ro 11:23). Hence, Israel's being cut off from her unique temporal fellowship with God will last only as long as she remains unfaithful to the faith of Abraham in a Messiah-Savior Descendant through Isaac, Jesus Christ unto eternal life. Furthermore, Paul compares how much easier it will be for Israel, a natural branch to be grafted back in by God "into their own ['natural'] olive tree", i.e., into their own unique fellowship with Himself, than for the group of Gentile / Jewish believers - branches from a wild olive tree - branches which are not acclimated to the natural olive tree, i.e., that particular order of things that God designed for Israel.

1) [Compare Ro 11:2-5]:

(Ro 11:2 NKJV) "God has not cast away His people whom He foreknew. Or do you not know what the Scripture says of Elijah, how he pleads with God against Israel, saying,

(Ro 11:3 NKJV) 'LORD, they have killed Your prophets and torn down Your altars, and I alone am left, and they seek my life'?

(Ro 11:4 NKJV) But what does the divine response say to him? 'I have reserved for Myself seven thousand men who have not bowed the knee to Baal.' [1 Kgs 19:18]

(Ro 11:5 NKJV) Even so then, at this present time there [has been] a remnant according to the election of grace"

a) God's Foreknowledge = What God Knows With Certainty Will Come To Pass Because He Has Decreed It And Will Intervene To See To It That It Is Fulfilled, i.e., That Which Is According To The Election Of God Being Strictly By His Grace And As Fulfilled Through Him

So God has not cast away His people [Israel] whom He foreknew, hence decreed to be His people forever. He will intervene to see to it that a future generation of Israel becomes faithful believers and His people forever. In the same way, the group of Gentile-Jewish faithful believers of Paul's time receive God's temporal salvation and fellowship by His grace as His chosen representatives to the world of Himself and His grace salvation.

XXV) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

3. Paul also curiously says that if the unbeliever (in cont), the failing Jew who was elect) *does not continue in their unbelief* they will be “grafted in, for God has the power to graft them in again.”

[Nothing curious about this at all if one reads the Bible in accordance with the normative rules of language, context and logic .

Heiser's phrase "if the unbeliever (in cont), the failing Jew who was elect *does not continue in their unbelief*" implies that the failing Jew does not have salvation unto eternal life anymore even though he is elect in the sense part of the population of Jews to be God's chosen people not elect / chosen in the sense of unto eternal life!!!. He keeps on making the same mistake. Furthermore, Heiser makes another mistake: salvation unto eternal life is not dependent upon being faithful. It depends upon only a moment of faith alone in Christ alone plus nothing else . So the elect whether he be a Jew or a Gentile will on an individual basis, apart from whatever population of people to which he belongs does,
- he will inevitably choose of his own volition to express a moment of trust alone in Christ alone + nothing else and be saved forever unto eternal life no matter what he does thereafter .

Then Heiser continues with "
*does not continue in their unbelief* they will be “grafted in, for God has the power to graft them in again.”" Heiser evidently cherry picked this idea out of context from Ro 11:23 - implying outside of the context that the Jew who is elect of God who has evidently for a season has continued in unbelief will nevertheless be grafted back into salvation unto eternal life if he repents and no longer continues in unbelief. But this ignores the context of the people of Israel - the elect chosen people of God  being in view who have been unfaithful to God in representing Him as His chosen people to the peoples of the earth. This is not about individuals being elect of God who are Jews unto eternal life but about generations of the people of Israel who are chosen / elect to be representatives of God on the earth! Dr. Heiser also does not understand that once saved one is always saved . One does not get to be cut off from salvation for any reason and then grafted back into ones childhood with God once one repents once more to become born again again; because eternal life is eternally secure no matter what. This will not occur any more than a human father can graft his lost son back into his DNA after de-son-ing his son. On the other hand, God's chosen people of a future generation of Israel will be grafted back in as His Chosen people when all of an generation of Israel - yet future - to a man choose to trust alone in Christ alone unto eternal life to be transformed by God into a generation of sinless, longlived mortal beings who know the Word of God perfectly so as to minister to the nations of the world as priests of the living God - this is the fulfillment of the New Covenant that God will implement exclusively with the House of Judah and the House of Israel . Heretofore since ancient times of repeated failure, Israel was declared to no longer be God's Chosen people until some future generation will all trust in Christ, (Compare Ro 9:25-26 ). And that future generation of Israelites will be reestablished as God's chosen people forever in fulfillment of the New Covenant with them . Upon examination of Jer 31:31-34 in the stipulations of the parties to that covenant, you will immediately notice that God's New Covenant is solely with the House of Israel and the House of Judah and no one else.

XI) [Ro 11:22-24]:

(Ro 11:22 NKJV) "Therefore consider the goodness and severity of God: on those who fell, severity; but toward you, goodness, if you continue in His goodness. Otherwise you also will be cut off.

(Ro 11:23 NKJV) And they also, if they do not continue in unbelief, will be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again.

(Ro 11:24 NKJV) For if you were cut out of the olive tree which is wild by nature, and were grafted contrary to nature into a cultivated olive tree, how much more will these, who are natural branches, be grafted into their own olive tree?"

A) CONSIDER THE SEVERITY OF GOD IN HIS RESPONSE TO GENERATIONS OF ISRAEL WHICH FELL INTO CONTINUED UNBELIEF WHEREUPON HE CUT THEM OFF FROM THEIR UNIQUE TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIP WITH HIM. ON THE OTHER HAND, CONSIDER THE GOODNESS OF GOD WHICH HE EXPRESSED TOWARD THOSE GROUPS OF PEOPLE WHO CONTINUED TO BE FAITHFUL TO HIS GOODNESS AS HE ENABLED THEM TO CONTINUE IN THEIR TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIP WITH HIM. FINALLY, CONSIDER HOW MUCH MORE READILY ISRAEL WILL BE GRAFTED BACK INTO HER UNIQUE RELATIONSHIP WITH THE LORD WHEN SHE NO LONGER CONTINUES IN UNBELIEF

(Ro 11:2a NKJV) "God has not cast away His people whom He foreknew... (Ro 11:11 NAS) "I say then, they did not stumble so as to fall, did they? May it never be!But by their transgression salvation has come to the Gentiles, to make them jealous. (Ro 11:13 NKJV) For I speak to you Gentiles; inasmuch as I am an apostle to the Gentiles, I magnify ["doxazO" = glorify] my ministry. (Ro 11:14 NKJV) if ["pOs" = perhaps] I may provoke to jealousy those who are my flesh and save some of them. (Ro 11:15 NKJV) For if their being cast away is the reconciling of the world, what will their acceptance be but life from the dead? (Ro 11:16 NKJV) For if the firstfruit is holy, the lump is also holy; [Num 15:17-21] and if the root is holy, so are the branches. (Ro 11:17 NKJV) And if some of the branches were broken off, and you, being a wild olive tree, were grafted in among them, and with them became a [fellow] partaker of the root and fatness of the olive tree, (Ro 11:18 NKJV) do not boast against the branches. But if you do boast, remember that you do not support the root, but the root supports you; (Ro 11:19 NKJV) You will say then, 'Branches were broken off that I might be grafted in.' (Ro 11:20 NKJV) Well said. Because of unbelief they were broken off, and you stand by faith. Do not be haughty, but fear. (Ro 11:21 NKJV) For if God did not spare the natural branches, He may not spare you either.' (Ro 11:22 NKJV) Therefore consider the goodness and severity of God: on those who fell, severity; but toward you, goodness, if you continue in His goodness. Otherwise you also will be cut off. (Ro 11:23 NKJV) And they also, if they do not continue in unbelief, will be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again. (Ro 11:24 NKJV) For if you were cut out of the olive tree which is wild by nature, and were grafted contrary to nature into a cultivated olive tree, how much more will these, who are natural branches, be grafted into their own olive tree?" =

Consider the severity of God in His response to generations of Israel which fell into continued unbelief whereupon He cut them off from their unique temporal relationship with Him. On the other hand, consider the goodness of God which He expressed toward those groups of people who continued to be faithful to His goodness as He enabled them to continue in their temporal relationship with Him. Finally, consider how much more readily Israel will be grafted back into her unique relationship with the LORD when she no longer continues in unbelief.

Paul concludes his answer to a proposed objector who might arrogantly defend his boasting about his group comprised of people of the world, (Ro 11:15), i.e., predominately Gentile but also Jewish believers of this age replacing Israel as God's chosen people, by saying " 'Branches were broken off that I might be grafted in,' " (Ro 11:19b). Paul's focus is mainly on the Gentile component of that group of people, (Ro 11:13). And Paul says in Ro 11:22, "Therefore [= in conclusion] consider the goodness and severity of God: on those who fell [= referring to those generations of unfaithful Israel who were cast away from fellowship with the LORD]; but toward you [Gentile and Jewish faithful believers of Paul's age with a focus on the Gentile component], goodness, if you continue in His goodness." So if Gentile faithful believers, (as well as Jewish faithful believers), remain faithful to the goodness - the righteousness that characterizes God; then God will bless them all as a group with His goodness. Hence Paul reminds today's group of Gentile and Jewish faithful believers with an emphasis on addressing the Gentiles, that nothing is finalized, there is a need to remain faithful to God; "Otherwise," [Paul says], you [too] will be cut off," (Ro 11:22c). Furthermore, Paul indicates that Israel can at any time [and definitely will in the future as Paul has already stipulated, (cf Ro 11:16)] be grafted back into their unique fellowship with the LORD as His chosen people "if they do not continue in unbelief, for [Paul says] God is able to graft them in again," (Ro 11:23). Hence, Israel's being cut off from her unique temporal fellowship with God will last only as long as she remains unfaithful to the faith of Abraham in a Messiah-Savior Descendant through Isaac, Jesus Christ unto eternal life. Furthermore, Paul compares how much easier it will be for Israel, a natural branch to be grafted back in by God "into their own ['natural'] olive tree", i.e., into their own unique fellowship with Himself, than for the group of Gentile / Jewish believers - branches from a wild olive tree - branches which are not acclimated to the natural olive tree, i.e., that particular order of things that God designed for Israel.

1) [Compare Ro 11:2-5]:

(Ro 11:2 NKJV) "God has not cast away His people whom He foreknew. Or do you not know what the Scripture says of Elijah, how he pleads with God against Israel, saying,

(Ro 11:3 NKJV) 'LORD, they have killed Your prophets and torn down Your altars, and I alone am left, and they seek my life'?

(Ro 11:4 NKJV) But what does the divine response say to him? 'I have reserved for Myself seven thousand men who have not bowed the knee to Baal.' [1 Kgs 19:18]

(Ro 11:5 NKJV) Even so then, at this present time there [has been] a remnant according to the election of grace"

a) God's Foreknowledge = What God Knows With Certainty Will Come To Pass Because He Has Decreed It And Will Intervene To See To It That It Is Fulfilled, i.e., That Which Is According To The Election Of God Being Strictly By His Grace And As Fulfilled Through Him

So God has not cast away His people [Israel] whom He foreknew, hence decreed to be His people forever. He will intervene to see to it that a future generation of Israel becomes faithful believers and His people forever. In the same way, the group of Gentile-Jewish faithful believers of Paul's time - the church - receive God's temporal salvation and fellowship by His grace as His chosen representatives to the world of Himself and His grace salvation.

XXVI) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

3 cont. Paul also curiously says that if the unbeliever (in cont), the failing Jew who was elect) *does not continue in their unbelief* they will be “grafted in, for God has the power to graft them in again.”

Did you catch all that? Paul appears to be clearly saying that, just as was the case with the elect of Israel, God can and will set aside those who don’t continue keep believing, and can graft in those who do believe (and, we presume, keep believing).

[Heiser continues to miss the point about salvation unto eternal life as opposed to the temporal salvation / preservation of believers from temporal difficulty unto temporal blessing - not eternal. You don't have to continue to do anything once you are saved unto eternal life to preserve that eternal life, i.e., entrance into the eternal Kingdom of God / Heaven.

Consider Jn 3:16 and hundreds of other salvation unto eternal life passages :

b) [Compare Jn 3:16]:


(Jn 3:16 HOLMAN) "For God so loved the world that He gave His one and only Son, that whoever believes [Greek = "pas ho pisteuon" = everyone the believing (one)] shall not perish but have eternal life."


Notice that the verb form which is a nominative participle phrase with the definite article rendered "the" = everyone who is the believing (one) has a moment of faith alone in Christ alone in view, not an ongoing believing or faithfulness. Hundreds of verses indicate this : whereupon the individual will never perish; but just the opposite: he immediately begins to have eternal life forever - because once begun it is eternal without having to continue to believe or continue to be faithful at all!!!!!

XXVII) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

I ask you now to entertain this question:  “Is there, or will there be, anyone in heaven who does not believe?”  That is, are there any in heaven who do not follow Yahweh, or who have rejected Christ?  I would say, no.

[What you are saying is true except for the presence of demonic angels when they are permitted in heaven. On the other hand, none of those who dwell upon the earth in temporal bodies, with those who have expressed a moment of faith alone in Christ alone in view goes to heaven without being transformed into perfect resurrection bodies which seals one unto perfect faith and perfect faithfulness. So believers on this side of heaven cannot claim to live perfectly faithul lives in their mortal temporal bodies before they are so transformed:

c) [Compare 1 Jn 1:8, 9]:

(1 Jn 1:8 NASB) "If we [believers] claim to be without sin, we deceive ourselves and the truth is not in us.

(1 Jn 1:10 NASB) If we [believers] say we have not sinned, we make Him [God] a liar and His word is not in us.
"]

XXVIII) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

I think this is the point of the passages in Hebrews I cited in earlier posts. the writer of Hebrews is genuinely concerned that those who professed to follow Christ would fail in there faith or belief. 

