ROMANS CHAPTER 10

OBSERVATION STAGE

The purpose of the observation stage is to maintain focus on the text at hand within the normative rules of language, context and logic which limits the observer to the content offered by the book of Romans. This will serve to avoid going on unnecessary tangents elsewhere; and more importantly, it will provide the framework for a proper and objective comparison with passages located elsewhere in Scripture.

Remember that something elsewhere may be true, but in the text at hand it may not be in view.

Romans chapter 10 continues the context dealt with in detail in chapter 9 of the principle of the salvation = preservation from temporal destruction and early physical death of individuals and nations who express a moment of the faith of Abraham in a Messiah-Savior Descendant for eternal life and then truly rely on the LORD in faithfulness. Key excerpts from chapter nine on this matter follow:

*** KEY EXCERPTS FROM ROMANS CHAPTER 9 ***

OR MOVE TO RO 10:1

JUST AS WHEN THE LORD DECREED THAT A GENERATION OF GODLESS ISRAELITES WAS TO BE DESTROYED, YET HE PRESERVED A REMNANT OF ISRAELITES TO AVERT THEIR EXTINCTION AND INSURE THE FULFILLMENT OF HIS PROMISES TO HIS CHOSEN PEOPLE, WHICH REMNANT WAS DECLARED BY GOD TO BECOME SERVANTS OF THE LORD, I.E., BELIEVE IN AND BE TRUE TO THE FAITH OF ABRAHAM IN A MESSIAH-SAVIOR DESCENDANT THROUGH ISAAC UNTO ETERNAL LIFE; SO IT IS WITH ALL GENERATIONS OF MANKIND, JEWS AND GENTILES ALIKE: A REMNANT OF FAITHFUL BELIEVERS WILL BE PRESERVED (SAVED FROM TEMPORAL DESTRUCTION) SO AS TO PRESERVE THE HUMAN RACE FROM EXTINCTION IN ORDER TO FULFILL GOD'S PROMISES TO MANKIND

(Ro 9:6) "It is not as though God's word had failed.For not all who are descended from Israel are Israel. (Ro 9:7) Nor because they are his descendants are they all Abraham's children. On the contrary, "It is through Isaac that your offspring will be reckoned. (Ro 9:8) In other words, it is not the natural children who are God's children, but it is the children of the promise who are regarded as Abraham's offspring... (v. 9:23 NKJV) and that He might make known the riches of His glory on the vessels of mercy, which He had prepared beforehand for glory, (v. 9:24 NKJV ) even us whom He called, not of the Jews only, but also of the Gentiles? (Ro 9:25 NKJV) As He says also in Hosea: 'I will call them My people, who were not My people, And her beloved, who was not beloved.' [Hos 2:23] (Ro 9:26 NKJV) And it shall come to pass in the place where it was said to them, ' You are not My people,' There they shall be called sons of the living God.' [Hos 1:10] (Ro 9:27 NKJV) Isaiah also cries out concerning Israel: 'Though the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea, The remnant will be saved. [Isa 10:22] (v. 9:28 NKJV) For He will finish the work and cut it short in righteousness, Because the LORD will make a short work upon the earth.' (v. 9:29 NKJV) And as Isaiah said before: 'Unless the LORD of Sabbath [lit., hosts] had left us a seed, [= descendants] We would have become like Sodom, And we would have been made like Gomorrah. [Isa 1:9]' " =

From verses 9:6-9:8, especially the phrase "Abraham's offspring" in Ro 9:8 we learn who are the true children of Israel: Those who are of the faith of Abraham in his Messiah-Savior Descendant through Isaac unto eternal life .

This is corroborated by Ro 9:25-26, where we learn that this same principle is applicable to all individuals: When individuals of any period of history become believers in and are true to the faith of Abraham in a Messiah-Savior Descendant through Isaac unto eternal life, they are viewed by God as follows: (v. 9:25 NKJV) " 'I will call them My people, who were not My people, And her beloved, who was not beloved.' [Hos 2:23] (v. 9:26 NKJV) And it shall come to pass in the place where it was said to them, ' You are not My people,' There they shall be called sons of the living God.''[Hos 1:10]. Hence Paul is saying that in the same way that not all ancient Israelites were true Israelites nor God's chosen people, nor beloved in God's sight, but those who believe in and are true to the faith of Abraham in a Messiah-Savior Descendant through Isaac unto eternal life; so God for His glory prepared beforehand Jews and Gentiles of all ages to be called 'beloved', 'His people', "sons of the living God' who then choose to be of and true to that faith, who were beforehand neither His beloved, nor His people, nor His children.

Then in Romans 9:27, author Paul refers to what was written in Isaiah 10:22 in order to bring to clarity the principle that just as only those ancient Israelites of the Northern Kingdom who were the children of the promise of Abraham out of the innumerable number of Israelites because they have expressed the faith of Abraham in his Messiah-Savior Descendant, Jesus Christ, unto eternal life, and who would truly rely on the LORD in faithfulness - were saved from temporal destruction and thus were enabled by the LORD to return to the land after the Assyrian conquest and evert total extinction of the northern ten tribes; so, in the same way, only those out of all of humanity of all ages - Jew and Gentile alike - who believe in and are true to the faith of Abraham in a Messiah-Savior Descendant through Isaac unto eternal life, i.e., who would truly rely on the LORD during their lives will be saved from temporal destruction and early physical death in their time. Hence they would be instrumental in God's preserving the human race from extinction in order to fulfill God's promises to mankind. Note that author Paul used the word "sOthEsetai" rendered "will be saved" in the NKJV, to reflect what Isa 10:22 implies with the Hebrew word "shûb" rendered "will return" in the NIV: a temporal salvation from destruction during the Assyrian conquest in order for the ancient Israelites to have the opportunity to avert extinction and return to the Promised Land.

So the word rendered "saved" in the phrase "The remnant will be saved" in Ro 9:27 NKJV refers to the preservation of the physical lives of the remnant of Israelite believers relative to their living out the length of their years without premature temporal destruction so as to provide descendants of their people. Note that Israel in general suffered premature temporal destruction and captivity numerous times because of her unbelief and unfaithfulness toward God; but in every age a remnant of Israelites who will became faithful believers will be preserved to avert the extinction of Israel so that there would exist descendants in the future who would inherit the promised land and so that the Messiah-Savior would descend from them as the LORD had promised in His unilateral covenant with Abraham and Abraham's seed, Israel, (Ro 9:6-9). So in Ro 9:27, referring to his time in history, author Paul uses the word "saved" to refer to the preservation of the physical lives of faithful believers from premature destruction and early physical death, both Jew and Gentile, (cc. Ro 9:23-26). Note the references to averting complete temporal destruction as the inhabitants of Sodom and Gomorrah experienced, (Ro 9:29), and the temporal destruction of Pharoah in vv. Ro 9:17-18 for being unfaithful.

JUST AS THE LORD PREVENTED EXTINCTION OF THE NORTHERN ISRAELITE POPULATION BY PRESERVING A REMNANT OF THEM - WHO WOULD THEN BELIEVE IN AND BE TRUE TO THE FAITH OF ABRAHAM IN A MESSIAH-SAVIOR DESCENDANT THROUGH ISAAC UNTO ETERNAL LIFE HENCE TRULY RELY ON THE LORD; AND HENCE PRESERVE HIS RIGHTEOUSNESS BY FULFILLING HIS COVENENT WITH ABRAHAM AND HIS SEED ISRAEL OF A FUTURE GENERATION OF ISRAELITE DESCENDANTS OF ALL TRIBES WHO WOULD DWELL FOREVER WITH THE LORD IN THE PROMISED LAND; SO GOD INSURES THAT THERE WILL ALWAYS BE PRESERVED (SAVED FROM TEMPORAL DESTRUCTION AND PREMATURE PHYSICAL DEATH) A REMNANT OF INDIVIDUALS WHO WOULD BE FAITHFUL BELIEVERS IN EVERY AGE, JEWS AND GENTILES, I.E., ALL MANKIND, AND HENCE PRESERVE THE HUMAN RACE FROM EXTINCTION SO AS TO FULFILL HIS RIGHTEOUSNESS AND HIS PROMISES TO MANKIND

(v. 9:21 NKJV) Does not the potter have power over the clay, from the same lump to make one vessel for honor and another for dishonor? (v. 9:22 ASV) What if God, willing to show His wrath, and to make His power known, endured with much longsuffering, vessels of wrath fitted unto destruction: (v. 9:23 NKJV) and that He might make known the riches of His glory on the vessels of mercy, which He had prepared beforehand for glory, (v. 9:24 NKJV ) even us whom He called, not of the Jews only, but also of the Gentiles? (v. 9:25 NKJV) As He says also in Hosea: 'I will call them My people, who were not My people, And her beloved, who was not beloved.' [Hos 2:23] (v. 9:26 NKJV) And it shall come to pass in the place where it was said to them, ' You are not My people,' There they shall be called sons of the living God.' [Hos 1:10] (v. 9:27 NKJV) Isaiah also cries out concerning Israel: 'Though the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea, The remnant will be saved. [Isa 10:22] (v. 9:28 NKJV) For He will finish the work and cut it short in righteousness, Because the LORD will make a short work upon the earth.' (v. 9:29 NKJV) And as Isaiah said before: 'Unless the LORD of Sabaoth [lit., hosts] had left us a seed, [= descendants], We would have become like Sodom, And we would have been made like Gomorrah [Isa 1:9]. ' " =

The sovereignty of God in choosing to demonstrate the riches of His glory with vessels He created to receive His mercy and glory: believers throughout history, Jews and Gentiles, (vv. 9:21-24), continues to be in view in Romans chapter 9. []

In Romans 9:27-29, author Paul addresses his (and our) time in history with a perspective of passages he quotes from Hosea and Isaiah. These passages refer to the salvation from premature physical death of a remnant of ancient Israelites who were part of the Northern Kingdom which was attacked and conquered by Assyria - hence preserving the northern tribes of Israel from extinction. The ancient remnant was described in those passages as returning to the LORD, the Mighty God, and truly relying on Him, (cf. Isa 10:20-23), i.e., being faithful believers. They were enabled by the LORD to return to their land. Had the LORD not intervened to save the remnant from extinction there would have been another Sodom and Gomorrah with no Israelites from the northern ten tribes left to descend from and fulfill the covenant God made with Abraham and his seed Israel, thus impugning the righteousness of God. Note that since Lot and his family were not of the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah but of the family of Abraham, all of the inhabitants of those cities perished leaving no descendants alive.

And just as the LORD prevented the extinction of the Northern Israelite population by preserving a remnant of them - who would then believe in and be true to the faith of Abraham in a Messiah-Savior Descendant through Isaac unto eternal life hence truly rely on the LORD; hence preserve His righteousness by fulfilling His covenent with Abraham and his seed Israel of a future generation of Israelite descendants of all tribes who would dwell forever with the LORD in the promised land; so God insures that there will always be preserved (saved from temporal destruction and premature physical death) a remnant of individuals who would be faithful believers in every age, Jews and Gentiles, i.e., all mankind, and hence preserve the human race from extinction so as to fulfill His righteousness and His promises to mankind.

The phrase "in righteousness" in verse 9:28: "For He [the LORD] will finish the work [of disciplining the Israelites with Assyria] and cut it short in righteousness [so that the Israelites would not all be wiped out as in Sodom and Gomorrah, (v. 9:29)] refers to the LORD's maintaining His righteousness by preserving His covenant with Abraham and his seed Israel and by implication, His promises to all mankind.

RIGHTEOUSNESS IS NOT TO BE PURSUED BUT OBTAINED AS THE GENTILES HAVE DONE IT: BY FAITH IN THE ROCK WHO IS CHRIST - A STUMBLING STONE TO THE ISRAELITES WHO REJECTED CHRIST AND PURSUED KEEPING THE LAW IN ORDER TO ATTAIN RIGHTEOUSNESS AND FAILED. EXCEPT FOR A REMNANT WHICH GOD PRESERVES FROM EXTINCTION THROUGHOUT THE AGES, ISRAEL HAS REPEATEDLY BEEN DESTROYED

(v. 9:30 NKJV) "What shall we say then? That Gentiles, who did not pursue righteousness, have attained to righteousness, even the righteousness of faith; (v. 9:31 NKJV) but Israel, pursuing the law of righteousness, has not attained to the law of righteousness. (v. 9:32 NKJV) Why? Because they did not seek it by faith, but as it were, by the works of the law. For they stumbled at that stumbling stone. (v. 9:33 NKJV) As it is written: " Behold, I lay in Zion a stumbling stone and rock of offense, And whoever believes on Him will not be put to shame. =

Paul asks, "What shall we say then?" in verse 9:30 and then answers that a number of Gentiles attained God's righteousness by a moment of faith alone in Jesus Christ alone; but Jews characteristically pursued and failed to attain God's righteousness by attempting to keep the law of righteousness - the Law of Moses. They found Jesus Christ to be a Stumbling Stone. They could not accept that keeping the Law was not the way of righteousness, but simply trusting in their Messiah-Savior Descendant for that end is. Except for a remnant which God preserves from extinction throughout the ages, Israel has repeatedly been destroyed and dispersed from the land.

Compare with Isa 8:13-14

WHOEVER BELIEVES ON JESUS CHRIST, THE STUMBLING STONE TO THOSE WHO WOULD KEEP LAW TO ATTAIN RIGHTEOUSNESS UNTO ETERNAL LIFE, WILL NOT BE PUT TO ETERNAL SHAME BUT HAVE ETERNAL LIFE

(v. 9:22 ASV) What if God, willing to show His wrath, and to make His power known, endured with much longsuffering, vessels of wrath fitted for destruction: (v. 9:23 NKJV) and that He might make known the riches of His glory on the vessels of mercy, which He had prepared beforehand for glory, (v. 9:24 NKJV ) even us whom He called, not of the Jews only, but also of the Gentiles? (v. 9:30 NKJV) What shall we say then? That Gentiles, who did not pursue righteousness, have attained to righteousness, even the righteousness of faith; (v. 9:31 NKJV) but Israel, pursuing the law of righteousness, has not attained to the law of righteousness. (v. 9:32 NKJV) Why? Because they did not seek it by faith, but as it were, by the works of the law. For they stumbled at that stumbling stone. (v. 9:33 NKJV) As it is written: 'Behold, I lay in Zion a stumbling stone and rock of offense, And whoever believes on Him will not be put to shame.' " =

In Ro 9:33, the Greek word, "kataischunthEsetai", rendered "put to shame" in the NKJV, is in the future tense, passive voice. It means that an individual who refuses to believe will literally be put to being ashamed by another, [i.e, by God], since it is in the passive voice.

Since verse 9:23 has eternal glory in view, the phrase "the righteousness of faith" in verse 9:30 refers to the righteousness of God for eternal life and the phrase "whoever believes on Him [the LORD] refers to the reception of the righteousness of God by a moment of faith alone in Christ alone for eternal life. So the concept of not being put to shame in verse 9:33 must refer to those who choose to express a moment of faith alone in the LORD alone for eternal life resulting eternal life as opposed to eternal shame and death - the destiny of those who refuse to believe.

Note that Jews and Gentiles of this age are in view relative to the principles that author Paul has reminded us of from OT passages of the Prophets including the principal of an eternal righteousness from God for eternal life by the faith of Abraham in a Messiah-Savior Descendant and not by works.

1) [Compare Isa 8:13-17, 28:16-19]:

*** END OF EXCERPT ***

I) [Ro 10:1-2]:

(v. 10:1 NAS) "Brethren, [fellow believers] my heart's desire and my prayer to God for them [Israelites, vv. 9:30-33] is for their salvation [from temporal destruction].

(v. 10:2 NAS) For I testify about them that they have a zeal for God, but not in accordance with knowledge."

A) PAUL DECLARES TO HIS BROTHERS, I.E., FELLOW BELIEVERS THAT HIS HEART'S DESIRE AND PRAYER TO GOD FOR THE ISRAELITES IS THAT THEY MAY BE SAVED, I.E., PRESERVED FROM PREMATURE PHYSICAL DEATH AND TEMPORAL DESTRUCTION BY BECOMING BELIEVERS WHO TRULY RELY ON THE LORD

(v. 9:1 YLT) "Truth I say in Christ, I lie not, my conscience bearing testimony with me in the Holy Spirit, (v. 9:2 YLT) that I have great grief and unceasing pain [= sorrow] in my heart - (v. 9:3 ASV) For I could wish that I myself were anathema from Christ for my brethren's sake, my kinsmen according to the flesh: (v. 9:4a YLT) who are Israelites, ... (v. 9:27 NKJV) "Isaiah also cries out concerning Israel: 'Though the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea, The remnant will be saved. [Isa 10:22] (v. 9:28 NKJV) For He will finish the work and cut it short in righteousness, Because the LORD will make a short work upon the earth.' (v. 9:29 NKJV) And as Isaiah said before: 'Unless the LORD of Sabbath [lit., hosts] had left us a seed, [= descendants] We would have become like Sodom, And we would have been made like Gomorrah. [Isa 1:9]' (v. 9:30 NKJV) What shall we say then? That Gentiles, who did not pursue righteousness, have attained to righteousness, even the righteousness of faith; (v. 9:31 NKJV) but Israel, pursuing the law of righteousness, has not attained to the law of righteousness. (v. 9:32 NKJV) Why? Because they did not seek it by faith, but as it were, by the works of the law. For they stumbled at that stumbling stone. (v. 9:33 NKJV) As it is written: 'Behold, I lay in Zion a stumbling stone and rock of offense, And whoever believes on Him will not be put to shame.' (v. 10:1 NAS) Brethren, [fellow believers] my heart's desire and my prayer to God for them [Israelites, vv. 9:30-33] is for their salvation [from temporal destruction and premature physical death] (v. 10:2 NAS) For I testify about them that they have a zeal for God, but not in accordance with knowledge." =

Paul declares to his brothers, i.e., fellow believers, that his heart's desire and prayer to God for the Israelites is that they may be saved, i.e., preserved from premature physical death and temporal destruction by becoming faithful believers who truly rely on the LORD, (vv. 9:30-33).

Notice that Paul had earlier expressed great grief and unceasing pain in the Holy Spirit, wishing that he himself were anathema from Christ for his brethren Israelites' sake, his kinsmen, (Ro 9:1-4a). In Ro 10:1-2, Paul stipulates that his earnest desire and prayer to God for the Israelites stems from the fact that he was an Israelite himself, one who had rejected Christ. The Israelites were zealous for God but their zeal was not based on knowledge, i.e., not based on the truth about attaining righteousness through exercising a moment of the faith of Abraham in a Messiah-Savior Descendant for eternal life and then truly relying on Him in order to be saved from temporal destruction and premature physical death.

