MATTHEW CHAPTER 1

OBSERVATION STAGE

The purpose of the observation stage is to maintain focus on the text at hand within the normative rules of language, context and logic which limits the observer to the content offered by the book of Matthew. This will serve to avoid going on unnecessary tangents elsewhere; and more importantly, it will provide the framework for a proper and objective comparison with passages located elsewhere in Scripture.

Remember that something elsewhere may be true, but in the text at hand it may not be in view.

[MATTHEW 1:1-17 THE GENEALOGY OF THE LORD JESUS CHRIST]:

The first 17 verses comprise the genealogy of the LORD Jesus Christ as follows:

(Mt 1:1 NKJV) "The book of the genealogy of Jesus Christ, the Son of David, the Son of Abraham:

(Mt 1:2 NKJV) Abraham begot Isaac, Isaac begot Jacob, and Jacob begot Judah and his brothers.

(Mt 1:3 NKJV) Judah begot Perez and Zerah by Tamar, Perez begot Hezron, and Hezron begot Ram.

(Mt 1:4 NKJV) Ram begot Amminadab, Amminadab begot Nahshon, and Nahshon begot Salmon.

(Mt 1:5 NKJV) Salmon begot Boaz by Rahab, Boaz begot Obed by Ruth, Obed begot Jesse,

(Mt 1:6 NKJV) and Jesse begot David the king. David the king begot Solomon by her who had been the wife of Uriah.

(Mt 1:7 NKJV) Solomon begot Rehoboam, Rehoboam begot Abijah, and Abijah begot Asa.

(Mt 1:8 NKJV) Asa begot Jehoshaphat, Jehoshaphat begot Joram, and Joram begot Uzziah.

(Mt 1:9 NKJV) Uzziah begot Jotham, Jotham begot Ahaz, and Ahaz begot Hezekiah.

(Mt 1:10 NKJV) Hezekiah begot Manasseh, Manasseh begot Amon, and Amon begot Josiah.

(Mt 1:11 NKJV) Josiah begot Jeconiah and his brothers about the time they were carried away to Babylon.

(Mt 1:12 NKJV) And after they were brought to Babylon, Jeconiah begot Shealtiel, and Shealtiel begot Zerubbabel.

(Mt 1:13 NKJV) Zerubbabel begot Abiud, Abiud begot Eliakim, and Eliakim begot Azor.

(Mt 1:14 NKJV) Azor begot Zadok, Zadok begot Achim, and Achim begot Eliud.

(Mt 1:15 NKJV) Eliud begot Eleazar, Eleazar begot Matthan, and Matthan begot Jacob.

(Mt 1:16 NKJV) And Jacob begot the husband of Mary, of whom was born Jesus who is called Christ.

(Mt 1:17 NKJV) So all the generations from Abraham to David are fourteen generations, from David until the captivity in Babylon are fourteen generations, and from the captivity in Babylon until the Christ are fourteen generations."

[MATTHEW 1:1-17 THE GENEALOGY OF THE LORD JESUS CHRIST]: (cont.)

I) INTRODUCTION

A) PURPOSES OF ANCIENT GENEALOGIES

John Nolland states, [WORD BIBLICAL COMMENTARY, WORD BOOKS, PUBLISHER, DALLAS , TEXAS, 1989, Vol. 35A, Luke 1-9:20, pp. 169]:

"Ancient genealogies were used for a complex variety of purposes... Genealogies established individual identity; reflected, established, or legitimated social structures, status, and entitlements to office; functioned as modes of praise or delineations of character or even as basis of exhortation...."

[From: http://fly.hiwaay.net/~andysh/genealogy.html]:

"The Jews had carefully maintained genealogical records. These records were preserved in the temple until its destruction in A.D. 70. The Gospel writers had access to these temple records and could accurately trace the genealogy of Jesus from them."

[J. Dwight Pentecost, The Words and Works of Jesus Christ (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1981), p. 39]:

The Jews must have consulted the records to see whether the One Who made such claims (of Messiahship) for Himself had the right to make those claims. Had they found any flaw in His descent, they would have been quick to accuse Him of being an impostor. Even though the nation rejected Him, it was not because He was outside the Davidic line and therefore ineligible to claim the David throne. (Ibid)]

An unbiased reading of the biblical genealogies within the context will indicate that they simply attempt to establish our Lord's actual and real biological lineage which was prophesied in Scripture so as to qualify Him for consideration as the true Messiah that was foretold. So if the genealogies are purposed not to give 'accurate history' then they are not genealogies at all but nothing but nonsense.

B) THE GENEALOGIES OF JESUS CHRIST

[Jer 23:5-6]:

" 'The days are coming,' declares the Lord, 'when I will raise up to David a righteous branch, [descendant] a King Who will reign wisely and do what is just and right in the land. In His days Judah will be saved and Israel will live in safety.

This is the name by which He will be called:

The LORD Our Righteousness' "

And our Lord's birth into humanity is in that family line of David:

[Mt 1:11, 16-17]:

(v.1): "A record of the genealogy of Jesus Christ the Son of David, the son of Abraham:........................................................

(v.11): and Josiah the father of Jeconiah and his brothers at the time of the exile to Babylon.................................................

(v.16): and Jacob the father of , the husband of Mary, of whom [feminine singular = of Mary] was born Jesus, Who is called Christ.

(v.17) Thus there were fourteen generations in all from Abraham to David. Fourteen from David to the exile to Babylon, and fourteen from the exile to the Christ."

Careful observance of Matthew's genealogy will discover that it is not all inclusive nor intended to be. Matthew could not be claiming that it is all inclusive in view of the fact that the omissions are too obvious for the contemporary Jewish community to miss. Furthermore, in consideration of the great attention over the millennia the Jews have paid toward their genealogical history relative to the preservation of their race, entry into the Temple and the identification of the Messiah as being in the line of David, if any genealogy in the Bible was suspect of NOT being truly biological the bible would not have survived all of these years intact and as originally written. The genealogies of Scripture stand out as highly specific and biological and thus authenticatable at the time each was written. Yet there has not been forthcoming over hundreds of years any trustworthy alternative evidence totally refuting any name listed in any genealogy in Scripture. Perhaps the decrees and sovereignty of God are evident in this number fourteen rather than the contrivance of Matthew.

Due to numerous factions inside and outside of the nation Israel and the many years which have transpired, objectors' ideas of a contrived, non-biological genealogy as a result of a conspiracy of millions of Jews over the ages and the silence of all of their enemies is quite preposterous.

For example in Matthew's genealogy, the six names which have been omitted from the list of actual rulers who sat on the throne of David were known to every historian and scribe when Matthew wrote his book considering their appearance in other chronologies in the OT Bible. It will become evident after careful study that Matthew has omitted certain people for reasons of legitimacy, curse or unacceptable behavior throughout the line.

It is also evident in Matthew's genealogy, upon careful consideration, that is listed as our Lord's LEGAL but not biological father. 's family line is then traced through the royal line, (the line of actual or potential rulers of Israel), through Solomon to David including king Jeconiah (v.11). Thereby our Lord received's legal and royal family descendancy according to Scripture. However, in Jeremiah 22:24-30 God prohibits descendants from the wicked king Jeconiah to "....sit on the throne of David or rule anymore in Judah."

Incidentally, the words which are translated "son" and "father' are not necessarily limited to an immediate descendant but often refer to a descendant of more than one generation, legal or biological. Since there was no equivalent expression in Hebrew or Greek for son-in-law, the word rendered son also sufficed.

In Luke's account of our Lord's genealogy, (Lk 3:23-38), our Lord's human family line is traced through Nathan to David which does not have the prohibition of rulership on it. It is also traced through the male side of the family line of Mary's father Heli. This is legitimate considering Mary's not having any brothers to carry on her line and her marriage within her tribe to Joseph. This thereby enabled Joseph to legally be proclaimed Mary's father Heli's adoptive son in order to continue her line.

John W. Haley states, [Alleged Discrepancies of the Bible, Whitaker House Books, 1992, 9. 325]:

"It is indirectly confirmed by Jewish tradition [that Luke's genealogy is of Mary's line]. Lightfoot {Horae Hebraicae on Luke iii. 28} cites from the Talmudic writers concerning the pains of hell, the statement that Mary the daughter of Heli was seen in the infernal regions, suffering horrid tortures. {Suspensam per glandulas mammarum," etc.} This statement illustrates, not only the bitter animosity of the Jews toward the Christian religion, but also the fact that, according to received Jewish tradition, Mary was the daughter of Heli; hence, that it is her genealogy which we find in Luke....

If Mary was the daughter of Heli, then Jesus was strictly a descendant of David, not only legally, through his reputed father, but actually, by direct personal descent, through His mother....

[Therefore] Mary, since she had no brothers [as evidenced in Jn 19:25-27] was an heiress; therefore her husband, according to Jewish law, was reckoned among her father's family, as his son. So that Joseph was the actual son of Jacob, and the legal son of Heli. In a word, Matthew sets forth Jesus' right to the theocratic crown; Luke, His natural pedigree. The latter employs Joseph's name, instead of Mary's, in accordance with the Israelite law that 'genealogies must be reckoned by fathers, not mothers."

[Mt 1:15]:

"and Jacob the father of Joseph, the husband of Mary, of whom was born Jesus, who is called Christ" = "ex es egennethe" (from the Textus Receptus a very reliable consensus of the original text) = "out of whom was born" comes after Mary and the relative pronoun "es" = "of whom" is genitive, feminine singular referring to Mary not Joseph. Notice that the verb has changed from "egennesen" = "begat", to "egennethe" =" was born", signifying a different concept: being born of the woman, Mary and not begotten of the man, Joseph]

[Lk 3:23, 31]:

(v. 23) "Now Jesus Himself was about thirty years old when He began His ministry. He was the Son, so it was thought, of Joseph, the son of Heli, the son of Matthat, the son of Levi.............................

(v. 31): "the son of Melea, the son of Menna, the son of Mattatha, the son of Nathan, the son of David,

C.I. Scofield states, (Oxford NIV Scofield Study Bible, footnote #1 p. 1054):

"....since every man has two genealogies - one through his father and another through his mother - so Matthew presents Joseph's genealogy [the Lord's foster or legal father, not His actual father] whereas Luke presents Mary's genealogy [the Lord's legal genealogy via Joseph's adoptive father, Mary's father, Heli]. This view is supported by linguistic and historical evidence and is held by many students of the Bible. In addition, appeal may be made to Numbers 27:1-11 and 36:1-12 to give Scriptural precedent for the substitution of Joseph's name in Lk 3:23. At the same time it avoids the judgment spoken of in Jer 22:28-30."

Jer 22:28-30 prohibited a descendant of Jeconiah's from ruling Israel. Hebrew genealogies traditionally are constructed from the male side. Although Matthew's genealogy does mention women, notice that the line of the genealogy is strictly through the male names. So our Lord's descendancy was traced through His human mother. It begins with our Lord "being supposedly [but not actually] the [biological] son of Joseph, " thus establishing His legal line through Joseph. Next Joseph is described as "son of [Mary's father] Heli," thus establishing the continuation of the line through Mary. This is legal due to Mary's lack of brothers enabling Joseph to be the legally adoptive son of Mary's father Heli in order to continue her line:

[Lk 3:23-24]:

(v. 23) "And when He began His ministry, Jesus Himself was about thirty years of age, being supposedly the son of Joseph, the son of Heli,

(v. 24) the son of Matthat, the son of Levi, the son, of Melchi, the son of Jannai, the son of [another] Joseph"

["supposedly the son of Joseph" = "enomizeto" = presumably, supposedly. This word was inserted here to reflect the false understanding of most who thought that Joseph was the human father of Jesus Christ by natural birth.

"son" = son = descendant, legal or biological

"son of Heli" = Heli is evidently Mary's father and by Law, due to Mary's lack of brothers, Joseph's adoptive father. Therefore Luke's genealogy is technically on Mary's side which leads to the difference from the genealogy of Matthew]

II) RESOLUTION OF THE 'PROBLEMS' OF THE GENEALOGIES OF JESUS

[Dr. M.M.Ninan states, (THE PROBLEM OF THE GENEALOGY OF JESUS

http://www.acns.com/~mm9n/Genealogy/cha2.htm

Email: mm9n@hotmail.com

5708 Rudy Dr. San Jose CA 95124 U.S.A)

A) THE GENEALOGY OF MATTHEW INVESTIGATED

1) INTRODUCTION
Matthew who was deeply rooted in the Jewish traditions, addressed his gospel to the Jews in dispersion around the world who were looking forward to a Messiah. He wanted to show that Jesus was indeed the Messiah as foretold in the scriptures and that he fulfilled all the rigid criteria that were laid down by the scriptures for the three fold anointing of Prophet, Priest and King. Jews were highly conscious of their origin from Abraham. "We are the children of Abraham" was the hallmark of the Jewish nation. Hence Matthew starts off with Abraham and traces the line to David.