[You do realize that the Epistle to the Hebrews has especially in view, believers in the Church Age who are Jews, and not Israel as God's chosen people. For Israel has not been and will not be the chosen people of God until a later generation when all that generation 
God's chosen people of a future generation of Israel will be grafted back in as His Chosen people when all of an generation of Israel - yet future - to a man choose to trust alone in Christ alone unto eternal life to be transformed by God into a generation of sinless, longlived mortal beings who know the Word of God perfectly so as to minister to the nations of the world as priests of the living God - this is the fulfillment of the New Covenant that God will implement exclusively with the House of Judah and the House of Israel . Heretofore since ancient times of repeated failure, Israel was declared to no longer be God's Chosen people until some future generation will all trust in Christ, (Compare Ro 9:25-26 ). And that future generation of Israelites will be re-established as God's chosen people forever in fulfillment of the New Covenant with them. . Upon examination of Jer 31:31-34 in the stipulations of the parties to that covenant, you will immediately notice that God's New Covenant is solely with the House of Israel and the House of Judah and no one else.

XXIX) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

Let’s juxtapose Romans 11 with Hebrews for some perspective:

Romans 11:20 – They were broken off because of their unbelief, but you stand fast through faith. So do not become proud, but fear.


Hebrews 3:12 – Take care, brothers, lest there be in any of you an evil, unbelieving heart, leading you to fall away from the living God.


Hebrews 3:19 – So we see that they were unable to enter [i.e., Israelites in the exodus] because of unbelief.

Hebrews 3:12 is especially important since it links “falling away” (apostasia) with unbelief. They are mutually defining.

The bottom line us that, regardless of what profession we make or have made in terms of faith in Christ, we must believe to have eternal life (John 3:16 – what else?). We are not eternally secure because of a prayer we prayed at some point in our past if we do not now believe. There is no assurance without belief. There is no security without belief. No one goes to heaven who does not believe the gospel (or whatever revelation God gave to them to elicit a faith response, as in the Old Testament, before the work of Christ). We must believe.

Heiser begins with the premise that Romans 11 may be compared with Hebrews as if they are of the same context:

"
Let’s juxtapose Romans 11 with Hebrews for some perspective:"

But there is no viable perspective if you compare these two passages as if they both have comparable contexts. Do not forget that the context of Romans 11 is about God's chosen people Israel as His chosen representatives to be priests of a Holy God to the rest of humanity; and the Book of Hebrews is about individual believers in the Body of Christ, the Church both Jew and Gentile]


XXX) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

Romans 11:20 – They were broken off because of their unbelief, but you stand fast through faith. So do not become proud, but fear.

[Compare Ro 11:19-21]:

(Ro 11:19 NKJV) "You will say then, 'Branches were broken off that I might be grafted in.'

(Ro 11:20 NKJV) Well said. Because of unbelief they were broken off, and you stand by faith. Do not be haughty, but fear.

(Ro 11:21 NKJV) For if God did not spare the natural branches, He may not spare you either.' "

BECAUSE OF UNBELIEF, GENERATIONS OF ISRAEL WERE BROKEN OFF FROM THEIR UNIQUE TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIP WITH THE LORD, BUT THE NEW FOUND GROUP OF GENTILE / JEWISH FAITHFUL BELIEVERS OF PAUL'S TIME WHO NOW STAND IN THEIR OWN UNIQUE RELATIONSHIP WITH THE LORD, INSTEAD OF ISRAEL, MUST NOT BE HAUGHTY, BUT INSTEAD FEAR GOD WHO DID NOT SPARE THE NATURAL BRANCHES, ISRAEL, WHEN SHE DEMONSTRATED UNBELIEF. HENCE HE MAY NOT SPARE THEM EITHER IMPLYING THAT THEY MUST CONTINUE IN THE FAITH]

XXXI) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

Let’s juxtapose Romans 11 with Hebrews for some perspective:

Romans 11:20 – They were broken off because of their unbelief, but you stand fast through faith. So do not become proud, but fear.


Hebrews 3:12 – Take care, brothers, lest there be in any of you an evil, unbelieving heart, leading you to fall away from the living God.


Hebrews 3:19 – So we see that they were unable to enter [i.e., Israelites in the exodus] because of unbelief.

Hebrews 3:12 is especially important since it links “falling away” (apostasia) with unbelief. They are mutually defining.

The bottom line us that, regardless of what profession we make or have made in terms of faith in Christ, we must believe to have eternal life (John 3:16 – what else?). We are not eternally secure because of a prayer we prayed at some point in our past if we do not now believe. There is no assurance without belief. There is no security without belief. No one goes to heaven who does not believe the gospel (or whatever revelation God gave to them to elicit a faith response, as in the Old Testament, before the work of Christ). We must believe.

[Romans 11 is not about salvation unto eternal life but about being God's representative / chosen people on the earth - a particular group of people are in view depending upon context. First it was Israel and then they got cut off, but not forever. Now these nearly 2,000 years it's Jew & Gentile together as the Body of Christ, the Church who God has appointed to represent Him on the earth, albeit faithfully. And what a terrible job the Church has done over all these years!!! Soon a remnant of people who comprise believers in Christ from the inception of the Church will be taken off the planet by Jesus in the Rapture to give Israel one more chance to all believe, be saved and be transformed into perfect long living beings in mortal bodies who know the Bible perfectly - finally become His Chosen People in fulfillment of the New Covenant .      

[Compare Ro 11:22-24]:

(Ro 11:22 NKJV) "Therefore consider the goodness and severity of God: on those who fell, severity; but toward you, goodness, if you continue in His goodness. Otherwise you also will be cut off.

(Ro 11:23 NKJV) And they also, if they do not continue in unbelief, will be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again.

(Ro 11:24 NKJV) For if you were cut out of the olive tree which is wild by nature, and were grafted contrary to nature into a cultivated olive tree, how much more will these, who are natural branches, be grafted into their own olive tree?"

CONSIDER THE SEVERITY OF GOD IN HIS RESPONSE TO GENERATIONS OF ISRAEL WHICH FELL INTO CONTINUED UNBELIEF WHEREUPON HE CUT THEM OFF FROM THEIR UNIQUE TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIP WITH HIM. ON THE OTHER HAND, CONSIDER THE GOODNESS OF GOD WHICH HE EXPRESSED TOWARD THOSE GROUPS OF PEOPLE WHO CONTINUED TO BE FAITHFUL TO HIS GOODNESS AS HE ENABLED THEM TO CONTINUE IN THEIR TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIP WITH HIM. FINALLY, CONSIDER HOW MUCH MORE READILY ISRAEL WILL BE GRAFTED BACK INTO HER UNIQUE RELATIONSHIP WITH THE LORD WHEN SHE NO LONGER CONTINUES IN UNBELIEF]

XXXII) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

Let’s juxtapose Romans 11 with Hebrews for some perspective:

Romans 11:20 – They were broken off because of their unbelief, but you stand fast through faith. So do not become proud, but fear.


Hebrews 3:12 – Take care, brothers, lest there be in any of you an evil, unbelieving heart, leading you to fall away from the living God.


Hebrews 3:19 – So we see that they were unable to enter [i.e., Israelites in the exodus] because of unbelief.

Hebrews 3:12 is especially important since it links “falling away” (apostasia) with unbelief. They are mutually defining.

The bottom line us that, regardless of what profession we make or have made in terms of faith in Christ, we must believe to have eternal life (John 3:16 – what else?). We are not eternally secure because of a prayer we prayed at some point in our past if we do not now believe. There is no assurance without belief. There is no security without belief. No one goes to heaven who does not believe the gospel (or whatever revelation God gave to them to elicit a faith response, as in the Old Testament, before the work of Christ). We must believe.

[Let's take a look at the context of Hebrews Chapter 3 to see how it compares to Romans Chapter 11]:

THE REST OF GOD

INTRODUCTION:

The book of Hebrews is frequently misinterpreted and misused to support heretical teaching. The context of the entire book of Hebrews must especially be entered upon before examining any chapter or passage. Eternally secure Jewish born again believers in Christ as Messiah/Savior are predominately in view in the Book of Hebrews with occasional admonishments to Jewish unbelievers to avoid the consequences of ignoring the gospel of salvation by not trusting alone in Christ alone as Savior. The major purpose of the Book of Hebrews is, therefore, to exhort Jewish born again believers not to go back to the Mosaic rule of life as a means to get or maintain salvation. The Mosaic rule of life, among other things, represented only a picture of the once for all time sacrifice of our Lord for the sins of the whole world which sacrifice they have already permanently entrusted themselves to in reality. So why go back to a picture when they already have the real thing - once for all time? The Mosaic Law system to which they aspired to return to represented a life style which was completely superseded by a lifestyle of freedom and grace in Christ and not the former lifestyle of keeping a set of impossible rules, (Ref. Gal chapter 5). The consequences of going back to the Mosaic Law and falsely using it as a system of merit unto eternal life, to which it was never intended, (Ref. Romans 3:28; Gal 3:11, 24), is indicated as resulting in loss of the present and future eternal rewards to the believer and eternal condemnation for the unbeliever. These consequences are clearly stated in the warning passages which appear throughout the book, which admonish Jews who are NOT believers not to miss so great a salvation by ignoring, (not trusting in), the message of eternal life, (2:1-4; 10:26-31); and admonishing Jews who are believers to avoid the consequences of loss of 'rest' in Christ - meaning loss of temporal and eternal rewards which a faithful lifestyle is rewarded with (3:7-4:13; 5:11-6:20; 12:18-29). So there are two consequences to an unfaithful life: one of eternal condemnation for the individual who never trusted alone in Christ alone as Savior, (Ref. Jn 3:18; 1 Jn 5:9-13); and one of loss of 'rest', i.e., rewards for the believer in this life and in the eternal life to come, (Eph 5:1-14; 1 Cor 6:9-10).

Bruce Wilkinson states, (Tyndale Lay Institute, Ft. Worth, Texas, course on Hebrews);

"Many Jewish believers, having stepped out of Judaism into Christianity, wanted to reverse their course in order to escape persecution by their countrymen. The writer of Hebrews exhorts them to 'press on' to maturity in Christ. His appeal is based on the superiority of Christ over the Judaic system. Christ is better than the angels, for they worship Him. [1:1-14] He is better than Moses, for Moses was created by Him. [3:1-19] He is better than the Aaronic priesthood, for His sacrifice was once for all. [5:1-8:5] He is better than the Law, for He mediates a better covenant. [8:6-10:18]"

[Heb 3:1]:

CHRIST, THE SON, SUPERIOR TO MOSES, THE SERVANT

"Therefore, holy brothers, who share in the heavenly calling, fix your thoughts on Jesus, the Apostle and High Priest Whom we confess."

"Therefore" = Refers back to previous text: Therefore since Christ did suffer and make atonement for your sins, (2:14-18).

"Holy brothers" = fellow Christians, not fellow Jews. Cp Gal 1:11 = "brothers" = believers

1 Cor 1:2 = "holy ones" i.e., saints = believers.

Col 1:2 = "holy and faithful brothers" = believers

"share in the heavenly calling" = believers ONLY are sharers in a heavenly calling, i.e., they "received the effective call of God to salvation."

[Homer A. Kent, Jr., 'The Epistle to the Hebrews', BMH Books, Winona Lake, In., 1990, p. 63]:

"fix your thoughts on Jesus" = "Every believer needs to examine continually the content of his Christian confession in order that the implications of that confession may be more clearly understood in the light of his increasing spiritual understanding."

[Kent, Ibid]:

[Heb 3:1 cont.]:

"Therefore, holy brothers, who share in the heavenly calling, fix your thoughts on Jesus, the Apostle and High Priest Whom we confess."

"the Apostle and High Priest" = God's highest Apostle and High Priest because He, Christ, is the Messenger and High Priest of their confession.

"Whom [Christ] we confess." = Only believers truly confess Christ.

[Heb 3:2]:

" [See how] faithful He [Jesus Christ] was to Him [God the Father] Who appointed Him [Apostle and High Priest] as Moses was also faithful in the whole house [of God - the Temple]."

"The readers are urged to consider Jesus as to His faithfulness as an Apostle and High Priest. He was faithful to God His Father, even as Moses was faithful to God.' [Kent, op. cit. p. 64]

[cp. Num 12:7]: "But not so with My [God's] servant Moses; he is entrusted and faithful in all My house."

"My house" = Refers to the Tabernacle itself as it does in Heb 3;2.

Further confirmation that chapter 3 refers to believers only: One would not and could not consider how faithful Christ was to the Father until he is a believer who therefore has Christ as his faithful Savior. Only believers can consider and understand how faithful Jesus Christ was to God the Father in His role as Savior. For such a concept is foolishness to an unbeliever , especially a religious Jewish unbeliever:

[1 Cor 2:14]:

"But a natural man [unbeliever or carnal believer] does not accept the things of the Spirit of God; for they are foolishness to him, and he cannot understand them, because they are spiritually appraised."

[Heb 3:3 Amplified]:

"Yet Jesus has been considered worthy of as much greater honor and glory than Moses as the builder of a house has more honor than the house. [itself] "

Zane Hodges states, (The bible Knowledge Commentary, New Testament Edition, John F. Walvoord, Roy B. Zuck, Editors, Victor Books, USA, 1988, p. 786):

"But Jesus as a Builder excels Moses in honor since Moses simply was a servant carrying out instructions. But what Jesus has built is, in fact, everything for God is the Builder of everything; [i.e., Jesus Christ is God]"

[Heb 3:4]:

"For [because] every house is built and furnished by someone, but the Builder of all things and the Furnisher is God.'