Note that temporal salvation of a remnant of people unto godly blessings did not have a prerequisite of salvation unto eternal life for each individual but nevertheles afforded that opportunity to each individual. On the other hand, the ultimate salvation of the whole future generation of all Israel has in view all Israelites becoming faithful believers to represent God forever as His chosen people.

II) [Ro 10:3-4]:

(v. 10:3 NKJV) "For they being ignorant of God's righteousness, and seeking to establish their own righteousness, have not submitted to the righteousness of God.

(v. 10:4 NKJV) For Christ is the end of ... law [rules of behavior] for righteousness to everyone who believes."

A) WITHOUT THE POSSESSION OF THE RIGHTEOUSNESS FROM GOD UNTO ETERNAL LIFE WHICH IS VIA A MOMENT OF FAITH ALONE, AN INDIVIDUAL IS ON THE PATH TO TEMPORAL DESTRUCTION AND PREMATURE PHYSICAL DEATH

(v. 9:30 NKJV) "What shall we say then? That Gentiles, who did not pursue righteousness, have attained to righteousness, even the righteousness of faith; (v. 9:31 NKJV) but Israel, pursuing the law of righteousness, has not attained to the law of righteousness. (v. 9:32 NKJV) Why? Because they did not seek it by faith, but as it were, by the works of the law. For they stumbled at that stumbling stone. (v. 9:33 NKJV) As it is written: " Behold, I lay in Zion a stumbling stone and rock of offense, And whoever believes on Him will not be put to shame. (v. 10:1 NAS) Brethren, [fellow believers] my heart's desire and my prayer to God for them [Israelites, vv. 9:30-33] is for their salvation [from temporal destruction]. (v. 10:2 NAS) For I testify about them that they have a zeal for God, but not in accordance with knowledge. (v. 10:3 NKJV) For they being ignorant of God's righteousness, and seeking to establish their own righteousness, have not submitted to the righteousness of God. (v. 10:4 NKJV) For Christ is the end of ... law [rules of behavior] for righteousness to everyone who believes." =

Romans 10:1 has in view Paul's desire and prayer for the salvation of Israel from the path of temporal destruction and early physical death that they were on. Verses 2-4 present the reason why the Israelites were on such a self-destructive path: The Israelites were on the path to self-destruction including premature physical death because they had a zeal for God but not in accordance with knowledge, (v. 10:2). They had become willfully ignorant of how one is to attain God's righteousness for eternal life and they sought instead to establish their own righteousness to that eternal end. So the Israelites had not submitted to the righteousness of God by simply exercising a moment of faith alone in Christ alone. They refused to accept the truth that Christ was the end of law, i.e., rules of behavior, for righteousness for eternal life to everyone who believes in Him for it.

Evidently without the possession of the righteousness from God for eternal life, an individual is on the path to temporal destruction and premature physical death.

B) THE JEWS PERSISTED IN WILLFUL UNBELIEF OF GOD'S RIGHTEOUSNESS THROUGH FAITH IN CHRIST WHO IS THE END OF LAW = THE END OF RULES OF BEHAVIOR FOR THE PURPOSE OF ATTAINING RIGHTEOUSNESS UNTO ETERNAL LIFE. THEY INSTEAD ATTEMPTED IN VAIN TO ESTABLISH THEIR OWN RIGHTEOUSNESS VIA KEEPING OF THE LAW

(v. 3:20) "Therefore no one will be declared righteous in His sight by observing law; rather, through law we become conscious of sin. (v. 9:30 NKJV) What shall we say then? That Gentiles, who did not pursue righteousness, have attained to righteousness, even the righteousness of faith; (v. 9:31 NKJV) but Israel, pursuing the law of righteousness, has not attained to the law of righteousness. (v. 9:32 NKJV) Why? Because they did not seek it by faith, but as it were, by the works of the law. For they stumbled at that stumbling stone. (v. 9:33 NKJV) As it is written: 'Behold, I lay in Zion a stumbling stone and rock of offense, And whoever believes on Him will not be put to shame.' (v. 10:1 NAS) Brethren, [fellow believers] my heart's desire and my prayer to God for them [Israelites, vv. 9:30-33] is for their salvation [from temporal destruction]. (v. 10:2 NAS) For I testify about them that they have a zeal for God, but not in accordance with knowledge. (v. 10:3 NKJV) For they being ignorant of God's righteousness, and seeking to establish their own righteousness, have not submitted to the righteousness of God. (v. 10:4 NKJV) For Christ is the end of ... law [rules of behavior] for righteousness to everyone who believes." =

Paul explains verse 10:2 with verse 10:3 which begins with the phrase "For they [the Israelites, (vv. 9:30-33)] being ignorant of God's righteousness." Verses 9:30-33 established that this righteousness of God comes freely by faith in Jesus Christ for eternal life. . And according to Ro 10:1, to become a believer is the first step toward salvation from temporal destruction and early physical death.

Since by definition, the negative form of the verb to know, i.e., to not know, can mean to not believe, then, according to the context of 10:3, the Israelites' condition of not knowing must convey willful unbelief.

Verses 10:3 and 4 further corroborate the Jews' willful unbelief in the free gift of God's righteousness through a moment of faith in Jesus Christ with the statement that they instead attempted in vain to establish their own righteousness with God through keeping of the Law in spite of the fact that no one can be declared righteous for eternal life by observing law (cf. Ro 3:20). Since it is stipulated that Jesus Christ was a stumbling stone to them, (vv. 9:32-33); then one may conclude that they knew of Him and the offer of righteousness for eternal life through faith in Him; but they stumbled on this knowledge in the sense of willfully refusing to believe in Him because they were unwilling to let go of their attachment to establishing their own righteousness by keeping the Law. Hence they did not submit to God's righteousness - an infinitely superior righteousness - that was immediately attainable as a free gift through a moment of faith alone in Christ alone, (cf. Ro 9:30-33).

The last phrase of Ro 10:4 corroborates that the righteousness of God for eternal life comes only through faith in Christ not law:

(v. 10:4 greek) ."telos gar nomou Christos eis .dikaiosunEn

(v. 10:4 NKJV) "End .for of law ..Christ ....for righteousness

panti .........................tO pisteuonti

to everyone [who is] the believing [one]

(v. 10:4 NKJV) "For Christ is the end of ... law [no def. article hence = rules of behavior] for righteousness to everyone who believes [in Christ for eternal life, (vv. 9:30-33)]"

Notice that there is no definite article before "nomou" = "law" in the phrase "telos gar nomou Christos" = "For Christ is the end of law" which refers to the end of being held accountable to keep any code of conduct or rules of behavior in order to attain the righteousness of God for eternal life. Although mankind is under God's requirement to live righteously, hence he is held accountable to the righteous standards of the Law, to keep such a law is not possible with man. The Law was instituted to lead an individual to the conclusion that he is a sinner and that he must to turn to the mercy of God through a moment of faith in His Son for eternal life. Hence the means by which any individual of any age can attain God's righteousness for eternal life is declared as not by law - not even the Law of Moses, but via a moment of faith alone in Christ alone, (cf. Ro 3:20-24 ).

Nevertheless, Ro 10:3-4 says that instead of trusting in and living by God's plan of receiving His righteousness through faith in a coming Messiah-Savior Descendant of Abraham, Jesus Christ for eternal life, the Jews attempted but failed to live by the Law of Moses - their particular code of behavior - in order to achieve God's perfect righteousness for eternal life under their own auspices. Christ has always been and is now the end of such futile attempts so that there may be received an eternal righteousness from God for eternal life for everyone who simply believes in Jesus Christ to that eternal end. Note that one must first be a believer in order to be in a position to live out ones years in the fellowship and blesssing of the LORD through a faithful lifestyle; and hence be saved from temporal destruction and early physical death.

III) [Ro 10:5]:

(Ro 10:5 NAS) "For Moses writes that the man who practices the righteousness which is based on law [will] live by that righteousness"

A) THE MAN WHO PRACTICES THE RIGHTEOUSNESS BASED ON LAW, I.E., WHO ENDEAVORS TO OBEY STATUTES OF A RIGHTEOUS CODE OF BEHAVIOR WILL LIVE OUT HIS YEARS OR DIE EARLY - BE BLESSED OR CURSED DEPENDING UPON HIS SUCCESS OR FAILURE IN THAT ENDEAVOR. ON THE OTHER HAND, SINCE MAN CANNOT KEEP RIGHTEOUS RULES OF BEHAVIOR, FAILURE IS INEVITABLE HENCE CHRIST MUST BE AND IS THE END OF LAW FOR ALL WHO BELIEVE IN HIM UNTO RIGHTEOUSNESS

(Ro 3:20) "Therefore no one will be declared righteous in His sight by observing law; rather, through law we become conscious of sin. (Ro 10:4 NKJV) For Christ is the end of ... law [no def. article hence = rules of behavior] for righteousness to everyone who believes [in Christ for eternal life, (vv. 9:30-33)] (Ro 10:5 NAS) For Moses writes that the man who practices the righteousness which is based on law [will] live by that righteousness" =

In verse 10:4, Paul stipulates that Christ is the end of law, i.e., rules of behavior for righteousness to everyone who believes in Him for eternal life. Then in 10:5, the next verse, he explains why this must be so: "For [= because] Moses writes that the man who practices the righteousness which is based on law will live by that righteousness. Conversely if he is not successful in practicing the righteousness which is based on law, he will not live out his appointed years and experience temporal destruction.

Furthermore, although the Law is God's standard of behavior for mankind to attain a righeousness for eternal life by successfully keeping it 100% of the time and to be blessed in ones temporal life in accordance with that success; and although the intended result of one keeping law = rules of behavior, is for one to live out the full number of ones years blessed by God as opposed to experiencing temporal destruction and premature physical death; Paul implies in 10:4 that it is not possible for man to successfully practice righteousness based on law, (cf. 3:20). Hence Christ is and always has been the end of law for attaining righteousness for eternal life for everyone who believes.

So the purpose of the Law was to make one conscious of sin and lead one to faith in Christ for eternal life and as a guide for believers to live by in their temporal lives. Hence the believer who practices the righteousness based on law, i.e., who endeavors to obey statutes of a righteous code of behavior will live out his years or die early, and be blessed or cursed day by day depending upon his success or failure in that endeavor. And since man cannot consistently keep righteous rules of behavior, (cf. Ro 3:20 ), failure is inevitable.

1) [Compare Lev 18:1-5]:

(v. 18:1 NIV) '''The LORD said to Moses,

(v. 18:2 NIV) "Speak to the Israelites and say to them: 'I am the LORD your God.

(v. 18:3 NIV) You must not do as they do in Egypt, where you used to live, and you must not do as they do in the land of Canaan, where I am bringing you. Do not follow their practices.

(v. 18:4 NIV) You must obey My laws and be careful to follow My decrees. I am the LORD your God.

(v. 18:5 NIV) Keep My decrees and laws, for the man who obeys them will live by them. I am the LORD.' " '''

a) Israel Is Commanded To Keep Statues Of God's Law Toward A Lifestyle That Is A Godly One

(v. 18:1 NIV) '''The LORD said to Moses, (v. 18:2 NIV) "Speak to the Israelites and say to them: 'I am the LORD your God. (v. 18:3 NIV) You must not do as they do in Egypt, where you used to live, and you must not do as they do in the land of Canaan, where I am bringing you. Do not follow their practices. (v. 18:4 NIV) You must obey My laws and be careful to follow My decrees. I am the LORD your God.' " ''' =

The LORD tells Moses to speak of His commands to the Israelites relative to living out their temporal lives. Notice verse 3 which has the temporal life in view wherein the Israelites are commanded not to do as they do in Egypt or they do in Canaan, but instead to keep His commands and practices relative to their temporal lives.

b) During Those Moment When One Is Successful At Keeping The Law One Will Live Out Ones Temporal Life Blessed By God and Hence Be Saved From Temporal Destruction And Early Physical Death

The word "live" in the phrase "The man who obeys them [God's decrees and laws] will live by them" in Lev 18:5 refers to the Israelites living out their appointed years in the fellowship and blessing of the LORD their God as opposed to being ostracized from Him - outside of His blessing and fellowship and in danger of temporal destruction and early physical death.

IV) [Ro 10:6-8]:

(v. 6 NAS) '''But the righteousness based on faith speaks as follows: "Do not say in your heart, 'Who will ascend into heaven?' (that is, to bring Christ down),

(v. 7 NAS) or 'Who will descend into the abyss?' (that is, to bring Christ up from the dead).

(v. 8 NAS) But what does it say? 'The word is near you, in your mouth and in your heart' (that is, the word of faith which we are preaching,"

A) ONE WHO HAS HEARD AND SPOKEN OF WHAT THEY RECEIVED THROUGH THE PREACHING OF PAUL AND OTHERS AND HENCE UNDERSTANDS IN ONES HEART (MIND) THE PRINCIPLE OF ATTAINING RIGHTEOUSNESS BY FAITH IN CHRIST UNTO ETERNAL LIFE, CANNOT THEN DENY KNOWING IT AND SAY THAT SOMEONE HAS TO ASCEND TO HEAVEN TO BRING CHRIST DOWN OR DESCEND INTO THE ABYSS TO RAISE HIM FROM THE DEAD TO HEAR OF AND VERIFY THIS PRINCIPLE

(v. 10:4 NKJV) '''For Christ is the end of ... law [no def. article hence = rules of behavior] for righteousness to everyone who believes [in Christ for eternal life, (vv. 9:30-33)] (Ro 10:5 NAS) For Moses writes that the man who practices the righteousness which is based on law shall live by that righteousness. (v. 6 NAS) But the righteousness based on faith speaks as follows: "Do not say in your heart, 'Who will ascend into heaven?' (that is, to bring Christ down), (v. 7 NAS) or 'Who will descend into the abyss?' (that is, to bring Christ up from the dead) (v. 8 NAS) But what does it say? 'The word is near you, in your mouth and in your heart' (that is, the word of faith which we are preaching," ''' =

The word of faith which Paul and others have been preaching, (Ro 10:8), is that "Christ is the end of ... law for righteousness to everyone who believes [in Christ unto eternal life], (Ro 10:4, 6)." So the knowledge of an eternal righteousness from God for eternal life being attained by an individual via a moment of faith alone in Jesus Christ alone as opposed to one practicing law = rules of behavior to attain ones own righteousness to that end, (v. 10:4) - has been spoken of and made known to the hearts (minds ) of individuals through the preaching of God's Word through Paul and others throughout history. So one who has heard this preaching neither can deny the truth of it by saying that one did not hear of it, nor claim that one has to ascend to heaven to bring Christ down, nor say that one has to descend to the abyss to bring Christ up from the dead to verify the prophecy as true.

1) [Compare Dt 30:9b-14]:

(Dt. 30:9b NIV) '''The LORD will again delight in you [ancient Israel] and make you prosperous, just as He delighted in your fathers,

(Dt. 30:10 NIV) if you obey the LORD your God and keep His commands and decrees that are written in this Book of the Law and turn to the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul.

[Notice that deliverance for temporal blessings are in view here for Israel]

(Dt. 30:11 NIV) Now what I [Moses] am commanding you today is not too difficult for you or beyond your reach.

(Dt. 30:12 NIV) It [The Word of God which Moses has been commanding, (v. 11)] is not up in heaven, so that you have to ask, '''Who will ascend into heaven to get it and proclaim it to us so we may obey it?'''

(Dt. 30:13 NIV) Nor is it beyond the sea, so that you have to ask, '''Who will cross the sea to get it and proclaim it to us so we may obey it?

(Dt. 30:14 NIV) No, the word is very near you; it is in your mouth and in your heart so you may obey it. '''

a) Moses Declares That The Content Of The Commands He Gave To The Israelites Was Neither Too Difficult For Them To Obey, Nor Could They Claim That The Content Was Beyond Their Reach

Moses declared that the commands he gave to the Israelites were not too difficult [to obey] nor were they beyond their reach so that they claim that they were not or could not be informed about them and hence be relieved of the responsibility of obeying them. He used the hyperbolic and sarcastic statements in verses 12 & 13, "It [the information from the Word of God which contained the commands that Moses had been giving to the Israelites, (v. 11)] is not up in heaven, so that you have to ask, 'Who will ascend into heaven to get it and proclaim it to us so we may obey it?' Nor is it beyond the sea, so that you have to ask, 'Who will cross the sea to get it and proclaim it to us so we may obey it?' "

So Paul refers to this passage in Deuteronomy 30 in Romans 10:4 & 6 to emphasize the availability of what Paul was preaching to individuals of his time. He points to the key message of this old testament passage, to "the Righteousness which is by faith" of which the Israelites of old were informed via the teaching of Moses.

Paul draws a parallel message for individuals in his day, (and for us today). He proclaims that the gospel, i.e., "the Righteousness which is by faith" is near, it is in ones mouth and hearts (minds) because it has been preached by Paul or others to them from the scriptures. One therefore does not need to claim one hasn't heard it and have an excuse that one would have had to ascend to heaven to speak with Jesus Christ to get it or descend to the depths beyond the grave to bring Christ up from the dead to get it, (as if that were possible). There is no excuse Paul says, for the message is near - it is in their mouths for they have spoken of it and in their hearts - their hearts (minds) because they indeed were informed of it.

[Pastor Kurth, berean@execpc.com]:

"...The word is nigh thee, even in thy mouth, and in thy heart; that is, the word of faith, which we preach."

What does he [Paul] mean by this? Simply that the Old Testament Scriptures, as our Lord put it, 'are they which testify of Me' (John 5:39), and 'Moses of old time hath in every city them that preach him [Moses] being read in the synagogues every Sabbath day' (Acts 15:21). This means that verses about the Lord Jesus Christ were read in every synagogue from ancient times, whether they knew it or not (and they didn't). But this is what Paul means when he tells the Jews here in Romans 10:8, 'the word is nigh thee, even in thy mouth, and in thy heart.' They had been preaching Christ (through Moses) for centuries. Every Sabbath day, the word about Christ that Paul preached was in the mouth of every Jew who read Moses in the synagogue."

IV cont.) [Ro 10:6-8 cont.]:

(v. 6 NAS) '''But the righteousness based on faith speaks as follows: "Do not say in your heart, 'Who will ascend into heaven?' (that is, to bring Christ down),

(v. 7 NAS) or 'Who will descend into the abyss?' (that is, to bring Christ up from the dead).