2) MATTHEW'S GENEALOGY FROM ABRAHAM THRU DAVID
MATTHEW 1 CHRONICLES 2

Mat 1:1 A record of the genealogy of Jesus Christ the son of David, the son of Abraham:

Mat 1:2 Abraham was the father of Isaac, Isaac the father of Jacob, Jacob the father of Judah and his brothers,

1 Chr 1:24 Shem
1 Chr 1:25 Arphaxad, Shelah,
1 Chr 1:26 Serug, Hanor, Terah
1 Chr 1:27 and Abraham (that is, Abraham)

1 Chr 1:28 The sons of Abraham: Isaac and Ishmael

1 Chr 2:1 These were the sons of Israel, [i.e., Jacob]: Reuben, Somwon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulin,
1 Chr 2:2 Da, Joseph, Benjamin, Naphtali, Gad and Asher.

1 Chr 2:3 The sons of Judah: Er, Onan and Shelah. These three were born to him by a Canaanite woman, the daughter of Shua. Er, Judah's firstborn, was wicked in the LORD'S sight, so the LORD put him to death.
Mat 1:3 Judah the father of Perez and Zerah, whose mother was Tamar, 1 Chr 2:4 Tamar, Judah's daughter-in-law, bore him Perez and Zerah. Judah had five sons in all.
Mat 1:3 cont. Perez the father of Hezron, 1 Chr 2:5 The sons of Perez: Hezron and Hamul.
Ruth 4:18 This, then, is the family line of Perez: Perez was the father of Hezron,
1 Chr 2:6 The sons of Zerah: Zimri, Ethan, Heman, Calcol and Darda - five in all.
1 Chr 2:7 The son of Carmi: Achar, who brought trouble on Israel by violating the ban on taking devoted things.
1 Chr 2:8 The son of Ethan: Azariah.
Mat 1:3 cont. Hezron the father of Ram, 1 Chr 2:9 The sons born to Hezron were: Jerahmeel, Ram and Caleb.
Ruth 4:19 Hezron the father of Ram, Ram the father of Amminadab,
Mat 1:4 Ram the father of Amminadab, Amminadab the father of Nahshon, 1 Chr 2:10 Ram was the father of Amminadab, and Amminadab the father of Nahshon, the leader of the people of Judah
Mat 1:4 cont. Nahshon the father of Salmon,
Mat 1:5 Salmon the father of Boaz
1 Chr 2:11 Nahshon was the father of Salmon, Salmon the father of Boaz,
Ruth 4:20 cont. Amminadab the father of Nahshon, Nahshon the father of Salmon,
Ruth 4:21 Salmon the father of Boaz, Boaz the father of Obed,,
Mat 1:5 cont. whose mother was Rahab, Boaz the father of Obed, whose mother was Ruth, Obed the father of Jesse, 1 Chr 2:12 Boaz the father of Obed and Obed the father of Jesse.

[Ruth 4:21 Salmon the father of Boaz, Boaz the father of Obed,
Ruth 4:22 Obed the father of Jesse, and Jesse the father of David.
Ruth 1:16 "But Ruth replied, 'Don't urge me to leave you or to turn back from you. Where you go I will go, and where you stay I will stay. Your people will be my people and your God my God.' " So evidently Ruth evidenced her intention to become a Jew
Ruth 4:10 "I [Boaz, (v. 9)] have also acquired Ruth the Moabitess, Mahlon's widow, as my wife, in order to maintain the name of the dead with his property, so that his name will not disappear from among his family or from the town records..."]`

Mat 1:6 and Jesse the father of King David. David was the father of Solomon, whose mother had been Uriah's wife,

[Bathsheba],

1 Chr 2:13 Jesse was the father of Eliab his firstborn; the second son was Abinadab, the third Shimea,
1 Chr 2:14 the fourth Nethanel, the fifth Raddai,
1 Chr 2:15 the sixth Ozem and the seventh David.
1 Chr 3:4 These six were born to David in Hebron, where he reigned seven years and six months.
David reigned in Jerusalem thirty-three years,
1 Chr 3:5 and these were the children born to him there:
Shammua, Shobab, Nathan and Solomon. These four were by Bathsheba daughter of Ammiel.
2 Sam 11:3 and David sent someone to find out about her. The man said, 'Isn't this Bathsheba, the daughter of Eliam and the wofe of Uriah the Hittite?'
a) TAMAR, RUTH & RAHAB: THE PROBLEM OF GENTILE WOMEN IN MATTHEW'S GENEALOGY
Dr. Ninan Mammen states [Email: mm9n@hotmail.com, Tuesday, February 23, 1999 7:00 PM]:
The fact that the women Tamar, Rehab and Ruth were not Jews does not make any difference. Christ did have Gentile blood. He was not a 100% Jew. This is necessary because he was not sacrificed as a Jew, but as the representative of the whole [of] mankind. So it is necessary that there be Gentile blood in him. Otherwise how can he represent the whole [of] mankind, Jews and Gentiles? Again the fact [of] whether they were believers or not does not matter at all. We are all fallen people. Jesus came into a fallen species. Jews and Gentiles - none can claim righteousness ( these are filthy rags in God's sight [Isa 64:6]). Jesus did not become our righteousness because He was born to good God fearing parents. Mary was not in any way made immaculate for the job. She bore the nature of sin in her. The promise was that Eve will bring forth the saviour and this promise was given at the time when she was the [initial] cause of the Fall. It is through her [that] Jesus carried the sins of the world. Jesus's righteousness on the earth was the righteousness according to the law which he obtained through his life, it was his choice and willful choice. There is no reason for the women to be Jews nor believers. At least Rahab was a harlot. Besides being a Jew does not make anyone a better person.
3) MATTHEW'S GENEALOGY FROM DAVID TO CAPTIVITY
Now Matthew gives a block of 14 generations from David to Captivity. We have these generations enumerated to us in 1 Chronicles 3:4-5 and 10-18.

Here certainly there are discrepancies. So we need to do a little bit more research into other parts of the Bible. From David onwards we have the lineage of Kings of Judah. So there are secular sources and archeological evidences available to us. We also can delve into secular history and give the period of their reign according to modern historical assessments. A brief summary of their reign is given below [in brackets] . The period of reign is only approximate within 10 years either way. The present calculation quoted below is based on the date of Babylonian captivity from secular sources. The calculations are made difficult because of the method of reckoning used by various countries. But that is not our issue here.
Mat 1:6 cont. and Jesse the father of King David was the father of Solomon, whose mother had been Uriah's wife, 1 Chr 3:4 David reigned in Jerusalem thirty-three,
1 Chr 3:5 and these were the children born to him there: Shammua, Shobab, Nathan and Solomon. These four were by Bathsheba daughter of Ammiel.

[Solomon B.C. 1008 - 967 He reigned for forty years 2 Sam 12:24; 2 Chr 9:30 He reigned for forty years providing the most glorious days of Judaic Kingdom. Solomon was however not counted as a man of God comparable with David. His policies were more diplomatic which included marrying from other Gentile nations for diplomatic gains.] 
Mat 1:7 Solomon the father of Rehoboam, Rehoboam the father of Abijah, Abijah the father of Asa, 1 Chr 3:10 Solomon's son was Rehoboam,
[Rehoboam B.C 967-950 17 years
1 Ki 11:43 2 Chr. 12:1-12 describes his reign. He had a very prosperous reign. But during his period the Kingdom was divided .. Read also 1 Ki. 11 and 12 and also 2 Chr. 9-12]

Abijah his son,

[Abijah B.C 950-947 3 years
1 Ki 14:1-18; 15:1 2 Chr. 13:1-2 He is also known as Abia and Abijam]

Asa his son,

[Asa B.C 947-908 41 years
1 Ki. 15:8-24 1 Chr. 3:10 2 Chr. 14:15-16] 
Mat 1:8 Asa the father of Jehoshaphat, Jehoshaphat the father of Jehoram, 1 Chr 3:10 cont. Jehoshaphat his son,

[Jehoshaphat B.C 908-883 25 years
2 Ki. 12: 18 1 Ki. 15:22 2 Chr. 17-19]

1 Chr 3:11 Jehoram his son,

[Joram B.C 883-875 8 years
1 Ki. 22:50 Also called Jehoram]
Not mentioned in Matthew's genealogy:
Ahaziah
Joash
Amaziah
[Ahaziah B.C 875 1 year
2 Ki. 8:25 2 Ki 8-10 2 Chr. 21-22 Also called Azariah and Jehoahaz]  

1 Chr 3:11 cont. Jehoram his son, Ahaziah his son,
Joash his son,

[Joash B.C 869-829 40 years 2 Ki. 11:2 Called also as Jehoash.
Saved from his grand mother, Athalia by Jehosheba, his aunt. He became wicked after the priest Jehoida’s death. He procured peace from King of Syria in return for temple vessels. Prophecy against him is found in 2 Chr. 24:19, 20]

[Athalia’s usurpation B.C 947-908 6 years 2 Ki. 11:1]
Granddaughter of Omri; wife of Jehoram and mother of Ahaziah, encouraged their evil ways (2 Ki 8:18, 27; 2 Ch 22:2). At death of her husband Ahaziah, Athalia made herself queen, killing all of her husband's sons but Joash who escaped, (2 Ki 11:1-3; 2 Ch 22:10-12); she was killed 6 years later when Joash was revealed (2 Ki 11:4-16; 2 Ch 23:1-15).]
1 Chr 3:12 Amaziah his son, Azariah his son, Jotham his son,
[Amaziah B.C 829-800 29 years
1 Ki. 14:1] 
Mat 1:8 cont. Jehoram the father [great great grandfather] of Uzziah,

1 Chr 3:11-12 cont. (v. 11) Jehoram his son, Ahaziah his son, Joash his son,
(v. 12) Amaziah his son, Azariah [Uzziah] his son, Jotham his son,

[Uzziah B.C 829-800 42 years
He is also known as Azariah 2 Ki. 14-15; 2 Chr. 26]



Mat 1:9 Uzziah the father of Jotham, Jotham the father of Ahaz, Ahaz the father of Hezekiah, 1 Chr 3:12 Amaziah his son, Azariah his son, Jotham his son,

[Jotham B.C 758-742 16 years
2 Ki. 15-16 2 Chr. 27-28]  

1 Chr 3:13 Ahaz his son,

[Ahaz B.C 742-726 16 years
2 Ki. 15:38 2 Ki. 15-16 2 Chr. 27-28]

Hezekiah his son,

[Hezekiah B.C 726 - 696 29 years
2 Ki. 16:20]

Mat 1:10 Hezekiah the father of Manasseh, Manasseh the father of Amon, Amon the father of Josiah

1 Chr 3:13 cont. Manasseh his son,

[Mannaseh B.C 696-642 55 years 2 Ki. 21:11]

1 Chr 3:14 Amon his son'

[Amon B.C 642-640 2 years 2 Ki. 21:1]

Josiah his son

[Josiah B.C 640-608 31 years
1 Ki 13:2]
Not mentioned in Matthew's genealogy:
Jehoahaz
Jehoiachin
Zedekiah

Mat 1:11 and Josiah the father of Jeconiah and his brothers at the time of the exile to Babylon.
1 Chr 3:15 The sons of Josiah: Johanan the firstborn, Jehoiakim the second son, Zedekiah the third, Shallum [Jehoahaz] the fourth,

[Jehoiakim, Josiah’s other son ruled for 11 years B.C 608-597]

[Jehoahaz B.C 608 (3 months)
2 Ki. 23:30 He was also called Shallum. Pharoah Nechoh, King of Egypt invaded the Kingdom and took him captive to Egypt Jer. 22:10-12]  

1 Chr 3:16 The successors of Jehoiakim: Jehoiachin his son, and Zedekiah.

[Jehoiachin, a successor of Josiah son of Jehoiakim to the throne ruled for 3 months in B.C 597.
2 Ki. 24:6 He was also called Jeconiah or Coniah He was taken prisoner by the King of Babylon and was confined within the Babylonian prison for 34 years. Read Jer. 52:31-34]

[Zedekiah also known as Mattaniah, Josiah’s son ruled for 11 years as a puppet of Babylon.]

1 Chr 3:17 The descendants of Jehoiachin the captive.
4) NOW COMPARE MATTHEW'S GENEALOGY SO FAR WITH HISTORY
MATTHEW HISTORY
Solomon       Solomon
Rehoboam Rehoboam
Abijah Abijah
Asa Asa
Jehoshaphat Jehoshaphat
Joram Joram
xxxxxxxxxxxx Ahaziah
xxxxxxxxxxxx Joash
xxxxxxxxxxxx Amaziah
Uzziah Uzziah
Jotham Jotham
Ahaz Ahaz
Hezekiah Hezekiah
Mannaseh Mannaseh
Amon Amon
Josiah Josiah
Jeconiah Jeconiah
xxxxxxxxxx Jehoahaz
xxxxxxxxxx Jehoiachin
xxxxxxxxxx Zedekiah

Any one can see that six names are missing from the official list, (the usurper to the throne, Athalia, not being considered here as legitimately in the royal line).

Why did Matthew do that? Was it because he wanted to keep the list of dynasty into fourteen generations from Abraham to David and another fourteen generations from David to Captivity and another fourteen from Captivity to Jesus for some contrived theological reason? This ruse would not have been acceptable to any Jew versed in scriptures. Surely Matthew would not try to do that trick and loose his credibility. Hence we should look for the reasons elsewhere which are deep rooted in the Jewish scriptures and traditions.

5) AHAZIAH, JOASH AND AMAZIAH WERE OMITTED FOR A REASON

Let us look into the first three names.