Zane Hodges, op. cit., p. 786:

"The 'holy of holies' in His [Christ's] earthly house was but a shadow of heaven itself where Christ has now gone 'To appear for us in God's presence' (9:24). Moses' fidelity consisted in erecting that shadow house, the Tabernacle, so that it could properly prefigure the future order of priestly activity which now has the universe itself as its proper sphere. This is the sphere where the exalted Christ sits faithful in all His current ministrations as well as past ones, functioning as a Son over God's house."

HOLDING FAST AND FIRM TO THE END

[Heb 3:5-6]:

(v. 5) "And Moses certainly was faithful in the administration of all God's house, but it was only as a ministering servant. In his entire ministry he was but a testimony to the things which were to be spoken - the revelations to be given afterward in Christ.

(v. 6) "But Christ, the Messiah, was faithful over His own Father's house as a Son and Master of it. And it is we who are not members of this house, if we hold fast and firm to the end our joyful and exultant confidence and sense of triumph in our hope in Christ."

Zane Hodges, op. cit., p. 786:

"By a natural semantic shift to which the Greek word for house naturally lends itself, the writer moved from the thought of the house as the sphere where priestly activities transpired [i.e., the Temple] to the thought of the 'house' as consisting of the people who engaged in these activities [to all believers who each have their own priesthood]. His readers, he affirmed, comprise His (the Son's) 'house' contingent, however, on one important consideration: if they hold on to their courage... ...and the hope of which they boast... [which is a sure hope in eternal life]... [In other words] ...if some of the writers' Christian "brothers" should fall prey to an unbelieving heart which turns away from God] ...They would forfeit their roles... [not their salvation] ...in the Son's priestly house, which is only maintained by holding firmly to their Christian profession...."

So a Christian who loses courage and thereby would become faithless becomes useless as an ambassador to Jesus Christ and is useless to himself relative to his future life in heaven. For at the Judgment Seat of Christ he will receive few if any rewards, (2 Cor 5:10, 1 Cor 3:9-15).

As a matter of fact, a Christian can remain in the royal family of God, (1 Pet 2:9; Gal 6:10), but lose his inheritance in heaven. And all believers each have a unique inheritance set aside for them, (ref. Col 1:9-12). A Christian will also lose his inheritance in heaven for living an immoral life but not his salvation, (Eph 5:1-6; Gal 5:19-21; 1 Cor 6:9-11). And Mt 25:14-30 illustrates that a believer's position, rewards and state of happiness IN HEAVEN are highly affected by what he does on earth.

All of these passages can be reviewed by going to the index and clicking on the passage of choice.

There are going to be differences even to the point that for a time there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth for all of those who were faithless. They will be cast into the relative darkness outside the place of the marriage supper of the Lord Jesus Christ and His bride the church.

Imagine that those believers who at long last reach heaven's shores and who receive their immortal bodies and who are married to the Lord Jesus Christ, (in heaven before the Second Coming), are then cast out of the joyful marriage supper, outside the brilliance of His glory and loving presence for the time of the marriage supper, a millennium, due to a wasteful immoral faithless life here on earth. They surely will weep and gnash their teeth in utter disappointment and sorrow! (Compare re: marriage supper: Mt 22:1-14; 8:11-12; Rev 19:7-9; 7:17.).

Finally, Lk 19:12-27 illustrates the same principles of rewards and position in heaven relative to faithfulness on earth. Note that the wicked servant remains a servant but ends up with nothing for a whole eternity! For he wasted his short life on earth.

Zane Hodges states, (op. cit., p. 786):

"As long as the readership held firmly to their Christian commitment, they also functioned within this priestly arrangement [being members of the house of God, i.e., the Body of Christ]. But just as one was a true Levite by birth could withdraw from participation in the Tabernacle of Moses' day, so too one who is truly a Christian by new birth may withdraw from his priestly role... [via sin, unbelief, lack of divine good works, wrong theology, etc.] within the functioning household [of God - the body of Christ]..."

So faithlessness is NOT the cause for one to lose ones salvation:

[Compare 2 Tim 2:11-13]:

(v. 11) "Here is a trustworthy saying: 'If we died with Him we will also live with Him;

[By trusting alone in Christ alone, an individual is viewed by God as having died with Christ on the cross in order to have appropriated to him the payment and forgiveness for all of his sins, thereby being justified unto eternal life, (cp. Acts 10:43; Ro 6:3-10)]

(v. 12) If we endure, we will also reign with Him.

[Notice that an enduring faith will result in the reward of co-ruling with Christ]

(v. 13) If we are faithless...

[But if a believer is without faith, he cannot lose his salvation because of Christ's promise of eternal life to every believer]

...He will remain faithful...

[to His promise of eternal life to the believer]

...for He cannot disown Himself"

["Himself" = His body = He cannot disown the body of believers, the Church, who are His body and are eternally secure no matter what]

So in one sense, only faithful Christians are His house - i.e., faithful representatives / Ambassadors of Jesus Christ]

XXXII cont) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

Let’s juxtapose Romans 11 with Hebrews for some perspective:

Romans 11:20 – They were broken off because of their unbelief, but you stand fast through faith. So do not become proud, but fear.
Hebrews 3:12 – Take care, brothers, lest there be in any of you an evil, unbelieving heart, leading you to fall away from the living God.

Hebrews 3:19 – So we see that they were unable to enter [i.e., Israelites in the exodus] because of unbelief.

Hebrews 3:12 is especially important since it links “falling away” (apostasia) with unbelief. They are mutually defining.

The bottom line us that, regardless of what profession we make or have made in terms of faith in Christ, we must believe to have eternal life (John 3:16 – what else?). We are not eternally secure because of a prayer we prayed at some point in our past if we do not now believe. There is no assurance without belief. There is no security without belief. No one goes to heaven who does not believe the gospel (or whatever revelation God gave to them to elicit a faith response, as in the Old Testament, before the work of Christ). We must believe.

[Heiser states above, "
Hebrews 3:12 is especially important since it links “falling away” (apostasia) with unbelief. They are mutually defining."

No they are not. The Greek word "apostasia" 
rendered "apostasy" is defined as departure from what one believes. Unbelief is defined as not believing something, whether or not they believed it before. One may not believe in something that one has never before believed.

[Heiser then states, "The bottom line us that, regardless of what profession we make or have made in terms of faith in Christ, we must believe to have eternal life (John 3:16 – what else?)."

I don't understand what "
regardless of what profession we make or have made in terms of faith in Christ" means when it is followed by "we must believe to have eternal life (John 3:16 – what else?)." It sounds redundant if not nonsensical. A profession of faith in the sense of telling others what one believes in terms of faith in Christ is not specific enough to provide eternal life. Besides you can profess what you believe and still not believe in it. That's called lying. Nevertheless, at least Heiser states "we must believe to have eternal life (John 3:16 – what else?)." But from what he has written in this blog, I don't think he understands what John 3:16 is actually saying. The verse states that whoever believes that God gave His one and only Son in the sense of a moment of faith alone in Christ's payment alone for ones sins so that whoever believes in the sense of whoever is the believing one - signifying a moment of faith - that the Son of God paid for ones sins immediately has - present tense possession of eternal life . For then he writes "We are not eternally secure because of a prayer we prayed at some point in our past if we do not now believe. "

Is he saying that if we do not now believe we are not saved?? Sounds like it. Nonsense. We are eternally secure because of the moment of faith alone we expressed in the Son of God for payment for our sins unto eternal life - without praying anything. If you pray for salvation you will not receive it because salvation unto eternal life is a gift, not by anything you do like praying. It is not dependant upon ongoing believing either although continuing to believe even continuing to be faithful result in lots of blessings in this life and rewards in the next life
. That's what all the salvation passages including Jn 3:16 stipulate: a moment of faith alone in Christ alone. Notice in Jn 3:16 "pas ho pisteuon" rendered "everyone [who is] the believing [one] has eternal life which begins at the moment of faith never to end  because it is eternal!! .

XXXIII) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

I think at this point it is important to point out that a person can sin — and very badly — and still be believing. There are plenty of scriptural examples. Unbelief should also not be equated with doubt.

[Does this man use a dictionary???? To doubt you have eternal life is not to believe you have eternal life.]

XXXIV) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

There are scriptural examples there, too — Thomas, the psalmist or prophet who asks where God is in time of trouble, etc. I would go further and also say that unbelief is also not the instance where a believer succumbs to fear or persecution. Unbelief is a decision of the heart that one no longer believes the gospel, that one no longer wishes to follow Christ / Yahweh.

[Someone get this man a dictionary and a bible!

d) [Compare Jn 20:27-29]:

(Jn 20:27 NASB) '''Then He said to Thomas, "Reach here with your finger, and see My hands; and reach here your hand and put it into My side; and do not be unbelieving, but believing."

(Jn 20:28 NASB) Thomas answered and said to Him, "My Lord and my God!"

(Jn 20:29 NASB) Jesus said to him, "Because you have seen Me, have you believed? Blessed are they who did not see, and yet believed." '''


Jn 20:27 indicates that Thomas doubted / did not at first believe that Who he was looking at was the risen Christ.

Furthermore, asking where God is in time of trouble is evidencing lack of faith that He will deliver you!! When a believer succumbs to fear or persecution at that time he is not believing that God will deliver him. Unbelief is not a decision of the heart, the heart pumps blood! Unbelief / belief occurs in the mind the center of cognitive activity! It is defined as a mental assent .


XXXV) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

Unbelief is a decision of the heart that one no longer believes the gospel, that one no longer wishes to follow Christ / Yahweh. It is spiritual apostasy

[The content of what one believes is not limited to the spiritual realm or the physical realm. It depends upon context. Certainly the Risen Jesus Christ was physical, otherwise Thomas could not have touched Jesus' wounds!!! Does Heiser think Thomas was no longer saved??????

Heiser's declarations are becoming editorialisms of the Bible. Apostasy simply means not believing what one formerly believed which again depends upon context, which in this case is to no longer believe in Christ for salvation unto eternal life. Which by the way WILL NOT CAUSE

ONE TO LOSE ONES SALVATION ]

XXXVI) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

— choosing another god or no god at all. No one is in heaven who does not believe — and that is the point any detractors of my position must show to be otherwise.

[The demonic angels have access to God and do not believe unto salvation. What is this man ranting and raving about!!!  I am going to heaven despite my daily failings which all mortal men except Jesus Christ have.  No one can claim to be without sin or to have not sinned in their mortal lives even the most 'faithful' believers . Nevertheless all of who have been saved by grace through a moment of faith will make it to heaven's shores, albeit in sinless and perfect resurrection bodies, 

XXXVII) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

I think it noteworthy in light of this that, in the long list of what cannot separate us from God’s love, unbelief does not appear. Why? Because that can separate us from God’s love — in fact it keeps us from God’s love shown to us in Christ.

[May I recommend a reading course to this man. The context of the passage Mr. Heiser is referring to believers!!!! Those who have already expressed faith in Christ unto eternal life. Hence there is no one in view who is an unbeliever in the sense of one who has never expressed a moment of faith alone in Christ alone. Furthermore the context excludes nothing. It is all inclusive! Paul's list of 10 items begins with death, where the list of 7 items in verse 35 ended):

[Compare Ro 8:35-39]:


(Ro 8:35 NASB) "Who will separate us from the love of Christ? Will tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword?

(Ro 8:35 NASB) Just as it is written, "FOR YOUR SAKE WE ARE BEING PUT TO DEATH ALL DAY LONG; WE WERE CONSIDERED AS SHEEP TO BE SLAUGHTERED."

(Ro 8:35 NASB) But in all these things we overwhelmingly conquer through Him who loved us.

(Ro 8:35 NASB) For I am convinced that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor things present, nor things to come, nor powers,

(Ro 8:35 NASB) nor height, nor depth, nor any other created thing, will be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord."

These elements in God's universe include the extremes of existence: (1) death and (2) life (in either death [2 Cor. 5:8-9] or life, believers are in God's presence); the extremes of created spiritual armies: (3) angels and (4) demons (angels would not and demons could not undo God's relationship with His redeemed ones); the extremes in time: (5) the present and (6) the future (nothing known now, e.g., the hardships listed in Rom. 8:35, or in the unknown time to come); spiritual enemies: (7) powers (perhaps Satan and his demons; cf. Eph. 6:12; or possibly human governments); the extremes in space: (8) height and (9) depth (nothing overhead or underneath can suddenly come swooping down or up to sever believers from God's love); and (10) everything in the entire created realm. Absolutely nothing in His Creation can thwart His purpose for believers in Christ. What a climactic way to affirm the certainty of believers' salvation!

Nevertheless, believers cannot lose their salvation no matter what, even if they ever stop believing,

e) [Compare Ro 8:38-39]:

(Ro 8:38 NASB) "For I am convinced that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor things present, nor things to come, nor powers,

(Ro 8:39 NASB) nor height, nor depth, nor any other created thing, will be able to separate us [who are believers] from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord."


XXXVIII) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

No sins of the flesh can remove us from the family of God.

[True. For those who have believed on the name of Jesus Christ have become born again into the family of God based solely on that moment of faith alone in the Word become flesh, Jesus Christ alone, (1 Jn 1:12-13; 3:16). Thereafter one cannot be unborn of God for any reason, nor can one lose ones salvation unto eternal life. For being born from above into the family of God, i.e., salvation unto eternal life is "not of yourselves, it is the gift of God, not by works [all of which rules out any commission of the sins of the flesh], (ref. Eph 2:8). On the other hand, Dr. Heiser evidently does not believe in what Scripture says one must do to have eternal life so his point that "
No sins of the flesh can remove us from the family of God." is moot.]

XXXIX) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

The only thing that keeps us from God’s family is unbelief. Salvation is BY grace, THROUGH faith; God’s part and our part.  Both are essential, but one is primary (see below).

