GALATIANS CHAPTER FOUR

OBSERVATIONS

The purpose of the observation stage is to maintain focus on the text at hand in accordance with the framework in which it was written: a framework which is defined by the normative rules of language, context and logic - rules which do not impose undue, unintended meanings to the text , and which largely limit the observer to the content offered by Paul's epistle to the Galatians and his other writings. In order for any passage from elsewhere to be considered, it must have a relationship with the context at hand, such as a Scriptural quotation or a specific cross reference in the passage at hand by the author. This will serve to avoid going on unnecessary tangents elsewhere; and more importantly, it will provide the framework for a proper and objective comparison with passages located elsewhere in Scripture. Remember that something elsewhere may be true, but in the text at hand it may not be in view.

****** EXCERPT FROM GAL 3 ******

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(Gal 3:22-29) THE PURPOSE FOR SCRIPTURE SHUTTING UP ALL THINGS UNDER SIN IS TO MAKE MAN MORE AWARE OF HIS HOPELESS SINFUL CONDITION BEFORE GOD, WHERE THERE IS NO ESCAPING GOD'S CONDEMNATION BY ANYTHING MAN CAN DO SO THAT THE PROMISE OF GOD'S FORGIVENESS AND HIS SALVATION BY FAITH ALONE IN JESUS CHRIST ALONE MIGHT BE GIVEN TO, I.E., FULFILLED IN THOSE WHO CHOOSE TO BELIEVE IN HIM FOR THAT

BUT BEFORE THIS FAITH IN CHRIST WOULD HISTORICALLY COME INTO THE MINDS OF MEN - BEFORE CHRIST'S SUBSTITUTIONARY ATONEMENT OCCURRED IN HISTORY, WHICH ATONEMENT IS THE FULFILLMENT OF GOD'S PROMISE TO ABRAHAM AND ALL MANKIND RELATIVE TO SALVATION UNTO ETERNAL LIFE TO ALL WHO BELIEVE, MANKIND WAS GUARDED UNDER LAW: MANKIND WAS SHUT UP / RESTRICTED TO THE ONLY MEANS FOR JUSTIFICATION UNTO ETERNAL LIFE: FAITH ALONE IN GOD'S PROMISE ALONE TO ABRAHAM AND MANKIND, WHICH FULFILLMENT IS THROUGH FAITH IN ABRAHAM'S SEED, LATER IN HISTORY TO BE REVEALED AS AND IN JESUS CHRIST.

THEREFORE LAW, ESPECIALLY THE LAW OF MOSES, HAS BECOME OUR, [ALL MANKIND'S] "GUARDIAN-TRAINOR" IN ORDER TO PROVE OUT OUR INCAPACITY TO ACHIEVE OUR OWN JUSTIFICATION SO THAT WE MIGHT BE LED TO CHRIST SO THAT WE MAY BE JUSTIFIED BY FAITH.

BUT NOW THAT THE FAITH IN JESUS CHRIST, I.E., IN HIS SUBSTITUTIONARY ATONEMENT HAS COME UPON HISTORY, WE WHO HAVE BELIEVED IN HIM ARE NO LONGER UNDER LAW, I.E., "GUARDIAN-TRAINOR;" FOR WE WHO HAVE BELIEVED IN CHRIST ARE THEREBY ALL SONS OF GOD. WE HAVE BEEN BAPTIZED INTO CHRIST, WE HAVE PUT ON CHRIST. THERE IS NEITHER JEW NOR GREEK, NEITHER SLAVE NOR FREE MAN, NEITHER MALE NOR FEMALE: WE ARE ALL ONE IN CHRIST JESUS. AND SINCE WE ARE CHRIST'S, WE ARE SPIRITUAL DESCENDANTS OF ABRAHAM, HEIRS ACCORDING TO GOD'S PROMISE TO HIM AND ALL MANKIND TO INHERIT ETERNAL LIFE BY FAITH ALONE

(Gal 3:22 NASB) "But the Scripture has shut up [all things] under sin, so that the promise by faith in Jesus Christ might be given to those who believe. (Gal 3:23 NASB) But before [this] faith [in Jesus] came, we [all mankind] were [being guarded] under law, [having been] shut up to the faith [in Jesus] which was later to be revealed [by His appearance in history and His subsequent atonement for sins on the cross]. (Gal 3:24 NASB) Therefore the Law has become our tutor [= "guardian-trainor"] to lead us to Christ, so that we may be justified by faith. (Gal 3:25 NASB) But now that faith has come, we are no longer under a tutor [= "guardian-trainor"]. (Gal 3:26 NASB) For you are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus. (Gal 3:27 NKJV) For as many of you as were baptized into Christ have put on Christ. (Gal 3:28 NASB) There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither male nor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus. (Gal 3:29 NKJV) And [since] you are Christ's, then you are Abraham's seed, and heirs according to the promise." =

(Gal 3:22a) The Purpose For Scripture Shutting Up All Things Under Sin Is To Make Man More Aware Of His Hopeless Sinful Condition Before God, Where There Is No Escaping God's Condemnation By Anything Man Can Do, So That The Promise Of God's Forgiveness And His Salvation By Faith Alone In Jesus Christ Alone Might Be Given To, i.e., Fulfilled In Those Who Choose To Believe In Him For That

(Gal 3:22 NASB) "But the Scripture has shut up [all things] under sin, so that the promise by faith in Jesus Christ might be given to those who believe." =

Having established in Gal 3:1-21 that the Law of Moses or any law or any human doing cannot be a means by which one might achieve eternal life, which is otherwise provided for only by faith in the promise of righteousness unto eternal life that God made to Abraham and all mankind through Abraham's Seed (; Who is Christ, cf Gal 2:16, 3:10-12, 21 et. al., ); author Paul goes from a discussion of the Law in comparison to the promises of God relative to the reception of eternal life to Scripture shutting up all things under sin:

In Gal 3:22, Paul reiterates that Scripture has shut up all things under sin. Scripture contains the Law, its purpose and many passages about the Righteousness which God expects from man . God's Word has shut up all things under sin in the sense that everything in creation is confined / locked up to experience a destiny of God's condemnation because of mankind's sinfulness, (cf. Ro 3:9, 23; 8:22) - Jews and Gentiles alike. All mankind from all ages are thus destined to eternal destruction. This is not to say that Scripture, i.e., revelation from God makes mankind more guilty of sin than he already is; but properly studied, Scripture makes man more aware of his hopeless sinful condition before a Holy God. Throughout Scripture it instructs man that there can be no escaping God's condemnatory punishment by anything man can do to merit God's redemption, forgiveness and salvation.

(Gal 3:22b) The Purpose For Scripture Shutting Up All Things Under Sin Is To Make Man More Aware Of His Hopeless Sinful Condition Before God, Where There Is No Escaping God's Condemnation By Anything Man Can Do So That The Promise Of God's Forgiveness And His Salvation By Faith Alone In Jesus Christ Alone Might Be Given To, i.e., Fulfilled In Those Who Choose To Believe In Him For That

(Gal 3:22 NASB) "But the Scripture has shut up [all things] under sin, so that the promise by faith in Jesus Christ might be given to those who believe." =

The purpose for Scripture shutting up all things under sin is declared in Gal 3:22b, "so that the promise by faith in Jesus Christ might be given to [i.e., fulfilled in] those who believe," given in the sense of fulfilled in God's promise to Abraham and to all mankind was the promise of justification unto righteousness by a moment of faith alone in Abraham's Seed alone, Who is Christ, (cf. Gal 3:16), for salvation unto eternal life. One is not saved unto eternal life by works or any human doing, but by faith, implying by the grace of God, as a gift, (cf. Eph 2:8-9 ).

When an individual recognizes that he is under God's eternal condemnation for his sinful life and that there is no means of his own doing by which he can escape that imprisonment; and if he believes in the redemption that God has made available for all mankind through Abraham's Seed: Jesus Christ's substitutionary atonement, then he will have forgiveness of sins unto eternal life as a free gift.

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(Gal 3:23) But Before This Faith In Christ Would Historically Come Into The Minds Of Men - Before Christ's Substitutionary Atonement Occurred In History, Which Atonement Is The Fulfillment Of God's Promise To Abraham And All Mankind Relative To Salvation Unto Eternal Life To All Who Believe, Mankind Was Guarded Under Law: Mankind Was Shut Up / Restricted To The Only Means For Justification Unto Eternal Life: Faith Alone In God's Promise Alone To Abraham And Mankind, Which Fulfillment Is Through Faith In Abraham's Seed, Later In History To Be Revealed As And In Jesus Christ

(Gal 3:23 NASB) "But before [this] faith [in Jesus] came, we [all mankind] were [being guarded] under law, [having been] shut up to the faith [in Jesus] which was later to be revealed [by His appearance in history and His subsequent atonement for sins on the cross]." =

In Gal 3:1-22, Paul wrote about individuals being declared to have the Righteousness of God unto salvation unto eternal life by faith in the promise which God made to Abraham and all the families of the earth through Abraham's Seed - a Descendant of his, Who at His advent in the first century made provision for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life for that salvation in order to fulfill God's promise. And that Seed is Christ, Paul wrote in Gal 3:16.

Whereupon, Gal 3:23 stipulates that before this faith in Christ came in the sense of before there existed faith in the name of Jesus Christ by virtue of His  substitutionary atonement for the sins of the whole world once it occurred in history - the basis, context and foundation of ones faith in the promise of God to Abraham and mankind - we (all of mankind), were being guarded under law. More specifically, Galatians chapter 3 has in view believers of the church in Galatia who have turned so quickly away from the faith in Christ which they expressed to another [false] gospel, replacing it with works of law, the Law of Moses, (ref. Gal 1:1-7).

But Paul wrote that from the time when the Law was initiated up until the time when Christ Jesus' substitutionary atonement was made, the Law of Moses kept man shut up to the only means for justification unto eternal life: to faith in the promise God made to Abraham and all mankind - the promise which it was later, in the first century, revealed to be fulfilled in Jesus Christ. For the Law demanded perfection in obedience in order for one to be justified with the Righteousness of God unto eternal life. Mankind was being guarded / restricted by the Law because it teaches one about the impossibility of human doing, i.e., of perfect obedience to the Law which would provide justification unto righteousness and eternal life if it was within man to do - but it is not. Any human doing including obedience to the Law of Moses, the epitome of any laws relative to the Righteousness of God, will fall short of the glory - the Righteousness of God, (cf. Ro 3:9, 23). Therefore attempting to obey the Law is a futile exercise in attaining the Righteousness of God. So a key purpose of the Law was so that mankind can be led to be justified by faith in Christ.

Furthermore, the Law leads those that have already believed like Abraham did - by faith alone in God's promise alone - to remain assured that they have attained the Righteousness unto eternal life through that faith that they had expressed in the first place - in the Seed of Abraham Whom the world will come to know is Jesus Christ from the time of His first advent in the first century and His subsequent substitutionary atonement for sins to fulfill the promise God made to Abraham and all mankind through faith.

And until the historical revelation of Christ, His arrival on earth in His Perfect Humanity, His sacrifice on the cross for sin; the Law of Moses and any rules of human doing served to drive individuals to realize that Righteousness by human doing is impossible. There is no refuge in the Law relative to the reception of eternal life, only imprisonment. There is only sanctuary and assurance in faith in Christ for those that believed as Abraham believed in the promise God gave to him and all the families of the earth of eternal life through faith in the Seed of Abraham, (Who was revealed in history as Jesus Christ, cf. Gal 3:16).

Note that for the sake of the Justice and for the preservation of the Righteousness of God - so that no one can accuse God of letting certain people go without punishment for their sins, Scripture teaches that those who believed as Abraham believed unto righteousness and died before Christ's atonement went to be confined to Paradise in Hades in the center of the earth until the resurrected Jesus Christ came to bring them into heaven with Him to reside forever in the presence of God .

(Gal 3:24) In View Of The Fact That The Law Indicates That No One Can Justify Himself Through His Own Efforts To Be Obedient To It, The Law Has Become Our [All Mankind's] "Guardian-Trainor" In Order To Prove Out Our Incapacity To Achieve Our Own Justification So That We Might Be Led To Christ So That We May Be Justified By Faith

(Gal 3:24 NASB) "Therefore the Law has become our [all mankind' tutor [= "guardian-trainor"] to lead us to [faith in] Christ, so that we may be justified by faith."

Note that the Greek word "hEmOn" rendered "our" refers to all mankind including Paul before he believed. And the Greek word "paidagOgos" rendered "tutor" in the NASB is best described as a "guardian-trainor" because the term was used for a slave who was put in charge of his owner's son from the time he was able to leave the care of his nurse. The "paidagOgos" was like a guardian and a trainor who was to teach the boy good manners and mete out punishment as necessary. He accompanied the boy to school and was to review the lessons he was to have learned with the boy.

In view of the fact that the Law indicates that no one can justify himself through his own efforts, i.e., by being obedient to it, the Law has become our [all mankind's including Paul before he believed] "guardian-trainor" in order to prove out our incapacity to achieve our own justification so that we might be led to Christ so that we may be justified by a moment of faith alone in Christ alone, (ref Gal 3:1-9).

(Gal 3:25-26) But Now That The Faith In Jesus Christ, i.e., In His Substitutionary Atonement Has Come Upon History, We Who Have Believed In Him Are No Longer Under Law, i.e., A "Guardian-Trainor." For We Who Have Believed In Christ Are Thereby All Sons Of God

(Gal 3:25 NASB) "But now that faith has come, we are no longer under a tutor [= "guardian-trainor"]. (Gal 3:26 NASB) For you are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus." =

(Gal 3:26) Manuscript Evidence

(Gal 3:26 NASB) "For you are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus." =

TR, WH, NU Sinaiticus, B, C, D, Maj and all versions have "the faith in Christ Jesus"

P46, cop(sa), 6 have "faith[fulness] of Christ Jesus"

1739, 1881 have "the faith[fulness] of Jesus Christ"

The first variant is unusual in that it does not exactly repeat any other similar phrase in Galatians. Previously, Paul used the expressions "faith of Jesus Christ" (2:16; 3:22) and "faith of christ" (2:16), but never "faith of Christ Jesus." Furthermore, the reading in P46 lacks the article before "faith," which would seem to convey the meaning "Christ Jesus' faith" or "Christ Jesus' faithfulness." This unusualness could speak for the originality of the reading, from which the others deviated. However, the scantiness of evidence cannot warrant an adoption of this reading. The second variant appears to be scribal assimilation to 2:16 and 3:22.

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(Gal 3:25-29) But Now That The Faith In Jesus Christ, i.e., In His Substitutionary Atonement Has Come Upon History, We Who Have Believed In Him Are No Longer Under Law, i.e., A "Guardian-Trainor." For We Who Have Believed In Christ Are Thereby All Sons Of God. We Have Been Baptized Into Christ. We Have Put On Christ. There Is Neither Jew Nor Greek, Neither Slave Nor Free Man, Neither Male Nor Female: We Are All One In Christ Jesus. And Since We Are Christ's, We Are Spiritual Descendants Of Abraham, Heirs According To God's Promise To Him And All Mankind To Inherit Eternal Life By Faith Alone

(Gal 3:25 NASB) "But now that faith has come, we are no longer under a tutor [= "guardian-trainor"]. (Gal 3:26 NASB) For you are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus. (Gal 3:27 NKJV) For as many of you as were baptized into Christ have put on Christ. (Gal 3:28 NASB) There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither male nor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus. (Gal 3:29 NKJV) And [since] you are Christ's, then you are Abraham's seed, and heirs according to the promise." =

In Gal 3:23-24 Paul wrote "But before [this] faith [in Jesus] came, we [all mankind including Paul before he believed] were [being guarded] under law, [having been] shut up to, in the sense of limited to only the faith [in Jesus] which was later to be revealed [by Christ Jesus' appearance in history - by His subsequent atonement for sins on the cross]. Therefore the Law has become our [all mankind's and Paul's before he believed] tutor [= "guardian-trainor"] to lead us to [faith in] Christ, so that we may be justified by faith."

The first phrase of Gal 3:25 follows with, "But now that faith has come," in the sense of now that the faith in Christ, i.e., in His substitutionary atonement for the sins of the whole world has come upon history and thus into the minds of men in history who choose to believe - the basis, context, foundation and fulfillment of ones faith in the promise of God to Abraham and mankind. This phrase is followed by "we are no longer under law, i.e., a tutor [= "guardian-trainor"]." The "we" refers to those who have exercised faith in Christ and no longer need a tutor [= "guardian-trainor"] to lead us to Christ, since we have already believed.

This is followed in Gal 3:26 by, "For [we believers] are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus," i.e., we have all become children of God, (cf. Jn 1:12-13 ) - part of the eternal family of God.

And this is further clarified by Gal 3:27, "For as many of you [who have become believers] as were baptized into Christ have put on Christ," indicating that faith in Christ in order to receive the promise of God of eternal life results in all believers being baptized / positioned / immersed into Christ," in the sense that the believer is identified with and actually immersed / placed / put into Christ as part of His body - spiritually, . And the believer receives the benefits brought about by Christ's substitutionary atonement - His death on the cross, (cf. Romans chapter 6: ).

In Gal 3:28, author Paul provides further results when an individual believes in Christ Jesus relative to his new position in Christ: For those who are believers in Christ Jesus, there is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither male nor female. The believers' union with Christ surpasses ones nationality, ones religious affiliations, ones social status in life, ones sex, etc. Believers are spiritually and eternally all one in Christ Jesus - each one a part of His body without regard for temporal matters such as stipulated. Each one who has expressed a moment of faith alone in Christ Jesus alone for eternal life - Jew or Gentile - will receive the gifts of the Righteousness of God and eternal life as God promised to Abraham and all mankind. And those of the faith in Christ Jesus in this age, (ref. Gal 3:25),  will become sons of God in the sense of becoming children of God   as part of the eternal family of God. And they will be baptized into Christ in the sense of (1) receiving the Spirit of God, (ref. Gal 3:1-2); (2) becoming clothed with Christ; (3) belonging to Him; (4) being one in Christ Jesus in the sense of without temporal distinctions such as religion, race, sex, social status, (ref. Gal 3:29), and much more .

Albeit there will be different functions for each individual as sovereignly appointed by God alone, such as in the reception of spiritual gifts , and God equipping a believer with his function depending upon the particular dispensation / economy of God .

Finally, in Gal 3:29 it stipulates, "And [since] you are Christ's, then you are Abraham's seed, and heirs according to the promise." Believers in Christ in this age are Abraham's seed, heirs according to the promise which God made to Abraham and all mankind to inherit eternal life through a moment of faith alone in God's promise alone through Abraham's Seed; Who centuries later proved out to be Jesus Christ, (ref. Gal 3:16). To be an heir according to the promise which God made to Abraham and all mankind is to be immediately declared to have the Righteousness of God credited to ones account which will result in one inheriting a future transformation of ones being into a Righteous being to experience eternal life with God.

****** END OF EXCERPT FROM GAL 3 ******

I) (Gal 4:1-31)

(Gal 4:1 NASB) "Now I say, as long as the heir is a child, he does not differ at all from a slave although he is owner of everything,"

(Gal 4:2 NASB) but he is under guardians and managers until the date set by the father.

(Gal 4:3 NASB) So also we, while we were children, were held in bondage under the elemental things of the world.