2 Ki 8:25 In the twelfth year of Joram son of Ahab king of Israel, Ahaziah son of Jehoram king of Judah began to reign.

2 Ki 8:26 Ahaziah was twenty-two years old when he became king, and he reigned in Jerusalem one year. His mother's name was Athaliah, a granddaughter of Omri king of Israel.

Athalia was a grand daughter of King Ahab and Queen Jezebel who needs no special introduction to the Bible readers. These two names will cause a shudder through the spine of every Jew, because of their evil acts. According to Deut 5:9 and Ex. 34:7 and Num 14:18 God will punish the sins of the fathers up to the fourth generation.

Deu 5:9 You shall not bow down to them or worship them; for I, the LORD your God, am a jealous God, punishing the children for the sin of the fathers to the third and fourth generation of those who hate me,

Thus the sins of Ahab and Jezebel was visited up to the fourth generation.

Ahab - Ahaziah - Joash - Amaziah - Uzziah

Deu 5:1 Moses summoned all Israel and said: Hear, O Israel, the decrees and laws I declare in your hearing today. Learn them and be sure to follow them.

Deu 5:2 The LORD our God made a covenant with us at Horeb. Deu 5:6 "I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of Egypt, out of the land of slavery.

Deu 5:7 "You shall have no other gods before me.

Deu 5:8 "You shall not make for yourself an idol in the form of anything in heaven above or on the earth beneath or in the waters below.

Deu 5:9 You shall not bow down to them or worship them; for I, the LORD your God, am a jealous God, punishing the children for the sin of the fathers to the third and fourth generation of those who hate me,

Deu 5:10 but showing love to a thousand generations of those who love me and keep my commandments.

Deu 5:11 "You shall not misuse the name of the LORD your God, for the LORD will not hold anyone guiltless who misuses his name.

In Ex 34 we read

Exo 34:6 And he passed in front of Moses, proclaiming, "The LORD, the LORD, the compassionate and gracious God, slow to anger, abounding in love and faithfulness,

Exo 34:7 maintaining love to thousands, and forgiving wickedness, rebellion and sin. Yet he does not leave the guilty unpunished; he punishes the children and their children for the sin of the fathers to the third and fourth generation."

Again in Numbers 14 we read this proclamation of the passing Lord before Moses:

Num 14:18 'The LORD is slow to anger, abounding in love and forgiving sin and rebellion. Yet he does not leave the guilty unpunished; he punishes the children for the sin of the fathers to the third and fourth generation.'

Thus because of the great iniquities of Ahab and Jezebel, the punishment was carried over through Athalia in unabated form. In the eyes of God these four generations were counted unworthy of the throne of David.

6) JEHOIAKIM, JEHOIACHIN (JECONIAH, AKA CONIAH), AND ZEDEKIAH WERE OMITTED FOR A REASON:

a) THE PROBLEM OF JEHOIACHIN'S AGE RESOLVED

There is a slight problem here with regard to the age at which Jehoiachin started to reign. While 2 Chr. 36:9 quotes it as eight, 2 Ki. 24:8 puts it as eighteen.

2 Ki 24:8 Jehoiachin was eighteen years old when he became king, and he reigned in Jerusalem three months. His mother's name was Nehushta daughter of Elnathan; she was from Jerusalem.

This is probably because of the inability to distinguish the slight variation of numbers 8 and 18 in the original. Eighteen could have been more probable because he must have been married by then since 2 Ki. 24:15 mentions the king's wives specifically. But he did not have any children at that time as they are not mentioned in the list of captives. He was probably impotent. Or was he 8 and had early marriage? This is unlikely as child marriage was unknown among the Jews.

So modern scholarship translates it as eighteen.

[The documents are unclear here. But the context indicates 18. A single Hebrew character was not copied in 2 Chr 36:9 making the 18 an 8. Compare this study on the matter for more details

[jehoiachin.htm].

b) GOD'S CURSE AGAINST JEHOIACHIN

Now we turn to the last of the Kings of Judah who were deleted from the dynasty.

2 Chr 36:9 Jehoiachin was eighteen years old when he became king, and he reigned in Jerusalem three months and ten days. He did evil in the eyes of the LORD.

2 Chr 36:10 In the spring, King Nebuchadnezzar sent for him and brought him to Babylon, together with articles of value from the temple of the LORD, and he made Jehoiachin's uncle, Zedekiah, king over Judah and Jerusalem.

The prophecy against Jeconiah (Coniah = Jehoiachin) can be found in Jeremiah 22:24-30

Jer 22:24 "As surely as I live," declares the LORD, "even if you, Jehoiachin son of Jehoiakim king of Judah, were a signet ring on my right hand, I would still pull you off.

Jer 22:25 I will hand you over to those who seek your life, those you fear--to Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon and to the Babylonians.

Jer 22:26 I will hurl you and the mother who gave you birth into another country, where neither of you was born, and there you both will die.

Jer 22:27 You will never come back to the land you long to return to."

Jer 22:28 Is this man Jehoiachin a despised, broken pot, an object no one wants? Why will he and his children be hurled out, cast into a land they do not know?

Jer 22:29 O land, land, land, hear the word of the LORD!

Jer 22:30 This is what the LORD says: "Record this man as if childless, a man who will not prosper in his lifetime, for none of his offspring will prosper, none will sit on the throne of David or rule anymore in Judah."

Evidently Jesus could not be born in the lineage which was cut off by the Lord and be the King in the line of David. The lineage and Royal line ended with Jeconiah (= Jehoiachin). The *eighteen year old Jeconiah was carried away to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar and put in the dungeon of Babylon.

2 Ki 24:15 Nebuchadnezzar took Jehoiachin captive to Babylon. He also took from Jerusalem to Babylon the king's mother, his wives, his officials and the leading men of the land.

See also 2 Chr. 36:10; Est. 2:6; Jer. 21:20

He was in the prison for 37 years

2 Ki 25:27 In the thirty-seventh year of the exile of Jehoiachin king of Judah, in the year Evil-Merodach became king of Babylon, he released Jehoiachin from prison on the twenty-seventh day of the twelfth month.

2 Ki 25:28 He spoke kindly to him and gave him a seat of honor higher than those of the other kings who were with him in Babylon.

2 Ki 25:29 So Jehoiachin put aside his prison clothes and for the rest of his life ate regularly at the king's table.

2 Ki 25:30 Day by day the king gave Jehoiachin a regular allowance as long as he lived.

At the end of this 37 years i.e. at the age probably of 55 years (or 45) he was released from the prison by Evil Merodach. We notice that Jehoiachin was in the dungeon all the days of his youth and came out at a very old age. He could not have had any children at least until 45, till he came out of the dungeons of Babylon. Yet we have a number of sons mentioned in Chronicles:

1 Chr 3:16 The successors of Jehoiakim: Jehoiachin his son, and Zedekiah.

1 Chr 3:17 The descendants of Jehoiachin the captive: Shealtiel his son,

1 Chr 3:18 Malkiram, Pedaiah, Shenazzar, Jekamiah, Hoshama and Nedabiah.

How come this?

In order to understand this we need to look into the Jewish arrangement of maintaining the name of a family through levirate custom.

c) THE LEVIRATE MARRIAGE SYSTEM PROVIDES AN EXPLANATION FOR JEHOIAKIM'S SUCCESSORS: JEHOIACHIN AND ZEDEKIAH

The levirate system was a normal practice in most tribes and cultures from ancient times. The specific commandment for this is found in Deuteronomy.

Deu 25:5 If brothers are living together and one of them dies without a son, his widow must not marry outside the family. Her husband's brother shall take her and marry her and fulfill the duty of a brother-in-law to her.

Deu 25:6 The first son she bears shall carry on the name of the dead brother so that his name will not be blotted out from Israel.

This was not a new law. Lord confirmed and accepted the local practice in this regard and validated it. The fact that this custom was prevalent can be found in the case of Judah’s son in Gen 38:8,11.

Gen 38:8 Then Judah said to Onan, "Lie with your brother's wife and fulfill your duty to her as a brother-in-law to produce offspring for your brother."

Gen 38:9 But Onan knew that the offspring would not be his; so whenever he lay with his brother's wife, he spilled his semen on the ground to keep from producing offspring for his brother.

Gen 38:10 What he did was wicked in the Lord's sight; so he put him to death also.

Gen 38:11 Judah then said to his daughter-in-law Tamar, "Live as a widow in your father's house until my son Shelah grows up." For he thought, "He may die too, just like his brothers."

So Tamar went to live in her father's house.

The concept of brother in this context does not necessarily [have to] be interpreted only as direct brother. From this comes the concept of Kinsman redeemer. This is shown in the story of Ruth (4:3-10) where Boaz is not the direct brother of Mahlon and Chillion, but a close relative.

This practice is still found in the Southern Sudan and other Jewish like cultures. In fact the dead man’s wife may take the nearest relative or if he refuses she may take anyone from the family or even from the tribe. The children born from such relations belong to her husband in name and in inheritance. These laws were made in order to protect the rights of the women. There has to be someone to take care of the widows and her rights to sexual satisfaction. In Sudan where polygamy is prevalent, the master of the house may have several wives, and some of them may be very young. These young women have their right of life and this is guaranteed through levirate system. In some cases the elder son is asked to take his father’s young widows as wives if the father’s brothers are old and unfit for sexual relations. This arrangement also makes sure that the property remain within the family and will not go out to others. The system of levirate was a very powerful method of maintaining the family heritage and property.

Under the circumstances connected with Jeconiah it is therefore legitimate and reasonable to assume that the children who are reckoned to be his are children out of the levirate system. This is to be assumed also on the basis of Jeremiah’s prophecy. We shall take up this again when we come to this in Luke’s genealogy.

B) THE GENEALOGY OF LUKE INVESTIGATED

1) INTRODUCTION

Luke was a physician, who was widely traveled and well placed in society. He was probably a doctor who traveled in the ships. He knew many well placed aristocrats as is indicated in his addressing of the gospel and the book "Acts of the Apostles" to the most excellent Theophilos. Theophilos mentioned here is considered to be Titus Flavious of Clement of Rome who was a cousin of Emperor Domitian who ruled from AD 95 onwards. Flavious was the Roman Consul and was later martyred along with his wife Domitilla for being Christians. It can therefore be deducted that he had very high connections. We have no records to show that he ever met Jesus while Jesus was alive. He was probably a Jew in dispersion and was a free man of great wealth.

Luke had a scientific outlook, which is to be expected from a physician. He has written his books after serious research into the events as he claims in his introduction

Luke 1:1 Many have undertaken to draw up an account of the things that have been fulfilled among us,

Luke 1:2 just as they were handed down to us by those who from the first were eyewitnesses and servants of the word.

Luke 1:3 Therefore, since I myself have carefully investigated everything from the beginning, it seemed good also to me to write an orderly account for you, most excellent Theophilus,

Luke 1:4 so that you may know the certainty of the things you have been taught.

He had [evidently] known and read all the existing documents on the life of Jesus which were written by people who had seen and heard and lived with Jesus. Luke accordingly may not be considered as an eyewitness. But he had taken the pains to do extensive research in the life of Jesus before embarking upon the venture. The gospel itself clearly exemplifies this claim. Many of the personal stories of Mary, Joseph, disciples, women and other Gentile people are given in greater depth and detail in Luke.

Why did Luke take up the writing, since there were an abundance of such documents? The reason is also given in the introduction: "so that you may know the certainty of things you have been taught." Earlier documents were [evidently] written by eyewitnesses as personal anecdotes and memoirs and were not comprehensive enough to be presented as a gospel to the Gentile world. Others were all personal documents and were written essentially by the Jews and for the Jews. Luke was writing to the Gentiles who did not understand the Jewish traditions and customs. Legalism of the Jews and the custom of counting the lineage by legal right whether by levirate marriage or by kinsman-redeemer marriage or even ghost marriage was not understood by outsiders. Hence it is natural for him to adopt the blood relation as the basis of tracing the lineage. In tracing the lineage, he traces the lineage back to Adam and to God.

[Mantague Stephen Mills states, {'A COMPARISON OF THE GENESIS AND LUKAN GENEALOGIES (The Case for Cainan), A Thesis Presented to Dallas Theological Seminary, April 1978, Chapter II, p. 8}

"Luke claims that the record is an account handed down by eyewitnesses and servants of the word. The term 'servants of the word' warrants study for the word translated servant is 'uperetes' and an examination of its use in the New Testament demonstrates that it usually denotes an officer of rank whose authority is derived from another. (Paul used 'uperetes' to describe his appointment by Christ as an apostle) and this use, at the hand of the same author, indicates that the servants Luke refers to are people with apostolic office who have derived their authority from Christ, or at the least people in authority in the churches who have derived their authority, if not from Christ then from the Apostles). We can therefore safely conclude that Luke's human sources were eyewitnesses apostles, or at least people holding high office in the early church. Luke makes this point specifically in verse 3 for the adverb translated 'from the beginning' (NASB) is 'anothen' which is more usually used as an adverb of place, consequently a more appropriate understanding is 'from their source.' As Luke was contemporaneous with the apostles no allowance for intermediaries between the original sources and him need be made. This claimthen, applied to Luke's gospel, asserts that it represents the authentic, orthodox authorized teaching of the original church. Furthermore Luke claims to have investigated 'everything' so his sources must be widened from purely verbal human sources to documentary sources. This is confirmed in verse 1 for there Luke talks of accounts (narratives) that others have compiled ('anastassomai').