This is hard for us to swallow if one was raised Protestant because of an *exclusively* forensic view of justification: a decision to believe at one moment of time solves everything. I would say that we must believe, no matter what point in life we are at, once we are awakened by and to the gospel by God’s Spirit. We cannot believe and then not believe and still have eternal life (cf. John 3:36-37).

[Of course you can believe and then not believe and still have eternal life, for that's what Scripture teaches . This is exactly why I can legitimately conclude that Michael Heiser does not know the gospel of eternal life.

Note that the passage Jn 3:36, Dr. Heiser cites does corroborates eternal security, and it does not unsecure salvation if one does not continue to believe:
 
[Compare Jn 3:36 (note that v. 37 does not exist)]:

(Jn 3:36 NAS) "He who believes in the Son has eternal life: [but] he who does not obey the Son will not see life, but the wrath of God abides on him"

THE BELIEVING ONE - THE ONE WHO HAS EXPRESSED A MOMENT OF FAITH ALONE IN THE SON'S ATONING SACRIFICE FOR SINS ALONE HAS IMMEDIATE POSSESSION OF ETERNAL LIFE AT THAT MOMENT AND FOREVER; BUT THE OPPOSITE: THE ONE WHO DOES NOT EVER OBEY THE SON - THE ONE WHO DOES NOT EVER CHOOSE TO BE SUBJECT TO THE SON'S REQUIREMENT TO BELIEVE IN HIM - THE ONE WHO WILL NEVER EXPRESS A MOMENT OF FAITH ALONE IN CHRIST ALONE IN ORDER TO HAVE ETERNAL LIFE WILL NOT SEE THAT LIFE AND THE ETERNAL WRATH OF GOD REMAINS ON HIM FROM THE FIRST TIME HE REJECTED BELIEVING IN THE SON

(Jn 1:12 YLT) "But as many [individuals of His own creation, (Jn 1:11a)] as did receive Him to them He gave authority to become sons [lit., children] of God - to those believing in His name: (Jn 1:13 YLT) who - not of blood nor of a will of flesh, nor of a will of man but - of God were begotten [born]... (Jn 3:14 NIV) [And] just as Moses lifted up the snake in the desert, so the Son of Man must be lifted up, (Jn 3:15 NKJV) that whoever believes in Him should not perish but [should] have eternal life. (Jn 3:16 NIV) For God so loved the world that he gave His One and Only Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish, but [should] have eternal life. (Jn 3:18 NKJV) He who believes in Him is not condemned; but he who does not believe is condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the [one and only] Son of God... (Jn 3:36 NAS) He who believes in the Son has eternal life: [but] he who does not obey the Son will not see life, but the wrath of God abides on him." =

The Greek phrase "Ho pisteuOn eis ton huion" rendered "He who believes in the Son" in the NAS contains the nominative participle,"Ho pisteuOn," which literally means "The believing [one] (in the Son), portraying the individual who has expressed a moment of faith alone in the Son, Jesus Christ alone, i.e., the believer. And the result of that moment of faith alone in the Son alone is possession of eternal life forever, because it is eternal. The second half of verse 36 is presented in opposition to the first half. The Greek phrase "ho de apeithOn tO huiO" has the nominative present participle "ho de apeithon" which literally means "but the [one who is] not being subject [to the Son]," and rendered "[but] he who does not obey the Son" in the NAS. The conjunction of opposition "de" is best rendered "but," in Jn 3:36b which portrays the contrast between one who has believed in the Son and as a result has eternal life and one who will not see life and evidently has not ever believed. Since the phrase portrays the opposite of being the believing one, then the second half of Jn 3:36 has in view one who never chooses to be subject to the Son's requirement to believe in Him in order to have eternal life. God's eternal wrath remains on him from the first moment when he was able to choose to believe in the Son and rejected Him. So, in the context of John chapter three, the Greek nominative participle verb with the definite article "ho de apeithon," means "[but] the one who is the disbelieving [one]," i.e., the one who rejects the Son by not ever believing in Him. He has chosen to remain an unbeliever.

Note that the Greek verb apeitheo, from which "apeithOn" comes, is frequently used in the New Testament to refer to the disobedience of unbelief - refusal in the mind to not give mental assent to the truth about Christ's atoning sacrifice for sins, (Acts 14:2; 17:5; 19:9; Ro 2:8; Heb 3:18). Just as the mental attitude of violating God's commandment to not covet is a disobedience of the mind of that commandment, (Ex 20:17); so the attitude of the mind of choosing not to be subject to the Son in the sense of not believing in Him is disobeying God's requirement to believe in His Son in order to receive eternal life.

The final phrase of Jn 3:36 is rendered "but the wrath of God abides on him" in the NAS. It indicates that the individual who has never expressed a moment of faith alone in the Son alone has never received the gift of eternal life; hence he has the wrath of God remaining upon him from that point in time in his life when he began to chose not to believe in God's Son; and he will remain subject to God's eternal wrath until he believes, if he ever does.

1) Compare [Jn 3:18]:

(Jn 3:18 NKJV) "He who believes in Him is not condemned; but he who does not believe is condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the [one and only] Son of God."

XXXX) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

No one is in heaven who does not believe.

[Satan and the Demons still have access to God and they do not believe in God's Sovereignty over them. They repeatedly have made attempts to usurp His authority. I suppose your point is that no one gets into heaven who does not believe in God's sovereignty especially as a human in salvation unto eternal life by a moment of faith alone in Christ alone]

XXXXI) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

It may be equally hard for non-Protestants, since the issue is not works, either.

[Don't understand this point at all. The issue of salvation unto eternal life is not of works for anyone. Why is that so hard to understand? Protestants require perserverance - that's works, otherwise no salvation. Ironically, works added in order to be saved unto eternal life disqualify one to receive eternal life. Most if not all other religions require works but what the Bible teaches. So why make any distinction at all between non-Protestants and other religions. Those who think they are not accountable to God don't care. So what's the point here?]

Salvation unto eternal life in heaven is the same for all people regardless of what denomination / religion / belief system they espouse: Anyone who has a viewpoint on salvation unto eternal life be he Protestant or not
. "Equally hard," Don't have a clue as to what this means. What is so hard about expressing a moment of faith alone in Christ alone - His sacrificial payment for ones sins - in order to go to heaven? True, man is impossibly set against this from conception, because of his will getting in the way. But those whom God draws inevitably believe .]

XXXXII) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

We cannot earn salvation through faith because salvation is extended by grace.

[You cannot earn anything through faith. Faith is not proactive toward anything - it is unmeritorious. This is linguistic nonsense to say "
We cannot earn salvation through faith". Faith is simply accepting something as true, such as eternal life is in the Son of God, (1 Jn 5:9-13). If I believe the sky is cloudy, did I create some clouds in the sky? Or are there any clouds there at all? Maybe not. Much of what I believe is flawed. I often lose track of time - I believe I have enough time, and then I find myself late. The nature of faith is such that as a mental assent it DOES NOT determine the truth or occurrence of anything.

The fact that salvation is provided on a grace basis indicates that it is not of works, but it is through faith which is no work at all, (Eph 2:8-9).

XXXXIII) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

Grace has the priority.

[Grace which means unmerited favor, i.e., never worked for, is not the priority, it is the exclusive means as opposed to doing something proactive / meritorious in order to earn salvation in part or all. This is what the dictionary says. On the other hand, to cause salvation unto eternal life to be an intrinsic part of ones existence, one must express a moment of faith alone in Jesus Christ's propitiation / payment for your sins alone plus nothing else. Therefore a moment of faith is not proactive, nevertheless absolutely essential in order to have eternal life.

XXXXIV) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

Were the gospel not first extended to us, there would be nothing to believe.

[Amen. But then how do you believe in something you don't know about. Isn't it a given that you cannot believe in what you do not know??? After all the issue is not that you have to believe, but the content of what you believe in toward some end such as salvation unto eternal life. On the other hand if God is not reliable and sovereign in the matter despite His promises, then salvation unto eternal life is not a reliable end. So this begs the question. Is God reliable? How do you know? Answer. Study the bible more seriously Dr Heiser, and more properly and you will find that the Bible is so wholly reliable, consistent and supernatural in the sense of fulfilled prophecy and consistency that God is reliable as determined by your own diligence - if the Bible is reliable at all. Is it?? Prove it. Make sure you study it properly ]

XXXXV) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

Rather than seeing saving faith as only a one-time decision, I would suggest that Paul saw a decision to accept Christ as the messiah and savior as the beginning point of saving faith / belief.

[Paul saw nothing of the sort. He wrote,
[Eph 2:6-9]:

(Eph 2:6 NASB) "[God] raised us up with Him, and seated us with Him in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus,

[So we who have believed are already positioned in heaven with Jesus Christ even before we have exemplified ongoing faith]

(Eph 2:7 NASB) so that in the ages to come He might show the surpassing riches of His grace in kindness toward us in Christ Jesus.

(Eph 2:8 NASB) For by grace you have been saved through faith; and that not of yourselves, it is the gift of God;

[For by grace you have been saved through faith = unmerited favor which excludes ongoing faithfulness you have been saved  = perfect tense begun at a moment in time when you with ongoing results forever without requiring ongoing faith. Such salvation is declared as "not of yourselves" and "the gift of God" which both demand you offer nothing in return.]
(Eph 2:9 NASB) not as a result of works, so that no one may boast.

XXXXVI) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

He would not have said that after such a decision one could choose to not believe and still have eternal life.

[But that is exactly what Paul wrote in Eph 1:13-14; 2:8-9 and many other passages - he did NOT include a requirement of ongoing anything - even believing

[Compare Eph 1:13-14 NASB]:
 
(Eph 1:13 NASB) "In Him [Christ], you also, after listening to the message of truth, the gospel of your salvation - having also believed, you were sealed in Him with the Holy Spirit of promise,

[Notice "you were sealed" after having believed BY THE HOLY SPIRIT as a guarantee of your salvation]

(Eph 1:14 NASB) Who is given as a pledge of our inheritance, with a view to the redemption of God's own possession, to the praise of His glory." There are many more passages that guarantee the salvation of a believer at the moment of faith alone in Christ alone ].

XXXXVII) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

It is at this point that one could wonder if Paul would have said, “well, if they no longer believe, they never really believed in the first place.”

[Who cares what you think Paul would have said. Read what he did say above and click on the
button to find out more throughout the bible from other authors as well]

XXXXVIII) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

I really don’t care about how anyone answers this, since what needs to be done with such a person is the same no matter what the answer is. The person needs to hear and believe the gospel.

[And what is the gospel? You don't know it. Go back to the Bible yourself and find out: ]

XXXXIX) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

I don’t really care to parse them psychologically or spiritually beyond that issue. Only God knows the heart.

[So words don't have to be properly "parsed"? Who cares about language, context and logic? How to read??? I'll bet you parse the words when it comes to business contracts and royalties for writing books and things which have to do with money. The words of God's Word must be properly "parsed." Otherwise you get the nonsense you are diatribing here in this blog. Properly parsed verses in God's Word can mean the difference between heaven and hell. And you don't care!!! I care. Get over yourself. Go here and follow instructions you learned in grammar school on how to read .

L) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

I don’t really care to parse them psychologically or spiritually beyond that issue. Only God knows the heart.

[No, that is not entirely true; for I know what I need to know to answer this. I've studied the Bible and it indicates that I should know the answer if I am a believer. After all you have to know what the gospel is before you believe it and become forever saved????? You cannot believe in something you don't know about until you know about it. The gospel is not rocket science. Just read Jn 3:16 as a child would and follow the instructions. Notice that whoever believes has - PRESENT TENSE - eternal life. And for how long do you have eternal life once you begin having it at the moment you started believing that God's One and only Son was given for your sins? Ans. FOREVER! YOU CAN'T LOSE YOUR SALVATION BECAUSE IT IS FOREVER. Look it up on the dictionary. IT'S FOREVER. ]

LI) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:


I don’t really care to parse them psychologically or spiritually beyond that issue. Only God knows the heart.

[I know. I've studied the Bible and it indicates that I should know the answer of what the gospel is if I am a believer. After all you have to know what the gospel is before you believe it and become forever saved????? You cannot believe in something you don't know about until you know about it. The gospel is not rocket science. Just read Jn 3:16 as a child would and follow the instructions. Notice that whoever believes has - PRESENT TENSE - eternal life. And for how long do you have eternal life once you begin having it at the moment you started believing that God's One and only Son was given for your sins? Ans. FOREVER! YOU CAN'T LOSE YOUR SALVATION BECAUSE IT IS FOREVER. Look it up on the dictionary. IT'S FOREVER.

Properly parsed God's Word in many places indicates that no one can lose their salvation ]  
LII) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

By way of response, I’d rather ask the asker which one of these propositions they would deny:

LIII) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

Everyone who believes the gospel will be saved, by grace and not by any merit of their own.
Everyone who believes the gospel will be eternally secure.

[Both true with one proviso to you. Since you don't know what the gospel is, then you can neither deny or accept. I can. Just go to biblestudymanuals.net search the index for the subject matter and read. Prove me wrong or right. Do your homework!!!!]

LIV) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

Everyone who does not believe the gospel (rejects it) will not be saved, regardless of works.
Everyone who does not believe the gospel will not be eternally secure.

[Both true with one proviso to you. Since you don't know what the gospel is, then you can neither deny or accept. I can. Just go to biblestudymanuals.net search the index for the subject matter and read. Prove me wrong or right. Do your homework!!!!]

LV) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

Someone might ask, “Can someone who believed stop believing — and if they did, what would that mean?”