(v. 8 NAS) But what does it say? 'The word is near you, in your mouth and in your heart' (that is, the word of faith which we are preaching," '''

B) ROMANS 10:6-7 REFLECTS AND EXPANDS UPON THE SARCASTIC HYPERBOLES OF DT 30:12 AND 13 WHEREIN AUTHOR PAUL GOES A STEP FURTHER AND INCLUDES THE ABSURDITY OF SOMEONE HAVING TO GO TO HEAVEN TO BRING CHRIST DOWN OR HAVING TO GO DOWN TO THE ABYSS WHERE SOULS RESIDE AFTER DEATH TO BRING CHRIST UP FROM THE DEAD BECAUSE ONE MAINTAINS THAT THAT'S THE ONLY WAY ONE CAN VERIFY AND BE PROPERLY INFORMED OF THE PRINCIPLE OF A RIGHTEOUSNESS FROM GOD UNTO ETERNAL LIFE VIA A MOMENT OF FAITH ALONE IN JESUS CHRIST ALONE

(Ro 10:6 NAS) '''But the righteousness based on faith speaks as follows: "Do not say in your heart, 'Who will ascend into heaven?' (that is, to bring Christ down), (Ro 10:7 NAS) or 'Who will descend into the abyss?' (that is, to bring Christ up from the dead). (Ro 10:8 NAS) But what does it say? 'The word is near you, in your mouth and in your heart' (that is, the word of faith which we are preaching," =

Romans 10:6-7 reflects and expands upon the sarcastic hyperboles of Dt 30:12 and 13 wherein author Paul goes a step further and includes the absurdity of someone having to go to heaven to bring Christ down or having to go down to the abyss where souls reside after death to bring Christ up from the dead because one maintains that that's the only way one can verify and be properly informed of the principle of an eternal righteousness from God for eternal life via a moment of faith alone in Jesus Christ alone - as if they never were legitimately informed of that principle.

So the phrase "Who will ascend to heaven to get it and proclaim it [God's Word containing His commands to Israel] to us so we may obey it" in Dt 30:12 is modified with the additional phrases in Ro 10:6, (underscored in italics), "Do not say in your heart, 'Who will ascend into heaven?' (that is, to bring Christ down) in order to state more emphatically that the principle of an eternal righteousness from God through faith in Jesus Christ has adequately been presented without going to that extreme. And then Paul goes one step of sarcastic hyperbole further and changes Dt 12:13's "across the seas" with "descend into the deep to bring Christ up from the dead" to emphasize that there is no excuse to demand such absurdities, the principle of an eternal righteousness from God based on a moment of faith alone in Christ alone has been convincingly proclaimed without having to demand that one go to heaven or the abyss to bring Christ to them as proof that it is a true principle. So Paul has expanded on Dt 12:13 likewise to portray a further extreme that is so sarcastically absurd to point out that it is not only not necessary to go beyond the sea, but it is not necessary to go beyond the grave to bring Christ up from the dead to make it available and verify the truth of it. The principle has been adequately spoken of and proved to and reflected upon in the mouths and minds of those who have heard Paul and others preaching the word of faith, as the next verse verifies: (v. 8 NAS) "But what does it [the principle of the righteousness based on faith] say? 'The word is near you, in your mouth and in your heart' (that is, the word of faith which we are preaching."

C) THE PRINCIPLE THAT A RIGHTEOUSNESS FROM GOD UNTO ETERNAL LIFE IS BY FAITH ALONE IN JESUS CHRIST ALONE HAS BEEN SO CLEARLY PROCLAIMED IN THE PREACHING OF THE WORD OF FAITH BY PAUL AND OTHERS THAT THOSE WHO HAVE HEARD IT HAVE SPOKEN OF IT WITH THEIR MOUTHS AND REFLECTED UPON IT IN THEIR HEARTS SO THAT THEY CANNOT CLAIM THAT SOMEONE WOULD HAVE TO ASCEND AND BRING CHRIST DOWN FROM HEAVEN OR DESCEND TO THE ABYSS TO RAISE HIM FROM THE DEAD TO CORROBORATE THE TRUTH OF IT

(Ro 10:6 NAS) '''But the righteousness based on faith speaks as follows: "Do not say in your heart, 'Who will ascend into heaven?' (that is, to bring Christ down), (Ro 10:7 NAS) or 'Who will descend into the abyss?' (that is, to bring Christ up from the dead). (Ro 10:8 NAS) But what does it say? 'The word is near you, in your mouth and in your heart' (that is, the word of faith which we are preaching," =

The principle that an eternal righteousness from God for eternal life is by faith alone in Jesus Christ alone has been so clearly proclaimed in the preaching of the word of faith by Paul and others throughout history that those who have heard it, have spoken of it with their mouths and reflected upon it in their hearts cannot claim that someone would have to ascend and bring Christ down from heaven or descend to the abyss to raise Him from the dead to corroborate the truth of it to them. There is no denial of their knowing the truth of this principle.

1) [Compare Dt 30:9b-14]:

(Dt 30:9b) '''The LORD will again delight in you [ancient Israel] and make you prosperous, just as He delighted in your fathers,

(Dt 30:10) if you obey the LORD your God and keep His commands and decrees that are written in this Book of the Law and turn to the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul.

[Notice that deliverance for temporal blessings are in view here for Israel]

(Dt 30:11) Now what I am commanding you today is not too difficult for you or beyond your reach.

(Dt 30:12) It is not up in heaven, so that you have to ask, "Who will ascend into heaven to get it and proclaim it to us so we may obey it?"

(Dt 30:13) Nor is it beyond the sea, so that you have to ask, "Who will cross the sea to get it and proclaim it to us so we may obey it?"

(Dt 30:14) No, the word is very near you; it is in your mouth and in your heart so you may obey it."

So to paraphrase Ro 10:8 in the light of Dt 30:14:

a) The Word Of God Is Right There: You Have Spoken The Words On Your Lips And You Have Them In Your Heart - The Very Thing Paul And Others Are Preaching: That A Righteousness From God Unto Eternal Life Is Solely Attained By A Moment Of Faith Alone In Jesus Christ Alone

(Dt 30:14) "No, the word is very near you; it is in your mouth and in your heart so you may obey it." & (Ro 10:8 NAS) "But what does it say? 'The word is near you, in your mouth and in your heart' (that is, the word of faith which we are preaching"

The word of God is right there: you have spoken the words on your lips and you have them in your heart - the very thing Paul and others are preaching: that an eternal righteousness from God for eternal life is attained solely by a moment of faith alone in Jesus Christ alone

So the Apostle Paul is closely referring to Dt 30:14 in Ro 10:8 in order to draw a comparison between the times when Israel had the Word of God 'near' in the sense that the Israelites had constantly been given the Word of God via temple priests and the prophets and Moses' preaching so that they spoke of it with their mouths and reflected upon it in their hearts, (minds); as compared to the individuals of Paul's [and our] day who are exposed to this preaching of the "word of faith" containing the principle of a "righteousness based on faith" being so clearly presented as true that those who hear it speak of it with their mouths and reflect upon it in their hearts, (minds). Hence the principle was so close to them, i.e., 'in their mouths' and 'in their hearts', that they cannot deny it and say that someone must go up to heaven or to the depths of the sea or beyond the grave to bring Christ to them to personally testify that the principle was true.

So in view of Dt 30:14 which Paul referred to and the order in which Dt 30:14 is in, ('in your mouth' then 'in your heart'), the Apostle maintains the same word order to drive home his point relative to the fact that people already knew of the gospel of salvation for eternal life of the righteousness which is by faith in their hearts (minds) as a result of Paul's and others' preaching. It was already in their mouths and hearts, (minds), such that they had the information they needed to know in order to be saved. If they confessed a belief they already had in their hearts, (minds), of the gospel of salvation, the result of that belief in their minds already being eternal life through Jesus as Lord - then the confession with their lips would be an expression to men of the fact that they were already saved.

V) [Ro 10:9-10]:

(Ro 10:9 NAS) that if you confess with your mouth Jesus as Lord, and believe in your heart that God raised Him from the dead, you will be saved.

(Ro 10:10 Greek) "Kardia .......gar pisteuetai

..............................."With heart for .[one] believes (3sing pres)

eis ...........dikaiosunEn ...stomati ................de ....

to [for] .righteousness .with [the] mouth and

homologeitai .........................eis ...........sOtErian"

[one] confesses .(3sing pres) to [for] .salvation"

(Ro 10:10 NKJV) For with the heart [one] believes for righteousness, and with the mouth [one confesses] for salvation"

A) SALVATION FROM GOD'S ETERNAL WRATH UNTO THE RECEPTION OF ETERNAL LIFE IS RECEIVED WHEN ONE BELIEVES WITH THE HEART UNTO RIGHTEOUSNESS EVEN BEFORE ONE HAS A CHANCE TO CONFESS JESUS AS LORD

(Ro 3:21) '''But now a Righteousness from God, apart from law, has been made known, to which the Law and the Prophets testify. (Ro 3:22) This Righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. There is no difference, (Ro 3:23) for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, (Ro 3:24) and are justified freely by his grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus... (Ro 4:5 NAS) But to the one who does not work, but believes in Him Who justifies the ungodly, his faith is reckoned as righteousness. (Ro 4:23 NAS) Now not for his [Abraham's] sake only was it written that it was reckoned to him, (Ro 4:24 NAS) but for our sake also, to whom it will be reckoned, as those who believe in Him Who raised Jesus our Lord from the dead, (Ro 4:25 NAS) [He] who was delivered over because of our transgressions, and was raised because of our justification (Ro 5:8 ASV) But God commendeth his own love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us. (Ro 5:9 NKJV) Much more then, having now been justified by His blood, we shall be saved from wrath through Him... (Ro 10:9 NAS) that if you confess with your mouth Jesus as Lord, and believe in your heart that God raised Him from the dead, you will be saved. (Ro 10:10 NKJV) For with the heart [one] believes for righteousness, and with the mouth [one confesses] for salvation''' =

Just as in Ro 3:22; 4:3-5; 5:8-9, it is stipulated that a Righteousness from God for eternal life is credited to one when one expresses a moment of faith alone in Jesus Christ alone to provide it through His blood sacrifice atonement for mankind's sins so that this righteousness results in qualifying one to be saved from God's eternal wrath for eternal life; so the phrase "For with the heart one believes for righteousness," in Ro 10:10a has salvation from God's eternal wrath for eternal life received even before one has a chance to confess Jesus as Lord.

B) ONLY AFTER ONE HAS EXPRESSED A MOMENT OF FAITH ALONE IN CHRIST ALONE TO RECEIVE AN ETERNAL RIGHTEOUSNESS FROM GOD UNTO ETERNAL LIFE IS ONE ENABLED TO TRULY CONFESS JESUS AS LORD BUT ONLY DURING THOSE MOMENTS WHEN THE BELIEVER IS FAITHFUL TO CHRIST'S LORDSHIP

(Ro 3:21) "But now a Righteousness from God, apart from law, has been made known, to which the Law and the Prophets testify. (Ro 3:22) This Righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. There is no difference, (Ro 3:23) for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, (Ro 3:24) and are justified freely by his grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus. (v. 25a NAS) Whom God displayed publicly as a propitiation in His blood through faith [for a display]. (v. 25b NAS) This [display] was to demonstrate His righteousness, because in the forbearance of God He passed over the sins previously committed; (v. 26 NAS) for the demonstration, I say, of His righteousness at the present time, that He might be just and the justifier of the one who has faith in Jesus.... (v. 9:30 NKJV) What shall we say then? That Gentiles, who did not pursue righteousness, have attained to righteousness, even the righteousness of faith; (v. 10:4 NKJV) For Christ is the end of ... law [rules of behavior] for righteousness to everyone who believes." =

To confess Jesus as Lord implies that an individual's being and lifestyle is compatible with the Righteousness of Jesus Christ and His Lordship. Hence, in order for an individual to truly confess Jesus as Lord, there cannot be any unrighteousness, (sin), for which that individual is held accountable at the time of confession. The dilemma is that since all men have sinned and continually fall short of the glory of God, (Ro 3:23), no individual can of his own accord truly confess Jesus as Lord at any time. On the other hand, through a moment of faith alone in Christ's atoning sacrifice for the sins of all mankind, an individual is justified, i.e., credited with an eternal Righteousness from God, (Ro 3:21-26), which forgives all of that individual's sins - past, present and future, relative to eternal life forever and cleanses that individual from the accountability of temporal sins up to that time of the moment of faith; whereupon that individual is for the moment in a position of temporal righteousness and fellowship with the Lord. They can truly confess Jesus as Lord by the grace of God. Although eternal life is secure forever no matter what on account of its eternality and our Lord's once for all atonement for sins, past, present and future for all mankind, (Ro 3:21-26 ); forgiveness for temporal blessings and fellowship with the Lord for believers occur only during those moments when the individual is not held accountable for temporal sins. At those moments the believer can truly confess in his temporal life Jesus as Lord.

It has already been established in Romans that the nature of man, believer and non-believer alike, is of one who has sinned and constantly falls short of the glory of God, (cf. Ro 3:21-23); hence God's provision through His Son's atonement also provides for forgiveness of temporal sins and purification from all unrighteousness at the moment when acknowledgment of them is made as part of ones confession of Jesus as Lord.

On the other hand, Jesus Christ will always be Lord of that individual's eternal life, especially in the sense of its preservation.

And when there is temporal sin which is unaccounted for, confession of Jesus as Lord is not valid until that temporal sin is forgiven relative to the relieving of the consequences of temporal destruction even premature physical death in the temporal life. So the first step for being in a position to confess Jesus as Lord is to be justified for eternal life through a moment of faith alone in Christ alone.

C) THE WORD OF FAITH WHICH PAUL AND OTHERS WERE PREACHING TEACHES THAT AN INDIVIDUAL WHO TRULY CONFESSES WITH HIS MOUTH JESUS AS LORD AND BELIEVES IN HIS HEART (MIND) THAT GOD RAISED JESUS FROM THE DEAD, I.E., A BELIEVER WHO IS FAITHFUL TO THE LORDSHIP OF JESUS CHRIST, WILL BE SAVED FROM TEMPORAL DESTRUCTION AND PREMATURE PHYSICAL DEATH

(Ro 4:23 NAS) '''Now not for his [Abraham's] sake only was it written that it was reckoned to him, (Ro 4:24 NAS) but for our sake also, to whom it will be reckoned, as those who believe in Him Who raised Jesus our Lord from the dead, (Ro 4:25 NAS) [He] who was delivered over because of our transgressions, and was raised because of our justification... (Ro 10:4 NKJV) For Christ is the end of ... law [rules of behavior] for righteousness [for eternal life] to everyone who believes... (Ro 10:6 NAS) But the righteousness based on faith speaks as follows: "Do not say in your heart, 'Who will ascend into heaven?' (that is, to bring Christ down), (Ro 10:7 NAS) or 'Who will descend into the abyss?' (that is, to bring Christ up from the dead). (Ro 10:8 NAS) But what does it say? 'The word is near you, in your mouth and in your heart' (that is, the word of faith which we are preaching, (Ro 10:9 NAS) that if you confess with your mouth Jesus as Lord, and believe in your heart that God raised Him from the dead, you will be saved. (Ro 10:10 NKJV) For with the heart [one] believes for righteousness, and with the mouth [one confesses] for salvation" ''' =

Notice that the conjunction "that" which joins Ro 10:8 with Ro 10:9,

(v. 8) " 'The word is near you, in your mouth and in your heart' (that is, the word of faith which we are preaching, (v. 9 NAS) that if you confess with your mouth Jesus as Lord, and believe in your heart (mind) that God raised Him from the dead, you will be saved,"

continues the context of Ro 10:1-8 into verse 9. Verse 9 specifically stipulates a specific point from the preaching of the "word of faith" by Paul and others mentioned in verse eight: salvation from temporal destruction and from premature physical death of individuals who confess with their mouths Jesus as Lord and believe in their hearts (minds) that God raised Him from the dead. Hence believers being faithful to the Lordship of Jesus Christ are in view.

The Greek word "homologEsEs" in the phrase:

"ean homologEsEs en ....tO stomati sou ..kurion Iesoun"

"If ...you confess ....with the mouth .your Lord ...Jesus"

rendered "If you confess with your mouth Jesus as Lord" in the NAS in Ro 10:9 comes from the root words 'homos' meaning 'same' (from which we get the English word homogeneous), and the Greek word 'logo' meaning 'to speak'. The word literally means to say the same thing, i.e., to acknowledge what is already understood and thus on the heart = the mind, that Jesus is Lord of ones life. Hence one who truly confesses Jesus as Lord will have it in ones mind that Jesus is Lord at those moments when one is acknowledging his inevitable shortcomings before the Lord hence enabling the Lord's direction in ones life. Since a true confession with ones mouth must reflect the reality that for the moment of confession one is faithful to the Lordship of Jesus Christ, then a believer must be in view in this passage.

Since unbelievers have sinned and continually fall short of the glory of God as all men do, (cf. Ro 3:23), and since they do not have the righteousness from God credited to their account because they never believed on Christ to receive it, then unbelievers cannot confess Jesus as Lord at any time. Unbelievers must become believers via a moment of faith alone in Christ alone to be credited with an eternal righteousness from God for eternal life (cf. Ro 3:21-24); and then they will be in a position to trust in the Lord relative to being Lord of their temporal lives hence qualifying them to confess Jesus as Lord.

The second and third phrases of Ro 10:9, ("that if you confess with your mouth Jesus as Lord,) and believe in your heart that God raised Him from the dead, you will be saved," corroborate that believers only are in view. For to believe that Jesus was raised by God from the dead implies that the individual believes that an eternal righteousness from God for eternal life will come through a moment of faith alone in Christ alone, i.e., the sacrifice of His life for sins wherein God then raised Him from the dead as proof of that sacrifice, (cf. Ro 4:23-25). This is corroborated by Ro 10:4 and 10:10 where ones faith in Christ provides a righteousness from God for eternal life, (cf. Ro 3:21-24).