(Gal 4:4 NASB) But when the fullness of the time came, God sent forth His Son, born of a woman, born under the Law,

(Gal 4:5 NASB) so that He might redeem those who were under [law], that we might receive the adoption as sons. [Gal 3:26; Ro 8:14]

(Gal 4:6 NASB) Because you are sons, God has sent forth the Spirit of His Son into our hearts, crying, 'Abba! Father!'

Manuscript Evidence for Gal 4:6a

TR WH NU read "God sent forth the Spirit of His Son," supported by Sinaiticus, A, C, D, etc. and most versions.

B, 1739 and cop(sa) exclude "God," hence the rendering 'he sent forth the Spirit of His Son,"

P46 excludes "Son," hence the rendering "God sent forth His Spirit."

Since the first omission cannot be accounted for on transcriptional grounds, and since scribes had a propensity for adding subjects, it could be original. The second variant could possibly be acconted for on transcriptional grounds: the eye of the scribe passed to the next phrase due to homoeoteleuton. But it is more likely that the scribe of P46, when confronted with the unique expression "the Spirit of His Son" (it appears nowhere else in the Bible), decided to change it to the more ordinary one, "His Spirit." But the title "the Spirit of His Son," is perfect in the context, for it denotes that believers share in Christ's sonship because they are indwelt by the Spirit of God's Son

Manuscript Evidence for Gal 4:6b

WH NU P46, Sinaiticus, A, B, C, D*, F, G, 1739, it cop(sa) have "our hearts."

TR, D2, Psi, 33, Maj, syr have "your hearts."

As often happened in the transmission of the NT text, the two pronouns "emOn" and "umOn," which are similar in spelling and sound, were confounded with one another. In this case, however, it is easy to detect which is original because "emOn" has superior documentation and "emOn" is an obvious assimilaton to the immediate context.

(Gal 4:7 NASB) Therefore you are no longer a slave, but a son; and [Ro 8:17] if a son, then an heir [i.e., through the gracious act of] through God.

Manuscript Evidence For Gal 4:7

WH, NU, P46, Sinaiticus*, A, B, C*, 33, 1739*(vid), it, cop(bo) and most versions have "an heir through God."

(1st var) F, G, 1881 have "an heir because of God"

(2nd var) 81, 630, cop(sa) have "an heir through Christ"

(3rd var) 1739c has "an heir through Jesus Christ"

(4th var) Sinaiticus2, C3, D, Maj, syr have "an heir of God through Christ."

(5th var) Psi has "heir of God, coheir of Christ."

The manuscript evidence, both early and diverse, favors the wording found in WH and NU. The several changes to the ending of this verse reveal the perplexity scribes experienced with the expression "an heir through God." It is much easier to understand how believers become heirs because of what God did for them in regeneration or through Jesus Christ's work of salvation - thus, the changes in variants 1-3. The fourth variant arose either as a transposed conflation or as an attempt to unpack the expression "heir through God" (note the corrections in Sinaiticus and C). The fifth variant is a gloss borrowed verbatim from Ro 8:17, a parallel verse.

(Gal 4:8 NASB) However at that time, when you did not know God, you were slaves to those which by nature are no gods [cf. Gal 4:3].

(Gal 4:9 YLT) And now, having known [(aorist participle)] God - [but] rather [having been known, (aorist participle)] by God, how do you turn again to the weak and [worthless] elements [cf. Col 2:20] to which anew [you] desire to [serve]?

(Gal 4:10 NASB) You observe days and months and seasons and years.

(Gal 4:11 NASB) I fear for you, that perhaps I have labored over you in vain.

(Gal 4:12 NASB) I beg of you, brethren, become as I am, for I also have become as you are. You have done me no wrong;

(Gal 4:13 NASB) but you know that it was because of a weakness of the flesh [in the sense of a bodily illness] that I preached the gospel to you the first time;

(Gal 4:14 NASB) and that which was a trial to you in my [flesh] you did not despise or loathe [me], but you received me as an angel of God, as Christ Jesus Himself.

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[Manuscript Evidence For Gal 4:14]:

WH, NU, sinaiticus*, A, B, C2, D*, F, G 33cop(bo) have "the trial to you"

Variant #1 / TR, P46, C*(vid), D1, Psi, Maj, Syr(h), cop(sa) have "the trial to me"

Variant #2 Sinaiticus(2), 0278, 81 have "the trial"

The variant readings indicate that there is a problem with interpreting the awkward expression rendered "and that which was a trial to you in my [flesh] you did not despise or loathe." Paul is evidently saying that the Galatians might have been tempted to reject Paul because of his physical malady, but they did not because they considered him a messenger sent from God. The problem is that the Greek might literally be interpreted as saying that the Galatians might have despised or loathed Paul's trial in the flesh as opposed to despising / rejecting Paul himself because of his physical malady. So scribes evidently made changes in order to clarify this issue.

(Gal 4:15 NASB) Where then is that sense of blessing you had? [for me, Paul]. For I bear you witness that, if possible, you would have plucked out your eyes and given them to me.

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[Manuscript Evidence For Gal 4:17]:

06D, 018K, 020L, byz have "What"

WE/HO, NU, UBS, *, 01Sinaiticus, 02A, 03B, 04C, 025P, 33, bo, Lach, Treg, Alf, Word, Tisc, Weiss, Sod have "Where"

(Gal 4:16 NASB) So have I become your enemy by telling you the truth?

(Gal 4:17 YLT) They are zealous for you - [but not for good], they wish to shut us out [Paul and his group], that for them [the Judaizers ] [you] may be zealous after them.

[Manuscript Evidence For Gal 4:17]:

D*, F, G, it(b) have an addition in the Greek at the end of the verse rendered, "but be zeaolus of the greater gifts." This is an expansion taken from 1 Cor 12:31. But this admonition hardly fits, especially since the context has nothing to do with spiritual gifts and because Paul goes on in the next verse to say that the Galatians should be "zealous for good things." The Judaizers wanted to alienate and isolate the Galatians from Paul and make them more zealous for them than for him. Paul did not ask them to have zeal for him but to have zeal for what is good.

(Gal 4:18 HOLMAN) "Now it is always good to be [zealous] about good [things] - and not just when I [Paul] am with you.

Gal 4:19 NASB) My children, with whom I am again in labor until Christ is formed in you -

[Manuscript Evidence For Gal 4:19]:

TR, WH, Sinaiticus2, A, C, D(1), Psi, 33, Maj - so TR read "teknia" rendered "little children" instead of "tekna" rendered "children"

NU, Sinaiticus*, B, D*, F, G, 1739 have "tekna" rendered "children."

The change to "teknia" shows the influence of Johannine phraseology, (cf. Jn 13:33, 1 Jn 2:1, 12, 28, etc; but nowhere else in Paul).

(Gal 4:20 NASB) how I wish I could be with you now and change my tone, because I am perplexed about you!

(Gal 4:21 NASB) Tell me, you want to be under law, do you not [hear] the [Mosaic] Law? [in the sense of understand its meaning and its purpose ]

(Gal 4:22 NASB) For it [has been] written that Abraham had two sons, one by the bondwoman [Gen 21:2] and one by the free woman. [Gen 21:2].

(Gal 4:23 NASB) But the son of the bondwoman [Hagar] [has been] born according to the flesh, and the son by the free woman [Sarah] through the promise, [cf Gal 4:28-29; Ro 9:7; Gen 17:16ff; 18:10ff; 21:1].

(Gal 4:24 NASB) This is allegorically speaking, for these women are two covenants: one proceeding from Mount Sinai bearing children who are to be slaves; which she is Hagar.

(Gal 4:25 NASB) Now this Hagar is Mount Sinai in Arabia [in the sense of stands for] and corresponds to the present Jerusalem, for she is in slavery with her children.

Manuscript Evidence for Gal 4:25:

WH, NU, A, B, D, 0278 HAVE "Now Hagar is Mount Sinai in Arabia"

Variant 1/ TR, Psi, 062(vid), 33, 1881, Maj, syr have "for Hagar is Mount Sinai in Arabia"

Variant 2/ P46, (de for gar), Sinaiticus, C, F, G, 1739, it have "for Sinai is a mountain in Arabia"

The various readings involve an alteration of conjunctions (de and gar) and the presence  or absence of the name Hagar. Concerning the latter alteration, the weight of documentation (P46, Sinaiticus, C, F, G, 1739 verses A, B, D, 062(vid), 33, 1881, Maj) is evenly divided. If the name Hagar was not originally in the text, it is assumed to be a carryover from the previous verse. This handled nicely in the NEB, "The two women stand for two covenants. The one bearing children into slavery is the covenant that comes from Mount Sinai; that is Hagar. (v. 25) Sinai is a mountain in Arabia and it represents the Jerusalem of today, for she and her children are in slavery." If this was the original text, dittography could account for the addition of "Agar: garagar. Contrarily, if Agar was originally in the text, it could have been deleted due to homoeoteleuton. The four-layered allegory of the two covenants is retained:

[old covenant] Hagar = Mt. Sinai = present city of Jerusalem = slavery

[new covenant] our mother = [Mt Zion] = the Jerusalem above = freedom

(Gal 4:26 NASB) But the Jerusalem above is free; she is our mother.

Manuscript Evidence for Gal 4:26:

WH, NU, P46, Sinaiticus, B, C*, D, F, G, Psi, 1739, cop, Origen have "our mother"

Variant / TR, Sinaiticus(2), A, C3, 0261(vid), 0278, Maj, it(b,t), syr(h) have "mother of us all"

The documentation behind the WH and NU readings is impressive, having support from the four earliest manuscripts (the first four listed above), as well as the so-called "Western" trio (D, F, G). In context, Paul was speaking of "the Jerusalem above," which is "free" - i.e., not in slavery. Then, Paul calls this heavenly Jerusalem "our mother." Some scribes decided to make the term more inclusive and therefore added pantOn" ("all") - hence, "mother of us all."

(Gal 4:27 NKJV) For it is written: 'Rejoice, O barren, You who do not bear! Break forth and shout, You who are not in labor! For the desolate has many more children Than she who has a husband.' " [Isa 54:1]

(Gal 4:28 NASB) And you brothers, [ref. Gal 4:23] like Isaac, are children of promise [Gal 3:29; Ro 9:7ff].

Manuscript Evidence for Gal 4:28:

NU, P46, B, D*, F, G, 0261(vid) 0278, 33, it(b), cop(sa) have "but you, brothers... are"

variant, TR, WH, Sinaiticus, A, C, D2, Psi, 062, Maj, syr, cop(bo) have "but we, brothers... are"

The two pronouns "umEis" ("you") and "emEis "("we") were often confused for one another. Nonetheless, the testimony of P46, B, D*, is sufficiently weighty to show that the reading of the NU text is original, whereas the variant is probably the result of scribes attempting to retain the unity with the first person plural in 4:26, 31.

(Gal 4:29 NASB) But as at that time [Gal 4:23] he who was born according to the flesh [Gen 21:9] persecuted him who was born according to the Spirit, [Gal 5:11] so it is now also.

(Gal 4:30 NKJV) Nevertheless what does the Scripture say? 'Cast out the bondwoman and her son, for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman.' " [Gen 21:10, 12]

******

Manuscript Evidence for Gal 4:30

In this verse Paul cited Gen 21:10 (LXX) almost verbatim except in the last two words, where Paul wrote "the son of the free woman" instead of "my son Isaac," in order to make it fit his argument about a free woman verses a slave woman. As often happened, some Western reviser(s) (D*,M F,M G, it, Ambrosiaster) changed Paul's wording to make it conform verbatim with the Hebrew text - by changing "the son of the free woman" to "my son Isaac."

(Gal 4:31 NKJV) So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman but of the free."

A) (Gal 4:1-7) Now Paul Declares That In Ancient, First Century Societies That As Long As An Heir Is A Child, He Does Not Differ At All From A Slave Although He Is Owner Of Everything. But He Is Under Guardians And Managers Until The Date Of His Official Sonship Set By The Father. So Also We At This Time In History - Who Have Believed In Jesus Christ - While We Were Children - Before We Believed In Him - Were Held In Bondage Under The Elemental Things, The Ungodly Things Of The World. But When The Fullness Of The Time Came As Predetermined By God - He Sent Forth His Son, Born Of A Woman, Born Under The Law Of Moses, So That He Might Redeem Those Under Law - Under Rules Of Human Doing / Conduct, That We Who Have Been Redeemed Through Faith Might Receive The Adoption As Sons. And Because We Are His Sons, God Has Sent Forth The Spirit Of His Son Into Our Hearts, Crying 'Abba! Father!' Therefore We Are No Longer A Slave, But A Son; If A Son, Then An Heir Through God

(Gal 4:1 NASB) "Now I say, as long as the heir is a child, he does not differ at all from a slave although he is owner of everything, (Gal 4:2 NASB) but he is under guardians and managers until the date set by the father. (Gal 4:3 NASB) So also we, while we were children, were held in bondage under the elemental things of the world. (Gal 4:4 NASB) But when the fullness of the time came, God sent forth His Son, born of a woman, born under the Law, (Gal 4:5 NASB) so that He might redeem those who were under [law], that we might receive the adoption as sons. (Gal 4:6 NASB) Because you are sons, God has sent forth the Spirit of His Son into our hearts, crying, 'Abba! Father!' (Gal 4:7 NASB) Therefore you are no longer a slave, but a son; and [Ro 8:17] if a son, then an heir through God." =

In Gal 4:1, apostle and author Paul declares, "Now I say as long as the heir is a child, he does not differ at all from a slave although he is owner of everything." Paul is referring to a child in a society in ancient times - in the first century - who is heir to all of his father's estate. In those societies, a child will not receive his inheritance until the time that he is of age to be a full fledged son. So until that time it is as if the child has no more possessions nor freedoms than a slave.

So it says in Gal 4:2 that a child is under guardians and managers until the date of his official sonship set by his human father. The guardians, (plural), evidently assisted in raising the child up; and the managers, (plural), evidently managed his inheritance until his date of sonship.

With this in mind, Paul says in Gal 4:3-4, so also we [referring to himself and the Galatian believers before any of them became believers] were children. This was before the "fullness of the time" when God predetermined to send forth His Son into the world so that at that time - before the Galatians became believers - one could chose to become a son of God through faith in God's Son, Jesus Christ. Up until that time, the Galatians, were held in bondage under the elemental things - the ungodly principles - of the world which were largely comprised of pagan religious and philosophical worldly principles and an ungodly way of life. These principles pertained to the world and excluded anything godly. The Galatian believers were largely Gentile pagans, and not Jews, before they became believers in Jesus Christ. Since all men are compelled, even addicted to lead ungodly lives in some manner because of their sinful natures, all man are in bondage / addicted to the elemental, ungodly things of the world because of their committment to do evil.

1) [Compare Col 2:8]:

(Col 2:8 NASB) "See to it that no one takes you captive through philosophy and empty deception, according to the tradition of men, according to the elementary [in the sense of ungodly] principles of the world, rather than according to Christ."

2) [Compare Gal 4:8-10]:

(Gal 4:8 NASB) "However at that time, when you did not know God, you were slaves to those which by nature are no gods [cf. Gal 4:3].

(Gal 4:9 YLT) And now, having known [(aorist participle)] God - [but] rather [having been known, (aorist participle)] by God, how do you turn again to the weak and [worthless] elements [cf. Col 2:20] to which anew [you] desire to [serve]?

(Gal 4:10 NASB) You observe days and months and seasons and years."

Note that Scripture has shut up all things under sin in the sense that everything in creation is confined / locked up to experience a destiny of God's condemnation because of mankind's sinfulness, (cf. Ro 3:9, 23; 8:22) - Jews and Gentiles alike. All mankind from all ages are thus destined to eternal destruction. This is not to say that Scripture, i.e., revelation from God makes mankind more guilty of sin than he already is; but properly studied, Scripture makes man more aware of his hopeless sinful condition before a Holy God. Throughout Scripture it instructs man that there can be no escaping God's condemnatory punishment by anything man can do to merit God's redemption, forgiveness and salvation. And Scripture and the Law of Moses therein contained has guarded mankind such that he is shut up to the only recourse: a moment of faith alone in Jesus Christ alone - the promised Descendant of Abraham Who has provided a substitutionary atonement for the sins of all mankind .

3) [Compare Gal 3:22-23]:

(Gal 3:22 NASB) "But the Scripture has shut up [all things] under sin, so that the promise by faith in Jesus Christ might be given to those who believe.

(Gal 3:23 NASB) But before [this] faith [in Jesus] came, we [all mankind] were [being guarded] under law, [having been] shut up to the faith [in Jesus] which was later to be revealed [by His appearance in history and His subsequent atonement for sins on the cross]," .

Note that all those who trusted in the promise God gave to Abraham and to all the families of the earth before God sent His Son into the world to redeem mankind will also receive the benefit of eternal life. But they will receive a different set of accompanying benefits than those who believed in the Son of God after He had come into the world .

Whereupon Gal 4:4-5 follows Gal 4:3 and is rendered "But when the fullness of time came, [ref. Jn 1:1-4, 9-14; Mk 1:14-15]; God sent forth His Son, [ref. Jn 1:1-4, 9-14; Ro 1:3; 8:3]; born of a woman, [ref. Lk 2:21ff]; born under the Law [ref. Lk 2:21-27]; so that He might redeem those who were under [law = any human doing], that we who have been redeemed through faith might receive the adoption as sons."

Gal 4:4-5 conveys the message that it was the time that God had predetermined for His Son to be set forth into the world. God saw to it that the Roman civilization would bring with it a peace and a road system which facilitated travel, trade and communication throughout the civilized world. And it was the predetermined time when Greek would be the universal language throughout the civilized world through which language the gospel would be communicated. And during this time God predetermined that there would come about the widespread Jewish proclamation of monotheism and of the messianic hope in the synagogues throughout the Mediterranean world where the Jews had been scattered by God. This was the predetermined opportune time for God's Son to come into the world in His Perfect Humanity to fulfill His mission to demonstrate to the world Who God is, (ref. Jn 1:18 ) and to provide the fulfillment of God's promise to Abraham and all the families of the earth of redemption for all mankind through His once for all sacrifice for sins.

So the Son of God - Who is God - added to Himself Perfect, sinless Humanity   was born of a woman via the Holy Spirit   into the world as the promised Descendant of Abraham   Who would be a Jew under the Law of Moses so that He might live by that Law perfectly to demonstrate His Righteousness to the world to be worthy of and qualified to provide the promised atoning sacrifice for sins and the redemption of mankind.

So in Gal 4:5-6, Paul writes,  "[God sent forth His Son, born of a woman, born under the Law (v. 4b)] so that He might redeem all those who are under law, i.e., all mankind. Being under law here means being subject to rules of human conduct such as the Law of Moses and any rules of human doing such as the first century paganism of the Galatians. But those who believed in Jesus Christ for eternal redemption would receive eternal life and be adopted into the family of God as sons of God.