Luke's claim to authenticity is supplemented by an emphatic claim to accuracy for he claims to have investigated everything carefully. The word translated 'investigate' is 'parakolotheo' which caries a connotation not only of investigating but also of understanding. Luke thus makes the impressive claim that he was careful to understand what he wrote and that it was accurate. (The adverb translated 'carefully', 'akrebos' has another primary meaning of accuracy). This claim is further reinforced by his statement that his desire is that Theophilus shall know the certainty 'asphiales' (NASB - exact truth) of the events recorded. Luke's final claim is that his record is in consecutive order for that is the sense of the adverb 'kathexes'. Luke's claims are thus that the gospel he has written is a careful work which he has thoroughly investigated and understood, that it is accurate and that it conveys the certainty (exact truth) of the events reported.

Add to Luke's claims, the pre-supposition of Divine Inspiration, which would axiomatically include guidance in the sources selected, and one has a most positive assertion that the genealogy in Chapter 3 of Luke's gospel is a detailed and accurate one."}

2) LUKE'S GENEALOGY FROM ADAM TO ABRAHAM
Luke 3:38 the son of Enosh, the son of Seth, the son of Adam, the son of God. 1 Chr 1:1 Adam, Seth, Enosh,
Luke 3:37 the son of Methuselah, the son of Enoch, the son of Jared, the son of Mahalalel, the son of Kenan,

1 Chr 1:3 Enoch, Methuselah, Lamech, Noah.

1 Chr 1:2 Kenan, Mahalalel, Jared,



Luke 3:36 the son of Cainan, the son of Arphaxad, the son of Shem, the son of Noah, the son of Lamech

1 Chr 1:24 Shem, Arphaxad, Shelah,

Notice: the name Cainan is omitted from certain available Masoretic texts, but is included in other Masoretic texts and the Septuagint.

(1 Chr 1-4: Shem back to Adam):

1 Chr 1:4 The sons of Noah: Shem, Ham and Japheth.

1 Chr 1:3 Enoch, Methuselah, Lamech, Noah.

Luke 3:35 the son of Serug, the son of Reu, the son of Peleg, the son of Eber, the son of Shelah,

1 Chr 1:26 Serug, Nahor, Terah
1 Chr 1:25 Eber, Peleg, Reu,
1 Chr 1:24 Shem, Arphaxad, Shelah,

Luke 3:34 ....the son of Abraham, the son of Terah, the son of Nahor.

(1 Chr 27-24: Shem to Abraham):

1 Chr 1:27 and Abram (that is, Abraham).

1 Chr 1:26 Serug, Nahor, Terah

Notice that Adam was the son of God. It is this right that Adam lost when he fell from grace. Jesus came to redeem the Adamic race to its original grace and glory. The blood that runs, runs right through Adam to Abraham in accordance with the Old Testament patriarchal line.
a) LUKE'S GENEALOGY FROM ADAM TO ABRAHAM SUMMARIZED:
LUKE’S LINEAGE OLD TESTAMENT LINEAGE
God God
Adam Adam
Seth Seth
Enosh Enosh
Kenan Kenan
Mahalalel Mahalalel
Jared Jared
Enoch Enoch
Methuselah Methuselah
Lamech Lamech
Noah Noah
Shem Shem
Arphaxad Arphaxad
Cainan xxxxxxxxxxxxx
Shelah Shelah
Eber Eber
Peleg Peleg
Reu Reu
Serug Serug
Nahor Nahor
Terah Terah
Abraham Abraham

b) EXPLANATION OF THE 'EXTRA' NAME CAINAN IN LUKE'S GENEALOGY

We notice that one name is missing in the Old Testament series which is found in Luke’s genealogy.

Cainan is the son of Arphaxad and Shelah is the son of Cainan according to Luke; while in the Chronicle this name is not found. However in Hebrew traditional lineage this name can be found in the Septuagint......

[The name Cainan is found in certain key papyri manuscript copies and the Septuagint (LXX) as well; the latter of which is an early Greek translation of the Old Testament which dates from about 250 BC. Yet most Old Testament translations favor the Masoretic Text (~500 AD) when it comes to the exclusion of Cainan.

On the other hand, as stated by Mantague Stephen Mills, (op. cit. p. 11), there is much evidence for the name Cainan to be included:

'''The argument to support the authenticity of the Cainan reading in the original manuscript is strong. C. Robert Fetter, who has made a detailed study of this problem, states that Codex Bezae (Uncial D) is the only manuscript of consequence which excludes Cainan....

{Robert Fetter, 'A Critical Investigation of the 'The Second Cainan' in Luke 3:36. Unpublished B.D. monograph, Grace Theological Seminary, May 1956. p. 51.}

Metzger has this to say about Uncial D.

"Different in several respects from all the manuscripts mentioned above (all the papyri and A B C ....

Dating from the fifth or possibly sixth century......

The text is presented in Greek and in Latin....

The Gospels stand in the so-called Western Order (Matthew, John, Luke and Mark)

.... No known manuscript has so many and such remarkable variations from what is usually taken to be the normal New Testament text. Codex Bezae's special characteristic is the free addition (and occasional omission) of words, sentences and even incidents. Thus in Luke IV... between verses 4 and 6 it contains the following account 'On the same day, seeing one working on the Sabbath day, He said to him 'Man if you know what you are doing you are blessed; but if you do not know you are accursed and a transgressor of the law.' "

After listing several other peculiarities Metzger concludes:

"These examples will be sufficient to indicate the characteristic freedom of what is called the Western Text, of which Codex Bezae is the principal representative. More study has been expended upon this manuscript, particularly where the Greek text differs from the parallel Latin text and where one or both differ from other witnesses, than has been devoted to any other New Testament witness. There is still no unanimity of opinion regarding the many problems which the manuscript raises."

Henry Alford has this to say about Codex Bezae:

"The text of the Codex Bezae is a very peculiar one, deviating more from the received readings and from the principal manuscript authorities than any other....

It is closely and singularly allied to the ancient Latin versions, so much so that some critics have supposed it to have been altered from the Latin; and certainly many of the phenomena of the manuscript seem to bear out the idea... in critical weight it ranks the lowest of the leading manuscripts."

The foregoing quotations amply highlight the weaknesses of the witness of D. The text's established freedom from the generally accepted New Testament texts, its lack of concord within itself between the Greek and Latin texts and the obviously spurious addition in Luke chapter 4 (the sentiment of this addition is clearly contrary to the general tenor of New Testament teaching) make it a very dubious witness for the exclusion of Cainan, a matter which can readily be understood as of not much concern to the scribe. The solid support of the papyri X A B LT D A P leave little room for questioning the originality of the reading supporting the inclusion of Cainan and it is little wonder therefore that no variant readings are even listed in the United Bible Societies' Greek New Testament. The Nestle text does likewise but the text edited by Alford mentions the variant."]

[Dr. Ninan, cont.]

Why was this name not in our Bible and found in Septuagint and tradition? Again we have to look back into Hebrew tradition. If a person died when they are very young before they have a chance to establish a name for himself, the child born to them will be known as the child of the living grandfather. This practice is echoed in the book at 4:17.

1) [Ruth 4:17]:

"The women living there said, 'Naomi has a son.' And they named him Obed. He was the father of Jesse, the father of David"

If the son of Arphaxad, Cainan died very young after begetting Shelah, the Jews would refer him as the son of Arphaxad and not as the son of Cainan. Cainan will not be practically referred to in any legal documents, since he died before he established himself and legally took possession of the properties and rights as a son. But this will not be acceptable to the Gentile world where actual parenthood is always counted. Thus it is interesting that Luke brings his name into the line.

3) LUKE'S AND MATTHEW'S GENEALOGIES FROM ABRAHAM TO DAVID COINCIDE
LUKE OLD TESTAMENT MATTHEW
Luke 3:34 the son of Jacob, the son of Isaac, the son of Abraham. 1 Chr 1:28 The sons of Abraham: Isaac and Ishmael
1 Chr 1:34 Abraham was the father of Isaac. The sons of Isaac: Esau and Israel.
[Jacob]
Mat 1:2 Abraham was the father of Isaac, Isaac the father of Jacob, Jacob the father of Judah and his brothers,

Luke 3:33 the son of Amminadab, the son of Ram, the son of Hezron, the son of Perez, the son of Judah,

1 Chr 2:4 Tamar, Judah's daughter-in--law, bore him Perez and Zerah. Judah had five sons in all.
1 Chr 2:5 The sons of Perez: Hezron and Hamul.
1 Chr 2:9 The sons born to Hezron were: Jerahmeel, Ram and Caleb.
1 Chr 2:10 Ram was the father of Amminadab, and Amminadab the father of Nahshon, the leader of the people of Judah
Mat 1:4 Ram the father of Amminadab, Amminadab the father of Nahshon, Nahshon the father of Salmon,
Mat 1:3 Judah the father of Perez and Zerah, whose mother was Tamar, Perez the father of Hezron, Hezron the father of Ram,

Luke 3:32 the son of Jesse, the son of Obed, the son of Boaz, the son of Salmon, the son of Nahshon, 1 Chr 2:11 Nahshon was the father of Salmon, Salmon the father of Boaz,
1 Chr 2:12 Boaz the father of Obed and Obed the father of Jesse.
Mat 1:5 Salmon the father of Boaz, whose mother was Rahab, Boaz the father of Obed, whose mother was Ruth, Obed the father of Jesse,
Mat 1:4 Ram the father of Amminadab, Amminadab the father of Nahshon, Nahshon the father of Salmon,
Luke 3:31 the son of Melea, the son of Menna, the son of Mattaha, the son of Nathan, the son of David, 1 Chr 2:13 Jesse was the father of Eliab his firstborn; the second son was Abinadab, the third Shimea,
1 Chr 2:14 the fourth Nathenel, the fifth Raddai,

1 Chr 2:15 the sixth Ozem and the seventh David.
Mat 1:6 and Jesse the father of King David.
4) LUKE'S AND MATTHEW'S GENEALOGIES FROM DAVID TO CAPTIVITY BRANCH OFF FROM ONE ANOTHER
[The two lines branch] off after David. Matthew traces the royal line through Solomon to Joseph. Joseph is the legal heir to the throne of David and as the legal son according to levirate or ghost marriage custom Jesus is the King of the Jews. Thus when Jesus claimed that he is the King of the Jews he was the rightful King in the line of David.
Luke on the other hand traces the blood line through another son of David viz. Nathan. While Solomon was the heir to the throne, Nathan was the spiritual heir to David.
Luke goes on to trace this line until captivity to Neri thus in backwards order:
LUKE OLD TESTAMENT OR HISTORICAL REFERENCE MATTHEW
Luke 3:31 the son of Melea, the son of Menna, the son of Mattatha, the son of Nathan, the son of David






[David
Nathan
Matthatha
Menna
Melea]

2 Sam 5:13 After he left Hebron, David took more concubines and wives in Jerusalem, and more sons and daughters were born to him.

2 Sam 5:14 These are the names of the children born to him there: Shammua, Shobab, Nathan, Solomon,

Mt 1:6 and Jesse the father of King David. David was the father of Solomon, whose mother had been Uriah's wife,
Mt 1:7 Solomon the father of Rehoboam, Rehoboam the father of Abijah, Abijah the father of Asa,

[David
Solomon
Rehoboam
Abijah
Asa]

Luke 3:30 the son of Simeon, the son of Judah, the son of Joseph, the son of Jonam, the son of Eliakim,

[Eliakim

Jonam

Jospeh

Judah

Simeon]

Mt 1:8 Asa the father of Jehoshaphat, Jehoshaphat the father of Jehoram, Jehoram the father of Uzziah,

[Jehoshaphat
Jehoram
Uzziah]

Luke 3:29 the son of Joshua, the son of Eliezer, the son of Jorim, the son of Matthat, the son of Levi,

[Levi

Matthat

Jorim

Eliezer

Joshua]

Mt 1:9 Uzziah the father of Jotham, Jotham the father of Ahaz, Ahaz the father of Hezekiah,

[Jotham
Ahaz
Hezekiah]

Luke 3:28 the son of Melki, the son of Addi, the son of Cosam, the son of Elmadam, the son of Er,

[Er

Elmadam

Cosam

Addi

Melki]

Mt 1:10 Hezekiah the father of Manasseh, Manasseh the father of Amon, Amon the father of Josiah,

[Manasseh
Amon
Josiah]
Luke 3:27 the son of Joanan, the son of Rhesa, the son of Zerubbabel, the son of Shealtiel, the son of Neri,

[Neri
ShealtieL
Zerubbabel
Rhesa
Joanan]

Mt 1:11 and Josiah the father of Jeconiah and his brothers at the time of the exile to Babylon.