D) IN ROMANS 10:10, TWO KINDS OF SALVATION ARE IN VIEW: (1) SALVATION FROM ETERNAL DESTRUCTION, (ETERNAL DEATH), VIA A MOMENT OF FAITH ALONE IN CHRIST ALONE TO RECEIVE A RIGHTEOUSNESS FROM GOD UNTO ETERNAL LIFE; (2) SALVATION FROM TEMPORAL DESTRUCTION AND FROM PREMATURE PHYSICAL DEATH VIA CONFESSION WITH ONES MOUTH JESUS AS LORD WHICH EXPRESSION REFLECTS BEING FAITHFUL TO THE LORDSHIP OF JESUS CHRIST

(Ro 4:23 NAS) "Now not for his [Abraham's] sake only was it written that it was reckoned to him, (Ro 4:24 NAS) but for our sake also, to whom it will be reckoned, as those who believe in Him Who raised Jesus our Lord from the dead, (v. 4:25 NAS) [He] who was delivered over because of our transgressions, and was raised because of our justification... (Ro 10:4 NKJV) For Christ is the end of ... law [rules of behavior] for righteousness to everyone who believes... (Ro 10:6 NAS) But the righteousness based on faith speaks as follows: "Do not say in your heart, 'Who will ascend into heaven?' (that is, to bring Christ down), (Ro 10:7 NAS) or 'Who will descend into the abyss?' (that is, to bring Christ up from the dead). (Ro 10:8 NAS) But what does it say? 'The word is near you, in your mouth and in your heart' (that is, the word of faith which we are preaching, (Ro 9 NAS) that if you confess with your mouth Jesus as Lord, and believe in your heart that God raised Him from the dead, you will be saved. (Ro 10:10 NKJV) For with the heart [one] believes for righteousness, and with the mouth [one confesses] for salvation" ''' =

(Ro 10:10 Greek) "Kardia .......gar pisteuetai

..............................."With heart for .[one] believes (3sing pres)

eis ...........dikaiosunEn ...stomati ................de ....

to [for] .righteousness .with [the] mouth and

homologeitai .........................eis ...........sOtErian"

[one] confesses .(3sing pres) to [for] .salvation"

Verse 10 explains verse 9 more specifically and in the proper sequential order: first, one believes to receive the righteousness from God for eternal life corroborating that believing that God raised Christ from the dead in verse 9 implies one has expressed faith that Christ paid the penalty for ones sins to receive an eternal righteousness from God for eternal life, (cf. Ro 4:23-25 ); then one confesses with the mouth Jesus as Lord to demonstrate faithfulness to the Lordship of Jesus Christ for a salvation from temporal destruction and premature physical death.

Notice that two kinds of salvation are in view: (1) Salvation from eternal destruction, (death), via a moment of faith alone in Christ alone to receive an eternal righteousness from God for eternal life; and (2) salvation from temporal destruction and premature physical death via confession with ones mouth that Jesus is Lord which confession must reflect faithfulness to His Lordship.

VI) [Ro 10:11-13]:

(Ro 10:11 Greek) "Legei gar hE graphE ....pas .........................ho .pisteuOn

............................."Says ..for the scripture, Everyone [who is] the believing [one]

ep autO ou .kataischunthEsetai'

on Him .not shall be ashamed"

(Ro 10:11 NKJV) "For the Scripture says, 'Whoever believes on Him will not be put to shame.' [Isa 28:16]

(Ro 10:12 NKJV) For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek, for the same Lord over all is rich to all who call upon Him.

(Ro 10:13 Greek) "Pas ..........gar hos ..........an .epikalesEtai

..............................."Everyone for, whoever .......may call on (3sing subj aor mid)

to onoma kuriou ...sOthEsetai"

the name of Lord, .will be saved"

(Ro 10:13 NIV) [For] 'Everyone who calls on the name of the LORD will be saved. [Joel 2:32]' "

A) THE PHRASE "WHOEVER BELIEVES IN HIM WILL NEVER BE PUT TO SHAME" HAS IN VIEW THOSE FROM THE POPULATION OF ALL MANKIND WHO EXPRESS A MOMENT OF FAITH ALONE IN CHRIST ALONE HENCE WHO WILL NEVER BE PUT TO ETERNAL CONDEMNATION, I.E., ETERNAL SHAME. THIS IMPLIES ETERNAL SECURITY. IT ALSO IMPLIES THAT CONFESSION, I.E., FAITHFULNESS TO THE LORDSHIP OF JESUS CHRIST IS NOT A REQUIREMENT TO RECEIVE ETERNAL LIFE

(Ro 9:30 NKJV) '''What shall we say then? That Gentiles, who did not pursue righteousness, have attained to righteousness, even the righteousness of faith; (v. 9:31 NKJV) but Israel, pursuing the law of righteousness, has not attained to the law of righteousness. (v. 9:32 NKJV) Why? Because they did not seek it by faith, but as it were, by the works of the law. For they stumbled at that stumbling stone. (v. 9:33 NKJV) As it is written: 'Behold, I lay in Zion a stumbling stone and rock of offense, And whoever believes on Him will not be put to shame.' (Ro 10:1 NAS) Brethren, [fellow believers] my heart's desire and my prayer to God for them [Israelites, vv. 9:30-33] is for their salvation [from temporal destruction]. (Ro 10:2 NAS) For I testify about them that they have a zeal for God, but not in accordance with knowledge. (Ro 10:3 NKJV) For they being ignorant of God's righteousness, and seeking to establish their own righteousness, have not submitted to the righteousness of God. (Ro 10:4 NKJV) For Christ is the end of ... law [rules of behavior] for righteousness to everyone who believes. (Ro 10:5 NAS) "For Moses writes that the man who practices the righteousness which is based on law [will] live by that righteousness. (Ro 10:6 NAS) But the righteousness based on faith speaks as follows: "Do not say in your heart, 'Who will ascend into heaven?' (that is, to bring Christ down), (Ro 10:7 NAS) or 'Who will descend into the abyss?' (that is, to bring Christ up from the dead). (Ro 10:8 NAS) But what does it say? 'The word is near you, in your mouth and in your heart' (that is, the word of faith which we are preaching," (Ro 10:9 NAS) that if you confess with your mouth Jesus as Lord, and believe in your heart that God raised Him from the dead, you will be saved. (Ro 10:10 NKJV) For with the heart [one] believes for righteousness, and with the mouth [one] confesses for salvation. (Ro 10:11 NKJV) For the Scripture says, 'Whoever believes on Him will not be put to shame [Isa 28:16].' (Ro 10:12 NKJV) For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek, for the same Lord over all is rich to all who call upon Him (Ro 10:13 NIV) [For] 'Everyone who calls on the name of the LORD will be saved. [Joel 2:32]' " ''' =

In Romans 10:12, "For [because] there is no distinction between Jew and Greek, for the same Lord over all is rich to all who call upon Him" all mankind is in view relative to the context of this passage. Hence the Greek phrase, "ou kataischunthEsetai," rendered "not be put to shame" in Romans 10:11 in the NKJV, future tense, passive voice, means that any individual, Jew or Gentile, who believes on Him [Jesus Christ] for eternal life will not be put by God to eternal shame. On the other hand, anyone who refuses to believe will literally be put to eternal shame.

Since whoever believes on Jesus Christ receives an eternal righteousness from God, i.e., is justified for eternal life and saved from God's eternal wrath, (cf. Ro 3:21-24; 5:9 ; and since believing on Jesus Christ according to Ro 10:11, results in not being put to shame; then the phrase "will not be put to shame" in this verse refers to not being put under God's eternal wrath, i.e., eternal shame. Furthermore, since the expression "never be put to shame" refers to the result of never receiving eternal condemnation due to the expression of a moment of faith alone in Christ alone, there is an implication of eternal security and a notable absence of confession of Jesus as Lord = being faithful to Christ's Lordship as a requirement to receive eternal life.

******** EXCERPT FROM CHAPTER 9 *******

JESUS CHRIST IS THE STUMBLING STONE TO THOSE WHO CANNOT ACCEPT HIM BECAUSE THEY INSIST ON A VAIN ATTEMPT TO KEEP LAW TO ATTAIN THEIR OWN RIGHTEOUSNESS TO GAIN ETERNAL LIFE. BUT WHOEVER BELIEVES ON HIM WILL NOT BE PUT TO ETERNAL SHAME BUT HAVE ETERNAL LIFE

(v. 9:22 ASV) What if God, willing to show His wrath, and to make His power known, endured with much longsuffering, vessels of wrath fitted for destruction: (v. 9:23 NKJV) and that He might make known the riches of His glory on the vessels of mercy, which He had prepared beforehand for [eternal] glory, (v. 9:24 NKJV ) even us whom He called, not of the Jews only, but also of the Gentiles? (v. 9:30 NKJV) What shall we say then? That Gentiles, who did not pursue righteousness, have attained to righteousness, even the righteousness of faith; (v. 9:31 NKJV) but Israel, pursuing the law of righteousness, has not attained to the law of righteousness. (v. 9:32 NKJV) Why? Because they did not seek it by faith, but as it were, by the works of the law. For they stumbled at that stumbling stone. (v. 9:33 NKJV) As it is written: 'Behold, I lay in Zion a stumbling stone and rock of offense, And whoever believes on Him will not be put to shame [Isa 28:16].' " =

Jesus Christ is the stumbling stone to those who cannot accept Him because they insist on a vain attempt to keep law to attain their own righteousness to gain eternal life. But whoever believes on Him will not be put to eternal shame, but have eternal life. Since the phrase "vessels of mercy, which He had prepared beforehand for [eternal] glory" in verse 9:23 has eternal glory in view, then the phrase "the righteousness of faith" in verse 9:30 must refer to the eternal righteousness of God for eternal life. Furthermore, the phrase "whoever believes on Him" in verse 9:33 must also refer to the reception of the eternal righteousness of God by a moment of faith alone in Christ alone for eternal life. Finally, the concept of not being put to shame in verse 9:33 must refer to those who choose to express a moment of faith alone in the LORD alone for eternal life resulting in eternal life as opposed to eternal shame and wrath - the destiny of those who have never believed. Finally, due to (v. 9:24 NKJV ) "even us whom He called, not of the Jews only, but also of the Gentiles," Jews and Gentiles, i.e., all individuals are in view.

1) [Compare Isa 8:13-17, 28:16-19]:

(Isa 8:13 NAS) "It is the LORD of hosts Whom you should regard as holy. And He shall be your fear, And He shall be your dread.

(Isa 8:14 NKJV) He will be as a sanctuary, But a stone of stumbling and a rock of offense To both the houses of Israel, As a trap and a snare to the inhabitants of Jerusalem.

(Isa 28:16 NIV) So this is what the Sovereign LORD says: "See, I lay a stone in Zion, a tested stone, a Precious Cornerstone for a sure foundation; the one who trusts will never be dismayed.

(Isa 28:17 NIV) I will make justice the measuring line and righteousness the plumb line; hail will sweep away your refuge, the lie, and water will overflow your hiding place.

(Isa 28:18 NIV) Your covenant with death [that they would neither experience premature physical death nor eternal death] will be annulled; your agreement with the grave will not stand. When the overwhelming scourge sweeps by, you will be beaten down by it.

(Isa 28:19 NIV) As often as it comes it will carry you away; morning after morning, by day and by night, it will sweep through. The understanding of this message will bring sheer terror.' "

At the time of Isaiah, the people of the ancient kingdom of Israel by and large were unbelievers. Except for a remnant, the Israelites did not "trust" in the "Precious Cornerstone" resulting in their being dismayed. The verb rendered 'be dismayed' (hîs) in verse 28:16 of the NIV literally means 'be hastened.' In this context it signifies such a hastening due to lack of faith in God's Precious Cornerstone, His Messiah-Savior as to cause self-destruction and dismay. This has in view temporal as well as eternal destruction due to a lack of trust in the Lord and His Precious Cornerstone. On the other hand, God is a haven and a sanctuary from destruction both temporal and eternal for the remnant of Israelite believers, whose eternal destiny is the promised land. In other words, whoever believes in Christ, the Messiah, the Precious Cornerstone which God laid in Zion, (Isa 28:16) will be saved for eternal life, i.e., never to go to eternal shame. Furthermore, as the individual trusts in the LORD in his temporal life, he is saved from temporal destruction.

Verses 17-19 of Isaiah 28 go on to say that God's justice will prevail and His eternal Righteousness will be the standard. The refuge of lies and self-deception that the unbelieving Israelites were hiding behind will be swept away like hail and flood waters destroy natural refuges. The covenant of death - the Israelites' agreement with the grave - that God would protect them from temporal destruction and premature physical death will be annulled because the Israelites refused to obey that covenant by refusing to trust in the Precious Cornerstone to be saved from such temporal disasters. So when the overwhelming scourge of God's wrath repeatedly sweeps by, the unbelieving Israelites will not be saved, but instead will be beaten down by it. Furthermore, they will not be saved from eternal shame and condemnation.

******* END OF EXCERPT FROM CHAPTER 9 *******

VI cont.) [Ro 10:11-13 cont.]:

(Ro 10:11 Greek) "Legei gar hE graphE ....pas .........................ho .pisteuOn

............................."Says ..for the scripture, Everyone [who is] the believing [one]

ep autO ou .kataischunthEsetai'

on Him .not shall be ashamed"

(Ro 10:11 NKJV) "For the Scripture says, 'Whoever believes on Him will not be put to shame [Isa 28:16].'

(Ro 10:12 NKJV) For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek, for the same Lord over all is rich to all who call upon Him.

(Ro 10:13 NIV) [For] 'Everyone who calls on the name of the LORD will be saved. [Joel 2:32]' "

B) THE OPPORTUNITY TO BELIEVE IN CHRIST UNTO ETERNAL LIFE AND NEVER BE PUT TO ETERNAL SHAME IS EXTENDED TO ALL MANKIND, JEW AND GREEK, (GENTILE) ALIKE BECAUSE THE LORD IS LORD OF ALL

(Ro 3:21) "But now a Righteousness from God, apart from law, has been made known, to which the Law and the Prophets testify. (Ro 3:22) This Righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. There is no difference, (Ro 3:23) for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, (Ro 3:24) and are justified freely by his grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus... (Ro 10:10 NKJV) For with the heart [one] believes for righteousness, and with the mouth [one confesses] for salvation. (Ro 10:11 NKJV) For the Scripture says, 'Whoever believes on Him will not be put to shame [Isa 28:16].' (Ro 10:12 NKJV) For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek, for the same Lord over all is rich to all who call upon Him (Ro 10:13 NIV) [For] 'Everyone who calls on the name of the LORD will be saved. [Joel 2:32]' " =

The phrases "all who call upon Him [the Lord]" in Ro 10:12 NKJV and "For 'Whoever calls on the name of the LORD shall be saved,' " in Ro 10:13 have in view calling on the Lord in the sense of believing in Him for eternal life as well as trusting in Him being Lord in ones temporal life. In view in Ro 10:10-11 are all individuals - Jews and Greeks alike - who all have the opportunity to be justified for eternal life by faith alone in Christ alone and then be saved from temporal destruction and premature physical death by truly confessing with ones mouth Jesus as Lord. The opportunity to call upon the Lord, i.e., believe in Him for eternal life is corroborated in Ro 10:11 as available to all individuals, Jews and Greek, (non-Jews). It is made clear that Jesus Christ is Lord of all mankind and has made provision for justification for eternal life and salvation from temporal destruction accordingly.

1) [Compare Ro 3:21-24]:

(v. 21) "But now a Righteousness from God, apart from law, has been made known, to which the Law and the Prophets testify.

(v. 22) This Righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. There is no difference,

(v. 23) for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God,

(v. 24) and are justified freely by his grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus."

Notice the phrase in v. 22b "There is no difference" as well as the use of the word "all" in "to all who believe" and "all have sinned." Hence all mankind is in view, Jew and Greek (Gentile) alike. All mankind then attains God's eternal Righteousness for eternal life by only one way: through a moment of faith alone in Christ alone. This is especially brought to light since this eternal Righteousness from God is "apart from law" where law without the definite article refers to any human doing.

C) THE LORD'S RESPONSE IS RICH TOWARD THOSE WHO CALL UPON HIM VIA A MOMENT OF FAITH ALONE IN CHRIST ALONE UNTO ETERNAL LIFE AND VIA CONFESSION OF HIS LORDSHIP UNTO TEMPORAL BLESSINGS

(Ro 10:1 NAS) '''Brethren, [fellow believers] my heart's desire and my prayer to God for them [Israelites, vv. 9:30-33] is for their salvation [from temporal destruction]. (Ro 10:2 NAS) For I testify about them that they have a zeal for God, but not in accordance with knowledge. (Ro 10:3 NKJV) For they being ignorant of God's righteousness, and seeking to establish their own righteousness, have not submitted to the righteousness of God. (Ro 10:4 NKJV) For Christ is the end of ... law [rules of behavior] for righteousness [for eternal life] to everyone who believes. (Ro 10:5 NAS) "For Moses writes that the man who practices the righteousness which is based on law [will] live by that righteousness. (Ro 10:6 NAS) But the righteousness based on faith speaks as follows: "Do not say in your heart, 'Who will ascend into heaven?' (that is, to bring Christ down), (Ro 10:7 NAS) or 'Who will descend into the abyss?' (that is, to bring Christ up from the dead). (Ro 10:8 NAS) But what does it say? 'The word is near you, in your mouth and in your heart' (that is, the word of faith which we are preaching," (Ro 10:9 NAS) that if you confess with your mouth Jesus as Lord, and believe in your heart that God raised Him from the dead, you will be saved. (Ro 10:10 NKJV) For with the heart [one] believes for righteousness, and with the mouth [one] confesses for salvation. (Ro 10:11 NKJV) For the Scripture says, 'Whoever believes on Him will not be put to shame [Isa 28:16].' (Ro 10:12 NKJV) For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek, for the same Lord over all is rich to all who call upon Him (Ro 10:13 NIV) [For] 'Everyone who calls on the name of the LORD will be saved. [Joel 2:32]' "''' =

Note that the Lord's response to those who call upon Him is characterized in 10:12 as rich, i.e., it begins with the gift of eternal life to all those who call upon Him in the sense of exercising a moment of faith alone in Christ alone, (Ro 10:4). And it evidently does not end there, for those believers who continue to call upon him through confession of Jesus as Lord, i.e., confession of their faithfulness to His Lordship will be saved from temporal destruction and early physical death for a richly rewarded temporal lifestyle, (Ro 10:9, 13).