[Yes one can stop believing. Do you believe 24/7 which requires active conscious believing in Jesus to provide eternal life even while you sleep. No one can have a perfect record of faith in Christ in this mortal life. Nevertheless eternal life is eternally secure. Do your homework!!!! All it takes to be saved eternally secure in salvation is a moment of faith alone in Christ alone plus nothing]

LVI) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

Same response: Which one of these propositions would they deny:
Everyone who believes the gospel will be saved, by grace and not by any merit of their own.
Everyone who believes the gospel will be eternally secure.

[Repeat same answer I made before to these two same points:
Both true with one proviso to you. Since you don't know what the gospel is, then you can neither deny or accept. I can.
Just go to biblestudymanuals.net search the index for the subject matter and read. Prove me wrong or right. Do your homework!!!!]

LVII) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

Everyone who does not believe the gospel (rejects it) will not be saved, regardless of works.
Everyone who does not believe the gospel will not be eternally secure.

[Repeat same answer I made before to these two same points:
Both true with one proviso to you. Since you don't know what the gospel is, then you can neither deny or accept. I can.
Just go to biblestudymanuals.net search the index for the subject matter and read. Prove me wrong or right. Do your homework!!!!]


LVIII) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

The above means that I take Hebrews 6 as “a genuine concern but a hypthetical hyperbole.” 

[Wow. So one passage in Romans chapter 11 can be used - taken out of  context - to interpret a whole chapter of another book - Hebrews chapter 6 - without consulting the context of the latter - which has individuals in view - and not whole groups of people???? Hebrews chapter 6 has absolutely nothing to do with an hypothetical hyperbole; but a real and all too realized potential with many believers - an always present danger of falling away from the faith which has provided salvation by grace through a moment of faith alone in Christ alone unto eternal life to re-espousing legalism as essential in order to have eternal life? Only those who want comic book answers will be interested in this approach. The answers are in a serious detailed study of this problem ]

LIX) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

The writer [of Hebrews] truly fears people will turn from believing and, like the elect Israelites, suffer rejection by God (but we must add that Paul said in Romans 11 that the rejected can be brought back in if they believe).

[Different contexts that are not corroborative. Hebrews is about Jews who became believers in Christ in this age - the Church Age; and in chapter 6 it is about individual believers falling away from grace salvation thru faith and going back to legalism - to doing works such as the Mosaic Law to keep / earn ones salvation. Romans 11 is about groups of people whom God appointed to represent Him on the earth. There is no loss of salvation and regaining of salvation unto eternal life in view in Romans 11, but the gaining and loss of being God's representative people on the earth]


LX) [Michael Heiser, cont.]:

But the writer expresses what he has experienced: it is exceedingly rare, unto impossibility, that those who decide to not believe actually come back to faith. Why? Because they have to put their faith in precisely what they rejected – the crucifixion of the son of God for the sin of the world.

[Why not read chapter 6 of Hebrews and let the words speak for themselves? Check out the excerpt below and then continue to study it from the beginning
:

****** EXCERPT HEBREWS CHAPTER 6 STUDY ******

Heb 6:1-6]:

(Heb 6: KJV) "Therefore, leaving the [beginning] principles of the doctrine of Christ, let us go on unto perfection [completion, maturity]; not laying again the foundation of repentance from dead [useless] works, and of faith in God

(Heb 6:2 KJV) of the doctrine of baptisms, and of laying on of hands, and of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment."

(Heb 6:3 NASB) And this will we do, if God permits."

(Heb 6:4 NASB) "[For it is impossible] ... in the case of those who have once been enlightened and have tasted of the heavenly gift and have been made partakers of the Holy Spirit,

(Heb 6:5 NASB) and have tasted the good Word of God and the powers of the age to come;

(Heb 6:6 NASB) and then having fallen away, [it is impossible, (v. 4)] to renew them again to repentance, [to that which brought them eternal life] since they again crucify to themselves the Son of God and put Him to open shame [public disgrace].

THE HEBREW CHRISTIANS WHO "HAVE FALLEN AWAY...." HAVE FALLEN INTO "CRUCIFYING TO THEMSELVES THE SON OF GOD ALL OVER AGAIN BY THEIR FUTILE ACTS OF MOSAIC LAW SACRIFICE AND THEY "SUBJECT HIM TO PUBLIC DISGRACE"

"It is impossible to be brought back again [to be renewed again] to repentance [unto eternal life and the grace way of life], since they crucify to themselves the Son of God all over again [by their futile acts of Mosaic Law sacrifices] and subject Him to public disgrace."

"And then have fallen away.... since they crucify to themselves the Son of God all over again [by their futile acts of Mosaic Law sacrifice] and subject Him to public disgrace." =

These particular Hebrew Christians that the author mentions have fallen back into the legalistic practices which were falsely done to receive forgiveness of sin unto eternal life. As believers, they had already received total and complete forgiveness of all of their sins unto eternal life by trusting alone in Jesus Christ alone as their Personal Savior - an act of the grace of God. Now they have gone back to the false practice of rituals and sacrifices in order to 'maintain' their salvation as the Pharisees did - all to no avail. To do this is to virtually crucify Christ all over again - again and again, subjecting Him to public disgrace. The sacrificial practices these fallen away Jewish Christians performed were those that symbolized the complete and total sacrifice - once for all - of Christ on the cross which they had already received the benefit of through faith alone in Christ alone, (cp Heb 7:27; 9:28).

"It is impossible [v. 4]....[v. 6] to be brought back [to be renewed again] to repentance" =

"To be brought back" = "palin anakainizein" =

"again to renew" = "To be renewed again - to return again - to repentance, to a changing of one's mind and thus return to a life of 'faith in God' (v. 1)"

"repentance" = Hebrews 6:1 refers to a particular kind of repentance: "repentance from dead [useless] works and of faith in God."

Grace and works cannot mix, it is one or the other. They are mutually exclusive:

1) [Compare Ro 11:6]:

"But if it is by grace, it is no longer on the basis of works, otherwise grace is no longer grace."

Therefore, it is impossible, while one continues to live a works lifestyle - performing rituals and sacrifices - a lifestyle of dead [useless] works and of faith in oneself - to be renewed again to the grace lifestyle - of 'repentance from dead [useless] works and of faith in God."

The author of Hebrews is referring to those who are already permanently saved, (Compare Eph 1:13-14, Heb 7:27; 2 Tim 2:10-13; 2 Cor 1:21-22, 5:4-6; Ro 8:38-39; Jn 10:27-30), who have returned to the rituals and sacrifices of the Mosaic Law with the misguided intent thereby to regain or maintain eternal life which they falsely perceive as either lost or something which must constantly be maintained by human doing. But the author of Hebrews states that it is impossible to live a life of faith in God while one insists on keeping the Law, (or any code of behavior, ref., Gal 3:21b-22), as part of ones salvation. Furthermore, it is impossible to maintain something that is already permanently secured and maintained by God alone. How can one receive again or even maintain what he already has and can never lose - especially by such false means which could never attain it in the first place?

Later on in the book of Hebrews the author states that the blood of bulls and goats did not satisfy the requirement of receiving eternal life - only the once for all time sacrifice of Jesus Christ:

2) [Heb 10:4]:

"Because it is impossible for the blood of bulls and goats to take away sins."

3) [Heb 9:25-26]:

(v. 25) "Nor did He [Christ] enter heaven to offer Himself again and again, the way the high priest enters the Most Holy Place every year with blood that is not his own.

(v. 26) Then Christ would have had to suffer many times since the creation of the world. But now He has appeared once for all at the end of the ages to do away with sin by the sacrifice of himself."

4) [Heb 9:28-10:1-4, 8, 10, 14]:

(v. 9:28) "So Christ was sacrificed once to take away the sins of many people; and He will appear a second time, not to bear sin, but to bring salvation to those who are waiting for Him."

(v. 10:1) The Law is only a shadow of the good things that are coming - not the realities themselves. For this reason it can never, by the same sacrifices repeated endlessly year after year, make perfect those who draw near to worship.

(v. 10:2) If it could, would they not have stopped being offered? For the worshipers would have been cleansed once for all, and would no longer have felt guilty for their sins.

[So any human doing is useless towards one's salvation, especially the rituals and sacrifices of the Mosaic Law]

(v. 10:3) But those sacrifices are an annual reminder of sins, [as are today's sacrifices of water baptism, Lord's Supper, daily confession, etc. These are a reminder to us that we as believers are still sinners and have to totally and exclusively rely on the once for all time sacrifice of the Savior for our salvation:

a) [Compare I Jn 1:7b]:

"And the blood of Jesus, His Son, purifies us from all sin."]

And Paul's comments in the Book of Galatians brings home this point:

b) [Gal 3:21-22]:

(v. 21) "Is the Law, therefore, opposed to the promises of God? Absolutely not! For if a law ['a law' = i.e., any rule of conduct] had been given that could impart life, then righteousness would certainly have come by law [and not faith].

(v. 22) But the Scripture declares that the whole world is a prisoner of sin, so that what was promised, being given through faith in Jesus Christ, might be given to those who believe."

4 cont.) [Heb 9:28- 10:1-4, 8, 10, 14 cont.]:

(v. 10:4) "because it is impossible for the blood of bulls and goats to take away sins.

[The author of Hebrews is saying here the same thing as he said in chapter 6: 'It is impossible to be saved by any human doing such as by the sacrifices of bulls and goats]

(v. 10:8) First He [Christ] said, 'Sacrifices and offerings, burnt offerings and sin offerings You [God the Father] did not desire, nor were You pleased with them' (although the Law required them to be made).

(v. 10:10) And by that will, [the will of God to sacrifice His Son for the sins of the whole world, cp Isa 53:10-11] we have been made holy through the sacrifice of the body of Jesus Christ once for all."

(v. 10:14) because by one sacrifice He has made perfect forever those who are being made holy"

So if one has already been made holy "through the sacrifice of the body of Jesus Christ once for all." and this to last "forever" then further efforts on an individual's part do do anything to attain this state of holiness is redundant, an insult to God, and impossible to succeed. For God has already done it all through the sacrifice of His own Son on the cross - not through any human doing! So to offer something to God to contribute to one's salvation is tantamount to saying that what Jesus Christ did on the cross was not enough!

Furthermore, any kind of deed is ineffectual toward salvation in the first place as the author of Hebrews indicates in 10:1-4.

Consider the believer today who is truly saved but who now denies that faith alone in Christ alone has saved him and who then receives the Lord's Supper, (or the Mass), or performs water baptism or keeps a set of rules of conduct with an attitude that this will once more provide forgiveness of sins for salvation: IMPOSSIBLE! For it is only through a one time expression of faith solely in what Christ did on the cross can he receive any benefit of forgiveness of sins unto eternal life! This Christian's modern day sacrifice goes for naught!



DEMONS,
WHAT THE BIBLE REALLY SAYS ABOUT THE POWERS OF DARKNESS
By
Michael Heiser
Author Michael Heiser imposes his point of view upon the Bible without even offering a substantiated interpretation from context within the Bible by the authors of the Bible themselves!

[Michael Heiser's Comments On Isaiah 26:20 refuted by biblestudymanuals.net in black font]:
     
"Isaiah 26:20 reads as follows in the ESV: Come, my people, enter your chambers, and shut your doors behind you; hide yourselves [ḥabı ̂] for a little while until the fury has passed by. On the basis of an Ugaritic parallel, Cyrus Gordon proposed that ḥabı ̂ ought to be understood as a divine name.48 Xella notes that one Ugaritic text (KTU 1.114:19–20) refers to a figure called ḥby (likely a divine name here) and describes the figure as possessing horns and a tail: This difficult text deals with the marzēaḥ of the god El and with his drunkenness.… The Father of the gods, full of wine, has an infernal vision and sees this ḥby, a divine or demonic entity, who perhaps soils him with his excrements and urine. El’s condition is that of the dead in the Netherworld and this may suggest that ḥby is here a chthonic [earthly pagan] deity. It is not unlikely that this personage, who appears to El in an alcoholic trance during a feast related to the cult of the dead, is really an infernal god; horns and tail may allude to his bovine/taurine form.49 The marzēaḥ of Ugaritic was part of the Ugaritic cult of the dead, “a feast for and with departed ancestors.”50 This provides a context for Xella and other scholars to see ḥby as a chthonic or infernal deity, meaning a deity related to the underworld.51 That Ugaritic ḥby also has horns and a tail has prompted some scholars to see a conceptual precursor to the devil of later Jewish and Christian thought.52"

[Isaiah 26:20 NASB "Come, my people, enter into your rooms And close your doors behind you; Hide [Hebrew word transliterated "habi" rendered hide;" it does not signify a god of some sort] for a little while Until indignation runs its course."

"The Hebrew word transliterated "habi" does not signify a god of some sort, it actually does mean "hide" and nothing else that might fit the context at hand. There are countless circumstances when a word in one language sounds or in some other way is similar to another word in another language, in another context. That does not mean that there is some connection between the two words. There is nothing to suggest there is any such connection here in Isa 26:20 with the Ugaritic cult of the dead.

[Bible Knowledge Commentary On Isa 26:20-21]:

"Isa 26:20-21 Isaiah wrote that the future remnant should hide during the time of distress (God's wrath in the Tribulation), knowing that deliverance from the Lord will come. Eventually the Lord will set matters right by punishing people... for their sins. All sins will be made known (the earth will disclose the blood shed upon her), whether they have been done in secret or in public. These words would have encouraged the remnant in Isaiah's day to remain true to the Lord, knowing that He will eventually judge sin. After that judgment is accomplished, believers will be able to sing the song recorded in chapter 26."