[Jeconiah]
a) MATTHAT TO RHESA:
John Nolland states, [WORD BIBLICAL COMMENTARY, WORD BOOKS, PUBLISHER, DALLAS , TEXAS, 1989, Vol. 35A, Luke 1-9:20, pp. 171-172]:
"The names Matthat to Rhesa are names of otherwise unknown figures. It has frequently been suggested (see e.g., Jeremias, Jerusalem, 296) that 'Resa (Rhesa) is actually a transliteration of the Aramaic word for prince and that Joanan is the son of Zerubbabel referred to in 1 Chr 3:19 as Hanniah. This is certainly possible, since no son of Zerubbabel named Rhesa is otherwise known and Zerubbabel was a successor to Sheshbazzar who is termed prince in Ezra 1:8.
With Zerubbabel we reach a definitely known figure, who has a governor of Judea in the Persian restoration and who had a part in the rebuilding of the temple (Ezra 3:2; Hag 1:1; Zech 4:6-10, etc.)
5) LUKE'S AND MATTHEW'S GENEALOGIES DIFFER FROM PERIOD OF CAPTIVITY TO JESUS CHRIST

As we come to captivity, the social conditions were in turmoil as far as the Jewish people were concerned. Judah was taken into captivity by the Babylonian Empire under Nebuchadnezzar. The temple was destroyed and its bronze and silver and gold were taken away. Its royalty were made captive and taken as slaves. King Jeconiah was put in prison. Many were put to death and only the poor remained in the land.

2 Ki 24:13 As the LORD had declared, Nebuchadnezzar removed all the treasures from the temple of the LORD and from the royal palace, and took away all the gold articles that Solomon king of Israel had made for the temple of the LORD.

2 Ki 24:14 He carried into exile all Jerusalem: all the officers and fighting men, and all the craftsmen and artisans--a total of ten thousand. Only the poorest people of the land were left.

The story of Judah restarts in Babylonian country side, among the prison cells and among the slave dwellings. The Jews clung to their great traditions and struggled to maintain the heritage and family names. As a result they had to resort to levirate customs, kinsman redeemer customs and to Zelophahad customs. ...Without these it was impossible to continue the family unbroken. There were few men left with vast number of women who were mostly widows or separated from husbands. It is with this in mind that we should approach the lineage problems and we will see how beautifully it will fall in place.

LUKE OLD TESTAMENT MATTHEW
Luke 3:27 cont. the son of Joanan, the son of Rhesa, the son of Zerubbabel, the son of Shealtiel, the son of Neri,








[Neri
Shealtiel
Zerubbabel]

1 Chr 3:17 The descendants of Jehoiachin the captive: Shealtiel his son,

1 Chr 3:18 Malkiram, Pedaiah, Shenazzar, Jekamiah, Hoshama and Nedabiah.

1 Chr 3:19 The sons of Pedaiah: Zerubbabel and Shimei. The sons of Zerubbabel: Meshullam and Hananiah. Shelomith was their sister.

1 Chr 3:20 There were also five others: Hashubah, Ohel, Berekiah, Hasadiah and Jushab-Hesed.

Mat 1:11 and Josiah the father of Jeconiah and his brothers at the time of the exile to Babylon.

Mat 1:12 After the exile to Babylon: Jeconiah was the father of Shealtiel, Shealtiel the father of Zerubbabel,





[Josiah
Jeconiah
Shealtiel
Zerubbabel]

a) JECONIAH, NERI AND SHEALTHIEL:

Matthew gives the name of Shealthiel as the son of Jeconiah while Luke gives the name as Neri. Both give the name of Zerubabel as the son of Shealthiel. So we cannot put them as two distinct Shealthiels and Zerubabel. That will be pushing the matter too much. However the problem is [evidently] solved with the assumption of levirate custom.

Jeconiah was carried away as a prisoner and his queen was also taken as captive.

[From http://fly.hiwaay.net/!andysh/genealogy.html, ''' "Contradictions" in the Genealogies of Christ?''' , p. 5]:

In Jer 22:24-30, it is predicted that Coniah (Jehoiachin) would be childless, therefore he could not have been the father of Salathiel, but it is possible and probable that he adopted the seven sons of Neri, [or that Neri took the Queen in Levirite marriage], the twentieth from David in the line of Nathan. This seems to be intimated in Zech. 12:12 where we read of 'the family of Nathan apart,' as well as 'the family of David apart.' If this were so, Salathiel would be the posterity of Jechonias by an adoption in the line of Nathan."

It is unlikely that the queen was put in prison with the King. Women were never considered important enough to be put in prison and that would have been considered improper Babylonian culture. It is therefore normal to expect her to follow the levirate custom as the King was in the Babylonian prison and unable to procreate and keep his name in the tribe. There was no knowing whether he would ever come out of the prison alive. But he did after 37 years. I would place him at 55 years old when he was released. So it is quite reasonable to assume that Neri took the Queen and begat children for Jeconiah. Neri was of the same tribe and family of David and therefore the Kinsman of Jeconiah.

b) SHEALTHIEL, PEDIAH AND ZERUBABEL

The family according to 1 Chronicles is as follows:

Jeconiah - Pediah - Zerubabel- Accordingly Shealthiel did not have a son called Zerubabel. Zerubabel was the son of Pediah one of Shealthiel’s brothers named Pediah.

But the names of Abiud and Rhesa are not there. Here again the same situation exists. While both Matthew and Luke puts Shealthiel as the father of Zerubabel, Chronicler puts Pediah as the father of Zerubabel. Pediah is one of the brothers of Shealthiel. The conclusion is very clear. Pediah died without children probably very early and Shealthiel his brother went into his wife to provide children for him. Thus chronicler, being a legal man follows the Pediah line (legal son), while Zerubabel was actually the son of Shealthiel. Luke following the blood line follows Zerubabel to Shealthiel. Matthew following the Royal line also accepts Shealthiel because Shealthiel as the older brother (first born) was the legal heir to the throne of David. Prince Shealthiel was a towering figure in the period of captivity and Shealthiel the next in line who became the governor of Judah and was universally accepted as the son of Shealthiel. For references to Shealthiel (also called Salathiel) please read 1 Chr. 3:17; Ezra 3:2, 8; Neh. 12:11 ; Hag. 1:1, 12, 14; 2:2, 23.

For references to Zerubbabel (also called Sheshbazzar by the Babylonians with alias Zorobabel) please read Ezra 1-5; Hag. 1:12-14; Neh 12)

Johoiakim
Jeconiah (Jehaechin, Jehoiachin, Coniah)
Shealthiel (Salathiel) = Machiraim = Pediah = Shenazar = Jekamiah
|----------------------------|
Zerubabel
Five Sons
The missing names in Mt 1:13-15 are not much of a problem because in those days people had several names and these names must have been aliases of the children of Zerubabel. Abiud and Rhesa must have been for all practical reasons the two sons from among the five. These names however do not appear as such anywhere else and we have therefore no way of confirming nor discrediting the assumption.
Luke 3:26 the son of Maath, the son of Mattathias, the son of Semein, the son of Josech, the son of Joda,

[Joda
Josech
Semein
Mattathias

Maath]
Mat 1:13 Zerubbabel the father of Abiud, Abiud the father of Eliakim, Eliakim the father of Azor,

[Zerubbabel
Abiud
Eliakim
Azor]
Luke 3:25 the son of Mattathias, the son of Amos, the son of Nahum, the son of Esli, the son of Naggai,

[Naggai
Esli
Hanum
Amos]
Mat 1:14 Azor the father of Zadok, Zadok the father of Akim, Akim the father of Eliud,


[Zadok
Akim
Eliud]

Luke 3:24 the son of Matthat, the son of Levi, the son of Melki, the son of Jannai, the son of Joseph,

[Joseph
Jannai
Melki
Levi
Matthat]
Mat 1:15 Eliud the father of Eleazar, Eleazar the father of Matthan, Matthan the father of Jacob,

[Eleazar
Matthan
Jacob
Luke 3:23 Now Jesus himself was about thirty years old when he began his ministry. He was the son, so it was thought, of Joseph, the son of Heli,

[Heli
Joseph
Jesus]
Mat 1:16 and Jacob the father of Joseph, the husband of Mary, of whom was born Jesus, who is called Christ.

[Jacob
Joseph
Mary
Jesus]

c) JOSEPH, HELI AND MARY

The Zelophehad custom:

Again when we reach the pinnacle of the tree, Luke claims that Joseph is the son of Heli while Matthew puts Joseph as the son of Jacob. Here we have to call for another adoption custom which is widely practiced all over the world. In this custom if a family had no male offspring to provide a lineage, one of the husbands of the girls may be adopted to the heir of the family. They will then be legal heir to the family titles. Mary being the only daughter of Heli, had adopted Joseph according to the law of Zelophahad. This mode of marriage is confirmed by God during the division of Palestine by Moses.

Num 27:1 The daughters of Zelophehad son of Hepher, the son of Gilead, the son of Makir, the son of Manasseh, belonged to the clans of Manasseh son of Joseph. The names of the daughters were Mahlah, Noah, Hoglah, Milcah and Tirzah. They approached

Num 27:2 the entrance to the Tent of Meeting and stood before Moses, Eleazar the priest, the leaders and the whole assembly, and said,

Num 27:3 "Our father died in the desert. He was not among Korah's followers, who banded together against the LORD, but he died for his own sin and left no sons. Num 27:4 Why should our father's name disappear from his clan because he had no son? Give us property among our father's relatives."

Num 27:5 So Moses brought their case before the LORD Num 27:6 and the LORD said to him,

Num 27:7 "What Zelophehad's daughters are saying is right. You must certainly give them property as an inheritance among their father's relatives and turn their father's inheritance over to them.

Num 27:8 "Say to the Israelites, 'If a man dies and leaves no son, turn his inheritance over to his daughter.

Num 36:6 This is what the LORD commands for Zelophehad's daughters: They may marry anyone they please as long as they marry within the tribal clan of their father.

Joseph being the family of Judah and of David was therefore adopted in accordance with the law. Hence though Heli was the father of Mary, Joseph the son of Jacob became the son of Heli by adoption."

III) SKEPTICS QUESTIONS ANSWERED:

A) IF THE VIRGIN BIRTH STORY IS TRUE, THEN WHY DO THE GENEALOGIES REPORT JOSEPH AS BEING THE FATHER OF JESUS?

[Dr. Henrietta Mears states: http://www.yfiles.com/duel.html]

"The skeptic asks:

'The New Testament gives a detailed line of descent for Jesus demonstrating that Jesus was born of the line of King David. This is done to meet the prophetic requirement of the Messiah being an heir to the house of David. It is unfortunate that the writer traces Jesus descent from David through Joseph. Joseph isn't the father if we are to believe the story of a virgin birth.'

...In the genealogy in Matthew 1, notice one name, Jechonias (Jeconiah), in verse 11. If Joseph had been Jesus' father according to the flesh, He could never have occupied the throne, for God's word barred the way. There had been a curse on this royal line since the days of Jeconiah. In Jeremiah 22:30 we read, Thus says the Lord: write this man down as childless, a man who shall not prosper in his days: for none of his descendants shall prosper, sitting on the throne of David, and ruling any more in Judah. Joseph was in the line of this curse. Hence, if Jesus had been Joseph's son, He could not have sat on David's throne.

But we find another genealogy of Jesus in Luke 3. This is Mary's line, back to David, through Nathan, not Jeconiah (Luke 3:31). There was no curse on this line. Then the angel said to her, "Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God. And behold, you shall conceive in your womb, and bring forth a Son, and shall call His name Jesus. He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Highest; and the Lord God will give Him the throne of His father David: And he will reign over the house of Jacob forever; and of His kingdom there will be no end (Luke 1:30-33).

In Matthew 1:1-17 we have the royal genealogy of the son of David, through Joseph. In Luke 3:23-38 it is His strictly personal genealogy, through Mary. In Matthew it is His legal line of descent through Joseph; in Luke it is His lineal descent through Mary. In Matthew His genealogy is traced forward from Abraham; in Luke it followed backward to Adam, Each is significant! Matthew is showing Jesus' relation to the Jew, hence he goes back no further than to Abraham, father of the Jewish nation. But in Luke is His connection with the human race; hence His genealogy is traced back to Adam, the father of the human family.

In Luke, Jesus' line is traced back to Adam, and is, no doubt, His mother's line. Notice in Luke 3:23, it does not say Jesus was the son of Joseph. What are the words? As was supposed. In Matthew 1:16, where Joseph's genealogy is given, we find that Joseph was the son of Jacob. In Luke it says he was the son of Heli. He could not be the son of two men by natural generation. But notice this carefully - the record does not state that Heli begot Joseph, so it is supposed that Joseph was the son by law (or son-in-law) of Heli. Heli is believed to have been the father of Mary.

The Davidic genealogy goes through Nathan, not Solomon. This too is important. The Messiah must be David's son and heir (2 Sam. 7:12, 13; Romans 1:3; Acts 2:30, 31) and his seed according to the flesh. He must be a literal flesh and blood descendant. Hence Mary must be a member of David's house as well as Joseph (Luke 1:32).]

B) THE TERM BEGOTTEN IS NOT USED IN LUKE'S GENEALOGY SO IT IS SUSPECT OF BEING A TRUE GENEALOGY

[Guy Cramer states, "The Genealogy Jigsaw Puzzle" http://www.yfiles.com/duel.html]:

"The skeptic responds:

'Allowing [the] argument that this phrasing is used to indicate that Joseph was the son-in-law of Heli, I find it interesting that this entire passage does not use the term begotten all the way back to David and beyond.'