D) TO CALL ON THE NAME OF THE LORD IS TO MAKE USE OF HIS NAME, I.E., TO TRUST IN HIS CAPACITY TO SAVE ONE FROM ETERNAL AND TEMPORAL DESTRUCTION

(Ro 10:10 NKJV) '''For with the heart [one] believes for righteousness, and with the mouth [one] confesses for salvation. (Ro 10:11 NKJV) For the Scripture says, 'Whoever believes on Him will not be put to shame [Isa 28:16].' (Ro 10:12 NKJV) For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek, for the same Lord over all is rich to all who call upon Him (Ro 10:13 NIV) [For] 'Everyone who calls on the name of the LORD will be saved. [Joel 2:32]' " ''' =

The Greek word "epikaloumenous" rendered "may call upon" from the Greek verb "epikaleO"comes from the Greek words, "epi", upon and "kaleO" to call upon. It is in the Middle Voice meaning to call upon for oneself (i.e., on one's behalf). It denotes making use of the Name of the Lord, His position and capacity.

When you call upon someone to help you, it is saying that you trust in him to come to your aid. Inherent in your calling upon someone is the faith that he can and will help you.

The parallel phrases (Ro 10:11 NKJV) "Whoever believes in Him will never be put to shame;" (Ro 10:12 NKJV) "for the same Lord over all is rich to all who call upon Him," and (Ro 10:13 NIV) [For] 'Everyone who calls on the name of the LORD will be saved,' equate believing in the Lord with calling on the Lord and with calling on the name of the Lord to the same end: eternal life and preservation from temporal destruction and premature physical death. So there are several particular aspects of calling on the name of the Lord in view in Romans 10:10-10:13: relying on Him, i.e., believing in Him to provide eternal life and to preserve one from temporal destruction and premature physical death.

If an unbeliever expresses a moment of calling on the name of the Lord via a moment of faith alone in Christ alone for eternal life then God will provide salvation for eternal life, and if a believer expresses a moment of calling on the name of the Lord, then God will provide salvation for the believer from present difficulty for temporal blessings.

In the particular context of Romans 10:13, to call on the name of the Lord for salvation is to believe that He will make provision for you to save you from temporal destruction and from premature physical death and thereby provide temporal blessing.

Notice that it is stipulated that calling upon the Lord in v. 12 results in abounding riches. This is paralleled with v. 13, wherein calling on the name of the Lord results in being saved from God's temporal wrath.

As a matter of fact, Romans 10:13 quotes a passage in Joel chapter 2 which has in view an earthly disaster brought about by God's wrath from which a remnant of Israelite believers may be saved by calling on the name of the LORD:

1) [Compare Joel 2:1-32]:

a) An Unprecedented Day Of The LORD Is Coming - One Of Darkness And Trembling - The Largest Army In History Will Attack Jerusalem

(v. 1 NIV) Blow the trumpet in Zion, [= Israel]; sound the alarm on My holy hill [= Jerusalem]. Let all who live in the land [of Israel] tremble, for the day of the LORD is coming. It is close at hand -

(v. 2 NKJV) a day of darkness and gloom, a day of clouds and blackness. Like dawn spreading across the mountains a large and mighty army comes, such as never was of old nor ever will be in ages to come.

[The day of the Lord is referred to here in Joel. It covers a portion of time which has in view events that haven't occurred yet: the greatest earthly devastation leading up to our Lord's Second Coming. Verses 1 and 2 of Joel chapter 2 has in view a day of darkness and gloom of clouds and blackness worldwide when the largest army the world will ever see will be on the attack brought about by God's wrath upon the earth]

b) The Future Horrors Of The Tribulation Period And Our Lord's Second Coming

Joel 2:2-18 continues to describe the future horrors of the tribulation period before the Lord Jesus Christ appears at His Second Coming. Verses 18-27 then describe our Lord's coming and His setting up of the millennial kingdom.

c) Unprecedented Temporal Disaster Of God Pouring Out His Wrath Is In View

(v. 30 NKJV) And I will show wonders in the heavens and in the earth: blood and fire and pillars of smoke.

(v. 31 NKJV) The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before the coming of the great and awesome day of the LORD.

[Notice that NONE of what is described in Joel chapter 2 has occurred yet.

For example:

In chronological order:

A large and mighty army such as never in history will invade, (vv. 2b-10a).

The sun and moon are darkened, and the stars no longer shine.

The sun will be turned to darkness and the moon to blood, (v. 10b, cf. 31a)

There will be unprecedented blood, fire and billows of smoke.

The Lord thunders at the head of His army, His forces beyond number, (v. 11, cf. v. 31b).

He will arrive in His Second Coming, (v. 11c, cf. v. 31b), and will drive the northern army far from Israel, (v. 23), into the Dead and Mediterranean Seas, (v. 20).

So the great and dreadful day of the LORD is in view, i.e., the Tribulation period during which the wrath of God will be poured out on all the inhabitants of earth]

d) Those Who Are Of The Remnant Of Israelite Believers Who Call On The Name Of The LORD Will Be Saved, I.E., Delivered From The Temporal Destruction Of The Day Of The LORD

(v. 32 NKJV) And it shall come to pass that whoever calls on the name of the LORD shall be saved. For in Mount Zion and in Jerusalem there shall be deliverance, As the LORD has said, among the remnant whom the LORD calls."

[Notice that "Mount Zion" and "Jerusalem" and "survivors" are in view in the light of God's pouring out His wrath on the earth during the Tribulation period. Hence Israel is in view in an earthly and temporal context. So salvation here = deliverance of the remnant of Israelite believers from the temporal disaster of God's wrath being poured out upon the inhabitants of the earth if they call on the name of the LORD, (v. 32)]

VII) [Ro 10:14-15]:

(Ro 10:14 NKJV) "How then shall they call on Him in Whom they have not believed? And how shall they believe in Him of Whom they have not heard? And how shall they hear without a preacher [lit., 'without preaching', masc, pres part for noun]?

(Ro 10:15 NKJV) And how shall they preach unless they are sent? As it is written, 'How beautiful are the feet of those who preach the gospel of peace, Who bring [good news] of good things.' "[Isa 52:7]

A) ONLY BELIEVERS IN THE LORD UNTO AN ETERNAL RIGHTEOUSNESS FROM GOD UNTO ETERNAL LIFE ARE IN A POSITION TO CALL ON THE LORD FOR SALVATION FROM TEMPORAL DESTRUCTION AND EARLY PHYSICAL DEATH

(Ro 3:21) "But now a Righteousness from God, apart from law, has been made known, to which the Law and the Prophets testify. (Ro 3:22) This Righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. There is no difference, (Ro 3:23) for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, (Ro 3:24) and are justified freely by his grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus... Ro 10:10 NKJV) For with the heart [one] believes for righteousness, and with the mouth [one] confesses for salvation. (Ro 10:11 NKJV) For the Scripture says, 'Whoever believes on Him will not be put to shame [Isa 28:16].' (Ro 10:12 NKJV) For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek, for the same Lord over all is rich to all who call upon Him (Ro 10:13 NIV) [For] 'Everyone who calls on the name of the LORD will be saved. [Joel 2:32]' (Ro 10:14 NKJV) How then shall they call on Him in Whom they have not believed? And how shall they believe in Him of Whom they have not heard? And how shall they hear without a preacher [lit., 'without preaching', masc, pres part for noun]? (Ro 10:15 NKJV) And how shall they preach unless they are sent? As it is written, 'How beautiful are the feet of those who preach the gospel of peace, Who bring [good news] of good things.' [Isa 52:7]" =

The phrase rendered "How then shall they call on Him in Whom they have not believed?" in Ro 10:14 NKJV restricts the population of individuals who are in a position to call on the name of the Lord for salvation from temporal destruction to individuals who have believed in the Lord Jesus Christ unto [for] an eternal righteousness from God for eternal life.

B) TWO KINDS OF SALVATION ARE IN VIEW: (1) CALLING ON THE [NAME OF THE] LORD FOR DELIVERANCE FROM TEMPORAL DESTRUCTION WHICH MUST BE PRECEDED BY (2) BELIEVING IN HIM UNTO ETERNAL LIFE WHICH IS DEPENDENT UPON HEARING OF THE LORD VIA PREACHING OF THE GOSPEL BY THOSE WHO ARE SENT

(Ro 10:10 NKJV) '''For with the heart [one] believes for righteousness, and with the mouth [one] confesses for salvation. (Ro 10:11 NKJV) For the Scripture says, 'Whoever believes on Him will not be put to shame [Isa 28:16].' (Ro 10:12 NKJV) For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek, for the same Lord over all is rich to all who call upon Him (Ro 10:13 NIV) [For] 'Everyone who calls on the name of the LORD will be saved. [Joel 2:32]' " ''' = (Ro 10:14 NKJV) "How then shall they call on Him in Whom they have not believed? And how shall they believe in Him of Whom they have not heard? And how shall they hear without [preaching]? (Ro 10:15 NKJV) And how shall they preach unless they are sent? As it is written, 'How beautiful are the feet of those who preach the gospel of peace, Who bring [good news] of good things.' "[Isa 52:7]" =

Note that the Greek participle phrase in Ro 10:14, "chOris kErussontos" rendered above "without [preaching]" is literally "apart from preaching" wherein the word "kErussontos" refers to the proclamation of the gospel, which is not limited to preachers.

Calling on the Lord for deliverance from temporal destruction must be preceded by believing in Him unto [for] eternal life which is dependent upon hearing of the Lord via preaching of the gospel by those whom God sent. Scripture asks the question, "How then shall they call on Him in Whom they have not believed" as if to say that one must believe in the Lord in order to be in a position to call on Him for deliverance from temporal destruction. It goes on to ask another question: "And how shall they believe in Him of Whom they have not heard," as if to say that one must hear of the Lord relative to the gospel of eternal life before one can believe in Him before one can call on His name. And then a third question is posed, "And how shall they hear of the Lord without preaching," as if to say that there must be preaching about the Lord with respect to the gospel of salvation unto [for] eternal life performed by someone in order to hear of the Lord and believe in Him relative to that end.

So to call on the LORD for temporal salvation, one must first believe in the LORD for an eternal righteousness from God for eternal life which first one must hear about Him relative to that end which first there must be someone sent by God who preaches that message to one.

Hence two kinds of salvation are in view in Romans 10:15: First in time is salvation from eternal condemnation unto [for] an eternal righteousness from God resulting in eternal life. Then there comes the opportunity for one now that he has become a believer to be saved from temporal destruction and premature physical death by calling on the Lord, on His name, in the sense of confessing / acknowledging His Lordship and capacity to rule in ones temporal life via His power, authority and righteousness.

C) INDIVIDUALS MUST BE SENT BY THE GRACE AND AUTHORITY OF GOD TO PREACH THE GOSPEL OF ETERNAL LIFE IN ORDER FOR ONE TO HEAR THE GOSPEL MESSAGE SO ONE CAN BELIEVE IN THE LORD FOR ETERNAL LIFE SO THAT IN TURN ONE IS IN A POSITION TO CALL ON THE [NAME OF THE] LORD FOR SALVATION FROM TEMPORAL DESTRUCTION

(Ro 10:10 NKJV) ''' "For with the heart [one] believes for righteousness, and with the mouth [one] confesses for salvation. (Ro 10:11 NKJV) For the Scripture says, 'Whoever believes on Him will not be put to shame [Isa 28:16].' (Ro 10:12 NKJV) For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek, for the same Lord over all is rich to all who call upon Him (Ro 10:13 NIV) [For] 'Everyone who calls on the name of the LORD will be saved. [Joel 2:32]' (Ro 10:14 NKJV) How then shall they call on Him in Whom they have not believed? And how shall they believe in Him of Whom they have not heard? And how shall they hear without [preaching]? (Ro 10:15 NKJV) And how shall they preach unless they are sent? As it is written, 'How beautiful are the feet of those who preach the gospel of peace, Who bring [good news] of good things.' [Isa 52:7]" '''=

Romans 10:15 continues the list of prerequisites for calling on the name of the Lord to be saved from temporal destruction, with "And how shall they preach [the gospel of eternal life] unless they are sent?" as if to say that individuals must be sent by God to preach the gospel of eternal life in order for an individual to hear the gospel message and then believe in the Lord for eternal life so that in turn that individual is in a position to call on the [name of the] Lord for salvation from temporal destruction. Author Paul then refers to Isa 52:7 to corroborate this from Scripture which exclaims "How beautiful are the feet of those who preach the gospel of peace, who bring [good news] of good things which commends those whom God sent who preach the gospel to the world.

Since it is by the grace of God that individuals are sent to preach the gospel, then it is by the grace and authority of God that anyone is saved.

1) [Compare Isa 52:1-15]:

(Isa 52:1 NIV) '''Awake, awake, O Zion, clothe yourself with strength. Put on your garments of splendor, O Jerusalem, the holy city. The uncircumcised and defiled will not enter you again.

(Isa 52:2 NIV) Shake off your dust; rise up, sit enthroned, O Jerusalem. Free yourself from the chains on your neck, O captive Daughter of Zion.

[Zion (Jerusalem) is emphatically called by Isaiah, hence the LORD, to awaken from her exile = to be alert and do what is herein commanded: She was to clothe herself with strength, i.e., to rebuild herself hence regain her strength. Jerusalem, the holy city, the capital of Israel representing all Israel was commanded to put on garments of splendor - to rebuild in such a fashion as to set herself apart to the glory of her God. Note that the time of this particular rebuilding is yet future, for the text indicates that the uncircumcised, (= non-Jews, i.e., unbelievers) and the defiled (= unclean relative to violations of statutes of the Mosaic Law), will not enter her again. Non-Jews and the defiled have continued to occupy Jerusalem for centuries even up until the 21st century. Hence the eternal kingdom is in view, and not the rebuilding of Jerusalem after being set free from Babylonia. So Israel will be freed from enslavement to other kingdoms forever and be ruler of her own kingdom. Verse 2 further commanded Jerusalem to shake off the dust of her enslavement and to rise up and take charge of ruling herself]

(Isa 52:3 NIV) For this is what the LORD says: 'You were sold for nothing, and without money you will be redeemed.'

(Isa 52:4 NIV) For this is what the Sovereign LORD says: 'At first My people went down to Egypt to live; lately, Assyria has oppressed them.

(Isa 52:5 NIV) And now what do I have here?' declares the LORD. [Speaking of Israel's captivity this time by Babylon] 'For My people have been taken away for nothing, and those who rule them mock,' declares the LORD. 'And all day long my name is constantly blasphemed.

(Isa 52:6 NIV) Therefore My people will know My name; therefore in that day [of the future eternal kingdom] they will know that it is I who foretold it. Yes, it is I.

[Notice that Jerusalem has a history of being enslaved by other kingdoms including Egypt, Assyria and Babylon; but no more, she, i.e., all Israelites of that future time of the eternal kingdom will be redeemed by the LORD as a free gift forever. They will know the name of the LORD in the sense of Him as Redeemer unto eternal life. So the free gift of eternal redemption is in view]

(Isa 52:7 NIV) How beautiful on the mountains are the feet of those who bring good news, who proclaim peace, who bring good tidings, who proclaim salvation, who say to Zion, 'Your God reigns!'

(Isa 52:8 NIV) Listen! Your watchmen lift up their voices; together they shout for joy. When the LORD returns to Zion, they will see it with their own eyes.

(Isa 52:9 NIV) Burst into songs of joy together, you ruins of Jerusalem, for the LORD has comforted His people, He has redeemed Jerusalem.

(Isa 52:10 NIV) The LORD will lay bare His holy arm in the sight of all the nations, and all the ends of the earth will see the salvation of our God." '''

[How beautiful on the mountains, (referring to the mountainous countryside around Jerusalem), are the feet which run on the paths through the mountains to Jerusalem which belong to those who bring good news of peace, good tidings, (the gospel of the free gift of salvation unto eternal redemption, {v. 7}). Notice that the LORD will return some day to redeem all of Jerusalem, i.e., all of the generation of Israel of that future time. He will appear in a form that can be seen: the LORD will lay bare His Holy Arm Who will be an individual Man Who has God's Strength, Righteousness and Authority over all the nations of the earth. All mankind will see the salvation of the God of Israel through this Man. Evidently the LORD will appear as Savior and Redeemer to all of mankind in Human form, (vv. 8-10; cf Isa 52:11-15).

(Isa 52:11 NIV) [Jerusalem is commanded to] Depart, depart, go out from there! Touch no unclean thing! Come out from it and be pure, you who carry the vessels of the LORD.

(Isa 52:12 NIV) But you will not leave in haste or go in flight; for the LORD will go before you, the God of Israel will be your rear guard.

[Israel is commanded emphatically, ("Depart, depart"), to depart from her enslavement, to touch no unclean thing, and to be pure for she is to carry the Holy Temple vessels, the holy vessels of worship of the LORD. As Israel sets itself apart to be holy and depart, the LORD, the God of Israel will go before her and be her rear guard as her Protector so she is advised not to "leave in haste or go in flight"]

(Isa 52:13 NIV) See, My Servant will act wisely; He will be raised and lifted up and highly exalted.

(Isa 52:14 NIV) Just as there were many who were appalled at Him - His appearance was so disfigured beyond that of a normal appearing man and His form marred beyond human likeness -

(Isa 52:15 NIV) so will He sprinkle [i.e., cleanse from all sins] many nations, and kings will shut their mouths because of Him. For what they were not told, they will see, and what they have not heard, they will understand."

The LORD's Servant, portrayed as His Holy Arm of salvation in verse 10, is described as His Servant and is further described as One Who will act wisely in verses 13-15: He will be raised and lifted up and highly exalted. Isaiah goes on to explain that many were appalled at Him in the sense of being awestruck at Who He was and what He did because they previously had refused to accept Him as He was. His appearance was described as so disfigured beyond that of any man, His form marred beyond human likeness, pointing to being so mistreated as to cause such an extreme appearance.

[Bible Knowledge Commentary, Old Testament, Walvoord & Zuck, Victor Books, USA, 1987, p. 1106]:

"52:1-6. Jerusalem was to awake not only because her exile was almost ended (v. 1) but also because she would be freshly adorned with new clothes, that is, she would be rebuilt. Jerusalem's pagan conquerors - the uncircumcised and defiled - would never again invade and pollute the holy city (cf. 48:2). This no doubt refers to the time when the Messiah will establish God's kingdom on earth, for only then will pagans never again trample the city. To shake off... dust means to stop mourning (dust on one's head was a sign of mourning, Job 2:12). Jerusalem will be freed from her chains, never again to be enslaved. She had been sold because of her sins (cf. Isa 50:1) but now she would be redeemed (gA'al, 'to purchase out of slavery'). However, God did not have to buy them. He will graciously bring them back to Him and they will pay nothing.