4) [Compare Jn 1:1-4, 9-14 ]:

(Jn 1:1 YLT) "In [the] beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

(Jn 1:2 YLT) He [lit., This One] was in [the] beginning with God;

(Jn 1:3 NAS) All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being.

  on Jn 1:1-3

(Jn 1:4 NAS) In Him was life, and the Life was the Light of men.

  on Jn 1:4

(Jn 1:9 NIV) The true Light that gives light to every man was coming into the world.

  on Jn 1:9

(Jn 1:10 YLT) In the world He was, and the world through Him was made, and the world did not know Him:

  on Jn 1:10

(Jn 1:11 NKJV) He came to His own [neuter, plural, i.e., He came to all things of His own, being Creator = all things of the world, both inanimate and animate, including mankind], and His own [mascline, plural = those animate objects who have the capacity to receive (i.e., believe in) Him, i.e., His own particular people, specifically the people of Israel] did not receive Him.

  on Jn 1:11

(Jn 1:12 YLT) But as many [individuals of His own creation, (Jn 1:11a)] as did receive Him to them He gave authority to become sons [lit., children] of God - to those believing in His name.

  on Jn 1:12

(Jn 1:13 YLT) who - not of blood nor of a will of flesh, nor of a will of man but - of God were begotten [born].

  on Jn 1:13

(Jn 1:14 NKJV) And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the [One and only from] the Father, full of grace and truth."

  on Jn 1:14

Then in Gal 4:5-6, Paul writes,  "[God sent forth His Son, born of a woman, born under the Law(v. 4b)] so that He might redeem all those who are under law, i.e., all mankind. Being under law means being subject to rules of human conduct such as the Law of Moses and any rules of human doing such as the first century paganism of the Galatians. But those who believe in Jesus Christ for eternal redemption would receive eternal life and be adopted into the family of God as sons of God.

5) [Compare Eph 1:5, 7, 13-14]:

(Eph 1:5 NKJV) [God, v. 3] having predestined us to adoption as sons by Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the good pleasure of His will,

(Eph 1:7 NASB) In Him [Jesus Christ v. 5] we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of His grace.

(Eph 1:13 YLT) in Whom [in Christ, (v. 12)] [you] also, having heard the word of the truth - the good news of your salvation - in Whom [Christ, (vv. 12-13)] also having believed, [you] were sealed with the Holy Spirit of the promise [of eternal life / redemption],

(Eph 1:14 NKJV) Who / Which is the guarantee [lit., "arrhabOn" = deposit, pledge] of our inheritance until the redemption of the purchased possession [God's possession - the believer, v. 13], to the praise of His glory."

So Gal 4:5-6 indicates that it is through a moment of faith in the redemption of all mankind which has been provided for by the Son of God, Jesus Christ, that one receives the gift of eternal life and adoption into the family of God as a son of God.

****** EXCERPT FROM REDEMPTION STUDY ******

DEFINITION OF REDEMPTION

[The New Scofield Study Bible, NIV, C.I. Scofield, D.D., Editor, Oxford Univ Press, NY, 1967, p. 1179]:

" 'Redemption' means to deliver by paying a price. The work of Christ fulfilling the O.T. types and prophecies of redemption is set forth in three principal Greek words:

(1) AgorazO, to buy in the market (from agora, market). Man is viewed as a slave 'sold...to sin' (Rom 7:14) and under sentence of death (Ezek 18:4; Jn 3:18-19; Rom 6:23) but subject to redemption by the purchase price of the blood of the Redeemer (1 Cor 6:20; 7:23; 2 Pet 2:1; Rev 5:9; 14:3-4).

(2) ExagorazO, to buy out of the market, i.e., to purchase and remove from further sale (Gal 3:13; 4:5; Eph 5:16; Col 4:5), speaking of the finality of the work of redemption.

(3) lutroO, to loose or set free (Lk 24:21; Ti 2:14; 1 Pet 1:18), noun form, lutrOsis (Lk 2:38; Heb 9:12). Compare also 'redeemed' (lit. to make redemption, Gk epoiEsen lutrOsin, Lk 1:68), and 'deliverance' (intensive form, apolutrOsis) used commonly to indicate release of a slave (Lk 21:28; Rom 3:24; 8:23; 1 Cor 1:30; Eph 1:7, 14; 4:30; Col 1:14; Heb 9:15; 11:35). Redemption is by sacrifice and by power (Ex 14:30); Christ paid the price, the Holy Spirit makes deliverance actual in experience (Rom 8:2)."

[J. Dwight Pentecost states in his book,"Things Which Become SOUND DOCTRINE," Revell Publishing, Westwood N.J., 1965, p. 76)]:

"This word ["Exegorasen" (Gal 3:13)] emphasizes the result of the redemption, the result of the purchase by the blood of Christ. When we were purchased out from the curse of the Law and bondage to sin we were purchased out so completely and effectively that we can never be returned to that slave market again... The Apostle tells us that when Christ redeemed us in a redemptive act, and purchased us for Himself by the payment of a price, He redeemed us [in the sense of] purchased us out of the slave market [of sin] in order that we might be delivered from its bondage forever."

[Notice the phrase, 'that we might be delivered' from its bondage forever which implies potential and depends upon whether or not an individual takes that step of trusting alone in Christ alone unto eternal life]

details on redemption

****** END OF EXCERPT FROM REDEMPTION STUDY ******

A cont) (Gal 4:1-7 cont) Now Paul Declares That In Ancient, First Century Societies That As Long As An Heir Is A Child, He Does Not Differ At All From A Slave Although He Is Owner Of Everything. But He Is Under Guardians And Managers Until The Date Of His Official Sonship Set By The Father. So Also We At This Time In History - Who Have Believed In Jesus Christ - While We Were Children - Before We Believed In Him - Were Held In Bondage Under The Elemental Things, The Ungodly Things Of The World. But When The Fullness Of The Time Came As Predetermined By God - He Sent Forth His Son, Born Of A Woman, Born Under The Law Of Moses, So That He Might Redeem Those Under Law - Under Rules Of Human Doing / Conduct, That We Who Have Been Redeemed Through Faith Might Receive The Adoption As Sons. And Because We Are His Sons, God Has Sent Forth The Spirit Of His Son Into Our Hearts, Crying 'Abba! Father!' Therefore We Are No Longer A Slave, But A Son; If A Son, Then An Heir Through God, (cont)

(Gal 4:1 NASB) "Now I say, as long as the heir is a child, he does not differ at all from a slave although he is owner of everything, (Gal 4:2 NASB) but he is under guardians and managers until the date set by the father. (Gal 4:3 NASB) So also we, while we were children, were held in bondage under the elemental things of the world. (Gal 4:4 NASB) But when the fullness of the time came, God sent forth His Son, born of a woman, born under the Law, (Gal 4:5 NASB) so that He might redeem those who were under [law], that we might receive the adoption as sons. (Gal 4:6 NASB) Because you are sons, God has sent forth the Spirit of His Son into our hearts, crying, 'Abba! Father!' (Gal 4:7 NASB) Therefore you are no longer a slave, but a son; and [Ro 8:17] if a son, then an heir through God." =

So according to Gal 4:3, all men are held in bondage / compelled to submit to the restraints of obeying the precepts of the Law of Moses, as Jews were compelled to do but without the capacity to be faithful due to man's inherent sin nature; or submit to the restraints of obeying the rules of the ungodly, elemental spirits of the world, i.e. of obeying a particular ungodly, pagan religion / philosophy, as each Gentile has placed himself under it - leading away from godliness and without the capacity to be faithful to ungodly principles anyway. Such principles inevitably drive one irretrievably into temporal and eternal self-destructive enslavement, instead of expressing a moment of faith alone in Christ alone unto eternal life.

But, according to Gal 4:4-5a, Christ came into the world and paid the price for mankind's redemption. No matter what kind of bondage one is compelled / addicted to submit to, Jesus Christ has set all men free from submission to all restraints / rules which are ungodly or impossible to keep because of the intrinsic sin nature of man.

Moreover, Gal 4:5b indicates that it is through Christ that men receive adoption as sons into the family of God. Not only has mankind been moved from bondage into freedom, but those who have believed in Christ have been moved into the great household of God where all believers are free men and all are "heirs of God and co-heirs with Christ" according to Ro 8:17 .

6) [Compare Gal 4:9]:

(Gal 4:9 YLT) "And now, having known [(aorist participle)] God - [but] rather [having been known, (aorist participle)] by God, how do you turn again to the weak and [worthless] elements [cf. Col 2:20] to which anew [you] desire to [serve]?"

The principles that the Galatian believers were formerly in bondage / addicted to / compelled to follow are described as weak and worthless in the sense of having no capacity to achieve godliness and righteousness and real freedom. Such weak and worthless principles inevitable drive one irretrievably into temporal and eternal self-destructive enslavement.

The opposing powers are "weak" because they are unable to redeem and "worthless" because they are unable to provide  adoption into the family of God.

And, *according to Gal 4:6, as adopted sons of God, God has sent forth the Spirit of His Son into their hearts, crying 'Abba Father!' Now, being made a member of his family, the Christian is permitted and even urged to cry, "Father." "Abba" is the Aramaic diminutive for "Father," conveying an intimate personal relationship with God.

*See notes on manuscript evidence for Gal 4:6

****** EXCERPT FROM ROMANS CHAPTER 8 ******

[Ro 8:15]:

(v. 8:15 NKJV) "For you did not receive the spirit of bondage again to fear, but you received the Spirit of adoption by whom we cry out, 'Abba, Father.' "

BELIEVERS DID NOT AGAIN RECEIVE THE SPIRIT OF BONDAGE AND FEAR OF THE CONSEQUENCES OF SIN AND DEATH CHARACTERISTIC OF UNBELIEVERS. BELIEVERS RECEIVED THE SPIRIT OF GOD - THE SPIRIT OF ADOPTION INTO THE FAMILY OF GOD TO WHOM THEY CRY OUT, 'ABBA, FATHER', EXEMPLIFYING AN INTIMATE RELATIONSHIP WITH GOD OUR FATHER

(v. 8:9 NKJV) "But you are not in [the] flesh but in [the] Spirit, if [= since] indeed [the] Spirit of God dwells in you. Now if anyone does not have [the] Spirit of Christ, he is not His. (v. 8:10 YLT) and if Christ [is] in you, the body, indeed, [is] dead because of sin, and the Spirit [is] life because of righteousness (v. 8:11 NASB) But if [= since] the Spirit of Him Who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, He Who raised Christ Jesus from the dead will also give [eternal] life to your mortal bodies through His Spirit Who dwells in you. (v. 8:12 YLT) So, then, brethren, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live according to the flesh; (v. 8:13 YLT) for if according to the flesh ye do live, ye are about to die; and if, by the Spirit, the deeds of the body ye put to death, ye shall live (v. 8:14 YLT) "for as many as are led by the Spirit of God, these are the sons of God (v. 8:15 NKJV) For you did not receive the spirit of bondage again to fear, but you received the Spirit of adoption by whom we cry out, 'Abba, Father.' " =

Believers did not again receive the spirit of bondage and of fear of the consequences of sin and death characteristic of unbelievers. Believers received the Spirit of God - the Spirit of adoption into the family of God to Whom they cry out, 'Abba, Father,' exemplifying an intimate relationship with God our Father.

The word rendered "again" refers to the previous bondage of corruption believers were under as unbelievers.

The Greek word "huiothesias" rendered "adoption" in verse 8:15 is a legal term establishing a permanent familial relationship with God. The adoption is via the loving purpose and grace of God when an individual became a believer in order to receive a righteousness and eternal redemption from God, (cf. 3:21-26). The believer is adopted into the family of God as children, i.e., sons and daughters of God, (v. 8:13), with all the legal standing and familial privileges that that implies. For example and according to verse 8:15, the believer has become a child of God wherein he has received not the spirit of slavery again but the [Holy] Spirit of adoption as sons of God by which the believer can cry 'Abba Father.' The phrase 'Abba, Father' is an intimate and very personal term of endearment, 'Abba' being from the Aramaic language which Jesus used in prayer, (cf. Mk 14:36) - far from the estrangement of the unbeliever referred to in 8:15a: "For you did not receive the spirit of bondage again to fear" The fear in view is the unbeliever's fear of the consequences of sin and death which could be overcome if he became a child of God via a moment of faith alone in Christ alone, (v. 3:21-24). Instead of the enslavement to sin by the unbeliever resulting in fear of ones temporal and eternal destiny; the child of God has available to him a deep, personal and intimate relationship with his 'Abba Father - to be confident of his temporal and eternal destiny.

THE BELIEVER WAS PREVIOUSLY STIPULATED AS A SLAVE TO GOD AND THE SOVEREIGN RULE OF HIS RIGHTEOUSNESS. THIS DOES NOT CONFLICT WITH BEING IN A FAMILY RELATIONSHIP WITH 'ABBA FATHER' GOD

(v. 6:6) "Knowing this that our old self was crucified with him so that the body of sin might be rendered powerless, that we should no longer be slaves to sin - (v. 6:14) For sin shall not be your master, because you are not under law, but under grace. (v. 6:17) But thanks be to God that, though you used to be slaves to sin, you wholeheartedly obeyed the form of teaching to which you were entrusted (v. 6:18) You have been set free from sin and have become slaves to righteousness. (v. 6:19) I put this in human terms because you are weak in your natural selves. Just as you used to offer the parts of your body in slavery to impurity and to ever-increasing wickedness, so now offer them in slavery to righteousness leading to holiness. (v. 6:20) When you were slaves to sin, you were free from the control of righteousness. (v. 6:22) But now that you have been set free from sin and have become slaves to God, the benefit you reap leads to holiness, and the result is eternal life. (v. 8:14 YLT) for as many as are led by the Spirit of God, these are the sons of God (v. 8:15 NKJV) For you did not receive the spirit of bondage again to fear, but you received the Spirit of adoption by whom we cry out, 'Abba, Father.' " =

Although the believer was stipulated in Romans chapter six as a slave to God and under the sovereign rule of His righteousness, (cf. 6:18-24); the characteristics of that benevolent slavery do not conflict with but rather are within the realm of a family relationship with 'Abba Father' God. Just as a human father is to be the benevolent but sovereign leader in the family, providing love, privilege, protection, rule and discipline for his children, so it is with God the Father with His children.

****** END OF EXCERPT FROM ROMANS CHAPTER 8 ******

A cont) (Gal 4:1-7 cont) Now Paul Declares That In Ancient, First Century Societies That As Long As An Heir Is A Child, He Does Not Differ At All From A Slave Although He Is Owner Of Everything. But He Is Under Guardians And Managers Until The Date Of His Official Sonship Set By The Father. So Also We At This Time In History - Who Have Believed In Jesus Christ - While We Were Children - Before We Believed In Him - Were Held In Bondage Under The Elemental Things, The Ungodly Things Of The World. But When The Fullness Of The Time Came As Predetermined By God - He Sent Forth His Son, Born Of A Woman, Born Under The Law Of Moses, So That He Might Redeem Those Under Law - Under Rules Of Human Doing / Conduct, That We Who Have Been Redeemed Through Faith Might Receive The Adoption As Sons. And Because We Are His Sons, God Has Sent Forth The Spirit Of His Son Into Our Hearts, Crying 'Abba! Father!' Therefore We Are No Longer A Slave, But A Son; If A Son, Then An Heir Through God, (cont)

(Gal 4:1 NASB) "Now I say, as long as the heir is a child, he does not differ at all from a slave although he is owner of everything, (Gal 4:2 NASB) but he is under guardians and managers until the date set by the father. (Gal 4:3 NASB) So also we, while we were children, were held in bondage under the elemental things of the world. (Gal 4:4 NASB) But when the fullness of the time came, God sent forth His Son, born of a woman, born under the Law, (Gal 4:5 NASB) so that He might redeem those who were under [law], that we might receive the adoption as sons. (Gal 4:6 NASB) Because you are sons, God has sent forth the Spirit of His Son into our hearts, crying, 'Abba! Father!' (Gal 4:7 NASB) Therefore you are no longer a slave, but a son; and [Ro 8:17] if a son, then an heir through God," (cont.) =

Whereupon Gal 4:7 concludes Gal 4:1-7 with, "Therefore you are no longer a slave, but a son; and if a son, then an heir through God," repeating what verses 5 & 6 declared in part, this time in the singular in order to emphasize the grand eternal destiny of each individual believer's eternal sonship and heirship with and through God his Father - especially if the believer suffers with Him, as author Paul indicated in his letter to the Roman believers:

7) [Compare Ro 8:17 ]:

(Ro 8:17 ASV) "and if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ; if so be that we suffer with him, that we may be also glorified with Him."

B) (Gal 4:8-11) At That Time, When The Galatian Believers Did Not Know God, They Were Slaves To Those Which By Nature Are No gods. And Now, Having Known God As Savior And Father - But Rather Having Been Known By God As His Sons, Paul Asks, "How Do You Turn Again To The Weak And Worthless Elements To Which Anew You Desire To Serve. You Observe Days And Months And Seasons And Years. I Fear For You, That Perhaps I Have Labored Over You In Vain.

(Gal 4:8 NASB) However at that time, when you did not know God, you were slaves to those which by nature are no gods [cf. Gal 4:3]. (Gal 4:9 YLT) And now, having known [(aorist participle)] God - [but] rather [having been known, (aorist participle)] by God, how do you turn again to the weak and [worthless] elements [cf. Col 2:20] to which anew [you] desire to [serve]? (Gal 4:10 NASB) You observe days and months and seasons and years. (Gal 4:11 NASB) I fear for you, that perhaps I have labored over you in vain."  =

In Gal 4:8, author Paul refers back to the time when the Galatian believers did not know ("eidotEs") God. The Greek verb rendered "did [not] know" is a perfect participle from the infinitive "oida" conveying 

the sense of not being informed about God, nor understanding Who God is, nor recognizing the one true God - especially not knowing / not having trusted in God as their Savior through His Son. Since this has the timeframe in view of before the Galatians became believers, then in view is the time when they were slaves to those who by nature are no gods. Paul was evidently referring to the pagan gods who actually were not gods at all whom the Galatians formerly worshipped and conducted their lives according to / enslaved to the related religious / philosophical precepts to that pagan religion in order to receive temporal blessings and benefits in the afterlife .

1) [Compare 1 Cor 8:1-8]:

(1 Cor  8:1 NASB) "Now concerning things sacrificed to idols, we know that we all have knowledge. Knowledge makes arrogant, but love edifies.

(1 Cor  8:2 NASB) If anyone supposes that he knows anything, he has not yet known as he ought to know;

(1 Cor  8:3 NASB) but if anyone loves God, he is known by Him.

(1 Cor  8:4 NASB) Therefore concerning the eating of things sacrificed to idols, we know that there is no such thing as an idol in the world, and that there is no God but one.

(1 Cor  8:5 NASB) For even if there are so-called gods whether in heaven or on earth, as indeed there are many gods and many lords,

(1 Cor  8:6 NASB) yet for us there is but one God, the Father, from Whom are all things and we exist for Him; and one Lord, Jesus Christ, by Whom are all things, and we exist through Him.

(1 Cor  8:7 NASB) However not all men have this knowledge; but some, being accustomed to the idol until now, eat food as if it were sacrificed to an idol; and their conscience being weak is defiled.

(1 Cor  8:8 NASB) But food will not commend us to God; we are neither the worse if we do not eat, nor the better if we do eat."

Then in Gal 4:9, Paul addresses the Galatian believers' current spiritual downward spiral:

First he establishes their conversion experience: "And now, *having known God [as Savior and Father intimately on a personal level] - but rather *having [first] been known by God [as His children]," where the Greek verbs rendered "having known" (gnonteEs) and "having been known" (gnOstheEntEs) are from the infinitive "ginOskO" meaning to know intimately as a result of expressing saving faith in Jesus Christ. Paul implies with this that God in His sovereignty foreknows those who will choose by faith in His Son to know Him intimately and personally and became His sons and daughters - part of His family.