Following [the skeptic's] line of reasoning, these men were all son-in-laws and not sons to the previous generation. Considering that the Israelites did not trace lines of descent through matriarchal lines but through patriarchal lines this seems to be a very tenuous linkage at best.

The original Greek in Luke 3:24 reads: being, as was supposed, son of Joseph, of Heli, of Matthat,... notice it does not say son of Heli... sure they could be sons-in-law and not sons but you must take note that it does not say son of Heli...

But if we look at the original Greek of Matthew 1:2 we read that Abraham fathered Isaac, Isaac and fathered Jacob... so here we have a definite patriarchal line.

Matthew was written for the Jews so we have the patriarchal line listed in Matthew 1. Luke was written to the Greeks, a highly feminized culture in the first century so a matriarchal line is possible. Can we confirm that Matthew was written for the Jews? Often Matthew leaves Jewish phrases and customs unexplained, assuming that his readers are familiar with them. And where Luke would say "kingdom of God," Matthew uses the phrase "kingdom of heaven," out of respect for Jews, who never wrote out the word God.

Matthew 1:18-25 even states that Joseph was not the biological father of Jesus. So the genealogy he gives prior to this is only a legal line of decent.

Sons from Luke 3

Do we have proof that any of the Men listed in the Luke 3:23-38 are not son-in-laws?

First the genealogy in Matthew 1:1-17 shows in the original Greek that each man is the father of the next. The genealogy in Luke just says that the man "of" the next one all the way to Adam of God. But both genealogies lists the same 12 men from David to Abraham. Therefore, those passages in Luke 3:32-43 are showing the actual fathers and cannot be understood as son-in-laws.

Our question now shifts to the prior men in Luke 3:23-31 were they all son-in-laws?

As mentioned before, the split in genealogies happens with David's sons. Matthew lists the line of Solomon, Luke lists the line of Nathan.

In 2 Samuel 5:13-14 we read "...Also more sons and daughters were born to David. Now these are the names of those who were born to him in Jerusalem: Shammua, Shobab, Nathan, Solomon,...

So we know that Nathan was David's son.

If we turn to Zechariah 12:12-14 we read in this Old Testament book a prophecy who will mourn for the Messiah when He is pierced:

"And the land shall mourn, every family by itself: the family of the house of David by itself, and their wives by themselves; the family of the house of Nathan by itself, and their wives by themselves; the family of the house of Levi by itself, and their wives by themselves; the family of Shimei by itself, and their wives by themselves.

It turns out that the pierced Messiah is not the only prophecy in these passages.

If we go back to the genealogy in Luke 3:26, 3:29, 3:31 we find all four of these same names in the proper order. This doesn't mean that the names are one immediately after the other, but If we look at the first two names in Zechariah David and Nathan we do find these are one after the other in Luke 3. The next name in Zechariah 12 is Levi. If we begin at David and then Nathan we have to skip 9 names until we run into Levi. If we skip ahead 17 more names from Levi we find Semei. The Hebrew name in Zechariah 12 is Shimei. This same Hebrew name in the Greek New Testament would be translated as Semei.

I asked James D. Price a Professor of Hebrew, if this was correct. His response: "The Greek language has no "sh" sound, and no letter for "sh". So both the Greek Septuagint and the Greek NT transliterate Hebrew "sh" with "s"." I also asked him, "Can the Hebrew name Shimei be understood as Semei?" His responded, "If you are talking about a Greek translation, yes."

So considering that the Israelites did not trace lines of descent through matriarchal lines but through patriarchal lines, if we look at Zechariah 12:12-14 we find that the author who is an Israelite traces this line through a patriarchal system from David to Shimei.

This only leaves us with 14 generations from Joseph to Semei (not 41 from Joseph to David) in which could have had been son-in-laws in the Luke 3 genealogy. There is no other data in the Bible on these remaining 14 generations to express a dogmatic view on the issue but the information from the prophecy of Zechariah seems to suggest that we should expect only one in the genealogy who is a son-in-law - Joseph.

Zechariah picked four names in correct order from the blood line of the Messiah 500 years before Jesus was born. Zechariah knew from other prophecies the Messiah was to come from the line of David. In 1 Chronicles 3:1-9 we find that David had at least 15 sons. So Zechariah correctly picked Nathan as the line in which the Messiah would come. He also correctly picked the names Levi and Shimei (Semei) to be part of that line in his prophecy. What are the odds?

The skeptic has his answer.

References: 1. Mears, Henrietta C., "What The Bible Is All About", G/L Publications 1953,1954,1960,1966, p. 356-357, 396 Presented by Trinity Consulting"

C) MARY SHOULD BE DISQUALIFIED TO TRANSFER THE RIGHTS OF HER LINEAGE TO HER SON JESUS SINCE SHE IS A WOMAN

[Phil Luna states, "The Lineage Loophole", http://www.yfiles.com/loophole.html]:

"Mary should be disqualified to transfer the rights of her lineage to her son Jesus, except for a little known exception to the rule.

In Matthew 1:1-16 and Luke 3:23-38 we are presented with two genealogies of Jesus Christ. On the surface these different listings would appear to be a contradiction in the scriptures. The genealogy found in Matthew's gospel is the lineage of Jesus' earthly father Joseph, while the genealogy found in Luke's gospel is the lineage of Jesus' mother Mary... However, many of the people that teach on the genealogies fail to realize or address a major problem associated with the genealogical listing found in Luke's gospel, the lineage of Mary. Once you have established that the line is indeed Mary's you must deal with a second difficulty. The rights of the line are not passed through the mother, only the father. Even though Mary, through her lineage, was of the Davidic bloodline, she should be excluded from being able to pass those rights of the bloodline because of being a female (Deut 21:16). So it is not enough to prove that Mary was an unblemished descendant of David, she had to be a male to transfer the rights. Therefore she would be disqualified to transfer the rights to her son Jesus, except for a little known exception to the rule.

In Numbers 26 we are introduced to Zelophehad. Zelophehad, we are told, had no sons, only daughters. In Numbers 27, following the death of Zelophehad, the daughters of Zelophehad came before Moses and argued their plight. Because their father had died with no sons, all of their rights of inheritance were to be lost and they felt this was unfair. So Moses prayed to God and God gave Moses an exception to the rule. The Lord told Moses that the inheritance CAN flow through a female, IF they fulfill two requirements. There must be no male offspring in the family (Num 27:8) and if the female offspring should marry, they must marry within their own tribe (Num 36:6).

Now we come back to Mary. On the surface she should be unable to transfer the rights to her Son. But when you research you find that Mary had NO brothers, AND Mary did indeed marry within her own tribe to Joseph.

What an awesome God we serve that set in order the requirements to allow the virgin birth to take place 1,400 years in advance! Did Mary have any brothers? By Guy Cramer After reading the detailed information above, I asked Phil if he knew of any information on Mary's brothers. He cited numerous non-canonical works such as The Catholic Encyclopedia, the apocryphal book called, the Protoevangelium of James... tradition states that Mary had no brothers.

Curious, I went through the four gospels looking for any reference to collaborate Phil's references.

In John 19:25-27 we read:

Now there stood by the cross of Jesus His Mother, and His mother's sister, Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary Magdalene. When Jesus therefore saw His Mother, and the disciple whom he loved standing by, He said to His mother, "Woman, behold your son!" Then He said to the disciple, "Behold your mother!" And from that hour that disciple took her to his home.

We see from this passage that Mary had a sister.

Jesus is not saying to His mother "Look at me on the cross" with the statement "Woman, behold your son!" Jesus is telling his mother that John (the only disciple at the cross) is going to care for her. Jesus also tells John that he must care for Mary.

We must acknowledge that Joseph (Jesus Father) has probably died since we see no references to Joseph after Jesus was 12 years old in Luke 2:41-52.

To understand why Jesus is telling John to care for Mary we must understand the Jewish culture at that time. When an woman with children was widowed she would move back with her father or brother. If her father had also died and there were no brothers then one of her sons might care for her.

In this case, Jesus was the eldest son of Mary and was probably supporting her at this time. He passes the responsibility to John one of His disciples and not a son of Mary.

From the comments of Jesus we can extrapolate that Jesus was caring for Mary, which means that Mary had no brothers (at least none that were alive at this time). Taken with the extra-biblical literature that Mary had no brothers we can assume that she passed the first prerequisite that God had given as law (Num 27:8).

Now we see the reason for two different genealogies in Matthew 1 and Luke 3. Not only do we see Joseph's line in Matthew 1 but also Mary's line in Luke 3. Both these genealogies show that both Mary and Joseph come from the same tribe of Judah fulfilling the second requirement by Law (Num 36:6). So the reason for God placing two genealogies is to show that Jesus being of Virgin birth came from Mary's line which was not cursed as was Joseph's. Also to show that both Mary and Joseph come from the same line which was a legal necessity if Jesus was to claim Mary's line and not Joseph's cursed line.

We find that on the surface the Bible can be a simple enough to understand but the complexity we are discovering in which it was written is astonishing. Phil Luna is an ordained Assemblies of God minister. He teaches a weekly Bible study verse by verse through the Bible. His favorite area of study is the Hebraic roots of Christianity.

D) MATTHEW'S LINEAGE DOES NOT HAVE EVERY NAME IT'S SUPPOSED TO HAVE AND IS THEREFORE SUSPECT

[Dr. M.M.Ninan states via email,

[http://www.acns.com/~mm9n/Genealogy/cha1.htm]

Matthew's lineage is certainly not all inclusive. We know for certain that he omitted six names from the list of actual rulers who sat on the throne of David. These names were known to every historian and the scribe when Matthew wrote his gospel and he certainly knew it. So he omits certain people for reasons of legitimacy, curse, unacceptable behaviour etc. The same is applicable through out the line. If he missed 6 during the period of monarchy we do not know how many were missed after the captivity for similar and legitimate reasons. Since we do not have the records we do not also know why. Jews would have been the first to point out such blatant errors and laughed at the history at its inception. The life of the captives in dispersion were so mixed up they certainly must have resorted to levirate marriage. There was no need of a grandfather to adopt (officially I mean) a grandson to be made a legal heir.... Then [this] was considered cultural norm. If an older son died the younger son became heir without any formality. All these factors are to be taken into account especially during the turbulent dispersion era.

Let me give some example.

A is the patriarch

He begets B while A was 25 years old

B begets C while he was 25 years old

B died or was taken prisoner or sold in slavery when he was 30

Then C is the heir to A But he becomes the sole holder of the title of the family only when A dies.

If A died at the age of 90 C comes to his heritage only at the age of 40.

Suppose C died while he was 30 and had a son by 20 called D, the heir to A is now D and we will have missed B and C from the legal line.

For Matthew A (first) to D (second) is just two generations till D's death. The alienation need not be death. It can be socially unacceptable behaviour. It can be simply a disappearance or conviction of crime or marrying outside of the community etc. A recent example of this was King Edward's abdication of the throne of England. In the context of Matthew's presentation this is to be expected.

So the names were omitted as a result of God's judgment. The fact that fourteen names come up in each period of time does not prove out a contrived genealogy unless other names were actually left out for illegitimate reasons creating an error of omission. This is not the case as this study has shown. There is therefore proved no error of omission. It is evident that the decrees and sovereignty of God are testified to in this number fourteen rather than the contrivance of Matthew.

E) OBJECTORS MAINTAIN THAT THE PURPOSE OF THE GENEALOGIES IN MATTHEW, LUKE AND ELSEWHERE IS NOT TO GIVE AN ACCURATE HISTORY WHICH THEY MAINTAIN ARE NOT BIOLOGICAL BUT ARE FALSELY CONTRIVED TO MAKE ONE THEOLOGICAL POINT OR ANOTHER

An unbiased reading of the biblical genealogies within the context will indicate that they simply attempt to establish our Lord's actual and real biological lineage which was prophesied in Scripture so as to qualify Him for consideration as the true Messiah that was foretold. So if the genealogies are purposed not to give 'accurate history' then they are not genealogies at all but nothing but nonsense.

John Nolland states, [WORD BIBLICAL COMMENTARY, WORD BOOKS, PUBLISHER, DALLAS , TEXAS, 1989, Vol. 35A, Luke 1-9:20, pp. 169:

"Ancient genealogies were used for a complex variety of purposes... Genealogies established individual identity; reflected, established, or legitimated social structures, status, and entitlements to office; functioned as modes of praise or delineations of character or even as basis of exhortation...."

Careful observance of Matthew's genealogy will discover that it is not all inclusive nor intended to be. Matthew could not be claiming that it is all inclusive in view of the fact that the omissions are too obvious for the contemporary Jewish community to miss. Furthermore, in consideration of the great attention over the millennia the Jews have paid toward their genealogical history relative to the preservation of their race and the identification of the Messiah, if any genealogy in the Bible was suspect of not being truly biological the bible would not have survived all of these years intact and as originally written. The genealogies of Scripture stand out as highly specific and biological and thus authenticatable at the time each was written. Yet there has not been forthcoming over hundreds of years any trustworthy alternative evidence totally refuting any name listed in any genealogy in Scripture.

Due to numerous factions inside and outside of the nation Israel and the many years which have transpired, objectors' ideas of a contrived, non-biological genealogy as a result of a conspiracy of millions of Jews over the ages and the silence of all of their enemies is quite preposterous.