Expositor's Bible Commentary On Isa 26:20]:

"Verse 20 [Isa 26:20] perhaps anticipates the joyous declaration chapter 40 so memorably commences with. A time will come when God's wrath will have passed by. In this case the wrath is with Israel herself (cf. 40:2); and during the Exile the people are to encourage themselves with the assurance that this judgment on them would come to an end in God's good time. On the other hand, the wrath may be that expressed in God's punishment of the nations, which v.21 relates to. The latter is more likely because there seems to be an allusion to the Passover in v.20. Just as the people of Israel found refuge within the blood-sprinkled doors of their homes (Exod 12), till the wrath of God against Egypt should spend itself, so Israel is told to hide for a while, perhaps in Babylonian exile. Shutting the doors suggests not only safety from danger but also separation from the surrounding pagans, who were under judgment. Israel in exile was called to be a holy people, distinct from her neighbors."]

[Michael Heiser's Comments On Habakkuk 3:4]:

"Habakkuk 3:4 is another Old Testament text that factors into this discussion. The preceding and following verses are relevant to the rationale used by some scholars in the interpretation of verse 4:

3 God
came from Teman, and the Holy One from Mount Paran. Selah His splendor covered the heavens, and the earth was full of his praise.

4 His
brightness was like the light; rays [qarnayim] flashed from his hand; and there he veiled [ḥebyn] his power.

5 Before
him went pestilence, and plague followed at his heels."

The word translated “rays” in Habakkuk 3:4 (qarnayim) means “horns” elsewhere, literally in terms of parts of an animal’s head (Gen 22:13), or figuratively for the edges of an object (1 Kgs 1:50). Gordon believed qarnayim in Habakkuk 3:4 should be rendered “horns” in part because the verse also references ḥebyn, which he took to be the name of a Canaanite deity ḥby:


And Brilliance shall be as the light; he has horns [qarnayim] from his hand; and there is Hebyn. (Hab 3:4, author’s translation) Gordon’s approach is not as far-fetched as it seems. As we will discuss below, Habakkuk 3:5 contains two terms that may well be Canaanite deities (deber, rešep). Nevertheless, other scholars are skeptical.53 Despite the uncertainty, if these references do bear witness to an underworld denizen conceptually akin to Mōt (“Death”), that figure (like Mōt) is not autonomous. The infernal ḥby is on Yahweh’s leash, subservient to his authority. He is therefore “demythologized” in terms of independent status.

[The three most important things when interpreting the Bible: Context, context and most importantly context - as obtained by carefully following the normative rules of language, context and logic - the skillset that each accountable individual brings to the table when reading the  Bible  - not the least of which rule is not to go else-where to find out the meaning of this-where; i.e., not the least of which is to go to the words of the Bible itself within its own context and especially not go to the context of another civilization and another language, however similar and impose upon the Bible anything foreign!!! So let's start at a reasonable beginning and read through the verses at hand above to see what the author is actually saying:

HABAKKUK 3:1-8

[Habakkuk 3:1-8 NASB]:

"1  A prayer of Habakkuk the prophet, according to Shigionoth.

2  LORD, I have heard the report about You and I fear. O LORD, revive Your work in the midst of the years, In the midst of the years make it known; In wrath remember mercy.

3  God comes from Teman, And the Holy One from Mount Paran. Selah. His splendor covers the heavens, And the earth is full of His praise.

4  His radiance is like the sunlight; He has rays flashing from His hand, And there is the hiding of His power.

5 Before Him goes pestilence, And plague comes after Him.

6  He stood and surveyed the earth; He looked and startled the nations. Yes, the perpetual mountains were shattered, The ancient hills collapsed. His ways are everlasting.

7  I saw the tents of Cushan under distress, The tent curtains of the land of Midian were trembling.

8  Did the LORD rage against the rivers, Or was Your anger against the rivers, Or was Your wrath against the sea, That You rode on Your horses, On Your chariots of salvation?"

[Bible Knowledge Introductory Commentary On
Habakkuk Chapter 3]:

"A Doxology to God: Habakkuk Praised God's Design of Creation (chap. 3)

The distressed prophet, who complained over the unchecked sin in his country, was amazed at God's disclosure that He had already prepared an instrument to judge Judah, namely, Babylon. Habakkuk was shocked. He expressed his dilemma to God and waited for an answer. That answer came in the form of a dirge, or taunt-song, that Habakkuk was instructed to record. Learning of God's just plan to destroy Babylon, Habakkuk bowed in humble adoration. His majestic prayer and hymn of praise followed.

Chapter 3 is the culmination and climax of Habakkuk's book, contrary to the contentions of some scholars who would make this chapter a separate entity that he wrote much later. Others consider this chapter a document written by some other author, a second person also named Habakkuk or a second person who assumed Habakkuk's name.

Despite the arguments about change of style and a separate title, the third chapter fits well in the flow of the book. The new style fits the new subject, just as the shift from the dialogue in chapter 1 to the dirge in chapter 2 indicated a changing emphasis. Furthermore, the title in 3:1 provides a clear break in the change, as "the ramparts" announced the shift at chapter 2.

When the Dead Sea Scrolls Commentary on Habakkuk, which included only chapters 1 and 2, was discovered at Qumran, those who held to the disjointed theory felt they had won their case. But the issue is not so easily conceded. The ancient commentator may well have used only the parts of the book that suited his purpose. This scroll is not proof that a chapter 3 did not exist. It is more reasonable to see the thematic unity of Habakkuk. Chapter 3 is not a postscript; it is a pinnacle of praise. It is the mountaintop destination of a journey that began in a valley of distress.


[Expositor's Bible Commentary On Hab 3:1]:


[(Hab 3:1 NASB)
"A prayer of Habakkuk the prophet, according to Shigionoth."]

"A. Habakkuk's prayer for mercy (3:1-2)

1 The reference to "Habakkuk the prophet" marks a new section, distinct from chapters 1 and 2, which are similarly introduced (cf. 1:1). The following verses are characterized as a "prayer" (tepillah; cf. TWOT, 2:725-26), a title attributed elsewhere to five psalms of lament (Pss 17; 86; 90; 102, 142), and also to an early collection of Davidic psalms (cf. Ps 72:20); the term predominates in the Psalms, occurring most commonly in laments where intercession is made for divine intervention and vindication against oppression or injustice (e.g., Pss 4:1; 6:9; 17:1; 35:13; 54:2; 55:1; 69:13; 86:6; 88:2, 13; 102:1, 17 [bis]; 109:4, 7; cf. 1 Kings 8:28-54).

These associations with the psalmic literature are reinforced by the phrase "On shigionoth": the corresponding "shiggaion" appears as the title of another lament (Ps 7), and the preposition "on," or "according to" (al, is used in musical directions at the head of numerous psalms (e.g., 6, 8, 12, 22, 45, 46; cf. v.19). The precise etymology and meaning of the phrase are uncertain (cf. sagag/sagah; TWOT, 2:903ff.; KB, p. 948; THAT, 2:869-72); its characteristics in Psalm 7 suggest that, as a musical genre, it constitutes a vehement cry for justice against sin. It is evident, then, that the heading that distinguishes chapter 3 also relates it to the preceding chapters, where a similar cry for justice is expressed in the same genre of a lament.

[Bible Knowledge Commentary On Hab 3:1]:
 
"3:1.
At the opening of chapter 2, Habakkuk had positioned himself to await God's reply and to determine how he might respond to the Lord concerning his complaint (2:1). He then recorded God's extensive reply (2:2-20). Now the prophet gave his response to God. It was no protest, however. It was a prayer of praise as indicated by its simple title: A prayer of Habakkuk the prophet.

This heading resembles that of several psalms, in which the contents, the author, and the poetical character of the song are indicated (cf., e.g., Pss. 16; 30; 45; 88; 102; 142). Habakkuk again identified himself as a prophet, as he had done at the beginning of his book (Hab. 1:1).

The word shigionoth is somewhat obscure. In Hebrew it is the plural of the noun that appears elsewhere only in the title to Psalm 7 where it is in a slightly different form rendered "shiggaion" in the NIV. It seems to be related to a verb meaning "to reel to and fro." Thus some see this as an erratic song of enthusiastic irregularity sometimes used in songs of triumph or victory, or an elegy or plaintive song of variant chords. It is unlikely that it refers to the content of the song, even though the Hebrew root verb may also mean "to transgress or err." But the theme is not directed to the transgressions or wanderings of Babylon and Judah; the song centers on the majesty of God. Therefore it is much more reasonable to see shigionoth as having a musical-liturgical significance. Another musical notation is found at the end of Habakkuk 3. Possibly this song became a part of the temple worship.

(Hab 3:2) "LORD, I have heard the report about You and I fear. O LORD, revive Your work in the midst of the years, In the midst of the years make it known; In wrath remember mercy."

[Bible Knowledge Commentary On Hab 3:2]:

"3:2.
Habakkuk had heard God's purposes to discipline Judah and destroy Babylon. The report filled him with awe. God's plans were beyond human understanding and God's preeminence beyond comprehension. The reaction to what he "heard" (lit., "Yahweh I have heard the hearing of You") was to fear God (lit., "I am afraid").

The prophet then expressed two petitions. He prayed for a fresh manifestation of God's power (Renew them, i.e., Your deeds) and a full measure of God's pardon. Both might and mercy were requested. These were the only petitions in his entire prayer.

The first request for renewal or revival of God's intervention was twice linked to time: in our day and in our time (lit., "in the midst of the years" on both occasions). It seems that the prophet desired a prompt fulfillment. God had, of course, already promised it (1:5).

The prophet's second request evolved from the first. In these acts of judgment (wrath; cf. 3:8, 12) Habakkuk pleaded for mercy.

After he expressed the two petitions he wrote what is more appropriately considered a hymn of praise than a prayer (vv. 3-19). In it Habakkuk recalled the awesome deeds the Lord had performed in bringing His people from Egypt through the wilderness and into the Promised Land. Recounting those deeds gave the prophet confidence that God could also deliver His people from Babylon.

[Expositor's Bible Commentary On Hab 3:2]:

"B. Prayer (3:2)

2 The orientation of Habakkuk's "prayer" is to the past, as the basis for his appeal to God for present help (cf. Exod 32:13; Ps 77:11; Acts 4:25-28). The noun "fame" (sema) is normally used of secondhand information (e.g., Job 28:22; Nah 3:19), suggesting a remoteness from the hearer's own experience to the persons or events referred to (cf. Job 42:5). The Lord's "deeds" envisaged here corroborate this sense of remoteness, being associated with his sovereign power and preeminently with his "work" (poal) at the Exodus (e.g., Num 23:23; Pss 44:1; 68:28; 77:12; 90:16; 95:9; 111:3; cf. v.3)-a primary anchor-point of Israel's recollection, faith, and hope, as is the Cross to the Christian. Habakkuk's appeal for "mercy" (raham) is thus grounded in God's covenantal commitment to Israel, displayed in the events of the Exodus as a whole and sealed at Sinai (cf. Deut 4:31); it is no wishful or manipulative plea for help, grounded merely in the desperation of the moment. However, it is also an admission of Israel's decline from the revelation of God's character and ways, made "known" at the Exodus: not only do the "deeds" of that epoch represent secondhand knowledge, but the need to "renew" (hiyah) them implies that their impact in redemption and revelation was facing extinction. Moreover, the imminence of "wrath," or "turmoil" (rogez; cf. v.7), betrays the presence of sin, which the Lord is Committed to judge in his people—a judgment rooted in the Covenant no less than "mercy" (e.g., Exod 32:10-12; Deut 6:15; 29:20-28; 31:17; 32:22). This appeal for God's covenanted "mercy" in the face of present distress and judgment echoes Psalm 77 (v.9), with which this chapter has much in common."

(Hab 3:3 NASB) "God comes from Teman, And the Holy One from Mount Paran. Selah. His splendor covers the heavens, And the earth is full of His praise."]

[Key Versions of Hab 3:3]:


Habakkuk 3:3 (NASB)
3  God comes from Teman, And the Holy One from Mount Paran. Selah. His splendor covers the heavens, And the earth is full of His praise.

Habakkuk 3:3 (YLT)
3  God from Teman doth come, The Holy One from mount Paran. Pause! Covered the heavens hath His majesty, And His praise hath filled the earth.

Habakkuk 3:3 (NKJV)
3  God came from Teman, The Holy One from Mount Paran. Selah His glory covered the heavens, And the earth was full of His praise.

Habakkuk 3:3 (HCSB)
3  God comes from Teman, the Holy One from Mount Paran.Selah His splendor covers the heavens, and the earth is full of His praise.

Habakkuk 3:3 (ASV)
3  God came from Teman, And the Holy One from mount Paran. Selah. His glory covered the heavens, And the earth was full of his praise.

[Bible Knowledge Commentary On Hab 3:3]:

"B. God's presence of majesty

Habakkuk's telephone-like conversation with God in chapter 1 became more like a closed-circuit television hookup in chapter 2. The audio connection (chap. 1) was enhanced by visuals witnessed from Habakkuk's ramparts (2:1). Then suddenly the prophet was ushered into the very presence of the Creator with whom he had spoken so boldly from a distance. The prophet stood face-to-face, so to speak, with the sovereign Lord (cf. Job 42:5).

1. God's Arrival (3:3a)

3:3a. As God came down to His people at Sinai to establish His covenant with them, so He would come to liberate His people and reaffirm His covenant with them. Habakkuk wrote of God's earlier visitation at Sinai: God came from Teman, the Holy One (cf. 1:12) from Mount Paran. Moses had said the Lord's appearance was like a light shining "from Seir... and from Mount Paran" (Deut. 33:2).

Teman was a desert oasis in Edom but it might also represent the entire region south of the Dead Sea. "Seir," used by Moses, was a poetic name for the mountainous region referred to as Teman. Paran lies west of Edom across the valley Ghor, between the Sinai Peninsula to the south and Kadesh Barnea to the north, another mountainous area.