Whereupon in Gal 4:9c, Paul asks the question, "how do you turn again to the weak and worthless 'elements' of the world to which anew you desire to serve?" The 'elements' in view were the distorted, ungodly legalisms improperly derived from a skewed interpretation of the Mosaic Law by the Judaizers . The elements were worthless because any works of any kind are impossible to be faithful to in order to achieve salvation, sonship and sanctification with God because of the intrinsic sin nature within all men, (Ro 7:14ff ). Author Paul indicated key 'elements' which the Judaizers promoted in order to be justified and sanctified in Gal 4:10 as follows: "You observe days and months and seasons and years." Another statute of the Law that was also distorted by the Judaizers to be for the purposes of salvation, sonship and sanctification was circumcision which Paul rejected especially relative to Titus, a Greek believer, (Gal 2:3-5) ; and which distorted purpose of circumcision Paul condemned as worthless for the purpose of achieving salvation, sonship or sanctification in Gal 5:2 . And in general the Judaizers insisted in one living as a Jew under the Mosaic Law to qualify one for salvation, sonship and sanctification - even if a non-Jew. Paul rejected this idea in his confrontation with Peter in Gal 2:14-18 . This would apply to the Galatian believers since salvation and sonship had already been received by them through a moment of faith alone in Christ alone apart from human doing forever, (Gal 3:1-14 ). Likewise, sanctification is to be through the grace and enablement of God, and not strictly by faithful works of the Law, (Gal 3:1-5 ).

Verses 8 & 9 together might be explained as follows: At the time when you did not even know or understand Who God is, when you were enslaved to those who are not gods at all, whereupon you came to know God on an intimate and personal level - [having first] been known by Him; how is it that you are now deliberately returning anew to those weak and worthless elements which once controlled you despite the knowledge and the experience you have now attained to the contrary?

Gal 4:10 provides the key to what the Galatian believers had reverted to in order to be justified and sanctified: "You observe days and months and seasons and years." Under the influence of the Judaizers the Galatians had begun to observe the Mosaic calendar. They kept special days (weekly sabbaths), and months (new moons), (Num 28:11-15); and seasons (seasonal festivals such as Passover, Pentecost, and Tabernacles), and years (sabbatical and jubilee years), (cf. Col. 2:16), in order to be justified and sanctified and continue to be in the family of God as sons and daughters. All of this were of the utmost importance toward justification and sanctification in the distorted thinking of the Judaizers . They themselves observed these special times, thinking that they would thereby gain additional merit before God. But this was not even true for Jews in the past under the Law of Moses. The Judaizers who pursued Paul had a distorted view of  the Law of Moses to serve their own purpose of making works a requirement for one to earn favor with God relative to justification and sanctification as well as to provide for themselves undue authority and unwarranted importance and significance over others . But Paul had already made it clear that works could not be added to faith as grounds for either justification, sonship or sanctification, as clearly stipulated in Galatians chapter 3:

2) [Compare Gal 3:1-5 ]:

(Gal 3:1 NASB) "You foolish Galatians, who has bewitched you, before whose eyes Jesus Christ was publicly portrayed as [having been] crucified?

(Gal 3:2 NASB) This is the only thing I want to find out from you: did you receive the Spirit by the works of [law], or by hearing with faith?

(Gal 3:3 NASB) Are you so foolish? Having begun by the Spirit, are you now being perfected by the flesh?

(Gal 3:4 NKJV) Have you suffered so many things in vain - if indeed it was in vain?

(Gal 3:5 NKJV) Therefore He Who [is supplying] the Spirit to you and [is working] miracles among you, does He do it by the works of [law], or by the hearing of faith?"

In Gal 3:1, author Paul began a chastisement of the Galatian believers, "You foolish Galatians, who has bewitched you before whose eyes Jesus Christ was publicly portrayed as [having been] crucified?" Notice the impersonal term rendered "Galatians," as opposed to the word rendered "brothers," which Paul used earlier in 1:11. Paul calls the Galatians "foolish" in the sense of their being irrational and absurd to take up a doctrine which nullified the death of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, on the cross for the sins of all mankind - after they had completely relied upon Christ for salvation and sanctification by a moment of faith alone and were even enambled to perform miraculous works, (Gal 3:5); whereupon they turned to the Law of Moses for further justification and sanctification .

So in Gal 4:11, Paul contemplates, "I fear for you, that perhaps I have labored over you in vain." Heretofore the apostle Paul had been laboring to turn the Galatian believers' away from their reversionism. They were convinced by the Judaizers to keep the Law of Moses in order to be further perfected by the Judaizers' distortion of the Law. Apostle Paul feared that his labors to avert their reversionism may have been in vain. Although their salvation and sonship is eternal and secure as Paul so carefully laid out earlier in Galatians chapter 4 , the quality of the Galatian believers' eternal sonship is at stake - their perfection in the flesh, i.e., their sanctification as measured by the value of their temporal and eternal fellowship with the Father which is dependant upon their faithfulness to the true, undistorted doctrines of the faith as especially taught to members of the body of Christ, the church in the Greek epistles. Temporal and eternal fellowship in the sense of spiritual growth and rewards - temporal and eternal - is through the sovereign grace of God as He enables each of His children and provides each with opportunities to choose to be faithful . Paul dealt with this subject in the previous chapter ; and he touches upon it here in chapter four.

C) (Gal 4:12-20) [Paul Wrote In A Fatherly Tone "I Beg Of You, Brethren, Become As I Am, For I Also Have Become As You Are [Freed From Captivity Under Law]."

"You Have Done Me No Wrong... [Despite A Bodily Illness - A Trial] When I Preached For The First Time... You Did Not Despise Or Loathe Me, But You Received Me As An Angel [A Messenger] Of God, As [If] Christ Jesus Himself]

"Where Is That Sense Of Blessing You Had [For Me]? For I Bear Witness, If Possible You Would Have Plucked Out Your Eyes And Given Them To Me. So Have I Become Your Enemy By Telling You The Truth? They [The Judaizers] Are Zealous For You [To Join Them Against Me]. But Not For Good, They Wish To Shut [Me] Out, That ... You May Be Zealous After Them. Now It Is Always Good To Be Zealous About Good Things - And Not Just When I Am With You."

"My Children, With Whom I Am Again In Labor Until Christ Is Formed In You [Unto Spiritual Maturity] - How I Wish I Could Be With You Now And Change My Tone, Because I Am Perplexed About You."

(Gal 4:12 NASB) "I beg of you, brethren, become as I am, for I also have become as you are. You have done me no wrong; (Gal 4:13 NASB) but you know that it was because of a weakness of the flesh [in the sense of a bodily illness] that I preached the gospel to you the first time; (Gal 4:14 NASB) and that which was a trial to you in my [flesh] you did not despise or loathe [me], but you received me as an angel of God, as Christ Jesus Himself. (Gal 4:15 NASB) Where then is that sense of blessing you had? [for me, Paul]. For I bear you witness that, if possible, you would have plucked out your eyes and given them to me. (Gal 4:16 NASB) So have I become your enemy by telling you the truth? (Gal 4:17 YLT) They are zealous for you - [but not for good], they wish to shut us out [Paul and his group], that for them [the Judaizers ] [you] may be zealous after them. (Gal 4:18 HOLMAN)  Now it is always good to be [zealous] about good [things] - and not just when I [Paul] am with you. (Gal 4:19 NASB) My children, with whom I am again in labor until Christ is formed in you - (Gal 4:20 NASB) how I wish I could be with you now and change my tone, because I am perplexed about you!" =

In Gal 4:12a & b, author and apostle Paul begs the Galatian believers to become as he is in the sense of being freed from having to keep the Law relative to justification, sonship & sanctification. Paul himself was a prisoner of the Law - shut up unto condemnation so long as he insisted on keeping the Law because his unrighteous nature prevented him from faithfully keeping the statutes of the Law leaving the only possible means of justification to be: a moment of faith alone in Jesus Christ alone . No matter what Paul did, he fell short of the glory of God and His Righteousness, disqualifying himself from being justified, becoming a son - a child - of God, and being enabled by the indwelling Holy Spirit to be sanctified.

Before the Galatians became believers, they were not prisoner's of the Law of Moses like Paul was. Albeit they were prisoners of their pagan religious beliefs. For works in any religious / philosophical system of human doing would not accomplish anything for one before God because of man's intrinsic flawed / sinful nature. But after the Galatians became believers by grace through faith alone, they ironically re-enslaved themselves to another worthless set of principals requiring human doing: the Judaizers' distorted view of the Law of Moses: another flawed system of human doing to be justified and sanctified . Ironically, this flawed system was just what Paul, an ex-Judaizer, enforced as a Pharisee before he became a believer by grace through faith, apart from law (ref. Gal 1:13-14 ). Up until the time that he trusted alone in Christ alone for salvation, Paul was striving in futility to keep the Law of Moses perfectly in order to be justified and sanctified, . And until he realized that he was spiritually bankrupt he viewed himself - his performance - as blameless:

1) [Compare Phil 3:1-6]:

(Phil 3:1 NASB) "Finally, my brethren, rejoice in the Lord. To write the same things again is no trouble to me, and it is a safeguard for you.

(Phil 3:2 NASB) Beware of the dogs, beware of the evil workers, beware of the false circumcision;

(Phil 3:3 NASB) for we are the true circumcision, who worship in the Spirit of God and glory in Christ Jesus and put no confidence in the flesh,

(Phil 3:4 NASB) although I myself might have confidence even in the flesh. If anyone else has a mind to put confidence in the flesh, I far more:

(Phil 3:5 NASB) circumcised the eighth day, of the nation of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews; as to the Law, a Pharisee;

(Phil 3:6 NASB) as to zeal, a persecutor of the church; as to the righteousness which is in the Law, found blameless."

Note when measured for its zeal, Paul's pre-Christian life had been noted for promoting Judaism and condemning Christians. He had become the archpersecutor of the church, and his reputation had gone far beyond Jerusalem (Acts 9:13, 21). His had been no half-hearted Judaism. When judged by men in accord with the righteousness the Law demands outwardly, by the measure of men, and not God, he had been blameless. As an earnest Pharisee, he had paid meticulous attention to the requirements of the Mosaic law, and no man could have charged him with failure to keep it. Of course, a distinction must be drawn between external conformity to the law in areas where men can judge and inflict legal penalties, and the perfect spiritual conformity to it that God alone can truly assess, and by which "no one will be justified" (Gal 2:16; 3:11).

But it was the command, "Do not covet" which was the key which opened up the door for Paul to come to the realization of his futile efforts in trying to keep the Law. He recognized a constant violation of the Law within himself of covetousness. Hence he realized that his salvation had to be outside of keeping the Law: by faith alone in Christ alone, (Ro 7:7-13 ).

Relative to Gal 4:13-14, the last clause of Gal 4:12, rendered "You have done me no wrong;" belongs with the two verses which follow: (Gal 4:13 NASB) "but you know that it was because of a weakness of the flesh [in the sense of a bodily illness] that I preached the gospel to you the first time; [and] (Gal 4:14 NASB) "and that which was a trial to you in my [flesh] you did not despise or loathe [me], but you received me as an angel of God, as Christ Jesus Himself." Note that manuscript evidence for Gal 4:14 favors "trial to you," .

So in Gal 4:12c-14, author Paul writes of an ailment he endured while preaching the gospel to the Galatians the first time. The phrase in Gal 4:13 rendered, "the first time" implies that there was more than one visit that Paul made to Galatia.

The nature of that ailment was not clearly stipulated. It might have been malaria, (Acts 13:13-20); or physical injury from his stoning in Lystra, (Acts 14:19; 2 Tim 3:11); or the thorn in his flesh, (2 Cor 12:7); or a disease of his eyes, (Gal 4:15; 6:11). Nevertheless, Paul's malady was sufficiently unpleasant as to potentially cause an adverse reaction in the Galatians characterized as despising and loathing. But the Galatians overlooked Paul's disability and reverently respected and listened to what Paul had to say: They received him as an angel of God, as if he were Christ Jesus Himself. They did not take into account his human frailty. Note that Paul did not respond to their reverent respect and reception of him as if it was not due to him. For he was indeed a messenger of God and a representative of Jesus Christ Himself as he declared of himself at the beginning of this letter.

2) [Compare Gal 1:1 ]:

(Gal 1:1 YLT) "Paul, ... apostle - not from men, nor through man, but through Jesus Christ, and God the Father, Who did raise Him [from] the dead -"

Then in Gal 4:15-16, after Paul had praised the Galatians for the reverent reception he was given as a messenger of God, a representative of Jesus Christ, he then asked two questions,

(Gal 4:15 NASB) "Where then is that sense of blessing you had? [for me, Paul]. For I bear you witness that, if possible, you would have plucked out your eyes and given them to me.

The phrase rendered, "Where is that sense of blessing" conveys the sense of the Galatians counting themselves blessed that Paul had preached among them. Manuscript evidence of Gal 4:15 predominately has "Where" .

And the second phrase in Gal 4:15 rendered "For I bear you witness that, if possible, you would have plucked out your eyes and given them to me," conveys the great extent of the Galatians' zeal and committment of faith in Paul's mission and message to the Galatian believers. He reminded them that formerly they would have shared their eyes if that were possible, if this would have helped his mission in any way.

(Gal 4:16 NASB) So [now] have I become your enemy by telling you the truth?"

The truth that Paul preached to the Galatians brought them justification / salvation unto eternal life. It was immediately accompanied by miraculous spiritual gifts which verified their salvation experience and the reception of the indwelling Holy Spirit. But then after hearing from the Judiazers, the Galatian believers were swayed by their insistence upon distorted, ungodly legalisms improperly derived from a skewed interpretaton of the Mosaic Law. These legalisms brought nothing - no spiritual gifts, no assurance of salvation, no Holy Spirit. So Paul was perplexed about the Galatian believers' reversionism. They went from enthusiastic zeal for the Lord via faith alone in Christ alone, receiving Paul and his gospel message with reverent respect, openness and faith as a messenger of God and a representative of Jesus Christ to being at enmity with Paul because of his message of the gospel. In their eyes salvation now required more than a moment of faith alone in Christ alone. Their first reaction to Paul's preaching to them was a zeal characterized by reverance, joy, faith and the performance of miracles. But after hearing Paul's message of the gospel and their conversion to Christianity, when the Judaizers came, Paul's message of truth now brought their enmity toward him.

The message of Gal 4:9-16 implies that the departure from what Paul and the Galatian believers was clearly evident when the Galatians started observing days, months, seasons and years under the Law of Moses in order to be justified and sanctified, (ref. Gal 4:9-10), evidently as a result of the Judaizers .

In Gal 4:17, Paul goes on to write about those that had influenced the Galatian believers to revert to legalism - to the legalism the Judaizers  imposed upon their skewed interpretation of the Law of Moses and upon all those who were swayed to believe in their message, especially in the observing of days, months, seasons and years for the sake of justification / salvation and sanctification before God, (ref. Gal 4:9-10). Paul wrote, "They [the Judaizers] are zealous for you [in the sense of the Galatian believers joining their cause against Paul] - but not for good, they wish to shut us out [i.e., shut out Paul and fellow believers who accompanied him and his cause for Christ], that for them [the Judaizers] you may be zealous after them," in the sense of being zealous to join their cause against Paul and his mission to spread the gospel.

But the Law of Moses, properly interpreted, served the function of locking men up as sinners so that they might find justification / salvation through faith alone in Christ alone, (ref. Gal 3:22-29 ). For the Mosaic Law demanded perfection in all of its statutes all of the time; something not possible with mortal sinful man . The Judaizers ignored the perfection that the Law required of man by skewing their interpretation of the Law to their own ends . Their efforts against Paul and his group were purposed to try to lock up the Galatians up under the Judaizers' skewed version of the Law as a means of justification so that the Galatians might be separated from their faith and freedom in Christ Jesus to be imprisoned to obey the Judaizers' self-serving agenda to a futile end. At the time of Paul's writing this epistle, the legalizers were evidently successful at courting the Galatians to the extent that the Galatian believers were observing days, months, seasons and years, (ref. Gal 4:10). Paul and his group were currently unable to visit Galatia in person for some unspecified reason, (Gal 4:20) - possibly to avoid the riots, being stoned, banished, etc. as the Judaizers had done to Paul and his party so far in Antioch, (ref. Acts 13:50); Lycaonia, Lystra and Derbe and the surrounding region, (Acts 14:1-19). Or it could have been something as simple as being directed by the Holy Spirit to evangelize elsewhere. Nevertheless, once estranged from Christ, the Galatians would find out that they were then enslaved to the Judaizers. Failure to maintain Christian liberty always leads to some form of bondage - legalism, paganism, etc.

Note that the Judaizers claimed to speak for the leaders of the church in Jerusalem. So Paul, Barnabas, and others had to travel more than 300 miles from Antioch to Jerusalem to discuss this extremely serious problem. Acts 15 records that after the Judaizers in Jerusalem, followed by Peter, Barnabas, and Paul, had spoken, James stressed that God's plan of salvation by grace included also the Gentiles. Since the Judaizers had pretended to speak for the church (Acts 15:24), the official letter authorized by this meeting stated that they had not been official representatives . Their view of salvation was wrong. Salvation was by grace alone through faith alone!

So then in Gal 4:18, Paul wrote, "Now it is always good to be [zealous] about good [things] and not just when I am present with you." He acknowledged that it was good for one to be zealous in the pursuit of something that was good, i.e., godly and truthful - and biblical; and not just when Paul is present as when he was preaching to the Galatians for the first time. But the reason for which one should be zealous must be a good reason, a godly and truthful one - an honorable and altruistic one. In the case of the Judaizers it was neither honorable, nor true, nor altruistic, nor godly. It was underhanded, unbiblical, self-centered, fallacious, self-serving and enslaving.

****** EXCERPT FROM GALATIANS CHAPTER TWO AND ACTS CHAPTER 15 ******

(Gal 2:1 NKJV) "Then after fourteen years I went up again to Jerusalem with Barnabas, and also took Titus with me. (Gal 2:2 NASB) It was because of a revelation that I went up [to Jerusalem]; and I submitted to them to the gospel which I preach among the Gentiles, but I did so in private to those who were of reputation [i.e., who were leaders], for fear that I might be running, or had run, in vain." =

Paul spoke privately to those who were the leaders of the Jerusalem Church "for fear that he might be running, or had run, in vain."

Although Paul did not go to the church in Jerusalem to stand corrected relative to the gospel he had been preaching; for he had already and repeatedly insisted that he had received the gospel he was preaching directly from the risen Jesus Christ Himself; and he already had declared that he received it from no man, (Gal 1:11-19); the phrase in Gal 2:2d, rendered "for fear that I was running or had run my race in vain" cannot be interpreted to mean that Paul might have been mistaken about the truth of the gospel that he had been preaching all this time - in vain. On the other hand, all the work that Paul had done in preaching his gospel could still be in vain in the sense that everyone he preached to might be convinced by others such as the leaders - the apostles - of the Jerusalem Church that what he taught was wrong as a result of the interference of the Judaizers who were attacking his ministry, (Acts 15:5). Such a decision by the leaders might have terrible consequences for Paul's missionary outreach should the doctrine of grace not be boldly and clearly and publically upheld by all parties; and the apostles' clearly stated opposition to the Judaizers as well.