Then God briefly reviewed the history of the nation in slavery. They had been slaves in Egypt and more recently Assyria had conquered the Northern Kingdom and also exacted tribute from Judah (52:4). Now another power, Babylon, would take away Judah and mock them (v. 5) and blaspheme God. Through all this the Lord's power to bring them back each time should show the people that He is the only unique God. Eventually when they return in belief they will know Him.

(2) The Lord to return to Zion. 52:7-8.

The prophet exulted in the good news to be proclaimed when the time of blessing (spoken of in 51:17-52:6) will begin. Though Israel experienced great joy at the return from Babylon in 536 B.C., the joy Isaiah wrote about in 52:7-8 will be when Israel's Messiah returns to Zion to reign. His reign will be one of peace.

(3) The remnant to be joyful. 52:9-10.

When the LORD returns, the righteous remnant will sing joyfully because He will have comforted and redeemed His people. This work of grace on their behalf will show all the nations His power (arm... ) and the salvation He provides. (On the ends of the earth...).

52:11-12. As in the Exodus out of Egypt and the Exodus away from Babylon, so in Israel's yet-future return, the righteous remnant is exhorted to get away from the evil places where they will be living: Depart, depart... come out. However, there will be a difference: they will not have to leave in haste (cf. 48:20). Since the LORD will be with them and will protect them they need have no fear.

52:13. Two important points are made in this verse: the Servant will act wisely, doing what the LORD wants Him to do, and He will be... hightly exalted. His being lifted up refers not to the kind of death He died on the cross, but to His being exalted at God's right hand...

52:14. Many will be appalled (this could also be trans. 'awestruck or astonished') at the Servant. But who are the 'many'? They are probably the people in 'many nations' and their 'kings' (v. 15). By human standards Jesus was not attractive when He was on the earth (53:3). But when people see Him at His second coming those who did not consider Him important will be absolutely astounded. They will see Him from a new perspective.

52:15. The Servant will sprinkle people in many nations. 'Sprinkle' is associated with cleansing by the priest under the Mosaic Law... This Servant, whom many have not considered important at all, will actually provide the most important thing for nations and their kings, namely, cleansing from sin... That is why they will shut their mouths. They will be appalled that they had miscalculated the situation so badly. Realizing their great mistake, they will have nothing to say. Eventually, when they see Him exalted in His Second Advent, they will finally understand and see clearly."

VIII) [Ro 10:16-17]:

(v. 16 NKJV) "But they have not all obeyed the gospel, For Isaiah says, 'LORD, who has believed our report?' [Isa 53:1]

(v. 17 NKJV) So then faith comes by hearing, and hearing by the word of God."

A) MOST ISRAELITES REFUSED TO OBEY (BELIEVE IN) THE GOSPEL,

(AS IT SAYS IN ISAIAH):

AN INDIVIDUAL MAN, THE ARM OF GOD, WOULD TAKE IT UPON HIMSELF, THROUGH A SACRIFICIAL GUILT OFFERING FOR THE SINS OF ALL MANKIND IN ORDER TO JUSTIFY UNTO AN ETERNAL RIGHTEOUSNESS FROM GOD FOR ETERNAL LIFE THOSE WHO WOULD BELIEVE IN HIM TO HAVE DONE THAT FOR THEM

(v. 16 NKJV) "But they have not all obeyed the gospel, For Isaiah says, 'LORD, who has believed our report?' [Isa 53:1] (v. 17 NKJV) So then faith comes by hearing, and hearing by the word of God." =

The verb "obeyed" in Romans 10:16 is paralleled with "believed" in that same verse referring to believing in the "report" or "message" in Isaiah 53:1 which refers to the gospel of justification for eternal life. So to obey the gospel is to believe in it and be justified for eternal life. Isaiah 53:1-11 indicates that most Israelites refused to obey (believe in) the message of the prophet Isaiah, i.e., the gospel, as it was declared in that chapter: An individual Man, the Arm of God, would take it upon Himself, through a sacrificial guilt offering for the sins of all mankind in order to justify unto an eternal righteousness from God for eternal life the many who would believe in Him to have done that for them.

1) [Compare Isa 52:10, 13-15-53:12]:

(Isa 52:10 NKJV) "The LORD has made bare His holy arm In the eyes of all the nations; And all the ends of the earth shall see The salvation of our God.

[The Holy Arm of the LORD will bring the Salvation of our God to Israel and all mankind. And as this passage continues through chapter 53, the Holy Arm of the LORD is stipulated as the Servant of the LORD, (Isa 52:13), Who will bring that salvation through His atonement for the sins of all mankind, (Isa 53:4-12)]

(Isa 52:13 YLT) [Behold], My servant [acts] wisely, He is [exalted], and [has] been lifted up], And [has] been [greatly exalted].

[The LORD's Servant, portrayed as the LORD'S Holy Arm of Salvation in Isa 52:10 & 13, is described as One Who will act wisely. God's Servant - His Holy Arm of Salvation - will have the wisdom to accomplish successfully what God has sent Him to do - to bring Salvation to all mankind, (Isa 52:10). This evidently will result in His supreme exaltation. For there is an emphatic repetition regarding Him in this regard: He will be lifted up and greatly exalted. So the Servant of the LORD will be exalted as only God would be exalted - seated at the Right Hand of God]

(Isa 52:14 HCSB) Just as many [have been astonished] at You - His appearance was so disfigured that He did not look like a man, and His form did not resemble a human being -

[In the first part of Isa 52:14, it states "Just as many have been astonished at You." The "many," evidently refers to all mankind, since verse 15, which follows, continues this context, having in view many in the sense of all peoples of many, i.e., all nations and all the kings of history in view. Since not all mankind throughout history could have been present at the time and in the place when and where the Servant of the LORD would perform His mission on earth, then the afterlife of all of mankind must be in view - a time of their judgment before God. Most of mankind, therefore, will indeed be astonished in the sense that they have will have been shown in the afterlife Who He is; and since they had not believed in Who He was when they were still alive; then having discovered Who He was at judgment would be astonishing to them. And appalling would be the consequences to them since they had not believed in Him during their mortal lifetimes.

Among the peoples and kings of the world, He was not to be well remembered because He would have neither worldwide worldly fame nor worldly glory. His life would be a humble one - His mission was a spiritual one which required His physical execution in order to physically and spiritually die for the sins of all mankind throughout the world. At the time of the completion of His mission, His physical appearance as a result of fulfilling His mission was described as so disfigured as to be beyond that of any man, His form marred beyond human likeness, pointing to being so mistreated as to cause such an extreme appearance. Most who were witnesses of Him, considering His appearance, would not believe in Who He claimed to be, nor what He claimed to be doing.

Note that His devastating appearance reveals the severity of the beating which He would receive prior to His work of redemption for the sins of mankind, i.e., His crucifixion (cf. Matt. 27:27-31; Mark 15:15-20; John 19:1f).]

(Isa 52:15 YLT) So [does] he sprinkle many nations. Concerning him kings shut their mouth, For that which was not recounted to them they have seen, And that which they had not heard they have understood!

[Isa 52:15 continues the context of the peoples and kings of the world at judgment. The word rendered "sprinkle" in the phrase "So shall He sprinkle many nations" refers to the cleansing of sins, (Lev 4:6; 8:11: 14:7, Ez 36:25-30) of "many nations," (Isa 52:15) i.e., all the nations of the world - not just Israel, as some contend. So most of the peoples of the world - kings included - will be silenced because of what had not been recounted to them evidently in their mortal lives, for now they see Him - Who He is - for themselves - in the afterlife at judgment. And now what they had not heard about Him, they now understand. For He was considered by the world as of no import. But now - too late - they consider the truth of the matter that He had cleansed all the peoples of the world of their sins. which they had not accepted for themselves in their mortal lives.

So the kings and the peoples of the world throughout history when they see Him exalted at the right hand of God evidently in the afterlife at judgment will have their mouths collectively shut - so astonished they would be at their miscalculation of Who the Arm of the LORD is and what He had done for them - too late, evidently in the afterlife. This is not to say that any individual who might have chosen in his mortal lifetime to believe in Servant to provide salvation would not have been told Who He was during his mortal lifeime so that he would know and believe. But the vast majority of people throughout history would be irretrievably entrenched in their own religious systems and would not be so disposed to believe in God's plan of salvation through His Servant whether told or not]

(Isa 53:1 NKJV) Who has believed our report? And to whom has the Arm of the LORD been revealed?

[Notice that the question, "Who has believed our report [- our message]" implies that few individuals, Jew or Gentile would believe in it - the one essential response to benefit from the Servant's atonement of mankind's sins; and few would believe in it. The word rendered "our" evidently refers to the few Jews who were given this message to spread to the world; for it originated with the Patriarchs, Moses and the prophets as evidenced by the content and time of their accounts in Scripture.

It was emphasized in Isa 52:14-15 that there would be nothing about the servant's appearance or what He does that will attract the attention of the people of the world to believe in Him. And the message of Isaiah chapter 52 continues in chapter 53 relative to the Servant of God making provision for the cleansing of the sins of all mankind and of being raised up and exalted by the LORD. Each individual who chooses to "consider," (Isa 52:13-15), in the sense of to believe in the Servant of the LORD for a personal atonement for ones sins will receive forgiveness of all ones sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God.

As the passage continues, it is clear that it is especially to His own people, Israel, to whom the Arm of the LORD will be revealed. In consideration of the question, "Who has believed our message," author Isaiah asks another question: "And to whom has the Arm of the LORD been revealed?" which repeats the point that only a few will receive this revelation and believe in it. The rest of humanity will not be disposed to consider the message of salvation through the Servant of the LORD]

(Isa 53:2 NASB) For He [grows] up before Him [the LORD], like a tender shoot, And like a root out of parched ground; He has no stately form or majesty That we should look upon Him, Nor appearance that we should be attracted to Him.

[Isa 52:14 previously stipulated that the appearance of the "Arm of the LORD" would be disfigured beyond any man, that His form would be marred beyond human likeness, implying some kind of physical violence done to Him - evidently as part of His suffering for the iniquities of all mankind, (ref. Isa 53:5-6).

Isa 53:2 stipulates that He would grow up before Him [the LORD] as a tender plant, i.e., coming from the line of David, (cf. Isa 11:1, 10); and as a root out of dry ground, implying one who would not amount to much in the world relative to worldly power and wealth; that is until He completes His mission of providing atonement for the sins of all mankind - the Salvation of God. Then there will be exaltation and glory for Him, (Ref. Isa 52:12-13). It further describes Him as having no form, nor comeliness, i.e., He would not have the stereotype of a royal person or majesty, nor beauty that one should desire Him - again having in view one who would not be especially sought after, or viewed as amounting to much in a worldly sense.

There was nothing in His appearance, nor mighty worldly deeds, such as military feats, nor rulership of great kingdoms / empires nor accumulation of great wealth that would attract great numbers of people of the world to believe in and follow him.

(Isa 53:3 NASB) He was despised and forsaken of men, A man of sorrows and acquainted with grief; And like One from Whom men hide their face He was despised, and we did not esteem Him.

[And Isa 53:3 declares that He would be "despised and rejected by men. A Man of sorrows and acquainted with grief." People who were there as onlookers would not look upon Him as if they were hiding their faces from Him - especially those who had rejected Him with great animosity. He was despised, people did not esteem Him - in the sense that Who He was was vehemently rejected and despised by those of His time - mostly Jews. His actual physical suffering for their iniquities is evidently in view, described as "sorrows," and "pains", or "sickness," (ref. Isa 53:5-6) - when people would virtually turn to face the other way rather than to gaze upon Him as He suffered so.

(Isa 53:4 NIV) Surely He [has taken up] our pain and bore our suffering, yet we [have] considered him punished by God, stricken by Him, and afflicted.

[Isa 53:4 concludes "Surely he [has taken up] our pain and [has borne] our suffering, yet we [have] considered him punished by God, stricken by Him, and afflicted" in the sense that people mistakenly had considered that He was not taking up their sins but being punished for His own transgressions. The writer concludes that His suffering was not for any sins of His own, but for "our," i.e., mankind's sins, (ref Isa 52:13-15), described here as taking up "our" pain and bearing "our suffering." This evidently referred to the eternal pain and suffering individuals who have trusted in Him would have been subjected to had the Servant not taken it upon Himself to suffer that eternal pain for all mankind]

(Isa 53:5 NASB) But He was pierced through for our transgressions, He was crushed for our iniquities; The [chastisement] for our [peace = "absence of conflict and strife."] [falls] upon Him, And by His scourging [stripes] we are healed.

[But instead of paying for His own sins, Isa 53:5 further explains that the Servant paid the price not for His own sins, (of which He had none, (ref. Isa 53:9b), "But He was pierced through for our transgressions [evidently a literal / physical reference to being nailed to the cross, (Jn 19:18), and pierced with a Roman spear, (Jn 19:34)] He was crushed [in the sense of physically and spiritually destroyed unto death - for our iniquities] The [chastisement] for our peace [= "absence of conflict and strife."] [falls] upon Him, And by His scourging [i.e., stripes] we are healed"

The phrase rendered "The [chastisement] for our [peace = "absence of conflict and strife."] [falls] upon Him," implies that the Servant of the LORD took it upon Himself the chastisement - the punishment - for mankind's sins which sins caused the conflict mankind had with God - so that mankind might no longer be in conflict with God, but at peace with Him, (those relatively few of mankind who would choose to trust alone in the atonement work of the Servant alone, (ref. Isa 53:1).

The phrase rendered, "And by His scourging, [i.e., stripes] we are healed," indicates that He would be severely whipped - scourged - as part of the punishment He would suffer for the sins of mankind, (1 Pet 2:24).

The phrase rendered "we are healed" has in view being healed of ones iniquities, i.e., ones sins; i.e., of being spiritually healed; and not healed physically as some contend. For physical healing has not been a part of the context of this passage; and believers even faithful ones still suffer physically while in their mortal bodies.

Notice a singular, masculine individual human being is in view Who was pierced and crushed not only for the "people" of Israel but for "many nations," i.e., all mankind, (ref. Isa 52:15). Hence all of mankind's transgressions are in view]

(Isa 53:6 NKJV) All we like sheep have gone astray; We have turned, every one, to his own way; And the LORD has laid on Him the iniquity [the sum of a collection of sins, i.e., all kinds of and the sum total of the sins of all mankind] of us all.

[All mankind is contaminated with sin - born in sin with sin natures who commit acts of sin all the time. And like sheep we all follow one another into sin. Furthermore, verses 5 & 6 stipulate that the Servant was crushed for all of mankind's iniquities, i.e., for all sins committed both conscious and unaware, past, present and future for all time]

(Isa 53:7 NASB) He [has been] oppressed and He is afflicted, Yet He [does not] open His mouth; Like a lamb that is led to slaughter, And like a sheep that is silent before its shearers, So He [does not] open His mouth.

[He was oppressed - persecuted in the sense of one who is innocent yet presistently attacked as if guilty. And He was afflicted - tortured. And through this, the Arm = the Strength and Representative of God submitted to the sacrifice of Himself willingly as a sheep led to the slaughter - in silence, without complaint. He was sacrificed for the sins of the whole world so as to bring to mankind - Jew and Gentile alike - the availability of eternal and temporal peace and spiritual healing = eternal forgiveness of their sins - all through believing in this availability through His sacrifice, (v. 1)]

(Isa 53:8 ASV) By oppression and judgment he [has been] taken away; and as for his generation, who among them considered that he was cut off out of the land of the living for the transgression of My people to whom the [blow] was due?

The Servant would be unjustifiably oppressed - unlawfully arrested, bound and taken away as a prisoner. He would be judged and sentenced to die, not because of any sins of His own, (for He was without sin, (ref. Isa 53:9, 11); but for the sins of His generation, and for all mankind, (cf. Isa 52:15), to whom such a punishment He received, was due.

The phrase rendered "And as for His generation who among them considered that He was cut of out of the land of the living for the transgressions of My people to whom the [blow] was due?" implies an answer of only a few if any at all of those who would be living at the time would consider the Servant's death significant toward providing payment for the sins of all mankind]

(Isa 53:9 ASV) And they [have] made his grave with the wicked, and with a rich man in his death; although he had done no violence, neither was any deceit in his mouth.

[The Arm of God was evidently an individual Man; a Descendant of Israel, (cf. Isa 9:6-7 ); without violence, lies or sin: "He had done no violence, neither was any deceit in His mouth." (Isa 53:9d; cf. Isa 53:11: "The Righteous One"). He was oppressed, taken prisoner, illegally tried, judged nevertheless and declared guilty although innocent, and executed as if wicked. He was to be buried in a mass grave assigned for the "wicked" - for those who are guilty of a capital offense. But He would be buried instead in a grave which was assigned to someone who was rich, (Mt 27:57-61)]

(Isa 53:10 NKJV) Yet it pleased the LORD to bruise Him; He has put Him to grief. When You make His soul an offering for sin, He shall see His seed, He shall prolong His days, [referring to being raised from the dead] And the pleasure of the LORD shall prosper in His hand.

[It pleased God to "bruise" Him and cause Him to suffer physical and spiritual death in the sense of accomplishing His purpose through Him of restoring mankind to Himself via an atoning sacrifice for the sins of all mankind. This "offering for sin," where the word for "guilt or sin offering" is AsAm, is used in Lev 5:15; 6:5; 19:21 and elsewhere as an offering to atone for sin. Thereafter God "shall see His Seed, He shall prolong His days," referring to His being raised from the dead to everlasting life. And the LORD shall take pleasure in prospering Him - in exalting Him forever, (ref. Isa 52:13) - all this by His Almighty power]

(Isa 53:11 NASB) As a result of the anguish of His soul, He will see it and be satisfied; by [(the) knowledge of Him] the Righteous One, My Servant, will justify the many, As He will bear their iniquities.

[The Hebrew phrase transliterated "beda'attô" = literally means, "with His knowledge,"or "by [the] knowledge of Him;" for the pronimial suffix of the Hebrew noun rendered "knowledge," may be rendered subjectively "by His knowledge," or objectively "by knowledge of Him," (ref. Young, "Book of Isaiah," in loc.). According to the Masoretic markings, the phrase links to the words which follow it and is best rendered "by [the] knowledge of Him" as opposed to "by His knowledge," because this alternative rendering best suits the context:

Since the context of this passage, (Isa 52:10-53:12) has One Who would provide Himself as a subsitutionary atonment, i.e., a sacrifice for the sins of all mankind by bearing all their iniquities, as the last phrase in the verse stipulates, (Isa 53:11c); so that a Savior, not a Teacher, would justify those of mankind who have a knowledge of Him doing this for them, in the sense of those who believe in Him for it, (cf. Isa 52:15 and 53:1);

and since the context of this passage does not have an individual in view Who by His knowledge - solely by means of what He knows would on that basis alone justify the many - without any participation on the part of mankind such as requiring their expression of acceptance of His atonement for them, i.e., via a moment of faith -

and since this second rendering of providing justification without the consent of the individual would violate the perfect justice of God;

then the correct rendering for the phrase in question would be that one is justified by the knowledge of Him, i.e., by a moment of faith alone in Who He is and what He did - that He bore ones iniquities.