It may be of some significance that God's appearance to Moses was in the region south of Judah while the Babylonians invaded from the north. Furthermore, it was in this area to the south that God performed many wonders as He led His people into the Promised Land from Egypt.
The term normally used for "God," the plural ʾĕlōhm, is used in this verse in the singular, ʾĕlah, which may stress the essential unity of the divine Deliverer, "the Holy One."

What is generally considered another musical notation, Selah (Hab. 3:3, 9, 13), probably indicates a pause in the song. (In the niv "Selah" is in the right-hand marg., whereas in other versions it is within the verses.) "Selah" is used elsewhere only in the Psalms, where it occurs 71 times. The Hebrew verb from which the term comes means "to exalt, to lift up." It may mean a pause (a) to elevate to a higher key or increase the volume, (b) to reflect on what has been sung and exalt the Lord in praise, or (c) to lift up certain instruments for something like a trumpet fanfare. Whatever its meaning, an obvious break was intended in the middle of Habakkuk 3:3.

2. God's Appearance

[(Hab 3:3 NASB cont) "God comes from Teman, And the Holy One from Mount Paran. Selah. His splendor covers the heavens, And the earth is full of His praise."]

3:3b. At Sinai God had come like an awesome thunderstorm sweeping down from the mountainous region in the south. As His glory covered the heavens, the sun and the moon appeared pale in comparison. God's shimmering glory not only filled the heavens but His praise filled the earth. "Praise" probably refers not to the response of mankind but to the reality of God's fame. God's revelation of Himself encompassed the heavens and penetrated to the uttermost parts of the earth.

C. Theophany

3 "Teman" was located in Edom, or Seir, the land south and east of the Dead Sea traditionally occupied by the descendants of Esau (ZPEB, 5:624; cf. Jer 49:7, 20; Ezek 25:13; Amos 1:11-12; Obad 8-9; cf. Gen 25:25, 30; 32:3; 36:1-9, 34). The wilderness of "Paran" was a large, relatively diffuse area, lying between Kadesh Barnea to the north and Mount Sinai to the south (cf. Num 10:11-12, 12:16, 13:3, 26; 1 Sam 25:1) and bounded by Edom to the northeast and Egypt to the southwest (cf. Gen 14:6; 21:21; 1 Kings 11:18). "Mount Paran" is generally thought to be situated to the east of this desert: either in the rugged granite mountains west of the Gulf of Aqabah, or among the desolate cliffs of the Plateau of Paran, northwest of the Gulf of Aqabah (E.M. Blaiklock, The Zondervan Pictorial Bible Atlas [Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1969], p. 64). These geographical references constitute a clear allusion to Deuteronomy 33:2, "Mount Paran" being mentioned only in these two passages, and "Teman" corresponding to Seir (u.s.). Their primary function is thus to evoke the revelation of God's law at Sinai, to which Deuteronomy 33:2-4 refers explicitly (cf. Judg 5:4-5; Ps 68:7-8, 17; Isa 63:1-9) so corroborating the associations outlined in v.2 and setting the broad historical context for vv.3-15. However Habakkuk's omission of the focal term "Sinai" admits a certain imprecision to the allusion: it recalls, not the exact details of a past event, but the dynamics of that event as an analogy for another revelation of God's presence and power.

The noun "glory" (hod) is used primarily of kingly authority (e.g., Num 27:20; 1 Chronicles 29:25; Ps 45:3; Zech 6:13), revealed preeminently in the Lord's sovereignty over creation and history (cf. 1 Chronicles 16:27; 29:11-12; Job 40:10). The verb "covered" (kissah) is used of extension over a surface, either to permeate or conceal with the precise meaning here indicated by the parallel verb "filled" and by the allusion to 2:14 (see below). Thus God's "glory" covers "the heavens" in permeating them, being revealed in them as an expression of his majesty (e.g., Job 37:22; Pss 8:1; 104:1; 148:13; cf. Deut 33:26, 29; Ps 68:34). This thought is echoed in the following line; God's "praise" (tehillah) is a metonomy denoting the power of his character and works, for which he is to be praised (cf. Exod 15:11, ASV; Ps 78:4), and which similarly pervades his creation. This couplet clearly evokes the eschatological proclamation in 2:14 (cf. "glory" [kabod], "earth," "filled," "cover"). Like the preceding couplet in v.3, it looks forward to a new and universal manifestation of God's rule, grounding it in his past breaking into history at Sinai—a brief moment in history, embodying repercussions for the whole of history; a remote event in the earth, destined to fill the whole earth (cf. Eph 4:10; Phil 2:7-11).

The expression "Selah" recurs in vv.9, 13, and also seventy-one times in thirty-nine of the Psalms (e.g., 3, 24, 46, 68, 77, 89, 140). Its meaning has been obscure to translators since early times; its exclusive association with psalmic literature suggests that it had a liturgical function, possibly relating to music or prayer in the temple worship."

(Hab 3:4 NASB) "His radiance is like the sunlight; He has rays flashing from His hand, And there is the hiding of His power."]:

[Michael Heiser's Comment On Hab 3:4 Repeated Here]:

The word translated “rays” in Habakkuk 3:4 (qarnayim) means “horns” elsewhere, literally in terms of parts of an animal’s head (Gen 22:13), or figuratively for the edges of an object (1 Kgs 1:50). Gordon believed qarnayim in Habakkuk 3:4 should be rendered “horns” in part because the verse also references ḥebyn, which he took to be the name of a Canaanite deity ḥby.


[The noun transliterated "ḥebyn" rendered "the veil of" or "the hiding of" according to the Hebrew dictionary does not have an available meaning of a Canaanite deity in Hebrew, or even a poetic reference to a deity in the context of this passage in Habakkuk - in Hebrew at all. For the context as established in verse 3 is God - the God of Israel, not a god of Canaan! Furthermore to give attention to words from the Canaanite language such as "ḥby" which signifies a Canaanite diety because of it's similarity in corresponding letters of another alphabet of another language to the Hebrew word transliterated "ḥebyn," is nonsense; especially since the contexts of the passages the words being compared and connected in meaning areare located in are not of the same context of Habakkuk 3:4 which is the God of Israel]

[Michael Heiser's Further Comment On Hab 3:4 Repeated Here]:

"And Brilliance shall be as the light; he has horns [qarnayim] from his hand; and there is Hebyn. (Hab 3:4, author’s translation) Gordon’s approach is not as far-fetched as it seems. As we will discuss below, Habakkuk 3:5 contains two terms that may well be Canaanite deities (deber, rešep). Nevertheless, other scholars are skeptical.53 Despite the uncertainty, if these references do bear witness to an underworld denizen conceptually akin to Mōt (“Death”), that figure (like Mōt) is not autonomous. The infernal ḥby is on Yahweh’s leash, subservient to his authority. He is therefore “demythologized” in terms of independent status."]

[Hab 3:3-4 Key Versions]:

Habakkuk 3:3-4 (NASB)
3  God comes from Teman, And the Holy One from Mount Paran. Selah. His splendor covers the heavens, And the earth is full of His praise.
4  His radiance is like the sunlight; He has rays flashing from His hand, And there is the hiding of His power.

Habakkuk 3:3-4 (YLT)
3  God from Teman doth come, The Holy One from mount Paran. Pause! Covered the heavens hath His majesty, And His praise hath filled the earth.
4  And the brightness is as the light, He hath rays out of His hand, And there--the hiding of His strength.

Habakkuk 3:3-4 (NKJV)
3  God came from Teman, The Holy One from Mount Paran. Selah His glory covered the heavens, And the earth was full of His praise.
4  His brightness was like the light; He had rays flashing from His hand, And there His power was hidden.

Habakkuk 3:3-4 (HCSB)
3  God comes from Teman, the Holy One from Mount Paran.Selah His splendor covers the heavens, and the earth is full of His praise.
4  ⌊His⌋ brilliance is like light; rays are flashing from His hand. This is where His power is hidden.

Habakkuk 3:3-4 (ASV)
3  God came from Teman, And the Holy One from mount Paran. Selah. His glory covered the heavens, And the earth was full of his praise.
4  And his brightness was as the light; He had rays coming forth from his hand; And there was the hiding of his power.


[Bible Knowledge Commentary On Hab 3:4]:


[(Hab 3:4 NASB) "His radiance is like the sunlight; He has rays flashing from His hand, And there is the hiding of His power."]:

"3:4. The prophet indicated a progressive quality to God's appearance by comparing His splendor to a sunrise. The heavens are first tinted with early rays of the hidden sun, then the earth is illuminated as the ball of fire appears over the horizon, and finally everything is flooded with brilliant, glorious light. Just as rays of light streak across the morning sky, so rays flashed from God's hand. As God advanced, the all-pervading light was traced to its source, the hand of the Lord. The rays (lit., "horns") emanated from God as they do from the sun. People often illustrate a sunrise by drawing a circle surrounded by lines, cones, or horns, a rather crude but nevertheless effective way of depicting radiance. Interestingly the Hebrew verb "to send out rays," related to the Hebrew noun for "horns," was used to describe Moses' countenance after he had come down from Mount Sinai: "his face was radiant" (lit., "his face sent out rays of light," Ex. 34:29-30, 35). This accounts for the strange horns emanating from Michelangelo's famed statue of Moses.

God's radiance is both emanating and concealing. It reveals His glory but veils His power. It is easy to forget that the light and warmth which showers the earth with blessing comes from a ball of fire that could consume the globe in a moment. So God's power is hidden in His glory. His revelation is restrained lest it consume its beholders.

[Expositor's Bible Commentary On Hab 3:4]:

[(Hab 3:4 NASB) "His radiance is like the sunlight; He has rays flashing from His hand, And there is the hiding of His power."]:

"4 God's "glory" is manifested as light, interpreted by NIV as a comparison with "the sunrise." The noun "splendor" (nogah) denotes the shining of various sources of light, including the sun (2 Sam 23:4, Prov 4:18), while "sunrise" translates the common noun "light" (or), often used of dawn and sunlight (e.g., Judg 16:2; 1 Sam 14:36; et al.). The noun "rays" (qarnayim) normally means "horns," with the derived meaning of "projections," such as beams or rays of light; an equivalent word is applied to the rays of the rising sun in Arabic poetry (Keil, p. 99). These associations may validate NIV's rendering of v.4; and certainly the sun does form a fitting biblical symbol of God's "splendor." However, the vocabulary of v.4 is in fact in close harmony with the Sinaitic background developed in v.3, which points to a different context.

As noted above, "splendor" is used of light sources other than the sun. In particular, it recurs to describe the radiance of God's presence, in contexts that recall his theophanies at Sinai and in the wilderness (Ps 18:12; Isa 4:5; 60:1; Ezek 1:4, 13, 27-28; 10:4); as at Sinai, this radiance is generally manifested as intense fire, shrouded in clouds and darkness (e.g., Exod 19:16-19; Ps 18:8-12; Isa 4:5-6; 60:1-2; Ezek 1:4, 13, 27-28; 10:2-7)—an image very remote from that of the rising sun. In keeping with these associations, the noun "sunrise" is used of lightning (Job 36:32; 37:3, 11, 15), which is a prominent characteristic of Sinai and later theophanies (e.g., Exod 19:16; 20:18). On this understanding, the Lord is perceived as illuminating the world, not with the delicate light of sunrise, but with the awe-inspiring radiance that characterized his descent on Mount Sinai—a light as brilliant as the lightning that accompanied that event, incandescent with his glory.

This interpretation is confirmed, first, by the close connection of vv.3-4 with Sinai, to which the image of a sunrise is most inappropriate (cf. Exod 19:9-19; Deut 5:22-26; Judg 5:4-5; Ps 68:7-8). Second, this passage alludes specifically to Deuteronomy 33:2, in which God's glory is similarly portrayed. Third, the imagery of sunshine is equally remote from the ensuing vision. Instead, it is dominated by volcanic earthquake, storm, and specifically by lightning (v.11; cf. v.9), which again are consistent with Sinai. And, finally, in a passage that corresponds closely to vv.3-7 (cf. excursus), the two nouns for "splendor" and "sunrise" recur together in v.11—translated as "lightning" and "glint," respectively—in the unambiguous context of a lightning storm (cf. Ps 77:17-18). The final lines of v.4 are to be interpreted against this background. The "rays" (lit., "twin-rays," i.e., forked lightning) are flashes of light manifested at the Lord's presence. The "hand" is repeatedly a symbol of the Lord's power (e.g., Exod 13:14, 16; 14:31; Deut 3:24; 4:34; 32:41), to which the following line refers explicitly—a "power" manifested conspicuously in the forces of nature (e.g., Exod 15:13; Pss 68:33-35; 74:13; 77:14; 78:26; 150:1), which are "hidden" in his storehouses (cf. Deut 28:12; Job 38:22; Ps 135:7; Jer 10:13; 51:14; Ecclus 43:14). This imagery is clarified in the corresponding content of vv.9, 11, where "lightning" serves the Lord as the "arrows" and "spear" in his hand (cf. Deut 33:2, RSV—"flaming fire at his right hand")."

[(Hab 3:5 NASB) "Before Him goes pestilence, And plague comes after Him."]:

[Further Commentary By Michael Heiser On Hab 3:5]:

"And Brilliance shall be as the light; he has horns [qarnayim] from his hand; and there is Hebyn. (Hab 3:4, author’s translation) Gordon’s approach is not as far-fetched as it seems. As we will discuss below, Habakkuk 3:5 contains two terms that may well be Canaanite deities (deber, rešep). Nevertheless, other scholars are skeptical.53 Despite the uncertainty, if these references do bear witness to an underworld denizen conceptually akin to Mōt (“Death”), that figure (like Mōt) is not autonomous. The infernal ḥby is on Yahweh’s leash, subservient to his authority. He is therefore “demythologized” in terms of independent status."