And all that Paul preached was indeed upheld by all parties at the Jerusalem Council meeting; for the present tense of the verb "to preach" in the phrase in Gal 2:2b rendered, "It was because of a revelation that I went up [to Jerusalem]; and I submitted to them to the gospel which I preach among the Gentiles," shows that the gospel preached by Paul from the beginning; and it was still being preached by him years later when and long after he wrote his epistle to the Galatians.

[Compare Gal 2:9-10]:

(Gal 2:9 YLT) "and having known the grace that was given to me, James and Cephas and John, who were esteemed to be pillars, a right hand of fellowship they did give to me, and to Barnabas, that we to the [Gentiles], and they to the circumcision may go

(Gal 2:10 NASB) They only asked us to remember the poor - the very thing I also was eager to do.' "

[Compare Acts 15:4, 7-11]:

(Acts 15:4 NASB) When they arrived at Jerusalem, they were received by the church and the apostles and the elders, and they reported all that God had done with them.

(Acts 15:7 NASB) After there had been much debate, Peter stood up and said to them, 'Brethren, you know that in the early days God made a choice among you, that by my mouth the Gentiles would hear the word of the gospel and believe.

[Notice that there was much debate implying that the apostles of the Jerusalem Assembly did not agree at first, which in turn indicates that they were hesitant to take a hard stand against the Judaizers about circumcision and keeping of the Law. Nevertheless at the end of the debate, having seen the results of Paul's and Barnabas' ministries, the apostles from Jerusalem confirmed the message which apostle Paul and Barnabas and their group preached was the same as the message that Peter gave to the Gentiles as well: hearing the gospel and believing in it + nothing else]

(Acts 15:8 NASB) And God, Who knows the heart, testified to them giving them the Holy Spirit, just as He also did to us;

(Acts 15:9 NASB) and He made no distinction between us and them, cleansing their hearts by faith.

[Notice that cleansing of the heart, i.e., forgiveness of sins is by a moment of faith alone in the Lord Jesus alone (Acts 15:11)]

(Acts 15:10 NASB) Now therefore why do you put God to the test by placing upon the neck of the disciples a yoke which neither our fathers nor we have been able to bear?

(Acts 15:11 NASB) But we believe that we are saved through the grace of the Lord Jesus, in the same way as they also are.' "

****** END OF EXCERPT FROM GALATIANS CHAPTER TWO AND ACTS CHAPTER 15 ******

In Gal 4:19-20, Paul then concludes his concerns about the Galatian believer's reversionism with fatherly affection, "My children, with whom I am again in labor until Christ is formed in you - how I wish I could be with you now and change my tone, because I am perplexed about you!"

Paul compared himself to a mother in the throes of birth pangs. He had experienced this, metaphorically speaking, for their justification / salvation. And now he is in labor for their deliverance as believers from false teaching, i.e., "until Christ is formed in you." The phrase rendered, "until Christ is formed in you" conveys the sense of his spiritual children growing into spiritual maturity. This is in fact God's ideal and purpose in each of His children - that Christ live His life in and then through each believer:

3) [Compare Gal 2:19-20]:

(Gal 2:19 NASB) "For through the Law I died to the Law, so that I might live to God.

(Gal 2:20 NASB) I have been crucified with Christ; and it is no longer I who live, but Christ lives in me; and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by faith in the Son of God, Who loved me and gave Himself up for me."

D) (Gal 4:21-26) Paul Writes, "You [Galatian Believers] Want To Be Under Law. Do You Not Hear [Understand] The Law?" Abraham Had Two Sons, One By The Bondwoman - According To The Flesh [Law], And One By The Free Woman (Sarai  = The Promise)

Allegorically Speaking, Two Covenants Are In View: One Woman, The Bondwoman Hagar Represents The Law / Human Doing = Mt. Sinai In Arabia. These Are Born Of Hagar In Slavery, Corresponding To Earthly, Present Day Jerusalem. The Other, (The Free Woman Sarai) Correspond To The Promise To Believers Of A Heavenly Jerusalem Above, Which Is Our (Believers') Mother

(Gal 4:21 NASB) "Tell me, you want to be under law, do you not [hear] the [Mosaic] Law? [in the sense of understand its meaning and purpose ] (Gal 4:22 NASB) For it [has been] written that Abraham had two sons, one by the bondwoman [Gen 16:15] and one by the free woman. [Gen 21:2]. (Gal 4:23 NASB) But the son of the bondwoman [Hagar] [has been] born according to the flesh, and the son by the free woman [Sarah] through the promise, [cf Gal 4:28-29; Ro 9:7; Gen 17:16ff; 18:10ff; 21:1]. (Gal 4:24 NASB) This is allegorically speaking, for these women are two covenants: one proceeding from Mount Sinai bearing children who are to be slaves; which she is Hagar. (Gal 4:25 NASB) Now this Hagar is Mount Sinai in Arabia [in the sense of stands for] and corresponds to the present Jerusalem, for she is in slavery with her children. (Gal 4:26 NASB) But the Jerusalem above is free; she is our mother." =

Gal 4:21 begins this section of chapter 4, (Gal 4:21-26), with, "Tell me, you want to be under law,

[in the sense of being subject to a system of human doing in order to be justified]

do you not [hear] the [Mosaic] Law?

[in the sense of do you not understand its meaning and purpose ?]"

Paul takes the logical and moral high ground by endeavoring to get the Galatian believers to study the Law of Moses in Scripture themselves so that they can come to an understanding of what it actually says and compare it to what the Judaizers tell them it says. Then perhaps they will realize the truth that justification cannot come through works of the Mosaic Law, but by faith alone in Christ alone as Paul had preached to them.

Whereupon in Gal 4:22-23, author Paul wrote, "For it [has been] written that Abraham had two sons, one by the bondwoman and one by the free woman." Note that those born to Abram later are not relevant to Paul's allegorical illustration - just the first two sons. So the son of the bondwoman [Hagar] [has been] born according to the flesh, i.e., according to human doing. And the son was born by the free woman [Sarah] through faith in the promise of God. Scripture indicates that the fulfillment of the promise God confirmed with Abram was to be solely through Abram and Sarah, and not through any other woman:

******

1) [Compare Gen 17:15-19]:

(Gen 17:15 NASB) "Then God said to Abraham, 'As for Sarai your wife, you shall not call her name Sarai, but Sarah shall be her name.

(Gen 17:16 NASB) I will bless her, and indeed I will give you a son by her. Then I will bless her, and she shall be a mother of nations; kings of peoples will come from her.'

(Gen 17:17 NASB) Then Abraham fell on his face and laughed, and said in his heart, 'Will a child be born to a man one hundred years old? And will Sarah, who is ninety years old, bear a child?'

(Gen 17:18 NASB) And Abraham said to God, 'Oh that Ishmael might live before You!'

(Gen 17:19 NASB) But God said, 'No, but Sarah your wife will bear you a son, and you shall call his name Isaac; and I will establish My covenant with him for an everlasting covenant for his descendants after him.' "

The apostle explains the difference between that which is according to the flesh, i.e., human doing - the working of Abraham to produce a son through his own illegitimate efforts by committing adultery with a hand maiden - the bondwoman; and the promise of God to Abraham to procreate a son through relations with his wife, Sarah, when she was evidently beyond her years of procreation - a matter of faith in God's promise which would be fulfilled supernaturally - beyond the capacity of human doing. At the time of Isaac's conception, both Abraham and Sarah were beyond the capacity for conception. Paul implies by this that, since mankind does not have the capacity to faithfully obey the statutes of the Law of Moses or any godly system of human doing in order to be justified before God, justification must come through faith in His promise of provision for sins through a Descendant of Abraham beginning with faith in God's promise of providing a son to Abraham and Sarah through supernatural means through whom that Descendant would come - also supernaturally (ref. Gal 2:14-18 ). Note that Abraham's and Sarah's faithlessness in using a bondwoman to have a son did not rescind God's promise to provide the true son of His promise through Sarah.

2) [Compare Gen 16:1-16]:

a) (Gen 16:1-3) After Abram Had Lived In The Promised Land For Ten Years, His Wife, Sarai, In Faithlessness, Blamed The LORD For Her Childless Condition And As Was The Custom Of The Time, She Persuaded Abram To Take Her Egyptian Slave Servant Hagar As His Second Wife As A Substitute Child Bearer For Sarai. This Contradicted God's Covenant / Promise With Abram, Caused More Problems In Abram's Household And Jeopardized The Fulfillment of God's Covenant / Promise...

(Gen 16:1 NKJV) "Now Sarai, Abram’s wife, had borne him no children. And she had an Egyptian maidservant whose name was Hagar. (Gen 16:2 NKJV) So Sarai said to Abram, 'See now, the LORD has restrained me from bearing children. Please, go in to my maid; perhaps I shall obtain children by her.' And Abram heeded the voice of Sarai. (Gen 16:3 NKJV) Then Sarai, Abram’s wife, took Hagar her maid, the Egyptian, and gave her to her husband Abram to be his wife, after Abram had dwelt ten years in the land of Canaan." =

Up to this time, Sarai, Abram's wife had borne Abram no children. She blamed the LORD for restraining her from bearing children, reflecting a lack of belief in His veracity and sovereignty and covenant promise to Abram. Without the supernatural intervention by God, the heir of Abram, the heir of God's Promise could not come through her at all. So as was the custom of the time, Sarai persuaded Abram to provide a child for her by giving Abram her Egyptian maid servant Hagar to take as his wife. This was contrary to what the LORD had promised to Abram through his wife Sarai, (ref. Gen 15:17-19 ).

******

[The Bible Knowledge Commentary, Walvoord and Zuck, Eds., Victor Books, USA, 1988, p. 56]:

"In the legal custom of that day a barren woman could give her maid to her husband as a wife, and the child born of that union was regarded as the first wife's child. If the husband said to the slave-wife's son, 'You are my son.' then he was the adopted son and heir. So Sarai's suggestion was unobjectionable according to the customs of that time."

Although it was the custom of the time of Abram to have relations with another, in the sense of more than one wife, if the first wife did not conceive over a period of time; it was nevertheless adultery in God's sight, even before the Law was given. Sarai's urging of Abram to commit adultery by taking another wife - her handmaiden - was outside of God's original intent in the Garden of Eden relative to one man for one woman, (ref. Gen 1:27; 2:18-24; 5:2), concluding that the promise that God made to Abram would not be "naturally" fulfilled in the sense by human doing, but supernaturally fulfilled and only through Sarai (ref. Gen 15:17-19 ).

So Abram heeded the voice of Sarai instead of the LORD's. Once more he caused havoc in his household and jeopardized the LORD's covenant / promise with Abram and his descendants through Sarai to inherit the promised land and provide for mankind to have eternal life through Abram's Seed via a moment of faith alone in Him, (Jesus Christ), alone. Verse 3 stipulates that by this time Abram had been in Canaan for ten years, indicating Abram's growing trust in the LORD relative to His promises - until Sarai stepped in with her faithless proposal to use Hagar as a substitute child bearer.

b) (Gen 16:4) Abram Took Hagar As His Wife As Sarai Suggested And When Hagar Conceived She Began To Openly Despise Sarai Her Mistress Knowing That The Child Would Not Be Hers, But Sarai's

(Gen 16:1 NKJV) "Now Sarai, Abram’s wife, had borne him no children. And she had an Egyptian maidservant whose name was Hagar. (Gen 16:2 NKJV) So Sarai said to Abram, 'See now, the LORD has restrained me from bearing children. Please, go in to my maid; perhaps I shall obtain children by her.' And Abram heeded the voice of Sarai. (Gen 16:3 NKJV) Then Sarai, Abram’s wife, took Hagar her maid, the Egyptian, and gave her to her husband Abram to be his wife, after Abram had dwelt ten years in the land of Canaan. (Gen 16:4 NKJV) He slept with Hagar, and she conceived. When she knew she was pregnant, she began to despise her mistress." =

Abram took Hagar as his second wife and slept with her as Sarai, his first wife insisted he do; and Hagar conceived:

i) [Compare Gen 16:2 NKJV]:

"So Sarai said to Abram, 'See now, the LORD has restrained me from bearing children. Please, go in to my maid; perhaps I shall obtain children by her.' And Abram heeded the voice of Sarai."

When Hagar conceived, she began to openly despise Sarai, her mistress and owner, evidently because Sarai's intention was to take possession of the child as Abram's son in order to have his inheritance bestowed upon him. Sarai evidently remained barren and bitter. Her suggestion and Abram's compliance jeopardized the promise of the LORD for Abram to have children through his wife Sarai and not a substitute second wife.

c) (Gen 16:5-6) Abram Slept With Hagar After Making Her His Second Wife And When Hagar Knew She Was Pregnant With His Child Who Would Be Given To Abram And Sarai As An Heir, Hagar Understandably Began To Openly Despise Sarai, Whereupon Sarai Reacted By Playing The Victim And Blaming Abram; Which Abram Then Gave Her Latitude To Do As She Wished, Resulting In Such Abuse That Hagar Fled Into The Wilderness

(Gen 16:1 NKJV) "Now Sarai, Abram’s wife, had borne him no children. And she had an Egyptian maidservant whose name was Hagar. (Gen 16:2 NKJV) So Sarai said to Abram, 'See now, the LORD has restrained me from bearing children. Please, go in to my maid; perhaps I shall obtain children by her.' And Abram heeded the voice of Sarai. (Gen 16:3 NKJV) Then Sarai, Abram’s wife, took Hagar her maid, the Egyptian, and gave her to her husband Abram to be his wife, after Abram had dwelt ten years in the land of Canaan. (Gen 16:4 NKJV) He slept with Hagar, and she conceived. When she knew she was pregnant, she began to despise her mistress. (Gen 16:5 NKJV) Then Sarai said to Abram, 'You are responsible for the wrong I am suffering. I put my servant in your arms, and now that she knows she is pregnant, she despises me. May the LORD judge between you and me.' (Gen 16:6 NKJV) 'Your servant is in your hands,' Abram said. 'Do with her whatever you think best.' Then Sarai mistreated Hagar; so she fled from her." =

There is no wonder why Hagar would despise Sarai, having already been enslaved to serve Sarai as a hand maiden, and then having been forced to marry Abram and have sexual intercourse with him to have children by Abram of whom Sarai claimed ownership for bestowal of Abram's inheritance as an heir toward fulfillment of God's covenant / promise with Abram. All of this was needless. For God's covenant / promise with Abram was to be fulfilled exclusively through Sarai, (ref. Gen 17:15-19 ). The hatred that Hagar openly expressed toward Sarai caused Sarai to view herself as the victim, declaring that she was being wronged and was suffering as a result! She even attempted to justify her position on the matter by invoking the judgment of the LORD, implying that He would favor her side. This implies that the LORD was now Sarai's LORD by her own admission but contaminated by her own self-centeredness and lack of faith. Abram complied to Sarai's bitter complaint about Hagar by giving Sarai authority to do what she thought best. Notice Abram's unwillingness to deal with the issue in accordance with the will of the LORD. Whereupon, Sarai mistreated, (lit., repeatedly humiliated), Hagar so that she fled from Sarai into the wilderness toward her native land, Egypt.

Note that the Hebrew word rendered mistreated is in the Piel stem which expresses intensive, intentional and repeated action to humble, mishandle, afflict, humiliate.

d) (Gen 16:7) The Angel Of The LORD, God's Unique Messenger / Agent, Who Is God, Made Himself As Human And Spoke With Hagar At A Spring Of Water At Shur On Her Way Back To Her Native Egypt

(Gen 16:4 NKJV) "He [Abram] slept with Hagar, and she conceived. When she knew she was pregnant, she began to despise her mistress. (Gen 16:5 NKJV) Then Sarai said to Abram, 'You are responsible for the wrong I am suffering. I put my servant in your arms, and now that she knows she is pregnant, she despises me. May the LORD judge between you and me.' (Gen 16:6 NKJV) 'Your servant is in your hands,' Abram said. 'Do with her whatever you think best.' Then Sarai mistreated Hagar; so she fled from her. (Gen 7 NKJV) Now the Angel of the LORD found her by a spring of water in the wilderness, by the spring on the way to Shur." =

After Hagar had fled from the presence of Sarai, the Angel of the LORD found her by a spring of water in the wilderness on the way to Shur, which is an ancient village on the border of Egypt, (cf. Gen 25:18). Evidently Hagar was on the way to return to her native land of Egypt. The first time apearance in Scripture of the phrase "mal'akh yehwAh" rendered "the Angel of the LORD" in the NKJV, 'Angel' meaning messenger, refers to the particular and unique Messenger of the LORD - (notice the definite article "the"), who appears in human form and speaks with Hagar. In Gen 16:7-12 the Angel of the LORD Who is God considering His sovereign pronouncement in verse 10, "I will greatly multiply your descendants so that they will be too many to count," and verse 13 which indicates He is God.

Note that the Angel of the LORD is identified as God in Gen 22:11-18; 31:11, 13; 48:16; Jud 6:11, 16, 22; 13:22-23; Zech 3:1-2. The Angel of the LORD is nevertheless portrayed as distinct from the LORD, (Gen 18:1-2; 19:1; 24:7; Num 22:22; Judges 2:1-4; 5:23; 2 Sam 24:16; Zech 1:12; 12:8 ) in the sense of God adding Humanity to His essence and appearing to man in human form, operating / limiting His Humanity to a finite human being as in the preincarnate appearances of Jesus Christ .

In consideration of the context of Gen 16:7, especially Hagar's response to the Angel of the LORD, we can conclude that the Angel took on human form and interacted with Hagar normatively as a human being. On the other hand, in Gen 16:10, the Angel of the LORD declared Himself to have the capacity to increase Hagar's physical descendants. Hence the Angel of the LORD claims to be and is God Who appears and speaks to Hagar in human form, the preogative of God the Son, Jesus Christ, in a preincarnate appearance .

e) (Gen 16:8) The Angel Of The LORD Calls Hagar By Name And Refers To Her Position As A Female Slave, But Does Not Make An Issue Of Her Enslavement. Later He Tells Her To Go Back In Submission To Sarai. Hagar's Response Is Honest And Obedient

(Gen 16:4 NKJV) "He slept with Hagar, and she conceived. When she knew she was pregnant, she began to despise her mistress. (Gen 16:5 NKJV) Then Sarai said to Abram, 'You are responsible for the wrong I am suffering. I put my servant in your arms, and now that she knows she is pregnant, she despises me. May the LORD judge between you and me.' (Gen 16:6 NKJV) 'Your servant is in your hands,' Abram said. 'Do with her whatever you think best.' Then Sarai mistreated Hagar; so she fled from her. (Gen 7 NKJV) "Now the Angel of the LORD found her by a spring of water in the wilderness, by the spring on the way to Shur. (Gen 16:8 NKJV) And He said, 'Hagar, Sarai’s maid, where have you come from, and where are you going?' She said, 'I am fleeing from the presence of my mistress Sarai.' " =

The Angel of the LORD in human form entered into a conversation with Hagar beginning with addressing her by name and position: "[The Angel of the LORD said] 'Hagar, Sarai's maid...' [Hebrew, "shiphchath Sarai," lit., "female slave of Sarai"]. Notice that the Angel of the LORD addresses Hagar personally and includes a designation of her position as female slave without commenting on the institution of slavery. Whereupon He asked her, "Where have you come from and where are you going."

Certainly the Angel of the LORD already knew the answers to His questions, hence we may conclude that the intent of the questions was to gain her attention and focus it on the reality of her circumstances, especially relative to the survival of herself and the child she was carrying. Currently she was by a spring in the wilderness.