Note that the Servant of God was stipulated as "the Righteous One" implying sinlessness - an absolutely necessary personal attribute in order to qualify to be an atoning sacrifice for the sins of mankind.

Notice again that a singular, masculine individual human being is in view Who was wounded not only for the "people" of Israel but for "many nations," i.e., all mankind, (ref. Isa 52:15). Hence all of mankind's transgressions are in view. Furthermore, verses 5 & 6 and 10 & 11 stipulate that He was pierced for all of mankind's iniquities, i.e., for all sins committed both conscious and unaware, past, present and future for all time]. Consider v. 11, the core of the gospel upon which all of the gospel passages in the bible are based: By the knowledge of Him, i.e., by the faith in the righteous Servant of God bearing their iniquities, an individual will be justified, i.e., declared to have the eternal righteousness of God unto [for] eternal life.

So here in Isaiah 52:13-53:12 is contained the gospel of eternal life. Israelites especially would know the content of Isaiah 53. If any individual understood and accepted the gospel as presented in Isaiah chapter 53 as true they would be justified unto an eternal righteouness of God unto [for] eternal life]

(Isa 53:12 NKJV) Therefore I will divide Him a portion with the great, And He shall divide the spoil with the strong, Because He [has] poured out His soul unto death, And He [has been] numbered with the transgressors, And He [has borne] the sin of many, And [has] made intercession for the transgressors."

[Isa 53:12 begins with "Therefore" signifying that when the servant has willingly followed and completed His plan to provide an atoning sacrifice for the sins of all mankind as stipulated in the second half of this verse, as follows: "Because He [has] poured out His soul unto death, And He [has been] numbered with the transgressors, And He [has borne] the sin of many, And [has] made intercession for the transgressors, Therefore I will divide Him a portion with the great, And He shall divide the spoil with the strong." So the Servant of the LORD will receive an inheritance of the dominion of the earth which will evidently be restored to humanity with the Servant of the LORD as Sovereign Ruler, (ref. Isa 9:6-7 ).

Notice that there is no restriction as to the number or kind of sins borne by the Arm of the LORD, as some contend. All the sins of all of mankind are in view - past, present and future, (Ref Isa 52:15). Because of the victory of the Seed of the woman over sin, every individual human being would have the opportunity to be eternally reconciled with God via a moment of faith alone in the sacrificial work of the Seed relative to sin. ..

B) FAITH UNTO ETERNAL LIFE COMES FROM HEARING WITH CORRECT UNDERSTANDING THE CONTENT OF THE GOSPEL AND THAT SPECIFIC CONTENT COMES FROM THE WORD OF GOD

(Ro:10:16 NKJV) "But they have not all obeyed the gospel, For Isaiah says, 'LORD, who has believed our report?' [Isa 53:1] ( Ro 10:17 NKJV) So then faith comes by hearing, and hearing by the word of God." =

The words rendered "hearing" in Romans 10:17 NKJV convey hearing information, i.e., receiving auditory information, with understanding as opposed to a simple audible reception. Furthermore, this does not rule out receiving such information with understanding visually. So it is one thing to hear what is spoken or read and it is another to hear it or see it accurately and with understanding - the latter being the context of Romans 10:17.

So we have in view in Romans 10:17, the fact that faith specifically in the gospel of eternal life comes from accurately hearing with understanding. Hence faith can neither come from nothing, nor from an inaccurate understanding of what was conveyed. One cannot truly believe in something without accurately 'hearing' what one decides to believe. Upon that understanding what one has had conveyed to them through hearing (and seeing/reading) comes the decision to believe or not believe in it as true. Relative to faith unto eternal life, the hearing of it must accurately reflect what the Word of God says on the matter.

Note that the last phrase of Ro 10:17 has two readings in Greek (1) "rhEmatos Theou" rendered "Word of God" in 01-corr, 02A, 06D-corr, 018K, 020L, 025P, 33, byz.; (2) "rhEmatos Christou" rendered "Word of Christ" in p46, 01-org, 03B, 04C, 06D-org, it.sa.bo. Lach, Treg, Alf, Tisc We/Ho, Weis, Sod UBS. There is virtually no significant effect on the context with either reading, but "Word of God" is preferred due to better manuscript evidence and the fact that the phrase "Word of God" using the Greek word "rhEmatos" which refers to specific words which are expressed in some manner makes the best statement which is all inclusive of all the inspired text of all Scripture, the context of this passage. For the specific "rhEmatos Christou," i.e., the words of Christ in His Humanity are not the only words which contain the gospel.

IX) [Ro 10:18]:

(v. 18 NIV) "But I ask: Did they not hear? Of course they did: 'Their voice has gone out into all the earth, their words to the ends of the world.' " [Ps 19:4]

A) PAUL ASKS 'DID THE ISRAELITES NOT HEAR THE GOSPEL PREACHED TO THEM?;' AND HE ANSWERS 'OF COURSE THEY DID.' HE SUPPORTS THIS ANSWER FROM PSALMS 19 THROUGH WHICH PAUL CORROBORATES THE CONCLUSION THAT IN THE SAME WAY THAT THE 'VOICE' OF CREATION SPEAKS TO ALL MANKIND OF THE KNOWLEDGE OF GOD WHICH THEN CAN LEAD TO A KNOWLEDGE AND ACCEPTANCE BY FAITH IN THE GOSPEL OF ETERNAL LIFE, SO ALL THE MORE, THE KNOWLEDGE OF GOD AND OF THE GOSPEL OF ETERNAL LIFE WAS MADE AVAILABLE TO BE HEARD WITH UNDERSTANDING AND ACCEPTANCE BY ALL ISRAELITES

(Ro 1:20 NIV) '''For since the creation of the world God's invisible qualities - His eternal power and divine nature - have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made, so that men are without excuse... (Ro 10:10 NKJV) For with the heart [one] believes for righteousness, and with the mouth [one] confesses for salvation. (Ro 10:11 NKJV) For the Scripture says, 'Whoever believes on Him will not be put to shame [Isa 28:16].' (Ro 10:12 NKJV) For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek, for the same Lord over all is rich to all who call upon Him (Ro 10:13 NIV) [For] 'Everyone who calls on the name of the LORD will be saved. [Joel 2:32]' (Ro 10:14 NKJV) How then shall they call on Him in Whom they have not believed? And how shall they believe in Him of Whom they have not heard? And how shall they hear without [preaching]? (Ro 10:15 NKJV) And how shall they preach unless they are sent? As it is written, 'How beautiful are the feet of those who preach the gospel of peace, Who bring [good news] of good things.' [Isa 52:7] (v. 16 NKJV) But they have not all obeyed the gospel, For Isaiah says, 'LORD, who has believed our report?' [Isa 53:1] (v. 17 NKJV) So then faith comes by hearing, and hearing by the word of God. (v. 18 NIV) But I ask: Did they not hear? Of course they did: 'Their voice has gone out into all the earth, their words to the ends of the world.' [Ps 19:4]" =

In Romans 10:18, author Paul asks the question which might be brought up by a skeptic who insists that some individuals may not have had the opportunity to know of God and the gospel, 'Did the Israelites not hear the gospel preached to them?' and he immediately answers his own question, 'Of course they did.' He corroborates this answer from Psalms 19 which conveys that the 'voice' of creation has spoken to all mankind of the knowledge of the glory of God and the work of His hands, i.e., knowledge of Him to all mankind (cf. Ro 1:20 ). So all the more was the knowledge of God and the gospel of eternal life made available to all Israel. And in the same way, it is available to all mankind according to Paul in Romans 10:18.

[BKC, op. cit., p. 481]:

"[Romans 10:16-18] Paul had made it clear that God's gracious offer of righteousness by faith was given to all, Jews and Gentiles alike (cf. v. 12). His focus in this chapter, however, has been on the people of Israel and their response to that offer (cf. v. 1). Therefore when he wrote, But not all the Israelites (the Gr. text simply says 'all') accepted the good news, he obviously had in mind the Jews' failure to respond. ('Accepted' translates hypEkousan, a compound of the verb 'to hear.' It means 'to hear with a positive response,' and so 'to obey, to submit to.') This is borne out by Paul's confirming quotation of Isaiah 53:1: Lord, who has believed our message? This failure of the Jews to respond to the good news was true in Jesus' days on earth (John 12:37-41) and in Paul's day as well. However, the indefinite 'all' of the Greek text (Rom 10:16) is appropriate, because the response to the gospel among the Gentiles was also far less than total. Paul explained, Consequently, faith comes from hearing the message (lit., 'is out from hearing'; cf v. 14) and the message is heard through the word of [God] (lit., 'and the hearing is through the saying {rhematos; cf. v. 17} concerning Christ'). The Greek word akoE ('hearing') can mean the thing heard (the message; v. 16) or the act or sense of hearing (v. 17).

Someone, however, might insist that the Jews were not given adequate opportunity to hear the message. So, Paul said, But I ask ('say'), Did they not hear? He then quoted Psalm 19:4, concerning God's general revelation in the cosmic heavens, (cf. Ro 1:18-20 ). However, that psalm also discusses God's special revelation in the Old Testament (Ps 19:7-11). Paul's obvious answer to his question is that Israel had ample opportunity by both general and special revelation to respond to God. Certainly she heard."

1) Compare Ps 19:1-6]:

(Ps 19:1 NIV) "The heavens declare the glory of God; the skies proclaim the work of His hands.

(Ps 19:2 NIV) Day after day they pour forth speech; night after night they display knowledge.

(Ps 19:3 NIV) There is no speech or language where their voice is not heard.

(Ps 19:4 NIV) Their voice goes out into all the earth, their words to the ends of the world. In the heavens he has pitched a tent for the sun,

[The heavens and the skies are stipulated by Isaiah as declaring the glory, i.e., the honor, power, authority and holiness of God and His handiwork. Everything in the universe is His creation. And this declaration goes on night and day to every individual who will ever live to the extent that there is no excuse for not acknowledging this truth and thereby knowing Who God is]

(Ps 19:5 NIV) which is like a bridegroom coming forth from his pavilion, like a champion rejoicing to run his course.

(Ps 19:6 NIV) It rises at one end of the heavens and makes its circuit to the other; nothing is hidden from its heat.

[The Sun is portrayed as a bridegroom coming forth from his pavilion like a champion rejoicing to run his course. It 'rises' at one end of the heavens and makes its circuit to the other. Nothing is hidden from its view. It is a witness of all creation and of the Creator God to all the world. In the same way, then, no one can say they've never had an opportunity to witness creation and conclude that its Creator is God]

[Expositor's, Vol. 5, Zondervan Publishing, Grand Rapids, Michigan, Frank E Gaebelein, 1991, p. 180]:

"Life on earth depends on the regularity of the sun... His [the psalmist's] concern was to portray in a phenomenal way how the sun rises, as it were, from 'a tent' (v. 4c). The sun is metaphorically compared to a 'bridegroom' and to a 'champion' (v. 5). The joy of the bridegroom, coming from the wedding canopy or the bridal chamber, represents the radiance of the sun. The 'champion' (= warrior' or 'valiant man'), rejoicing in his strength as he sets out to run his course, represents the power of the sun, as it seems to move through 'its circuit' (v. 6). From the perspective of this earth, the sun 'rises' and 'makes its circuit' with radiance and vigor, so that it warms the earth. The sun also reveals God's glory, power, and wisdom. One does not have to listen for words, because the effect of the sun is evident, as 'nothing is hidden from its heat.' "

[BKC, OT, p. 807]:

"David was moved by observing that the heavens, under the dominating influence of the sun, declare the splendor of God's handiwork... 19:1-4b. David announced that the heavens declare the glory (splendor) of God's handiwork. Verse 1 is a summary statement: the majestic Creation is evidence of the even more majestic Creator-God.

The heavens continually (day after day... night after night) display the fact that there is a Creator (v. 2). Even though Creation does not speak audibly in words ... its message (voice) goes out to the ends of the earth. The message from nature about the glory of God reaches all nations, and is equally intelligible to them all (cf. Rom 1:18:20)."

X) [Ro 10:19]:

(Ro 10:19 NKJV) "But I say, did Israel not know? First Moses says: 'I will provoke you to jealousy by those who are not a nation, I will move you to anger by a foolish nation.' " [Dt 32:21]

A) THE LORD THROUGH MOSES FORETOLD TO ISRAEL THAT GENERATIONS OF ISRAELITES WILL ACT CORRUPTLY TOWARD THE LORD. THERE WILL BE NO EXCUSE FOR NOT KNOWING ABOUT THEIR GOD AND HIS RIGHTEOUSNESS; WHEREUPON THE LORD WILL RESPOND WITH ANGER: HE WILL FORSAKE AND DESTROY THEM AND USE GENTILES AND A FOOLISH GENTILE NATION TO DISCIPLINE HER BY PROVOKING HER TO JEALOUSY AND ANGER. ON THE OTHER HAND, THE LORD WILL SURELY PRESERVE ISRAEL IN ORDER TO FULFILL HIS PROMISES TO A FUTURE GENERATION OF ISRAELITES

(Ro 10:10 NKJV) "For with the heart [one] believes for righteousness, and with the mouth [one] confesses for salvation. (Ro 10:11 NKJV) For the Scripture says, 'Whoever believes on Him will not be put to shame [Isa 28:16].' (Ro 10:12 NKJV) For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek, for the same Lord over all is rich to all who call upon Him (Ro 10:13 NIV) [For] 'Everyone who calls on the name of the LORD will be saved. [Joel 2:32]' (Ro 10:14 NKJV) How then shall they call on Him in Whom they have not believed? And how shall they believe in Him of Whom they have not heard? And how shall they hear without [preaching]? (Ro 10:15 NKJV) And how shall they preach unless they are sent? As it is written, 'How beautiful are the feet of those who preach the gospel of peace, Who bring [good news] of good things.' [Isa 52:7] (Ro 10:16 NKJV) But they have not all obeyed the gospel, For Isaiah says, 'LORD, who has believed our report?' [Isa 53:1] (Ro 10:17 NKJV) So then faith comes by hearing, and hearing by the word of God. (Ro 10:18 NIV) But I ask: Did they not hear? Of course they did: 'Their voice has gone out into all the earth, their words to the ends of the world.' [Ps 19:4] (Ro 10:19 NKJV) But I say, did Israel not know? First Moses says: 'I will provoke you to jealousy by those who are not a nation, I will move you to anger by a foolish nation.' " [Dt 32:21]" =

Author Paul refers to Dt 32:21 in Ro 10:19 to corroborate the previous point he had just made in Ro 10:18 referring to Ps 19:4, that all Israel had the opportunity to be informed of the knowledge of God and the gospel of eternal life, and the obligation to be faithful to Him as His chosen people to represent to all mankind, the LORD, His grace and the grace gift of His righteousness by a moment of faith alone in Christ alone unto eternal life = the gospel.

Deuteronomy chapter 32 is the LORD's message through Moses to Israel. The message is a prophetic song and a witness for the LORD to future generations of Israel. All generations of Israelites were to learn it and sing it repeatedly. The song informs Israelites that in the future Israelites will act corruptly toward the LORD - with no excuse because they have been informed about their Creator God and have a covenant with Him to be faithful. Evidently they will become a warped, crooked and perverse generation, they will sacrifice to demons, worship idols and false gods, they will evidence willful ignorance of God and His gospel, whereupon the LORD will respond with anger. He will hide His face from them, and forsake them, and they will be destroyed with many difficulties and disasters. Each generation of corrupt Israelites will be declared by the LORD, 'no longer be His children'. He will use "those who are not a nation [i.e, not of a single nation like Israel = Gentiles of various nations]," to make Israel envious. He will make Israel angry through favoring and using for His purposes a Gentile nation which has no understanding of Him compared to the Israelite people who will always have a unique relationship with Him as their God and His chosen people, the Scriptures, a Messiah-Savior Descendant through Abraham and Isaac. Hence it is implied that the LORD will surely preserve Israel in order to fulfill His promises to a future generation of Israelites.

1) [Compare Dt 31:14-22; 32:1-21]:

(Dt 31:14 NIV) '''The LORD said to Moses, "Now the day of your death is near. Call Joshua and present yourselves at the Tent of Meeting, where I will commission him." So Moses and Joshua came and presented themselves at the Tent of Meeting.

(Dt 31:15 NIV) Then the LORD appeared at the Tent in a pillar of cloud, and the cloud stood over the entrance to the Tent.

(Dt 31:16 NIV) And the LORD said to Moses: "You are going to rest with your fathers, and these people will soon prostitute themselves to the foreign gods of the land they are entering. They will forsake Me and break the covenant I made with them.

[The generation of Israelites of the time of Moses will soon prostitute themselves to foreign gods, forsake the LORD, and break the covenant He made with them]

(Dt 31:17 NIV) On that day I will become angry with them and forsake them; I will hide My face from them, and they will be destroyed. Many disasters and difficulties will come upon them, and on that day they will ask, 'Have not these disasters come upon us because our God is not with us?'

(Dt 31:18 NIV) And I will certainly hide My face on that day because of all their wickedness in turning to other gods.

[In the future, generations of Israelites will act corruptly toward the LORD - with no excuse because they have been informed about their Creator God and have a covenant with Him to be faithful. Evidently they will become a warped, crooked and perverse generation, they will sacrifice to demons, worship idols and false gods, they will evidence willful ignorance of God and His gospel, whereupon the LORD will respond with anger. He will hide His face from them, and forsake them, and they will be destroyed with many disasters and difficulties]

[Expositor's, Vol. 3, Zondervan Publishing, Grand Rapids, Michigan, Frank E Gaebelein, 1991, p. 195];

"16-18 After mentioning that Moses was soon to rest with his fathers, the LORD told him and Joshua that the people would soon prostitute themselves to the foreign gods of the land they were about to enter (v. 16). Turning to Canaanite gods had its counterpart in forsaking hte LORD and breaking the covenenat-treaty. When the people forsake the LORD, He will forsake them in anger against their wickedness (vv. 17-18) and will hide His face from them. Hiding his face (vv. 17-18; 32:20) is the converse of making His face to shine on His people and turning His face toard them as in the Aaronic blessing (Num 6:25-26). It is equal to saying that the LORD would hide Himself from His people so that He and the help He could give them would not be available to them. On the contrary, many disasters and difficulties would come on them (v. 17); and they will raise a rhetorical question about the reason for the disasters, which would indicate that they knew that the disasters came because God was not with them."