F) OBJECTORS MAINTAIN THAT SINCE THE MATTHEW AND LUKAN GENEALOGIES ARE NOT IDENTICAL IN FORM AND CONTENT THIS INDICATES THAT THEY DO NOT HAVE A COMMON SOURCE, AND BOTH ARE INACCURATE AND CONTRIVED AND CERTAINLY NOT BIOLOGICAL

The objectors further point out that Matthew’s genealogy is a narrative, a series of subjects and verbs that begins with Abraham and comes forward to Jesus. By contrast they falsely maintain that Luke’s genealogy is not a narrative, but a series of genitive nouns that begins with Jesus and goes backward to Adam and God.

The truth of the matter is that two authors can use a common source and for each's intended purpose produce biologically accurate, non contrived and truthful documents of differing form and content. Normative rules of language and style permit this diversion. It is furthermore, a false presupposition that both genealogies are intended to relay the same identical lineage in precisely the same manner and therefore must be identical. Neither point of this presupposition is accurate as shown in detail in this study.

Both genealogies have minor grammatical and stylistic differences. Neither can actually be considered much more literary than the other. The simple addition of one word, the verb, "begat" = egennesen" and a few explicatory phrases does not make Matthew's style appreciably more literary or novelistic than Luke's. Matthew chose a slightly more narrative form and moved forward historically. Luke chose a shorter, punctuated format similar to the genealogies in Genesis and chose to move backwards in chronology. Both formats are legitimate normative language constructions and cannot be viewed as proving contrivance or inaccuracies. The content is the issue - is each genealogy biologically accurate? Surely one can read about an event in half a dozen different newspapers and find that they all accurately report the event yet are legitimately characterized by differences in style and content.

G) THERE IS A DEFINITIVE LACK OF GENEALOGICAL EVIDENCE TODAY WHICH PROVES THAT GENEALOGIES ARE NOT TO BE BIOLOGICALLY ACCURATE

Objectors to the validity of our Lord's genealogies in Matthew and Luke maintain that except in priestly families, detailed genealogical records were rarely available. Many genealogies were tangled, and even some religious leaders could not trace their own genealogy. Some rabbis taught that clarification would occur in the messianic times when Elijah appeared. Occasionally genealogies were produced by imaginative puns on the words involved rather than from history or tradition. Joshua and Jonah were provided with genealogies by imaginative Midrashic exegesis, as were famous rabbis.

John Nolland states, [WORD BIBLICAL COMMENTARY, WORD BOOKS, PUBLISHER, DALLAS , TEXAS, 1989, Vol. 35A, Luke 1-9:20, pp. 169:

"Ancient genealogies were used for a complex variety of purposes... Genealogies established individual identity; reflected, established, or legitimated social structures, status, and entitlements to office; functioned as modes of praise or delineations of character or even as basis of exhortation...."

[From: http://fly.hiwaay.net/~andysh/genealogy.html]:

"The Jews had carefully maintained genealogical records. These records were preserved in the temple until its destruction in A.D. 70. The Gospel writers had access to these temple records and could accurately trace the genealogy of Jesus from them."

[J. Dwight Pentecost, The Words and Works of Jesus Christ (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1981), p. 39]:

The Jews must have consulted the records to see whether the One Who made such claims (of Messiahship) for Himself had the right to make those claims. Had they found any flaw in His descent, they would have been quick to accuse Him of being an impostor. Even though the nation rejected Him, it was not because He was outside the Davidic line and therefore ineligible to claim the David throne. (Ibid)]

An unbiased reading of the biblical genealogies within the context will indicate that they simply attempt to establish our Lord's actual and real biological lineage which was prophesied in Scripture so as to qualify Him for consideration as the true Messiah that was foretold. So if the genealogies are purposed not to give 'accurate history' then they are not genealogies at all but nothing but nonsense.

H) OBJECTORS MAINTAIN THAT SINCE ISRAEL HAD KINGS AFTER THE EXILE THAT WERE NOT OF THE DAVIDIC LINE, THAT THIS FALSIFIES THE GENEALOGIES IN MATTHEW AND LUKE

Irrelevant and immaterial. The issue is whether or not the Matthean and Lukan genealogies are accurately portraying the legal blood line of David to our Lord. Neither genealogy lists non-Davidic kings nor are such usurpers considered legitimate kings of the Throne of David.

I) THE MATTHEAN GENEALOGY IS ARTIFICIAL BECAUSE IT OMITS SEVERAL NAMES IN ORDER TO ARRIVE AT FOURTEEN NAMES EACH FOR THE THREE PERIODS OF TIME DEPICTED. THIS DONE FOR CONTRIVED THEOLOGICAL REASONS

Matthew's lineage is certainly not all inclusive. We know for certain that he omitted six names from the list of actual rulers who sat on the throne of David. These names were known to every historian and the scribe when Matthew wrote his gospel and he certainly knew it. So he omits certain people for reasons of legitimacy, curse, unacceptable behaviour etc. The same is applicable through out the line. If he missed 6 during the period of monarchy we do not know how many were missed after the captivity for similar and legitimate reasons. Since we do not have the records we do not also know why. Jews would have been the first to point out such blatant errors and laughed at the history at its inception. The life of the captives in dispersion were so mixed up they certainly must have resorted to levirate marriage. There was no need of a grandfather to adopt (officially I mean) a grandson to be made a legal heir.... Then [this] was considered cultural norm. If an older son died the younger son became heir without any formality. All these factors are to be taken into account especially during the turbulent dispersion era.

Let me give some example.

A is the patriarch

He begets B while A was 25 years old

B begets C while he was 25 years old

B died or was taken prisoner or sold in slavery when he was 30

Then C is the heir to A But he becomes the sole holder of the title of the family only when A dies.

If A died at the age of 90 C comes to his heritage only at the age of 40.

Suppose C died while he was 30 and had a son by 20 called D, the heir to A is now D and we will have missed B and C from the legal line.

For Matthew A (first) to D (second) is just two generations till D's death. The alienation need not be death. It can be socially unacceptable behaviour. It can be simply a disappearance or conviction of crime or marrying outside of the community etc. A recent example of this was King Edward's abdication of the throne of England. In the context of Matthew's presentation this is to be expected."

So the names were omitted as a result of God's judgment. The fact that fourteen names come up in each period of time does not prove out a contrived genealogy unless other names were actually left out for illegitimate reasons creating an error of omission. This is not the case as this study has shown. There is therefore proved no error of omission. It is evident that the decrees and sovereignty of God are testified to in this number fourteen rather than the contrivance of Matthew.

J) TAMAR IS A CANAANITE WOMAN IN THE LINE OF MATTHEW THUS FALSIFYING THE TRUE BIOLOGICAL GENEALOGY OF OUR LORD

Objectors maintain that, (Mt 1:3), Tamar was the Canaanite wife of Judah’s eldest son, Er, who died prematurely (Gen 38:1-7). When the patriarch Judah refused her the normal considerations of remarriage, she tricked him into fathering her son, who then was incorporated into what was to become the messianic line (Gen 38:8-30). Judah declares her “righteous” (Gen 38:26), a key term in the Matthean story of Jesus’ birth (cf. 1:19).

K) OBJECTORS STATE THAT LUKE PRESENTS MARY AS BEING RELATED TO THE LEVITICAL FAMILY OF ZECHARIAH & ELIZABETH, AND THEREFORE NOT BELONGING TO THE TRIBE OF JUDAH AND THE LINE OF DAVID

Dr. Ninan Mammen states [Email: mm9n@hotmail.com, Sunday, February 15, 1999 6:23 PM]:

"Certainly Elizabeth was a descendant of Aaron, and Elizabeth was a relative of Mary. It does not follow that Mary was of Aaronic descent. In a patriarchal society descendance is only counted along the male line. If Mary's mother's sister (or father's sister) was married to Elizabeth's father of Aaronic descent (Levite) they are first cousins, but they are of two lineages"

Dr. Ninan Mammen states [Email mm9n@hotmail.com, Monday, February 16, 1999 10:15 AM]:

"The Protoevangelium of James... indicates that Anna was born in Bethlehem. She probably was the sister of Nachariah. If this is true Mary was simply Elizabeth's niece. Elizabeth was married into a Levitical family of Zach while Anna was married into the Davidic family of Heli."

L) OBJECTORS STATE THAT MT 1:17 INDICATES THAT ALL SEGMENTS OF THE GENEALOGY LISTED CONTAINS 14 NAMES, YET THE THIRD ONLY HAS THIRTEEN

Jeconiah is to be counted in both lists, since he lived both before and after the captivity. So, there are literally 14 names listed 'from the captivity in Babylon until the Christ,' just as Matthew says. There are also literally 14 names listed between David and the captivity, just as Matthew claims (Matt. 1:6-12).

[MATTHEW 1:18-25 - THE BIRTH OF CHRIST]:

IV) [MT 1:18-25]:

(Mt 1:18 YLT) "And of Jesus Christ, the birth was thus: For His mother Mary having been betrothed to Joseph, before their coming together she was found to have conceived from the Holy Spirit,

(Mt 1:19 YLT) and Joseph her husband being righteous, and not willing to make her an example, did wish privately to send her away.

(Mt 1:20 YLT) And on his [having thought] of these things [behold], [an Angel] of the LORD in a dream appeared to him, saying, 'Joseph, son of David, [you may] not fear to receive Mary [your] wife, for that which in her was begotten is of the Holy Spirit,

(Mt 1:21 NKJV) And she will bring forth a Son, and you shall call His name JESUS, for He will save His people from their sins.'

(Mt 1:22 YLT) And all this [has] come to pass, that it may be fulfilled that was spoken by the LORD through the prophet, saying,

(Mt 1:23 NKJV) 'Behold, the virgin shall be with child, and bear a Son, and they shall call His name Immanuel,' which is translated, 'God with us,' [cf. Isa 7:14]

(Mt 1:24 NKJV) Then Joseph, being aroused from sleep, did as the angel of the LORD commanded him and took to him his wife,

(Mt 1:25 NKJV) and did not know her till she had brought forth her firstborn Son. And he called His name JESUS."

A (Mt 1:18) MATTHEW NOW WRITES OF THE BIRTH OF JESUS CHRIST BEGINNING WITH HIS MOTHER MARY HAVING BEEN BETROTHED TO MARRIAGE TO JOSEPH. AND BEFORE HAVING INTIMATE RELATIONS, SHE WAS FOUND TO HAVE CONCEIVED A CHILD FROM THE HOLY SPIRIT

(Mt 1:18 YLT) "And of Jesus Christ, the birth was thus: For His mother Mary having been betrothed to Joseph, before their coming together she was found to have conceived from the Holy Spirit." =

In Mt 1:18, author Matthew announces the subject of the birth of Jesus Christ. Matthew declares that Jesus' mother Mary having been bethrothed to Joseph, before their coming together in the sense of having intimate marital relations, she was found to have conceived from the Holy Spirit. That Mary was "found" to be with child does not indicate that Mary was attempting to conceal her pregnancy, but that her pregnancy became observable causing Joseph to learn of it. Note that the angel's communication to Joseph in verse 20, "Joseph, son of David, [you may] not fear to receive Mary [your] wife, for that which in her was begotten is of the Holy Spirit," implies that Joseph discovered Mary's pregnancy and was not informed prior to this communication that Mary's pregnancy was of the Holy Spirit, while she remained a virgin.

Note that among Jewish people, being bethrothed, i.e., engaged, was a legally binding contractual agreement that could only be dissolved by a divorce (in contrast to Roman and modern law). Legally Mary was Joseph's wife and Joseph was Mary's husband; they are even called "man and wife" (verses 20 and 24). During the engagement period the woman remained at her parents' home. Living together and the sexual consummation of the marriage took place only after the wedding ceremony. Before the wedding ceremony took place Mary was found to be pregnant. Matthew explicitly notes that Mary was pregnant by the Holy Spirit, (cf. Mt 1:20, 23 imply that Mary had been faithful, maintaining her purity).

Note that author Luke's account corroborates Matthew's account on the issue of Mary's pregnancy via the Holy Spirit.

1) [Compare Lk 1:26-56]:

(Lk 1:26 NKJV) "Now in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent by God to a city of Galilee named Nazareth,

(Lk 1:27 NKJV) to a virgin betrothed to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David. The virgin's name was Mary.

(Lk 1:28 NKJV) And having come in, the angel said to her, 'Rejoice, highly favored one, the Lord is with you; blessed are you among women!'

(Lk 1:29 NKJV) greeting this was.

(Lk 1:30 NKJV) Then the angel said to her, 'Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God.

(Lk 1:31 NKJV) And behold, you will conceive in your womb and bring forth a Son, and shall call His name JESUS.

(Lk 1:32 NKJV) He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Highest; and the Lord God will give Him the throne of His father David.

(Lk 1:33 NKJV) And He will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and of His kingdom there will be no end.'

(Lk 1:34 NKJV) Then Mary said to the angel, 'How can this be, since I do not know a man?'

(Lk 1:35 NKJV) And the angel answered and said to her, 'The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Highest will overshadow you; therefore, also, that Holy One who is to be born will be called the Son of God.