Hagar's answer, "I am fleeing from the presence of my mistress, Sarai," reflects the honesty by which she directly answers the Angel of the LORD's questions.

f) (Gen 16:9-10) The Angel Of The LORD Said To Hagar To Return To Sarai's Authority And Then Said That He Will Multiply Hagar's Descendants Will So That The Number Will Not Be Countable, Demonstrating The Omniscience Of God

(Gen 16:4 NKJV) "He slept with Hagar, and she conceived. When she knew she was pregnant, she began to despise her mistress. (Gen 16:5 NKJV) Then Sarai said to Abram, 'You are responsible for the wrong I am suffering. I put my servant in your arms, and now that she knows she is pregnant, she despises me. May the LORD judge between you and me.' (Gen 16:6 NKJV) 'Your servant is in your hands,' Abram said. 'Do with her whatever you think best.' Then Sarai mistreated Hagar; so she fled from her. (Gen 16:7 NKJV) "Now the Angel of the LORD found her by a spring of water in the wilderness, by the spring on the way to Shur. (Gen 16:8 NKJV) And He said, 'Hagar, Sarai’s maid, where have you come from, and where are you going?' She said, 'I am fleeing from the presence of my mistress Sarai.' (Gen 16:9 NKJV) The Angel of the LORD said to her, 'Return to your mistress, and submit yourself under her hand.' (Gen 16:10 NKJV) Then the Angel of the LORD said to her, 'I will multiply your descendants exceedingly, so that they shall not be counted for multitude.' " =

(Gen 16:10 HEBREW) "WayyO'mer lAhh ...mal'akh .yehwAh

..............................."and he said ..to her angel of ..Yahweh [LORD]

harbAh ........'arbeh ..............'eth-zar'Ekh welO

multiplying ..I will multiply your seed.......and not

yissAphEr .......................mErOv"

they will be counted for multitude"

The Angel of the LORD said to Hagar to return to her mistress and humble herself under, i.e., submit to her hand of authority and serve her again. The next verse (16:10), literally says "And He [the Angel of Yahweh = the LORD] said to her [Hagar, (vv. 8-9)] multiplying, I will multiply your seed which is to say with the repetition of the verb to multiply, I will greatly multiply your descendants, and [consequently] they will not be [able to be] counted as a multitude, i.e., their number will be so great that they will not be even able to count them. So the Angel of the LORD said to her, 'I will multiply your descendants exceedingly, so that they shall not be counted for multitude.' "

Notice that since only God can know the future and has the capacity to multiply descendants, hence the Angel of the LORD is God.

g) (Gen 16:11-12) The Angel Of The LORD Declares Hagar Is With Child And Shall Bear A Son Implying Omniscience Hence Diety. Then He Tells Hagar To Call Her Son Ishmael Because The LORD Has Heard Of Her Affliction, (The Name Ishmael Means God Hears). Finally, The Angel Of The LORD Says that Ishmael Will Be A Wild Tempermental Man With His Hand Against Everyone And Will Live In Hostility Toward His Brothers

(Gen 16:4 NKJV) "He slept with Hagar, and she conceived. When she knew she was pregnant, she began to despise her mistress. (Gen 16:5 NKJV) Then Sarai said to Abram, 'You are responsible for the wrong I am suffering. I put my servant in your arms, and now that she knows she is pregnant, she despises me. May the LORD judge between you and me.' (Gen 16:6 NKJV) 'Your servant is in your hands,' Abram said. 'Do with her whatever you think best.' Then Sarai mistreated Hagar; so she fled from her. (Gen 16:7 NKJV) "Now the Angel of the LORD found her by a spring of water in the wilderness, by the spring on the way to Shur. (Gen 16:8 NKJV) And He said, 'Hagar, Sarai’s maid, where have you come from, and where are you going?' She said, 'I am fleeing from the presence of my mistress Sarai.' (Gen 16:9 NKJV) The Angel of the LORD said to her, 'Return to your mistress, and submit yourself under her hand.' (Gen 16:10 NKJV) Then the Angel of the LORD said to her, 'I will multiply your descendants exceedingly, so that they shall not be counted for multitude.' (Gen 16:11 NKJV) And the Angel of the LORD said to her: 'Behold, you are with child, And you shall bear a son. You shall call his name Ishmael, Because the LORD has heard your affliction. (Gen 16:12 NIV) He will be a wild donkey of a man; his hand will be against everyone and everyone's hand against him, and he will live in hostility toward all his brothers.' " =

The Angel of the LORD now addresses Hagar's condition of being "with child" and declares that she "shall bear a son," implying omniscience and corroborating that He indeed is God in human form - the preincarnate Son of God, Jesus Christ . Furthermore, the Angel of the LORD tells Hagar to "call her infant son Ishmael because He said that the LORD has heard [of] her affliction. Note that the name Ishmael means "God hears" which refers to the hearing of Hagar's affliction, i.e., dire circumstances and God hears it, i.e., knows and cares personally about her. On the other hand, the Angel of the LORD says that Ishmael will be a donkey of a man, i.e, a wild, tempermental man whereupon his hand will be against everyone and everyone's hand against him, and he will live in hostility toward all his brothers."

h) (Gen 16:13-14) Hagar Names The Angel Of The LORD 'You-Are-The-God-Who-Sees' Declaring That He Is God Whom She Has Seen In Human Form. The Well At Shur, In The Desert Between Kadesh And Bered, Was Named 'Beer Lahai Roi,' I.E., 'The Well Of A Living One My Seer'

(Gen 16:4 NKJV) "He [Abram] slept with Hagar, and she conceived. When she knew she was pregnant, she began to despise her mistress. (Gen 16:5 NKJV) Then Sarai said to Abram, 'You are responsible for the wrong I am suffering. I put my servant in your arms, and now that she knows she is pregnant, she despises me. May the LORD judge between you and me.' (Gen 16:6 NKJV) 'Your servant is in your hands,' Abram said. 'Do with her whatever you think best.' Then Sarai mistreated Hagar; so she fled from her. (Gen 16:7 NKJV) Now the Angel of the LORD found her by a spring of water in the wilderness, by the spring on the way to Shur. (Gen 16:8 NKJV) And He said, 'Hagar, Sarai’s maid, where have you come from, and where are you going?' She said, 'I am fleeing from the presence of my mistress Sarai.' (Gen 16:9 NKJV) The Angel of the LORD said to her, 'Return to your mistress, and submit yourself under her hand.' (Gen 16:10 NKJV) Then the Angel of the LORD said to her, 'I will multiply your descendants exceedingly, so that they shall not be counted for multitude.' (Gen 16:11 NKJV) And the Angel of the LORD said to her: 'Behold, you are with child, And you shall bear a son. You shall call his name Ishmael, Because the LORD has heard your affliction. (Gen 16:12 NIV) He will be a wild donkey of a man; his hand will be against everyone and everyone's hand against him, and he will live in hostility toward all his brothers. ' (Gen 16:13 NKJV) Then she called the name of the LORD who spoke to her, You-Are-the-God-Who-Sees; for she said, 'Have I also here seen Him who sees me?' (Gen 16:14 NKJV) Therefore the well was called Beer Lahai Roi; observe, it is between Kadesh and Bered." =

Hagar addresses the Angel of the LORD, giving Him a name, 'You - Are - the - God - Who - Sees' because she declares that she has seen the LORD right in front of her eyes as the Angel of the LORD in human form who she implies is the God Who hears and looks out for her. So Hagar declares that the Angel of the LORD is the omniscient God and that she also has seen Him as He conversed with here, implying God in human form.

As a result of Hagar's encounter with the LORD, the name of the well near Shur was named "Beer Lahai Roi," (Heb. "BeEr lachay rO'"), which comes from ''Er' meaning 'well' [of water], and 'chay' meaning 'alive' and 'rO''' meaning 'a seer,' i.e., a well of a living (One) my Seer. It's location is further remarked as between Kadesh and Bered. Kadesh, short for Kadesh Barnea is an area of desert springs located fifty miles southwest of Beersheba. Both Kadesh and Bered are located in the desert area south of Palestine.

[BKC, op. cit., p. 57]:

"Hagar's referring to God as 'the One who sees' after her, that is, looks out for her... God sees distress and affliction, and He hears. Sarai should have known this. Since God knew Sarai was barren, she should have cried out to the LORD. Instead she had to learn a lesson the hard way - from the experience of a despised slave-wife who, oronically, came back with a faith experience. How Abram must have been rebuked when Hagar said God told her to name her son Ishmael, 'God hears.' "

i) (Gen 16:15-16) Hagar Bore Abram, Now Eighty-Six, A Son Whom He Named Ishmael, Meaning 'God Sees' Which Ironically Points To God Seeing Abram And Sarai Work Out A Problem Of Childlessness In Opposition To The Promise Of The LORD

(Gen 16:7 NKJV) "Now the Angel of the LORD found her by a spring of water in the wilderness, by the spring on the way to Shur. (Gen 16:8 NKJV) And He said, 'Hagar, Sarai’s maid, where have you come from, and where are you going?' She said, 'I am fleeing from the presence of my mistress Sarai.' (Gen 16:9 NKJV) The Angel of the LORD said to her, 'Return to your mistress, and submit yourself under her hand.' (Gen 16:10 NKJV) Then the Angel of the LORD said to her, 'I will multiply your descendants exceedingly, so that they shall not be counted for multitude.' (Gen 16:11 NKJV) And the Angel of the LORD said to her: 'Behold, you are with child, And you shall bear a son. You shall call his name Ishmael, Because the LORD has heard your affliction. (Gen 16:12 NIV) He will be a wild donkey of a man; his hand will be against everyone and everyone's hand against him, and he will live in hostility toward all his brother.' (Gen 16:13 NKJV) Then she called the name of the LORD who spoke to her, You-Are-the-God-Who-Sees; for she said, 'Have I also here seen Him who sees me?' (Gen 16:14 NKJV) Therefore the well was called Beer Lahai Roi; observe, it is between Kadesh and Bered. (Gen 16:15 NKJV) So Hagar bore Abram a son; and Abram named his son, whom Hagar bore, Ishmael. (Gen 16:16 NKJV) Abram was eighty-six years old when Hagar bore Ishmael to Abram." =

As the Angel of the LORD, Who Hagar designated as God, predicted, Hagar bore Abram a son whom Abram, now eighty-six, named Ishmael meaning 'God sees.' Ironically, the meaning of this name becomes magnified because God sees Abram and Sarai's unnecessary solution due to their impatience and lack of faith in the LORD's promise of Abram having a son to inherit the promises of God through Abram and Sarai.

3) [Compare Gen 21:1-12 ]:

(Gen 21:1 NASB) "Then the LORD took note of Sarah as He had said, and the LORD did for Sarah as He had promised.

(Gen 21:2 NASB) So Sarah conceived and bore a son to Abraham in his old age, at the appointed time of which God had spoken to him.

(Gen 21:3 NASB) Abraham called the name of his son who was born to him, whom Sarah bore to him, Isaac.

(Gen 21:4 NASB) Then Abraham circumcised his son Isaac when he was eight days old, as God had commanded him.

(Gen 21:5 NASB) Now Abraham was one hundred years old when his son Isaac was born to him.

(Gen 21:6 NASB) Sarah said, 'God has made laughter for me; everyone who hears will laugh with me.'

(Gen 21:7 NASB) And she said, 'Who would have said to Abraham that Sarah would nurse children? Yet I have borne him a son in his old age.'

(Gen 21:8 NASB) The child grew and was weaned, and Abraham made a great feast on the day that Isaac was weaned.

(Gen 21:9 NASB) Now Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, whom she had borne to Abraham, mocking.

(Gen 21:10 NASB) Therefore she said to Abraham, 'Drive out this maid and her son, for the son of this maid shall not be an heir with my son Isaac.'

(Gen 21:11 NASB) The matter distressed Abraham greatly because of his son.

(Gen 21:12 NASB) But God said to Abraham, 'Do not be distressed because of the lad and your maid;
whatever Sarah tells you, listen to her, for through Isaac your descendants shall be named.' "

In Gen 21:12, God tells Abraham not to consider it wrong, (lit., distress), concerning the expulsion from his household of his son, Ishmael and Ishmael's mother, Sarah's female slave, (Hagar). Previously God told Abraham to heed the voice of Sarah, Abraham's wife; who has demanded that Abraham cast out the female slave and her son from their household, (cf. Gen 21:10). The reason for God's command is that it is in Isaac that Abraham's seed will be called relative to God's promise of eternal life and that being fulfilled in His provision of a son by faith not by blood relations. It is evident that God wants to make it clear that His promises to Abraham and all mankind were solely through His sovereignty - through Abraham's Seed via relations with his wife Sarah alone, not through anyone else. This excludes Hagar and Ishmael her son with Abraham, for Ishmael was Abraham and Sarah's solution to their childlessness, not God's. There can be no changes in what God has promised, nor risk of confusion, nor any modification by man of what God has promised.

Although Ishmael was born out of Abraham's relations with Hagar, one cannot say that Ishmael, being a physical descendant of Abraham, fulfills God's promise of a son through whom will be a Messiah-Savior. God's statement, "for in Isaac your seed shall be called [Abraham]" refers to God's promise through Abraham and his son Isaac through Sarah, not through anyone else. This is a promise that has spiritual implications for all the families of the earth. And this promise is effectual for anyone of the families of the earth, (ref. Gen 12:3), who chooses to believe in God for eternal life through the Seed of Abraham.

Earlier passages in Scripture indicate that God formally made a unilateral covenant with Abraham when Abraham believed in God's promise that through his seed, but exclusively through Sarai, (Gen 17:15-19 would come a Messiah-Savior Who would make provision for eternal life for Abraham and for all the families of the earth throughout all the ages. When Abraham believed in that promise, God declared Abraham righteous unto eternal life, (cf. Gen 15:6 ). At that time, God ratified and confirmed His covenant with Abraham unilaterally so that all those who expressed a moment of faith in God's promise of a Messiah-Savior through the Seed of Abraham would be declared righteous unto eternal life. Abraham was an example for all individuals of all ages.

D cont.) (Gal 4:21-26 cont.) Paul Writes, "You [Galatian Believers] Want To Be Under Law. Do You Not Hear [Understand] The Law?" Abraham Had Two Sons, One By The Bondwoman - According To The Flesh [Law], And One By The Free Woman (Sarai  = The Promise)

Allegorically Speaking, Two Covenants Are In View: One Woman, The Bondwoman Hagar Represents The Law / Human Doing = Mt. Sinai In Arabia. These Are Born Of Hagar In Slavery, Corresponding To Earthly, Present Day Jerusalem. The Other, (The Free Woman Sarai) Correspond To The Promise To Believers Of A Heavenly Jerusalem Above, Which Is Our (Believers') Mother, (cont.)

(Gal 4:21 NASB) "Tell me, you want to be under law, do you not [hear] the [Mosaic] Law? [in the sense of understand its meaning and purpose ] (Gal 4:22 NASB) For it [has been] written that Abraham had two sons, one by the bondwoman [Gen 16:15] and one by the free woman. [Gen 21:2]. (Gal 4:23 NASB) But the son of the bondwoman [Hagar] [has been] born according to the flesh, and the son by the free woman [Sarah] through the promise, [cf Gal 4:28-29; Ro 9:7; Gen 17:16ff; 18:10ff; 21:1]. (Gal 4:24 NASB) This is allegorically speaking, for these women are two covenants: one proceeding from Mount Sinai bearing children who are to be slaves; which she is Hagar. (Gal 4:25 NASB) Now this Hagar is Mount Sinai in Arabia [in the sense of stands for] and corresponds to the present Jerusalem, for she is in slavery with her children. (Gal 4:26 NASB) But the Jerusalem above is free; she is our mother." (cont.) =

4) [Compare Gal 3:6-9, 13-16]:

a) (Gal 3:6) Abraham Believed In God's Plan For His Eternal Destiny And It Was Credited To Him As Righteousness. Abraham Was Thereby Justified Unto Eternal Life Before He Was Circumcised - Long Before God Instituted The Law Through Moses For Purposes Other Than To Attain Eternal Life Through Works

(Gal 3:6 NKJV) "Just as Abraham 'believed God, and it was accounted to him for righteousness.' [Gen 15:6]" =

Abraham believed in God's plan for his eternal destiny and it was credited to him as Righteousness in the sense that Abraham was imputed with, i.e., reckoned as having, the attribute of the Absolute Righteousness of God which qualified him to have eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. Abraham was thereby justified unto eternal life before he was circumcised - long before God instituted the Law through Moses for purposes other than to attain eternal life through works .

i) [Compare Gen 15:1-6]:

i_a) (Gen 15:1-6) Abram Believed In God's Plan For His Eternal Destiny And It Was Credited To Him As Righteousness. Abraham Was Thereby Justified Unto Eternal Life Before He Was Circumcised And Long Before God Instituted The Law Through Angels And Entrusted It To Moses For Purposes Other Than To Attain Eternal Life Through Works

(Gen 15:1 NASB) "After these things the word of the LORD came to Abram in a vision, saying, 'Do not fear, Abram, I am a shield to you; Your reward shall be very great.'

(Gen 15:2 NASB) Abram said, 'O LORD God, what will You give me, since I am childless, and the heir of my house is Eliezer of Damascus?'

(Gen 15:3 NASB) And Abram said, 'Since You have given no offspring to me, one born in my house is my heir.'

(Gen 15:4 NASB) Then behold, the word of the LORD came to him, saying, 'This man will not be your heir, but one who will come forth from your own body, he shall be your heir.'

(Gen 15:5 NASB) And He took him outside and said, 'Now look toward the heavens, and count the stars, if you are able to count them.' And He said to him, 'So shall your [seed] be.'

[" 'So shall your offspring (lit. your seed, plural = descendants) be.' " = 

In order for Abram to have countless offspring and be blessed by it in his own life he would have to have eternal life. The next verse indicates that God credited His perfect Righteousness to Abram which is to say that Abram was granted entry into the Eternal Kingdom of heaven, i.e., eternal life]:

(Gen 15:6 NASB) Then he believed in the LORD; and He reckoned it to him as righteousness."