(Dt 31:19 NIV) Now write down for yourselves this song and teach it to the Israelites and have them sing it, so that it may be a witness for Me against them.

[Notice that this passage in Dt 32 is clearly indicated as a prophetic song that the LORD commanded Moses to teach to the Israelites and have them sing repeatedly. It was to be a witness for the LORD against future generations of Israelites when they become corrupt and prompt His anger and disciplinary reponse]

[Expositor's, cont., p. 195]:

"Teach it to the Israelites and have them sing it" (v. 19) implies sufficient repetition to fix it in the minds of the people. Only then would they be able to sing it, and only then would it be a witness to the LORD's admonition, not only to those of that generation, but to their descendants who will not have forgotten it (v. 21). The song was to be taught nationally from generation to generation"]

(Dt 31:20 NIV) When I have brought them into the land flowing with milk and honey, the land I promised on oath to their forefathers, and when they eat their fill and thrive, they will turn to other gods and worship them, rejecting Me and breaking My covenant.

(Dt 31:21 NIV) And when many disasters and difficulties come upon them, this song will testify against them, because it will not be forgotten by their descendants. I know what they are disposed to do, even before I bring them into the land I promised them on oath.

(Dt 31:22 NIV) So Moses wrote down this song that day and taught it to the Israelites...

[Expositor's cont., p. 195]:

"20-22. Moses had shown his pessimistic view of Israelite allegiance to the LORD before. Here he reported that the LORD himself had the same expectation. The LORD said that He knew their disposition toward disobedience - disobedience that appeared even before He brought them into the Land of Promise (v. 21). Therefore, this song was given, and Moses wrote it down and taught it to the Israelites (v. 22)."

[Song of Moses, cf. Dt 31:19]:

(Dt 31:30 NIV) "And Moses recited the words of this song from beginning to end in the hearing of the whole assembly of Israel:

(Dt 32:1 NIV) 'Listen, O heavens, and I will speak; hear, O earth, the words of My mouth.

(Dt 32:2 NIV) Let My teaching fall like rain and My words descend like dew, like showers on new grass, like abundant rain on tender plants.

[Expositor's cont., p. 199]:

"1-2 In his introduction Moses called heaven and earth to listen to what he was about to say... Yet the message of the song is not directed to heaven and earth but to the nation of Israel. The 'they' of v. 5 is Israel; so also are the 'you' and the 'people' of v. 6. ... The rest of the sond directs its message to Israel in either the second or the third person.... The call to the heavens and the earth to listen is a figure for all sentient creation as an audience to hear the message to Israel... It should also be remembered that this song was to be repeated by the Israelites themselves both as a warning against disobedience and as a basis for hope when 'their strength is gone' (v. 36).

(Dt 32:3 NIV) I will proclaim the name of the LORD. Oh, praise the greatness of our God!

(Dt 32:4 NIV) He is the Rock, His works are perfect, and all His ways are just. A faithful God Who does no wrong, upright and just is He.

[Note that the message of this passage is for all generations of Israel, (vv. 31:19-22-32:6-7), yet it is specifically directed in vv. 32:1-4, toward the heavens and the earth as if the universe is to be a witness to the righteous testimony and character of God for all generations of mankind to testify to]

(Dt 32:5 NIV) They have acted corruptly toward Him; to their shame they are no longer His children, but a warped and crooked generation.

[Notice that the LORD declared that since the generation of ancient Israelites whom God enabled to enter the promised land had soon acted so corruptly toward Him, that that generation of Israelites would no longer be His children, (cf. Dt 32:5, 20). But this is not to say in the light of the LORD's eternal promises to His chosen people, that future generations of Israelites would be excluded from His fellowship and family, nor from fulfilling His eternal promises to Israel, (cf. v. 32:9)]

(Dt 32:6 NIV) Is this the way you repay the LORD, O foolish and unwise people? Is He not your Father, your Creator, who made you and formed you?

(Dt 32:7 NIV) Remember the days of old; consider the generations long past. [lit. "generation and generation] Ask your father and He will tell you, your elders, and they will explain to you.

[Expositor's, cont., p. 203]

"Moses was giving this song to the Israel that was then existent, and he was speaking about events that occurred in the past half-century.... with some expectation of the use of the song in days to come (cf. 31:21)."

(Dt 32:8 NIV) When the Most High gave the nations their inheritance, when He divided all mankind, He set up boundaries for the peoples according to the number of the sons of Israel.

(Dt 32:9 NIV) For the LORD's portion is His people, Jacob His allotted inheritance.

[Expositor's, cont. p. 203]:

"Here Israel is geographically and religiously set in the context of the Lord's sovereignty over all nations, apparently based on Genesis 10, where the record of the division of mankind is given... That Canaan was Israel's inheritance (v. 8) by the LORD's decree, based on the promise to Abraham, is of major importance in the developing doctrine of the LORD's relationship to His people and His redemption for them and providence toward them. This inheritance was soon to be divided among the tribes, providing each tribe with boundaries.. the LORD rules over the disposition of land to all nations in the sovereign exercise of His will in every generation."]

(Dt 32:10 NIV) In a desert land He found him, in a barren and howling waste. He shielded him and cared for him; He guarded him as the apple of His eye,

(Dt 32:11 NIV) like an eagle that stirs up its nest and hovers over its young, that spreads its wings to catch them and carries them on its pinions.

(Dt 32:12 NIV) The LORD alone led him; no foreign god was with him.

[Note that it is implied here that this particular generation of Israelites were believers and faithful to the LORD]

(Dt 32:13 NIV) He made him ride on the heights of the land and fed him with the fruit of the fields. He nourished him with honey from the rock, and with oil from the flinty crag,

(Dt 32:14 NIV) with curds and milk from herd and flock and with fattened lambs and goats, with choice rams of Bashan and the finest kernels of wheat. You drank the foaming blood of the grape.

[Note the protection, guidance, provision and blessings, i.e., the temporal salvation in verses 10-14 that the LORD provided for His people, the generation of faithful ancient Israelites, (cf. Dt 32:12), which existed just before and at the beginning of their entrance into the Promised Land of Canaan:

The LORD found and rescued the Israelites from a barren desert waste land, referring to their wanderings in the Sinai Desert after their exodus from Egypt. He cared for them and guarded them. He protected them as an eagle protects its young. He had them "ride on the heights of the land," i.e., brought them to a higher geographical location, (Canaan, the Promised Land), which provided the finest agricultural fields, honey bees and olive trees to feed them. The field animals provided the finest curds and milk and meat, the fields the finest kernels of wheat, and red grapes.

[Expositor's, cont., pp. 204-6]:

"The LORD found Israel in a desolate and desperate - if not hopeless - plight in the Sinai Desert... There in the inhospitable desert the LORD 'shielded' and 'cared' for Israel... He shielded them by surrounding them with His protection, and He attentively thought of them and concerned Himself with them (as the distinctive Poel form of the verb bîn ['care for'] intimates). The frequentative imperfect verbs beginning with 'shielded' in v. 10 and continuing in to v. 13 suggest the LORD's constant care.

The 'apple of His eye' (v. 10) is an English idiom for 'anything held extremely dear' or 'much cherished' and is a fitting translation for the Hebrew 'the little man of his eye,' that is, the pupil.

The LORD exercised his loving care for Israel like an eagle caring for its young, especially as they are taught to fly (v. 11). The eagle by stirring up the nest thrusts the eaglets out into the air to try their wings but does not leave them altogether on their own resources. The parent eagle catches the fluttering little ones on its outspread wings and again deposites them in the nest. Similarly the LORD took Israel out from Egypt into the deserts of Sinai but did not leave them without His help. His widespread wings supported them throughout the learning years in Sinai...

He fed them with the finest foods - from God's natural provisions... [evidently from the land of Canaan]... Causing Israel to ride on the high places of the land pictures their advance and conquest of Canaan, which was known as a high, mountainous country. The song views Israel as fed and nourished with the fruit of the fields (food, produce), honey from teh rock, and olive oil from the trees in the flinty crags. Bees in Canaan often built their combs between the rocks. Olive trees flourished and produced bountiful crops of olives in the unlikely limestone soil in rocky places...

The animals too contributed to this good life, with curds [= curds, cream, butter] and milk and the meat of the best of lambs and goats... the best of lambs... Basham produced fine livestock, being noted for bulls and cows... as well as rams...

In addition the people were to have... the choicest, richest, or finest wheat - and fine wine of the blood of grapes (blood indicating the red grapes of Canaan)."]

(Dt 32:15 NIV) Jeshurun grew fat and kicked; filled with food, he became heavy and sleek. He abandoned the God who made him and rejected the Rock his Savior.

(Dt 32:16 NIV) They made Him jealous with their foreign gods and angered Him with their detestable idols.

(Dt 32:17 NIV) They sacrificed to demons, which are not God - gods they had not known, gods that recently appeared, gods your fathers did not fear.

(Dt 32:18 NIV) You deserted the Rock, who fathered you; you forgot the God who gave you birth.

(Dt 32:19 NIV) The LORD saw this and rejected them because He was angered by His sons and daughters.

(Dt 32:20 NIV) 'I will hide My face from them,' He said, 'and see what their end will be; for they are a perverse generation, children who are unfaithful.

(Dt 32:21 NIV) They made Me jealous by what is no god and angered Me with their worthless idols. I will make them envious by those who are not a people; I will make them angry by a nation that has no understanding.' "

Notice that the LORD declared that since the generation of ancient Israelites had acted so corruptly toward Him, that generation of Israelites would no longer be His children, (Dt 32:5, 20). But this is not to say in the light of the LORD's eternal promises to His chosen people, that future generations of Israelites would be excluded from His fellowship and family, nor from fulfilling His eternal promises to Israel.

XI) [Ro 10:20-21]:

(Ro 10:20 NIV) "And Isaiah boldly says, 'I was found by those who did not seek me; I revealed Myself to those who did not ask for Me.' [Isa 65:1]

(Ro 10:21 NIV) But concerning Israel he says, 'All day long I have held out my hands to a disobedient and obstinate people.' [Isa 65:2]"

A) THE LORD HID HIS FACE FROM THE GENERATION OF UNFAITHFUL ANCIENT ISRAELITES. ALTHOUGH THEY WERE GIVEN MUCH OPPORTUNITY TO BE FAITHFUL TO THE LORD THEY WERE DISOBEDIENT AND OBSTINATELY UNFAITHFUL. CONSEQUENTLY, THE LORD TURNED AWAY FROM THEM AND TOWARD GENTILES:

HE WAS FOUND BY THOSE WHO DID NOT SEEK HIM AND REVEALED HIMSELF TO THOSE WHO DID NOT ASK FOR HIM. THIS MADE ISRAEL ANGRY AND JEALOUS

(Ro 10:10 NKJV) "For with the heart [one] believes for righteousness, and with the mouth [one] confesses for salvation. (Ro 10:11 NKJV) For the Scripture says, 'Whoever believes on Him will not be put to shame [Isa 28:16].' (Ro 10:12 NKJV) For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek, for the same Lord over all is rich to all who call upon Him (Ro 10:13 NIV) [For] 'Everyone who calls on the name of the LORD will be saved. [Joel 2:32]' (Ro 10:14 NKJV) How then shall they call on Him in Whom they have not believed? And how shall they believe in Him of Whom they have not heard? And how shall they hear without [preaching]? (Ro 10:15 NKJV) And how shall they preach unless they are sent? As it is written, 'How beautiful are the feet of those who preach the gospel of peace, Who bring [good news] of good things.' [Isa 52:7] (Ro 10:16 NKJV) But they have not all obeyed the gospel, For Isaiah says, 'LORD, who has believed our report?' [Isa 53:1] (Ro 10:17 NKJV) So then faith comes by hearing, and hearing by the word of God. (Ro 10:18 NIV) But I ask: Did they not hear? Of course they did: 'Their voice has gone out into all the earth, their words to the ends of the world.' [Ps 19:4] (Ro 10:19 NKJV) But I say, did Israel not know? First Moses says: 'I will provoke you to jealousy by those who are not a nation, I will move you to anger by a foolish nation.' [Dt 32:21] (Ro 10:20 NIV) "And Isaiah boldly says, 'I was found by those who did not seek me; I revealed Myself to those who did not ask for Me.' [Isa 65:1] (Ro 10:21 NIV) But concerning Israel he says, 'All day long I have held out my hands to a disobedient and obstinate people.' [Isa 65:2]" =

Author Paul refers to Deuteronomy chapter 32, (Ro 10:19), which speaks of God hiding His face from a generation of ancient unfaithful Israelites who were unfaithful, (Dt 32:20). Through making her envious of Gentiles and jealous of a Gentile nation which had no relationship with nor acceptance of the God of Israel, the LORD reminded Israel that there was no excuse for her unfaithfulness, (Dt 32:21). Furthermore, Paul refers to Scripture which declares that there is no possibility of one never having the opportunity to become knowledgable of God and His gospel, (Ps 19:4, Dt 32:21). Paul then quotes from Isaiah chapter 65, (Ro 10:20), which refers to Gentiles who found the LORD who did not seek Him and to the fact that He revealed Himself to Gentiles who did not ask for Him. So the LORD hid His face from a generation of unfaithful ancient Israelites and intervened into the lives of Gentiles so that they would find Him and be used by Him to His righteous purposes not the least of which was to make Israel angry and jealous for being disobedient and obstinately unfaithful to Him. A destiny of destruction for unfaithful generations of Israelites is in view; but remnants of Israelites throughout the ages will be preserved by the LORD so that His promise of a future generation of Israelites to occupy the promised land in the new heavens and the new earth as the LORD's chosen people would be fulfilled through the remnants' descendants, (Isa 65:9). Note that they would be faithful servants of the LORD, (cf. Isa 65:8-9, 17-18).

1) [Compare Isa 64:12-65:18]:

(Isa 64:12) '''[Isaiah asks] "After all this, O LORD, will You hold Yourself back? Will You keep silent and punish us beyond measure?"

(Isa 65:1 NIV) [The LORD answers Isaiah's question of 64:12]: "I revealed Myself to those who did not ask for Me; I was found by those who did not seek Me. To a nation that did not call on My name, I said, "Here am I, here am I."

(Isa 65:2 NIV) All day long I have held out My hands to an obstinate people, who walk in ways not good, pursuing their own imaginations -

(Isa 65:3 NIV) a people who continually provoke Me to My very face, offering sacrifices in gardens and burning incense on altars of brick;

(Isa 65:4 NIV) who sit among the graves and spend their nights keeping secret vigil; who eat the flesh of pigs, and whose pots hold broth of unclean meat;

(Isa 65:5 NIV) who say, "Keep away; don't come near me, for I am too sacred for you!' Such people are smoke in My nostrils, a fire that keeps burning all day.

(Isa 65:6 NIV) See, it stands written before Me: I will not keep silent but will pay back in full; I will pay it back into their laps -

(Isa 65:7 NIV) both your sins and the sins of your fathers,''' says the LORD. '''Because they burned sacrifices on the mountains and defied Me on the hills, I will measure into their laps the full payment for their former deeds.'''

[Notice that more than one generation of Israelites which has a history of rejecting the LORD and is subject to full payment for their sins is in view]

(Isa 65:8 NIV) This is what the LORD says: "As when juice is still found in a cluster of grapes and men say, 'Don't destroy it, there is yet some good in it,' so will I do in behalf of My servants; I will not destroy them all.

(Isa 65:9 NIV) I will bring forth descendants from Jacob, and from Judah those who will possess My mountains; My chosen people will inherit them, and there will My servants live.

[Note the implication here that the LORD will not destroy all of the Israelites at any time in history so that in the future He can "bring forth descendants from Jacob, and from Judah those who will possess [His] mountains; [His] chosen people will inherit them, and there will [His] servants live [forever]," with a view to the eternal kingdom. Hence all generations of Israel are in view relative to never being totally destroyed so that the those of the people of Israel who are believers will inherit the the eternal kingdom]

(Isa 65:10 NIV) Sharon will become a pasture for flocks, and the Valley of Achor a resting place for herds, for My people who seek Me.

(Isa 65:11 NIV) But as for you who forsake the LORD and forget My holy mountain, who spread a table for Fortune and fill bowls of mixed wine for Destiny,

(Isa 65:12 NIV) I will destine you for the sword, and you will all bend down for the slaughter; for I called but you did not answer, I spoke but you did not listen. You did evil in My sight and chose what displeases Me."

(Isa 65:13 NIV) Therefore this is what the Sovereign LORD says: "My servants will eat, but you will go hungry; My servants will drink, but you will go thirsty; My servants will rejoice, but you will be put to shame.

(Isa 65:14 NIV) My servants will sing out of the joy of their hearts, but you will cry out from anguish of heart and wail in brokenness of spirit.

(Isa 65:15 NIV) You will leave your name to My chosen ones as a curse; the Sovereign LORD will put you to death, but to his servants he will give another name.

(Isa 65:16 NIV) Whoever invokes a blessing in the land will do so by the God of truth; he who takes an oath in the land will swear by the God of truth. For the past troubles will be forgotten and hidden from My eyes.

(Isa 65:17 NIV) Behold, I will create new heavens and a new earth. The former things will not be remembered, nor will they come to mind.

(Isa 65:18 NIV) But be glad and rejoice forever in what I will create, for I will create Jerusalem to be a delight and its people a joy.' "

On the one hand the LORD revealed Himself to those who were not Israelites, (i.e., Gentiles), who neither asked for Him nor sought Him. In spite of the fact that they did not call on His name, He said to them 'Here am I, here am I', (Isa 65:1). On the other hand, all day long the LORD had held out His hands to generations of ancient Israelites but they were obstinate in their unfaithfulness, pursuing their own evil imaginations in disobedience to His commands to their own destruction, (Isa 65:11-12). So the LORD saw to it that a remnant of ancient Israelites would be preserved so that His decree and promise of a future generation of Israelites to occupy the promised land in the new heavens and the new earth as His chosen people forever would be fulfilled, (cf. Isa 65:8-9, 17-18). So the LORD intervenes so that a remnant of Israelites are not destroyed. Hence descendants of Israel will inherit the promised land and have eternal life in the new heavens and the new earth as He promised.

ROMANS CHAPTER 11