[
The Hebrew word transliterated "deber" means plague" and "rešep" can mean "pestilence" or "flame" depending upon context. The meaning of "pestilence" best fits the context of Habakkuk 3:5. Neither word has anything to do with pagan gods.

HABAKUK KEY VERSIONS

Habakkuk 3:5 (NASB)
5  Before Him goes pestilence, And plague comes after Him.

Habakkuk 3:5 (NKJV)
5  Before Him went pestilence, And fever followed at His feet.

Habakkuk 3:5 (HCSB)
5  Plague goes before Him, and pestilence follows in His steps.

[Expositor's Bible Commentary]:
'''God's "power" is here revealed in judgment: almost invariably "plague" (deber) and "pestilence" (resep) are attributed directly to the sovereign agency and judgment of God. Accompanying him in the context of Sinai, they refer particularly to the plagues that devastated Egypt (Exod 9:3, 15; Ps 78:50) and which attended Israel's disobedience to the covenant given at Sinai (Exod 5:3; Lev 26:25; Num 14:12; Deut 28:21; 32:24; cf. 2 Sam 24:13, 15; 1 Kings 8:37; Jer 29:17-19; 34:12-20; Ezek 5:12, 17; 6:11-12; Amos 4:10)."

[Bible Knowledge Commentary on Hab 3:5]:


"3:5. God is fully capable of exercising His might. He is a terrifying God to those who oppose Him. Habakkuk saw that as God moved across the land, plague preceded Him and pestilence (lit., "burning heat" or "bolts of fire") lay in His wake. At His will God can strike down His enemies with plagues (as in the 10 plagues on Egypt, Ex. 7:14-11:10) or with pestilence (cf. Deut. 32:24). The pestilence here may refer to some disease that is accompanied with a burning fever or to the charring of the earth by lightning bolts. God is not a little old man upstairs who dotes on people with sweetness and light. He is all-powerful as He is all-loving. His grace and glory are coupled with might and majesty."]

[(Hab 3:6 NASB) "He stood and surveyed the earth; He looked and startled the nations. Yes, the perpetual mountains were shattered, The ancient hills collapsed. His ways are everlasting."]:

[Bible Knowledge Commentary On Hab 3:6]:

"3:6. Habakkuk's vision of God coming from the distance and marching across the land rose to a climax. Having reached the place from which He would execute judgment, God stopped, stood, and shook the earth. His very presence caused the earth to shake. Furthermore, by a mere glance at the nations He caused them to tremble (lit., "leap in terror") and even the framework of nature was shattered. The primeval mountains and age-old hills, the firmest constituents of the globe, crumbled into dust. He came down on Mount Sinai with thunder, lightning, and fire amidst shaking mountains (Ex. 19:16-19). Though the age-old (lit., "eternal") hills collapsed, God's everlasting ways go on. Here is a stark warning to those who honor the creation over the Creator! (Cf. Hab. 2:19-20.)

[(Hab 3:7 "I saw the tents of Cushan under distress, The tent curtains of the land of Midian were trembling."]:

[Bible Knowledge Commentary On Hab 3:7]:

"3:7. Witnesses to God's appearance at the Exodus and in the wilderness wanderings were Cushan and Midian, nations that lay on either side of the Red Sea (or Cushan may be another name for Midian). God's wondrous acts at the Red Sea (when He led His people from Egyptian captivity) threw neighboring nations into terror and they experienced distress (fear) and anguish. Other nations too heard of God's mighty acts and were in fear (Ex. 15:14-16; Deut. 2:25; Josh. 2:9; 5:1). Reference to the people's tents and dwellings (lit., "tent hangings") seems to emphasize their precarious state. If the mountains melted away, what hope was there for those who huddled under canvas?"

[(Hab 3:8 NASB) "Did the LORD rage against the rivers, Or was Your anger against the rivers, Or was Your wrath against the sea, That You rode on Your horses, On Your chariots of salvation?"]:

[Bible Knowledge Commentary On Hab 3:8]:

"Habakkuk's attention was now drawn from the awesome appearance of God to a description of God's acts on earth. This section of the ode is introduced in verse 8 by a series of questions that serve as a literary interruption to give life and vitality to the message and to provoke the reader to think about its implications. The questions are in a poetic style that expects no answer. They are thought-questions.

3:8. Three questions center on God's motive for His appearance: Was God showing His wrath at the rivers? And at the streams? And at the sea? In other words, was God angry with nature? While direct answers are not given, a no answer was implied. God is not displeased with nature. He was using nature as a tool to demonstrate His power (cf. vv. 12-13). God had exhibited His power by smiting the Nile River (Ex. 7:20-21), the Red Sea (Ex. 14:15-28; 15:8-10; cf. Ps. 78:13), and the Jordan River (Josh. 3:14-17). Similarly God would smite the nations. His motive was to destroy His enemies and deliver His people. God was seen as a victor riding forth with His horses (cf. Hab. 3:15) and chariots in majestic power. What a contrast with the Babylonians' horses (1:8-9) that would eventually be stopped when Babylon fell a few decades later, in 539 b.c. (cf. 2:6-8)]

[Michael Heiser's Comments On Dt 32:8]:

"Terms That Denote Entities with Geographical Dominion
1. “Territorial Spirits (Shedim; šēdm) As noted earlier, Deuteronomy 32:8 informs us that the division of humanity into disparate nations at Babel occurred in tandem with allotting those nations to lesser ʾelōhı ̂m, the “sons of God” (and vice versa). This event is the Old Testament explanation for the devolution from humanity’s corporate relationship with the true God to individual nations with rival pantheons. The “sons of God” of the Babel event are the gods of the nations in Old Testament theology (cf. Deut 4:19–20; 17:1–3; 29:23–26)."

[Dt 4:19-20 NASB]:

(Dt  4:19 NASB) "And beware not to lift up your eyes to heaven and see the sun and the moon and the stars, all the host of heaven, and be drawn away and worship them and serve them, those which the LORD your God has allotted to all the peoples under the whole heaven.
 
(Dt 4:20 NASB) But the LORD has taken you and brought you out of the iron furnace, from Egypt, to be a people for His own possession, as today."

Michael Heiser's interpretation of Dt 4:19-20 is nonsensical. There were no gods of the nations in Old Testament theology as he wrote.

The “sons of God” of the Babel event are the gods of the nations in Old Testament theology (cf. Deut 4:19–20; 17:1–3; 29:23–26)."

[Compare Bible Knowledge Commentary]:

"Dt 4:15-20. Moses spelled out one of the implications contained in the experience at Horeb. Since the Israelites saw no form (cf. v. 12) of God on that day they were never to attempt to represent Him with any form. The religions of the ancient Near East worshiped idols in the shapes of various creatures mentioned in verses 16-18. Israel was never to limit her God in this way for it would call His transcendence into question and it would make them corrupt (cf. v. 25).
The worship of astral deities was also common in the ancient Near East. The sun was worshiped as the god Re or Aten in Egypt, and in the new land to which the Israelites were going astral worship was also common. (E.g., the city of Jericho was dedicated to the worship of the moon god.) The Israelites were not to let themselves be enticed (v. 19) into the worship of the luminaries (cf. 17:2-5) which God has provided for all the nations under heaven."


[Key Versions Of Dt 32:8]:


[Deuteronomy 32:8 (NASB)
8  "When the Most High gave the nations their inheritance, When He separated the sons of man, He set the boundaries of the peoples According to the number of the sons of Israel.

Deuteronomy 32:8 (YLT)
8  In the Most High causing nations to inherit, In His separating sons of Adam--He setteth up the borders of the peoples By the number of the sons of Israel.

Deuteronomy 32:8 (NKJV)
8  When the Most High divided their inheritance to the nations, When He separated the sons of Adam, He set the boundaries of the peoples According to the number of the children of Israel.

Deuteronomy 32:8 (HCSB)
8  When the Most High gave the nations their inheritance and divided the human race, He set the boundaries of the peoples according to the number of the people of Israel.

[Expositor's Bible Commentary On Dt 32:8]:

"8-9 Here Israel is geographically and religiously set in the context of the Lord's sovereignty over all nations, apparently based on Genesis 10, where the record of the division of mankind is given. When speaking of God's allocating geographical areas for the nations, he is the "Most High" (v.8; used only here in Deuteronomy). Most High is in contrast to his name "Lord" (Yahweh) as the God of Israel (v.9). Most High is an elative form; Melchizedek is priest of the God Most High (Gen 14:18-20, 22). In Psalms 83:18 and 97:9, the Lord is "the Most High over all the earth." Most High as a name for God appears more than twenty times in the Psalms.
That Canaan was Israel's inheritance (v.8) by the Lord's decree, based on the promise to Abraham, is of major importance in the developing doctrine of the Lord's relationship to his people and his redemption for them and providence toward them. This inheritance was soon to be divided among the tribes, providing each tribe with boundaries for its patrimony; and this division proceeds down to each family and to each man's (and in some cases woman's) inheritance. In this way the ownership of private, landed property becomes a basic right of Israelite social structure and economy. And much more than this, the idea of inheritance, that is, ownership on the basis of inherent right, describes the relationship of Israel to the Lord—and sometimes of the Lord to Israel (especially the Levites). Israel is the Lord's inheritance.
However, this cardinal figure, basic to the Lord's promise of Canaan to Israel, is applied to all nations, though in a more general way. Not only did the Lord give Canaan to Israel, he also gave certain lands to other nations. While this reference probably falls back on Genesis 10, that does not suggest that this division was made all at once in the distant past. It suggests, rather, that the Lord rules over the disposition of land to all nations in the sovereign exercise of his will in every generation. This is illustrated by several national geographical changes in chapter 2.

While the latter part of v.8 is unclear, the most probable meaning is that the boundaries of the nations were determined with the intent that Israel would have Canaan because her numbers could be supported in that area. This was done because Israel was central in the Lord's affection and sovereign planning. The use of Jacob for Israel contributes to the poetic style of the song.
As the people looked across the Jordan at the country that was to be their share of the world's lands, the Song of Moses told them that they were the Lord's portion, allotment, and inheritance."

[Bible Knowledge Commentary On Dt 32:5-9]:

"32:5-9. In contrast with God's faithfulness and righteousness, His people had become so warped that they bore no family resemblance to their Father. They could almost always be counted on to do wrong. The depth of the contrast was emphasized by reminding the people that the Lord (Yahweh) was their Creator (v. 6), that is, He formed the people into a nation at the Exodus (cf. v. 9).

So the people were doubly foolish in acting so corruptly (cf. 31:29). First, they flouted the grace of their God, and second, they forgot about His power. For if He could make them into a nation, He could also unmake them. If the people doubted that He was their Creator all they had to do was look back into their history (Remember the days of old, v. 7). The challenge to remember is given 16 times in Deuteronomy, starting in 4:10 and concluding here.

The elders could explain to them that God had set up the boundaries... of Israel, making Israel His people and inheritance (i.e., owning them as His), and that He was absolutely sovereign as the Most High over all nations."

                

 

ANGELS ,
WHAT THE BIBLE REALLY SAYS ABOUT GOD'S HEAVENLY HOST

By
Michael Heiser

CLICK FOR REFUTATION BY TRUTHWATCHERS.COM

http://truthwatchers.com/michael-hiesrs-gnostic-heresy-gods-or-angels-part-4/

[Comments from biblestudymanuals.net in black font]

This book is
not about what the Bible really says at all!!

What does The Language of the Heavenly Host in the Second Temple Judaism and Second Temple Jewish Angelogy - two of the chapter headings have to do with a proper interpretation of the Bible which was written centuries before the Second Temple language existed and was not affiliated with anything to with that culture or language, or anything to do with what was written in the 1st century in koine Greek which authors had no affiliation with Second Temple Jewish Angelogy? Ans. NOTHING.

There are so many opposing, non-contextual points of view from individuals who do not even bother to properly read and interpret the Bible in an orderly, proper fashion, report the findings and then properly interpret the results before comparing them to Second Temple Judaism and Second Temple Jewish Angelogy or anything else. Instead the author imposes these points of view upon the Bible without even offering a substantiated interpretation from context within the Bible by the authors themselves!

Furthermore, author Heiser says that the angels participated with God in creating man in Gen 1:26.

But what does Scripture say??? If he is this far off from interpreting the Bible properly, no need to go any further:

[Gen 1:26-27]:

(Gen 1:26 NKJV) "Then God said, 'Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the air, and over the cattle, over all the earth and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.'

(Gen 1:27 NKJV) So God created [Heb. verb, "bArA"] man in His own image; in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them."

LET US MAKE MAN IN OUR IMAGE

GOD IS MADE UP OF MORE THAN ONE PERSONALITY HENCE, THE PLURAL FORMS IN "LET US MAKE MAN IN OUR IMAGE"

"Then God said, 'Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our Likeness...' " = "God" = "ElOhm" = PLURAL

"said" = singular verb in the Hebrew

"Us" = PLURAL

"make" = singular verb in the Hebrew verb "AsAh," = to make

"our" = PLURAL

"in our image according to our likeness" =

"our image" = The construction here of plural subject followed by a singular verb indicates one God with more than one Personality, i.e., the Trinity.

In order to avoid attributing God with more than one Personality, objectors to the Trinity state that the phrase, "in our image" in Gen 1:26 refers to God and the angels who are deciding together to create man in their image. This would then imply that angels have the image of God on a equal basis with the Almighty eternal God and thus contributed in creation, ("Let us make"), with Him as Creators. However, the image that the passage is referring to is a unique one to God and God alone as implied by the word "our". If "us" is to include angels then a plural verb form of "make" instead of singular would have been inspired by God to be used. God's image is an eternal image which angels and man are made into only in a finite way. If equality were meant instead of similarity, then the verse should have been worded 'Let us make man equal with us' and not "Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our Likeness...' "