So God presents a visual image to Abram to go with His promise of an heir - an actual physical heir who was to come through the loins of Abraham, (Gen 15:4). This image was painted by God across the star studded night time heavens. Billions of stars were visible to Abraham; and God promised that just as the universe contained such an innumerable number of stars, so would be numbered the descendants of Abraham. This picture gave to Abraham the concept of him seeing countless numbers of descendants in his lifetime - a picture of his having eternal life in order for this to be possible. The number of stars in the day were in fact so numerous as to be virtually uncountable - representing to Abraham an infinite number. And so, Abraham was promised by God to have an infinite number of descendants obviously over an infinitely long lifetime, i.e., eternal life. In other words, God promised eternal life to Abraham. Abraham believed God's promise. And God then declared Abraham to have the position of being perfectly righteous - of having the imputed Righteousness of God - as a result of Abraham's faith, thus qualifying him for spending the rest of eternity with God in His Eternal Kingdom. This was not just an image of Abraham's countless descendants living long after he died and had gone into oblivion. What would be the purpose of that if Abraham would never see them - himself being condemned to the Lake of Fire? Why would God make such a promise to Abraham if Abraham had no chance of ever seeing them in person, i.e., having eternal life? So this indeed was a picture of God's promise to Abraham of eternal life - eternal life with countless descendants over an eternity of time. And when Abraham believed in this spectacular promise of God, then God accounted to Abraham the gift of absolutely perfect righteousness - that kind of righteousness that God requires that a man must possess in order to spend eternal life with Him, (Gen 15:6; Phil 3:9; Ro 3:22; 4:5; 2 Cor 5:21). And this eternal life would be through God's promise of providing a physical heir to Abraham whose descendancy would lead to the Messiah/Savior through Whom all the promises would be fulfilled, implying payment for the sins of the whole world so that all who trust in His payment might be declared Righteous unto eternal life.

b) (Gal 3:6-7) The Covenant Blessing Of Eternal Life Is One Which Is Available By Faith Alone For All Mankind

(Gal 3:6 NKJV) "Just as Abraham 'believed God, and it was accounted to him for righteousness.' [Gen 15:6] (Gal 3:7 NKJV) Therefore know that only those who are of faith are sons of Abraham." =

The Covenant blessing of eternal life is one which is available by faith alone for all mankind: Jew and Gentile alike. Those who have trusted alone in Christ alone are sons of Abraham - not in a physical sense so as to receive Covenant blessings meant for physical descendants but in a spiritual sense so as to receive the blessing of eternal life - whether Jew or Gentile.

c) (Gal 3:6-9) Only those Who Are Of Faith Alone In The Seed Of Abraham Alone - In Christ Jesus - Are Sons Of Abraham Unto Eternal Life - Whether Jews And Gentiles. And Scripture Having Foreseen That God Would Justify The Gentiles By Faith, [He (God)] Preached The Gospel To Abraham Beforehand Saying, "In You All The Nations Shall Be Blessed." So Then Those Who Are Of Faith - Jew And Gentile Alike - Are Blessed With Abraham, The Believer In Christ Jesus

(Gal 3:6 NKJV) "Just as Abraham 'believed God, and it was accounted to him for righteousness.' [Gen 15:6] (Gal 3:7 NKJV) Therefore know that only those who are of faith are sons of Abraham. (Gal 3:8 NKJV) And the Scripture, [having foreseen] that God would justify the Gentiles by faith, [He (God)] preached the gospel to Abraham beforehand, saying, 'In you all the nations shall be blessed.' [Gen 12:3] (Gal 3:9 NASB) So then those who are of faith are blessed with Abraham, the believer [lit., the believing one] [cp Gal 3:7]" =

The Apostle Paul concludes about what he wrote in (Gal 3:6 NKJV) "Just as Abraham 'believed God, and it was accounted to him for righteousness," for eternal life as follows:

(Gal 3:7 NKJV) Therefore know that only those who are of faith are sons of Abraham. (Gal 3:8 NKJV) And the Scripture, [having foreseen] that God would justify the Gentiles by faith, [He (God)] preached the gospel to Abraham beforehand, saying, 'In you all the nations shall be blessed.' [Gen 12:3] (Gal 3:9 NASB) So then those who are of faith are blessed with Abraham, the believer [lit., the believing one]" [cp Gal 3:7]

In Gal 3:7, Paul uses a strong imperative to the Galatian believers: he tells them to "know that only those who are of faith are sons of Abraham" to remind them that all who are of faith regardless of ethnic origin, i.e. those who have expressed a moment of faith alone in the Seed of Abraham - the Messiah / Savior Jesus Christ alone - Jew or Gentile - will be justified unto eternal life and are thereby descendants / sons of Abraham in a spiritual sense relative to the reception of / the inheriting of eternal life through the Seed of Abraham, Jesus Christ, regardless of their ethnic origins or any other factors. This is as opposed to those who insist upon circumcision, keeping the Law of Moses, or any law, or only those who are physical descendants of Abraham can be saved, as the Judaizers insisted upon for salvation.

Note that the Scripture referred to in Gal 3:7, namely Gen 12:3, actually did not exist as we know it at the time of Abram, having been authored by Moses who came 430 years later. On the other hand, the phrase in Gal 3:8 which Paul wrote referring to Gen 12:3 and rendered "And the Scripture, having forseen that God would justify the Gentiles by faith, [He (God)] preached the gospel to Abraham beforehand, saying, 'In you all the nations shall be blessed..' actually records what occurred between and Abram and God which God relayed to Moses to write down in the work that he authored.

In Gal 3:8, Paul stipulated that Scripture having foreseen in the sense of having foretold that God would justify the Gentiles by faith [He (God)] preached the gospel to Abram saying, 'In you [Abram] all the nations shall be blessed,' [Gen 12:3] in order to corroborate what he had previously written in Gal 3:7: that only those who are of the faith of Abraham are sons of Abraham:

i) (Gen 12:1-2) God Promises That Abram [Abraham] Will Be Father Of A Great Nation Leading To Eternal And Temporal Blessings For Abram & All Peoples - Jews And Gentiles - Through Abram [Abraham]

(Gen 12:1 NASB) '''Now the LORD said to Abram, "Go forth from your country, And from your relatives And from your father's house, To the land which I will show you;

(Gen 12:2 NASB) And I will make you a great nation, And I will bless you, And make your name great; And so you shall be a blessing;" '''

[God's promise to Abram [Abraham] to make him into a great nation and to be a blessing was a promise which was not fulfilled in Abraham's physical lifetime. It could only be fulfilled if Abraham is resurrected and permitted into the Eternal Kingdom of God living eternally so as to continue to experience seeing his posterity become a great nation with uncountable offspring and thereby actually be a blessing to people of all nations as he lived on in the Eternal Kingdom of God].

ii) (Gen 12:3 and Gal 3:8) God Promises Eternal Blessings / Life To Abram [Abraham] And To All The Families Of The Earth Through One Of Abraham's Descendants

(Gen 12:3 NASB) "And I will bless those who bless you, And the one who curses you I will curse. And in you all the families of the earth will be blessed.' " = 

God promises Abram that even after he dies, all peoples - all nations - from now on will be blessed "through" him. This is saying that through Abraham's procreation - which at the time of the promise he had not had one child born to him - the nations of the world will be forever blessed. Abram soon thereafter understood this as the ultimate blessing - eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God through his Seed, a Savior, (Who is Jesus Christ), (cf. Gen 15:1-6; Heb 11:17-19; Jn 8:56; Gal 3:16).

(Gal 3:8 NKJV) "And the Scripture, [having foreseen] that God would justify the Gentiles by faith, [He (God)] preached the gospel to Abraham beforehand, saying, 'In you all the nations shall be blessed.' [Gen 12:3]"

The phrase rendered "in you" [in Abram] does not mean anyone who is a physical descendant of Abram because the phrase which follows, "all the families of the earth will be blessed," by definition includes descendants of all peoples / all races. This refutes the Judaizers' claim that Gentiles must become circumcized and uphold the Law of Moses and thereby become Jews who will then be blessed through Abram. Gentiles cannot change their physical descendancy to being descendants of Abram in order to be blessed with eternal life through circumcision and keeping of the Law of Moses. This is neither physically possible to become a physical descendant of Abraham, nor through some kind of ritual, nor for mortal, flawed humanity to qualify by perfectly keeping the Law of Moses.

Futhermore, the phrase "in you" does not mean that what Abram did would directly provide benefit to all peoples of the earth throughout history. For there is no evidence of Abrams's life and accomplishments benefitting all of the families of the earth throughout history.

On the other hand, the phrase "in you [Abram] all the families of the earth will be blessed" can and does refer to a spiritual benefit that is universally available to all mankind throughout the ages, even from the time of Adam and Eve [in the seed of the woman ], as a result of what God has promised when any individual of any family / race on the earth believes in what God has provided for him through a Descendant / Seed of Abram, Who is Jesus Christ.

Notice that Paul indicates that God's Covenant with Abraham is in essence the gospel of salvation unto eternal life for all mankind. And the central Figure of that plan of salvation is the Seed, singular, of Abraham: the Messiah Savior, Jesus Christ, Himself, (cf. Gal 3:16):

Whereupon in Gal 3:9, Paul concluded his point that salvation is for Jews and Gentiles by faith alone by restating in yet another way the answer to the rhetorical question he asked in verse 5 and first answered in verse 7:

(Gal 3:5 NKJV) "Therefore He Who [is supplying] the Spirit to you and [is working] miracles among you, does He do it by the works of [law], or by the hearing of faith? -"

vs

(Gal 3:7 NKJV) "Therefore know that only those who are of faith are sons of Abraham."

vs

(Gal 3:9 NASB) "So then those who are of faith are blessed with Abraham, the believer [lit., the believing one]"

Gal 3:9 answers the rhetorical question of 3:5: that it is those who are of faith who are so blessed being given the gift of God's Righteousness unto eternal life along with Abraham, who had faith - who believed in a coming Messiah / Savior through his seed / his  descendants. Since the blessing of Abraham is declared to have been intended for the Gentiles also, i.e., all the families of the earth, (Gen 12:3); then it can only be by faith alone in Christ alone.

Note that all individuals - Jew or Gentile - who are justified unto eternal life have been or will be justified by faith alone in a coming Messiah Savior alone since the time of Adam and Eve through the seed of the woman, of whom Abram is a descendant of whom Jesus Christ is the Descendant .

d) (Gal 3:13-16) Christ Redeemed All Mankind From The Curse Of The Law In Order That In Christ Jesus The Fulfillment Of The Covenant / Blessing God Made With Abraham Might Come To The Gentiles Too, So That All Might Receive The Promise Of The Spirit And Eternal Life Through Faith In The Seed Of Abraham, Who Is Christ

(Gal 3:13 NASB) Christ redeemed us from the curse of the Law, having become a curse for us - for it is written, 'Cursed is everyone who hangs on a tree' -[Dt. 21:23]

(Gal 3:14 NASB) in order that in Christ Jesus the blessing of Abraham might come to the Gentiles, so that we would receive the promise of the Spirit through faith.

["so that we would receive the promise of the Spirit through faith." = so that Gentiles too might receive the "the promise of the Spirit", i.e., eternal life and the consequent indwelling of God the Holy Spirit, (ref. Eph 1:13-14), "through faith".. So one of the blessings of the Abrahamic Covenant is made available to all mankind, Jews and Gentiles alike: eternal life. And continuing in Galatians chapter 3]:

(Gal 3:15 NKJV) Brethren, I speak in the manner of men [lit., according to man]: Though it is only a man's covenant, yet if it is confirmed, no one annuls or adds to it.)

(Gal 3:16 NASB) Now the promises were spoken to Abraham and to his Seed. He does not say, 'And to seeds,' as referring to many, but rather to One, 'And to your Seed,' that is, Christ.

[So the promise of eternal life was given by God to Abram as a result of his faith through the seed - the descendants of Abraham which number would be innumerable. The eternal life coming through a specific Seed / Descendant of Abraham - Who is God and born a Jew, a Seed Who is Christ, (Gal 3:16)]: 

i) [Compare Isa 9:6-7 ]:

(Isa 9:6 NASB) "For a child will be born to us, a son will be given to us; And The government will rest on His shoulders; And His name will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Eternal Father, Prince of Peace.

(Isa 9:7 NASB) There will be no end to the increase of His government or of peace, On the throne of David and over his kingdom.

[Note: A throne and a kingdom of the physical seed of David Who is a Descendant of Abraham]

To establish it and to uphold it with justice and righteousness  From then on and forevermore. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will accomplish this."

ii) (Gal 3:16 and Gen 22:16-18) The Promises Were Spoken To Abraham And To His Seed, That Is, Christ

(Gal 3:16 NASB) "Now the promises were spoken to Abraham and to his Seed. He does not say, 'And to seeds,' as referring to many, but rather to One, 'And to your Seed,' that is, Christ."

(Gen 22:16 NASB) "And [the Angel of the LORD, Gen 15)] said, 'By Myself I have sworn, declares the LORD, because you have done this thing and have not withheld your son, your only son,

(Gen 22:17 NASB) indeed I will greatly bless you, and I will greatly multiply your seed as the stars of the heavens and as the sand which is on the seashore; and your seed shall possess the gate of their enemies.

(Gen 22:18 NASB) In your Seed all the nations of the earth shall be blessed, because you have obeyed My voice."

The phrase in Gen 22:18 rendered "In your Seed all the nations of the earth shall be blessed, because you have obeyed My [the Angel of the LORD's] voice" is defined by the Apostle Paul in Gal 3:16 as Jesus Christ Himself.

Note that the Hebrew word transliterated "zera," and the equivalent Greek word in the Septuagint "spermati" rendered "Seed" may be singular or plural depending upon context, as it is in English. In the instances of Gen 12:7, 13:15 and 24:7, the singular Seed fits best, especially in the light of Gal 3:16 referring to Christ as the Seed of Abraham.

iii) (Gen 13:14-15) God Repeats His Promise To Abram [Abraham] 

(Gen 13:14 NASB) "The LORD said to Abram, after Lot had separted from him, 'Now lift up your eyes and look from the place where you are, northward and southward and eastward and westward;

(Gen 13:15 NASB) for all the land which you see, I will give it to you and to your [Seed] [Jesus Christ, (Gal 3:16)] forever.' "

Note: due to the word rendered "forever" in view here is the Eternal Kingdom of God.

e) (Jn 8:56) Abraham Rejoiced To See The Day Of Christ Fulfilling The Promise Of A Savior Through Abraham

(Jn 8:56 NASB) [Jesus said]: "Your father Abraham rejoiced to see My day, and he saw it and was glad." 

Abram [Abraham] could not be a blessing to the nations of the world unless God was going to bring a Savior from Abram's line to provide payment for the sins of the world so that anyone believing in the Savior will be imputed with / receive the Righteousness of God unto eternal life. For outside of God doing it through Jesus Christ - through One of Abram's Descendants Who Is God, Abram all by himself did not have the capacity to save the world. So when Abram [Abraham] followed God's instructions indicated in Gen 12:1 by leaving his home, his business, the highly developed civilization in Ur and even his people including his family and set out to an unknown, wilderness land, [remember that Abram [Abraham] was a wealthy man, (Gen 12:5)], this would soon lead to his expressing a moment of faith in God's promises of future blessing for himself and the nations of the world through a coming Savior / Descendant of Abraham. Abram's eventual believing in God's promises of the future would result in his personal salvation unto eternal life. Abram would be justified upon his trusting in God's provision of a future Savior through his seed which Scripture records occurred later on when God reiterated His promise to Abram in Gen 15:1-6.

At the time of Gen 15:1-6, Abram would trust in God's promise of eternal life through the Seed, singular, of Abram - a coming Man, the Messiah, Jesus Christ, (Jn 8:56). God then credited Abraham with His Righteousness unto eternal life. For God promised that Abraham would find that the number of his offspring would be beyond counting. And only through Abraham's experiencing the Eternal Kingdom of God, i.e., having eternal life, could God fulfill His promise to bless Abram by actually seeing his countless offspring in the Eternal Kingdom.

Our Lord is saying here in Jn 8:56 that during Abraham's lifetime on earth he rejoiced at the thought of seeing the glory of the Messiah Jesus Christ's triumph over sin - demonstrating that he, Abraham, truly was justified unto eternal life.

The nature of Abraham's faith was essentially the same as that of the NT believer despite the difference in time. Abraham and all those of his time and before looked forward to something God would do, whereas individuals after the Cross look back to what God has provided, in Christ - the Seed of Abraham.

f) (Ro 4:1-3) Paul Verifies That Abraham Was Justified By Faith Alone In Jesus Christ Alone

(Ro 4:1 NASB) "What then shall we say that Abraham, our forefather according to the flesh, has found?

["has found" = The matter of how to be justified unto eternal life, i.e., saved. Cp Ro 3:21-31]

(Ro 4:2 NASB) For if Abraham was justified by works, he has something to boast about, but not before God.

(Ro 4:3 NASB) For what does the Scripture say? 

[And here Paul quotes Gen 15:6]:

'Abraham believed God, and it was credited to him as righteousness.' 

[Dr John Danish states, (Audio Tape #77 Ro-38 side 2)]:

"...For the Jews, Abraham was the great dividing point of all human history......

Before Abraham there was this stream of humanity and it was all Gentiles. With Abraham, the stream of humanity of Gentiles continued, but God brought off a side stream which today we know as Jews......

Abraham was the turning point of all history .... in terms of the fact that God said, 'Now I am going to set in motion a program which is going to bring My authority into operation on this earth. It's going to be recognized and .... welcomed. And I'm going to do it through the Jewish people ..........

The new stream of humanity known as the Jews [was brought by God] for the explicit purpose of bringing the authority of God on this earth to establish the Kingdom of God on the earth to replace the kingdom of man, in other words, to have human viewpoint replaced by divine viewpoint.

Now this plan of God for establishing His kingdom authority on the earth was presented as a promise to Abraham to become heir of the world. This promise, or this covenant, with Abraham included a Savior for eternal life. This was involved in the promise to Abraham that he would be a blessing to all nations. In Galatians chapter 3 verse 8, Paul explains that to us when he says, "And the Scripture foreseeing that God would justify the Gentiles through faith, preached before the gospel unto Abraham saying, 'In [you] shall all nations be blessed.' "

So here you have this phrase, " 'In [you] shall all nations be blessed.' " specifically identified by Paul here in Galatians as being an expression relative to the gospel. While all nations were going to be blessed in Abraham, God meant, 'I'm going to send you a Savior that will resolve the sin problems so that people can have absolute righteousness in order to enter heaven.' So Abraham indeed was given the gospel. Abraham was told how to [have eternal life]. And he believed the promise that God gave him, he was [declared Righteous unto eternal life] .......

..... consequently Abraham was justified simply by faith apart from works.

g) (Heb 11:17-19) The Writer Of Hebrews Indicates That Abraham Concluded That He Would Be Raised Up From The Dead

(Heb 11:17 NASB) '''By faith Abraham, when he was tested, offered up Isaac, and he who had received the promises was offering up his [one and only] son;

[By faith Abraham, when God tested him, offered Isaac as a sacrifice. Abraham had received the promise of eternal life by faith alone through God's one and only Son who was promised to be born through Abraham's one and only son whom Abraham was about to sacrifice precluding the descendancy of God's one and only Son] 

(Heb 11:18 NASB) it was he to whom it was said, "In Isaac your descendants shall be called [i.e., named]."

(Heb 11:19 NKJV) concluding that God was able to raise him up, even from the dead, from which he also received him in a figurative sense." '''

[Danish, cont.]:

"Hebrews 11:19 indicates that Abraham understood and believed in resurrection after death; and he believed in the gospel of salvation, (Gen 15:6). Abraham believed that God would resurrect him so that he would see his posterity of millions, (Gen 12:1-3; 15:4-6; Heb 11:8-19). This is the justification that God 'accounted' to Abraham as 'righteousness' unto eternal life, (Gen 15:5)."

Hence it is established that through faith in God's provision through the Seed of Abraham through the son of the Promise, Isaac; and through the Seed of Abraham through Isaac, Jesus Christ, (Gal 3:16), through Whom would come justification unto eternal life. It will not come through Ishmael or any other son of Abraham. Although anyone born through Ishmael would in the physical sense be of the seed of Abraham, one would not thereby inherit the promises of God to Abraham through Isaac who was to be born of Sarai, Abraham's wife. On the other hand, God's promise of justification by fiath is a spiritual promise to all the families of the earth. For this promise was to Abraham and to benefit all mankind, but only through the specific physical descendancy of Abraham through Isaac, born of Sarai through faith alone, not by works or bloodline inheritance. In this case, God was refering to the seed of His promise of eternal life which decidedly comes only through Isaac and only by faith not by blood relations.

D cont.) (Gal 4:21-26 cont.) Paul Writes, "You [Galatian Believers] Want To Be Under Law. Do You Not Hear [Understand] The Law?" Abraham Had Two Sons, One By The Bondwoman - According To The Flesh (Law), And One By The Free Woman (Sarai  = The Promise)

Allegorically Speaking, Two Covenants Are In View: One Woman, The Bondwoman Hagar Represents The Law / Human Doing = Mt. Sinai In Arabia. These Are Born Of Hagar In Slavery, Corresponding To Earthly, Present Day Jerusalem. The Other, (The Free Woman Sarai) Correspond To The Promise To Believers Of A Heavenly Jerusalem Above, Which Is Our (Believers') Mother, (cont.)

(Gal 4:21 NASB) Tell me, you want to be under law, do you not [hear] the [Mosaic] Law? [in the sense of understand its meaning] (Gal 4:22 NASB) For it [has been] written that Abraham had two sons, one by the bondwoman [Gen 16:15] and one by the free woman. [Gen 21:2]. (Gal 4:23 NASB) But the son of the bondwoman [Hagar] [has been] born according to the flesh, and the son by the free woman [Sarah] through the promise, [cf Gal 4:28-29; Ro 9:7; Gen 17:16ff; 18:10ff; 21:1]. (Gal 4:24 NASB) This is allegorically speaking, for these women are two covenants: one proceeding from Mount Sinai bearing children who are to be slaves; which she is Hagar. (Gal 4:25 NASB) Now this Hagar is Mount Sinai in Arabia [in the sense of stands for] and corresponds to the present Jerusalem, for she is in slavery with her children. (Gal 4:26 NASB) But the Jerusalem above is free; she is our mother." (cont.) =

Gal 4:24 follows Gal 4:23 as follows, (Gal 4:23) "But the son of the bondwoman [Hagar] [has been] born according to the flesh, and the son by the free woman [Sarah] through the promise," followed by Gal 4:24 which reads, "This is allegorically speaking, for these women are two covenants: one proceeding from Mount Sinai bearing children who are to be slaves; which she is Hagar." The basic sense of the Greek word "allEgoroumena," lit., being allegorized, and rendered "allegorically speaking," in the NASB is "speaking figuratively." Author and apostle Paul is speaking allegorically that these two women, the slave / bondwoman, Hagar; and the free woman, Sarah, represent in this allegory two covenants: the Covenant of the Law of Moses and the Covenant / Promise God gave to Abraham.

Although the New Covenant is closely related to the Abrahamic Covenant, "the Promise", the New Covenant is not being referred to in Galatians chapter four, as some contend. It has yet to be made and fulfilled with a future generation of the houses of Judah and Israel .

Paul writes that one of the covenants proceeded from Mt. Sinai

[evidently representing the Law of Moses, i.e., a system of human doing]

bearing children who are to be slaves

[representing individuals who have committed themselves to keeping rules of human doing in order to be justified before God - a restriction upon their freedom, enslaving them in a futile endeavor]

which she is Hagar

[in the sense that Hagar represents the Mosaic Law covenant in Paul's allegory].

Then Gal 4:25, which continues to elaborate on the allegory of the two covenants - the Law and the Promise, reads, "Now this Hagar is Mount Sinai in Arabia

[in the sense of representing individuals who have committed themselves to keeping the statutes of the Law which God gave to Moses on Mount Sinai]

Note that Mount Sinai is in Arabia across the Gulf of Aqaba. It is not located in the Sinai Penninsula ]

and corresponds to the present Jerusalem, for she is in slavery with her children.

[The present day Jerusalem (of Paul's time in the first century) represents slavery in the sense of symbolizing all of those in present day Jerusalem, i.e., in the present day of the world in which men seek through their human doing / works in order to justify themselves before God. In view are those who are committed to keeping law and thereby are in bondage to the requirements of the Law of Moses in order to be justified unto eternal life. Since Hagar is declared by author Paul to be a symbol of the covenant of law, according to the flesh and enslavement, yet she is Egyptian and not Jewish - a bondwoman to Sarah, Abraham's wife; and since the Jewish people did not begin until Abraham gave birth to Isaac and Isaac to Jacob who had twelve sons - the start of the Jewish people; then the statement about the earthly Jerusalem is not limited to being symbolic only of Jews who are committed to law, but to all men who are under law - any rules of human doing]

Note that the phrase "rendered "Now this Hagar is Mount Sinai in Arabia" has the best manuscript support .

Whereupon in Gal 4:26, Paul writes, "But the Jerusalem above - in the sense of the heavenly Jerusalem, (ref. Rev chapter 21) - she is our mother - in the sense of the destiny of those of the promise: saved by grace through faith alone in the Seed of Abraham, i.e., in Jesus Christ alone, (ref. Gal 3:16 ).

Note: Manuscript evidence for Gal 4:26 best supports "our mother," as opposed to "mother of us all," .

5) [Compare Rev 21:1-27]:

(Rev 21:1 NASB) "Then I say first heaven and the first earth passed away, and there is no longer any sea.

(Rev 21:2 NASB) And I saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, made ready as a bride adorned for her husband.

(Rev 21:3 NASB) And I heard a loud voice from the throne, saying, 'Behold, the tabernacle of God is among men, and He will dwell among them, and they shall be His people, and God Himself will be among them,

(Rev 21:4 NASB) and He will wipe away every tear from their eyes; and there will no longer be any death; there will no longer be any mourning, or crying, or pain; the first things have passed away.'

(Rev 21:5 NASB) And He who sits on the throne said, 'Behold, I am making all things new.' And He said, 'Write, for these words are faithful and true.'

(Rev 21:6 NASB) Then He said to me, 'It is done. I am the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end. I will give to the one who thirsts from the spring of the water of life without cost.

(Rev 21:7 NASB) He who overcomes will inherit these things, and I will be his God and he will be My son.

(Rev 21:8 NASB) But for the cowardly and unbelieving and abominable and murderers and immoral persons and sorcerers and idolaters and all liars, their part will be in the lake that burns with fire and brimstone, which is the second death.'

[There will be no sinful activity in the New and Heavenly Jerusalem. All visitors and residents of the New and Heavenly Jerusalem will have been transformed into sinless beings ]

(Rev 21:9 NASB) Then one of the seven angels who had the seven bowls full of the seven last plagues came and spoke with me, saying, 'Come here, I will show you the bride, the wife of the Lamb.

(Rev 21:10 NASB) And he carried me away in the Spirit to a great and high mountain, and showed me the holy city, Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God,

(Rev 21:11 NASB) having the glory of God. Her brilliance was like a very costly stone, as a stone of crystal-clear jasper.

(Rev 21:12 NASB) It had a great and high wall, with twelve gates, and at the gates twelve angels; and names were written on them, which are the names of the twelve tribes of the sons of Israel.

(Rev 21:13 NASB) There were three gates on the east and three gates on the north and three gates on the south and three gates on the west.

(Rev 21:14 NASB) And the wall of the city had twelve foundation stones, and on them were the twelve names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb.

(Rev 21:15 NASB) The one who spoke with me had a gold measuring rod to measure the city, and its gates and its wall.

(Rev 21:16 NASB) The city is laid out as a square, and its length is as great as the width; and he measured the city with the rod, fifteen hundred miles; its length and width and height are equal.

(Rev 21:17 NASB) And he measured its wall, seventy-two yards, according to human measurements, which are also angelic measurements.

(Rev 21:18 NASB) The material of the wall was jasper; and the city was pure gold, like clear glass.

(Rev 21:19 NASB) The foundation stones of the city wall were adorned with every kind of precious stone. The first foundation stone was jasper; the second, sapphire; the third, chalcedony; the fourth, emerald;

(Rev 21:20 NASB) the fifth, sardonyx; the sixth, sardius; the seventh, chrysolite; the eighth, beryl; the ninth, topaz; the tenth, chrysoprase; the eleventh, jacinth; the twelfth, amethyst.

(Rev 21:21 NASB) And the twelve gates were twelve pearls; each one of the gates was a single pearl. And the street of the city was pure gold, like transparent glass.

(Rev 21:22 NASB) I saw no temple in it, for the Lord God the Almighty and the Lamb are its temple.

(Rev 21:23 NASB) And the city has no need of the sun or of the moon to shine on it, for the glory of God has illumined it, and its lamp is the Lamb.

(Rev 21:24 NASB) The nations will walk by its light, and the kings of the earth will bring their glory into it.

(Rev 21:25 NASB) In the daytime (for there will be no night there) its gates will never be closed;

(Rev 21:26 NASB) and they will bring the glory and the honor of the nations into it;

(Rev 21:27 NASB) and nothing unclean, and no one who practices abomination and lying, shall ever come into it, but only those whose names are written in the Lamb's book of life.' "

6) CHART ON PAUL'S ALLEGORY IN GAL 4

PAUL'S ALLEGORY IN GAL 4:21-31
SARAI
HAGAR
Free woman, married to Abram.
Represents freedom from having to keep law / human doing, but instead by faith be justified before God
Bondwoman, Hagar, given to Abram by Sarai to be a second 'wife' for child bearing purposes due to Sarai being barren. Hagar represents enslavement to keeping law / human doing to be justified before God - the means Abram restorted to instead of trusting God
Represents God's Promise to Abraham, relative to bearing free children, heirs to the promise for all who believe - Jew and Gentile Represents Mt Sinai, the Mosaic Law Covenant symbollic to the  human effort of bearing children naturally in the sense of those who choose to be enslaved to obey law in order to be justified which is not possible. So none become heirs to the promise of eternal life
Sarai stands for the heavenly Jerusalem which is free - not in bondage to law, which city is our - the believer's - mother Hagar stands for the present, earthly Jerusalem which is characterized by enslavement to human doing
Eternal destiny through faith alone is eternal life Eternal destiny of human doing fails in justification before God and results in eternal desolation

E) (Gal 4:27-31) You Are To Rejoice - Those Of The Promise Represented By Sarai Who Was Barren Yet Who Represents God's Promise Of Eternal Life By Faith Alone In God's Miraculous Procreation Through Her Unto A Descendant Of Abraham's, Who Is Christ. You Brothers - Fellow Believers In The Promise, Like Isaac - The Son Of God's Promise To Abraham: Through Abraham's Son, Isaac, Through Sarah, Are Children Of God's Promise. Those Destined For Eternal Desolation Will Be Much Greater In Number. Furthermore, Just As When Ismael Persecuted Isaac, So Those Who Are According To The Flesh / Human Doing Will Persecute Those Born According To The Spirit / By Faith Alone In God's Promise. Nevertheless, Those In Bondage To The Flesh / Law Are To Be Cast Out / Apart From And Have No Inheritance With Those Who Are Free According To The Spirit - According To Faith In God's Promise Through Abraham's Seed, Who Is Christ. So Then Brothers, We Believers Are Not Children Of The Bondwoman, i.e., Of Enslavement To Sin, But We Are Children Of Freedom Through Faith In The Promise To Be Born According To The Work Of The Spirit

(Gal 4:21 NASB) Tell me, you want to be under law, do you not [hear] the [Mosaic] Law? [in the sense of understand its meaning] (Gal 4:22 NASB) For it [has been] written that Abraham had two sons, one by the bondwoman [Gen 16:15] and one by the free woman. [Gen 21:2]. (Gal 4:23 NASB) But the son of the bondwoman [Hagar] [has been] born according to the flesh, and the son by the free woman [Sarah] through the promise, [cf Gal 4:28-29; Ro 9:7; Gen 17:16ff; 18:10ff; 21:1]. (Gal 4:24 NASB) This is allegorically speaking, for these women are two covenants: one proceeding from Mount Sinai bearing children who are to be slaves; which she is Hagar. (Gal 4:25 NASB) Now this Hagar is Mount Sinai in Arabia [in the sense of stands for] and corresponds to the present Jerusalem, for she is in slavery with her children. (Gal 4:26 NASB) But the Jerusalem above is free; she is our mother." (Gal 4:27 NKJV) For it is written: 'Rejoice, O barren, You who do not bear! Break forth and shout, You who are not in labor! For the desolate has many more children Than she who has a husband.' " [Isa 54:1] (Gal 4:28 NASB) And you brothers, like Isaac, [ref. Gal 4:23], are children of promise [Gal 3:29; Ro 9:7ff]. (Gal 4:29 NASB) But as at that time [Gal 4:23] he who was born according to the flesh [Gen 21:9] persecuted him who was born according to the Spirit, [Gal 5:11] so it is now also. (Gal 4:30 NKJV) Nevertheless what does the Scripture say? 'Cast out the bondwoman and her son, for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman.' " [Gen 21:10, 12] (Gal 4:31 NKJV) So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman but of the free."

In Gal 4:27, Paul quotes Isa 54:1 from the Septuagint,  '''For it is written: 'Rejoice, O barren, You who do not bear! Break forth and shout, You who are not in labor! For the desolate has many more children Than she who has a husband.' " '''

So, according to Paul's allegory, (and not strictly according to the interpretation of Isa 64:1), the one who is barren, i.e., the one who has not borne any children, Sarai, the one who has a husband, Abraham, represents those in whom God's promise to Abraham and all the families of the earth will be fulfilled: those who have trusted in God's promise to be justified through the Seed of Abraham, Who is Christ; and not through Hagar, i.e., through their own human doing such as through efforts to keep the Law; but supernaturally through Sarai. So in view in Gal 4:27 are those whom Sarai represents: those who have believed in the Promise God made with Abraham and all the families of the earth. And these who are of the faith of Abraham are told to rejoice by the prophet Isaiah, (Isa 54:1), and as recorded by Paul in Gal 4:27: For all of those who have believed in the promise God made to Abraham of eternal life through his Seed, that is Christ, (Gal 3:16), have received the gift of eternal life and will have unparalleled eternal prosperity in the eternal Kingdom of God on earth - whether Jew or Gentile. On the other hand, the "desolate" in Gal 4:27, (Isa 54:1 Septuagint), is represented by the one who has no husband, (Hagar, the bondwoman whom Abraham took as a second 'wife' but in God's eyes is not a wife but a concubine through adultery ). Those symbolized by Hagar are those who throughout their lives have always been committed to keeping law in order to be justified before God in futility. Their number will be many more than those who have believed in the Promise, (ref. Mt 7:13-14 ). And their efforts to fulfill the Law to be justified before God will inevitably be futile; and they will experience eternal desolation.

1) [Compare Isa 54:1-6 Septuagint quoted by Paul in Gal 4:27]:

(Isa 54:1 Septuagint) "Rejoice, thou barren that bearest not; break forth and cry, thou that dost not travail: for more are the children of the desolate than of her that has a husband: for the Lord has said,

(Isa 54:2 Septuagint) Enlarge the place of thy tent, and of thy curtains: fix the pins, spare not, lengthen thy cords, and strengthen thy pins;

(Isa 54:3 Septuagint) spread forth thy tent yet to the right and the left: for thy seed shall inherit the Gentiles, and thou shalt make the desolate cities to be inhabited."

Those in view in Isa 54:1 are of Israel - "who has a husband," Who is the LORD God, (ref Isa 54:5). The timeframe is the invasion / dispersement / captivity of Israel by Babylon. Israel's population was decimated, dispersed, exiled, disrupted from increasing under such conquering duress - especially that of Jerusalem - hence the phrases "thou barren that bearest not," and "thou that dost not travail [in child labor]," alluding to the many women that died in the conflict with Babylon, canceling out much of the Israelite people's child bearing. Nevertheless, those of Israel in that time and into the future who are of the faith of Abraham are to rejoice with their future assurance of the Servant of the LORD's work of an atoning sacrifice for the sins of Israel and all of humanity being completed - the context leading up to this verse, (Isa 52:1-53:12 ). The Servant's atoning sacrifice provides for the salvation unto eternal life and consequent restoration of formerly desolated cities of Israel in the future Eternal Kingdom of God on earth, and for all mankind. Notice that in Isa 54:3, Gentiles are included in God's plan for the habitation of the future cities. So in view are Jews - those who have a husband, i.e., the LORD God, (ref Isa 54:5); and Gentiles - those without a husband who will be greater in number. Individuals of each group who choose to express a moment of faith alone in the Servant of the LORD alone, (Isa 52:1-53:12 , the Seed of Abraham, Who is Christ, (Gal 3:16), for eternal life will participate in the Eternal Kingdom of God upon the earth.

Then in Gal 4:28 it reads, "And you brothers, like Isaac, [ref. Gal 4:23], are children of promise [Gal 3:26-29; Ro 9:8]." Manuscript Evidence for Gal 4:28 weighs toward "but you, brothers... are" as opposed to "but we, brothers... are" .

So Gal 4:28 has in view brothers in the sense of brothers in Christ, like Isaac, who are children of promise through a moment of the faith of Abraham, i.e., faith in his Seed, Who is Christ, (Gal 3:16). These are the ones who have been justified unto eternal life - whether Jew or Gentile, from times of ancient past, the present on into times in the future.

2) [Compare Gal 3:26-29 ]:

(Gal 3:26 NASB) "For you are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus.

(Gal 3:27 NKJV) For as many of you as were baptized into Christ have put on Christ.

(Gal 3:28 NASB) There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither male nor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus.

(Gal 3:29 NKJV) And [since] you are Christ's, then you are Abraham's seed, and heirs according to the promise."

3) [Compare Ro 9:8 ]:

(Ro 9:8 YLT) "that is, the children of the flesh - these [are] not children of God; but the children of the promise are reckoned for seed."

Then Gal 4:29 reads, "But as at that time he who was born according to the flesh [Ishmael, Gal 4:23] persecuted him who was born according to the Spirit; [Issac, ref. Gen 21:8-9 ], so it is now also," [in the sense of unbelievers persecuting believers; ref. Gal 5:11; cf. Mt 5:10-12; Phil 1:29; 1 Thes 3:1-4; 2 Tim 3:12; 1 Pet 4:12-13]. Paul remarks that just as the one born according to the flesh, Ishmael, persecuted, (lit., repeatedly mocked), the one born of the promise, Isaac; so unbelievers - children committed to being under the enslavement of law will inevitably persecute believers - children of the promise.

Gal 4:30 stipulates, "Nevertheless what does the Scripture say? 'Cast out the bondwoman and her son, for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman.' " The true sons of Abraham are those - both Jew and Gentile - who are sons of the promise, who have trusted alone in that promise alone, in the Descendant of Abraham, through Sarai and Isaac, Who is Christ Jesus for salvation unto eternal life, (Gal 3:16).

Although both renderings are true, manuscript evidence for Gal 4:30 favors "the son of the freewoman," as opposed to "my son Isaac" .

And Gal 4:31 finishes the chapter with, "So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman but of the free:" So as brothers in Christ, we have no familial relationship, in the sense of the same eternal / spiritual destiny, with those who are committed to law / human doing, such as the Law of Moses in order to be justified before God unto eternal life. But we "brethren" are related to those who have trusted alone for justification before God for eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God: in the Promise God made to Abraham and all the families of the earth throughout the ages, (Gal 3:5-8 ), to be fulfilled exclusively through Sarai, (Gen 17:16ff  exclusively through Isaac, (Gen 26:1-6, ), through a Descendant, Who is Christ, (Gal 3:16).

Galatians chapter 5