(Lk 1:36 NKJV) Now indeed, Elizabeth your relative has also conceived a son in her old age; and this is now the sixth month for her who was called barren.

(Lk 1:37 NKJV) For with God nothing will be impossible.'

(Lk 1:38 NKJV) Then Mary said, 'Behold the maidservant of the Lord! Let it be to me according to your word.' And the angel departed from her.

(Lk 1:39 NKJV) Now Mary arose in those days and went into the hill country with haste, to a city of Judah,

(Lk 1:40 NKJV) and entered the house of Zacharias and greeted Elizabeth.

(Lk 1:41 NKJV) And it happened, when Elizabeth heard the greeting of Mary, that the babe leaped in her womb; and Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit.

(Lk 1:42 NKJV) Then she spoke out with a loud voice and said, 'Blessed are you among women, and blessed is the fruit of your womb!

(Lk 1:43 NKJV) But why is this granted to me, that the mother of my Lord should come to me?

(Lk 1:44 NKJV) For indeed, as soon as the voice of your greeting sounded in my ears, the babe leaped in my womb for joy.

(Lk 1:45 NKJV) Blessed is she who believed, for there will be a fulfillment of those things which were told her from the Lord.'

(Lk 1:46 NKJV) And Mary said: 'My soul magnifies the Lord,

(Lk 1:47 NKJV) And my spirit has rejoiced in God my Savior.

(Lk 1:48 NKJV) For He has regarded the lowly state of His maidservant; For behold, henceforth all generations will call me blessed.

(Lk 1:49 NKJV) For He who is mighty has done great things for me, And holy is His name.

(Lk 1:50 NKJV) And His mercy is on those who fear Him From generation to generation.

(Lk 1:51 NKJV) He has shown strength with His arm; He has scattered the proud in the imagination of their hearts.

(Lk 1:52 NKJV) He has put down the mighty from their thrones, And exalted the lowly.

(Lk 1:53 NKJV) He has filled the hungry with good things, And the rich He has sent away empty.

(Lk 1:54 NKJV) He has helped His servant Israel, In remembrance of His mercy,

(Lk 1:55 NKJV) As He spoke to our fathers, To Abraham and to his seed forever.'

(Lk 1:56 NKJV) And Mary remained with her about three months, and returned to her house."

2) Prophecy In Old Testament Scripture Is Fulfilled By The Conception Of Jesus In Mary From The Holy Spirit

****** EXCERPT FROM ISAIAH CHAPTER 7 ******

ISAIAH REQUESTED TO KING AHAZ TO NAME ANY MIRACULOUS SIGN IN CREATION FOR THE LORD TO PERFORM TO AUTHENTICATE THAT GOD WOULD NEVER LET ARAM AND EPHRIAM CONQUER JUDAH. THE OFFER WAS ARROGANTLY REJECTED BY THE UNFAITHFUL AHAZ. THEREFORE, THE LORD HIMSELF GAVE A SIGN TO BEHOLD BEYOND AHAZ'S LIFETIME AND IN THE DISTANT FUTURE: THE MAIDEN / VIRGIN - THE PREGNANT ONE - GIVING BIRTH TO A SON, WHOM SHE WOULD CALL HIS NAME IMMANUEL - MEANING GOD IS WITH US. AND GROWING UP AS A YOUNG CHILD, HE WOULD EAT CURDS AND HONEY, (INFANT FOOD); AND BEFORE HE KNEW TO REFUSE THE EVIL AND CHOOSE TO DO GOOD, THE KINGDOMS THAT JUDAH DREADED WOULD BE FORSAKEN BY BOTH HER KINGS AND DESTROYED

(Isa 7:10 NKJV) ''''Moreover the LORD spoke again to Ahaz, saying, (Isa 7:11 NKJV) '''Ask a sign for yourself from the LORD your God; ask it either in the depth or in the height above.''' (Isa 7:12 NKJV) But Ahaz said, '''I will not ask, nor will I test the LORD!''' (Isa 7:13 NKJV) Then he said, '''Hear now, O house of David! Is it a small thing for you to weary men, but will you weary my God also? (Isa 7:14 YLT) "Therefore the Lord Himself [is giving] to you [plural, i.e., Judah] a sign, [behold], the Virgin [the pregnant one] [the one giving birth to] a son, And she [has called] his name Immanuel. (Isa 7:15 NKJV) Curds and honey He shall eat, that He may know to refuse the evil and choose the good. (Isa 7:16 NKJV) For before the Child shall know to refuse the evil and choose the good, the land that you dread will be forsaken by both her kings.''' '''' =

In order to authenticate His promise to protect Judah from Aram and Ephraim, and test the faith of Ahaz, the LORD asked Ahaz (through Isaiah) to request a sign from "The depth or in the height above" - a figure of speech which has in view any sign that Ahaz might choose for the LORD to perform from the realm of the greatest depths of Sheol to the greatest height of the heavens or from anything in between. With a miracle performed simply for the asking, Ahaz would have had visible confirmation that Isaiah's words were truly from the LORD and then Ahaz could count on the fact that the northern alliance would not defeat Judah. But Ahaz, twisting the words of Scripture, arrogantly declined in unbelief saying, "Nor will I test the LORD!" Ahaz, by rejecting the legitimate offer of a sign from God's messenger, was in effect rejecting the One Who sent the prophet. Furthermore, Ahaz's response questioned the integrity of God's prophet Isaiah for suggesting that Ahaz should test the LORD. Note that Isaiah, the son of Amoz, had already established himself as a prophet of God during the reigns of Uzziah, and his son Jotham, the father of Ahaz; and he would continue to be a prophet of God during the reign of Hezekiah, Ahaz's son, (Isa 1:1). Ahaz refused to accept Isaiah's offer to choose a sign inspite of the fact that if his prophecy were not fulfilled, the king could have had Isaiah put to death. Since the king did not believe in Isaiah's declaration that the LORD would deliver Judah from Aram and Ephraim; and since he was resolved not to do God's will but was determined to negotiate with Assyria, favoring Assyria's power, paganism and idolatry over the LORD, (Isa 10:10, 11 36:18-20); then there would be no sign from the LORD for Judah in Ahaz's time, (Isa 7:10-12).

Isaiah responded to King Ahaz's rejection of the LORD and His prophet: "Hear now, O house of David! [referring to king Ahaz - a descendant of David] Is it a small thing for you to weary men, but will you weary my God also?" This conveys Isaiah's exasperation with Ahaz in the sense of asking him 'Is it not enough for you to try the patience of men, but must you try the patience of my God also?' Notice that Isaiah referred to "my God" as if to say that his God was not Ahaz's God. Up to this time, although he had gotten access to king Ahaz which implied that his reputation as a prophet had preceded him, Isaiah had not prophesied a sign personally to Ahaz which would have authenticated the LORD's promise to deliver Judah from Aram and Ephraim; and it would have authenticated that Isaiah was a true prophet of the LORD. Since Ahaz had refused to let this proof be presented, Isaiah was exasperated, (Isa 7:13).

Hence Isaiah announced that the LORD Himself would give a sign of His own choosing. Notice that the word rendered "Himself" in the NKJV is in an emphatic mode in Isa 7:14 emphasizing the LORD's singularly emphatic response to Ahaz's rejection of a sign to provide one Himself without any imput from the arrogant, faithless king. The word rendered "Behold" in verse 14 brings attention to an astounding sign of the maiden / virgin's birth of a Son Whom she would call His name Immanuel, meaning God is with us:

(Isa 7:14 YLT) "Therefore the Lord Himself [is giving] to you [plural, i.e., Judah] a sign, [behold], the Virgin [the pregnant one] [the one giving birth to] a son, And she [has called] his name Immanuel.

(Isa 7:14 Hebrew) "lkn ..........ithn ................adni ............eua .l-km ..........auth .ene

..............................."therefore he-shall-give ..my-LORD he ...to-you .......sign .behold

e-olme.................... ere ..................u-ildth .........................bn ..u-grath ................shm-u

the-maiden/virgin .pregnant-one and-one-giving-birth .son and-she-has called .name-of-him

omnu~al

Immanu~El

(Isa 7:15 NKJV) Curds and honey [infant food signifying that He was growing up] He shall eat, that He may know to refuse the evil and choose the good. (Isa 7:16 NKJV) For before the Child shall know to refuse the evil and choose the good, the land that you dread will be forsaken by both her kings."

Note that the Child in the prophecy of Isa 7:14-16 is stipulated as having been given birth to by "the Virgin" with the definite article - the pregnant one, (noun), the one giving birth (participle for noun) to a Son. And she [has called] His name Immanuel, [lit., Immanu~El or God is with us]." The LXX, (Septuagint = Greek version of the Hebrew Text] translators used the unambiguous word 'parthenos' ('virgin') to translate 'almAh' rendered "virgin" in the NKJV. This Hebrew word transliterated "almAh" refers to a young woman of marriagable age implying virginity. It evidently comes from the concept of a young maiden / woman being closely guarded and kept from men's gaze in their parents' custody in the East - which implies virginity. So the verse points to the unique, one of a kind maiden / virgin the pregnant one who gives birth to the Child Whom she would call Immanuel meaning God is with us which excludes sexual intercourse, otherwise she could not be stipulated as the maiden / virgin. There is no clear OT example of the use of 'almAh' for a married woman. In the next two verses, it is stipulated that the Child will grow up on "curds and honey" the normal diet of a weaned child; and reach the point of knowing to refuse evil and do good - from conception to accountability -. after but not necessarily immediately after the kingdoms of Syria and Ephraim have been destroyed by Assyria.

A short term fulfillment of this prophecy through a maiden / virgin through marriage and sexual relations with king Ahaz or with Isaiah or some other man, to give birth to a son whose name she would call "Immanuel" or through all of Judah's mothers at that time who returned to faith in the LORD calling their sons "Immanuel," as some contend, cannot be in view in Isa 7:14. Any woman who gave birth to a son as a result of sexual relations was a common occurrence and hence not a unique miraculous sign from the LORD to corroborate a particular promise He made through His prophet Isaiah. Isaiah's wife could not be classified at this time as a maiden / virgin because she had already given birth to a son named "Shear-Jashub, (cf. Isa 7:3); nor was Ahaz's wife, the queen, a maiden / virgin at the time. Furthermore, any mother by sexual relations could not be called the maiden / virgin at the time of giving birth because the original text literally stipulates, "The maiden /virgin with the definite article - the pregnant one, (noun), the one giving birth (participle for noun) to a Son," which rules out sexual relations. Finally, the scenario of a fulfillment of this prophecy through all of Judah's married women who returned to faith in the LORD in that time is ruled out because the prophecy refers to a singular noun with the definite article hence the specific and unique "maiden / virgin," is in view which cannot refer to mothers in plural.

Finally, there is nothing in Scripture that stipulates that a short term fulfillment of this prophecy had occurred - especially that which parallels the unique long term fulfillment of Mary the betrothed/wife of Joseph still a virgin yet giving birth to Jesus Christ via the work of the Holy Spirit Whom she called His name Immanuel meaning "God is with us," (Mt 1:23). Since king Ahaz had refused to accept any sign from the LORD; and since the generations of Judah following Isaiah's prophecy would not be faithful to the LORD, then a short term fulfillment would not be forthcoming. Hence the fulfillment of the LORD's prophecy would be to a generation of His chosen people more than 700 years later. And just as the prophecy in Isa 9:1-7 which stipulated that the "Name [of the Son] will be called Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of peace," without any of those descriptive terms actually being His name, so the name of the child being given birth by the maiden / virgin will be called "Immanuel" without that having to be His given name.

****** END OF EXCERPT FROM ISAIAH CHAPTER 7 ******

3) Jesus' Sinless Life As Reported In Scripture Testifies To His Being Conceived And Born In Sinless Perfection Corroborating His Conception Via The Holy Spirit

a) [Isa 9:6-7]:

(Isa 9:6 NKJV) "For unto us a Child is born, Unto us a Son is given; And the government will be upon His shoulder. And His name will be called Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.

(Isa 9:7 NKJV) Of the increase of His government and peace There will be no end, Upon the throne of David and over His kingdom, To order it and establish it with judgment and justice From that time forward, even forever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this."

Since God is Absolute Righteousness, and since His Son is "Mighty God, Everlasting Father," then the Child born, the Son given to Israel, is Righteous - in sinless perfection.

b) [Is 53:6, 9]:

(Isa 53:6 NKJV) "All we like sheep have gone astray; We have turned, every one, to his own way; And the LORD has laid on Him the iniquity of us all.

(Isa 53:9 NKJV) "And they made His grave with the wicked-- But with the rich at His death, Because He had done no violence, Nor was any deceit in His mouth."

c) [2 Cor 5:21]:

(2 Cor 5:21 NKJV) "For He made Him Who knew no sin to be sin for us, that we might become the righteousness of God in Him."

Paul declared that Jesus knew no sin and implies that Jesus has the Righteousness of God which He gives to those who trust in Him for eternal life.

d) [Heb 4:15]:

(Heb 4:15 NKJV) "For we do not have a High Priest who cannot sympathize with our weaknesses, but was in all points tempted as we are, yet without sin."

e) [Lk 23:1-4, 13-15]:

(Lk 23:1 NKJV) "Then the whole multitude of them arose and led Him to Pilate.

(Lk 23:2 NKJV) And they began to accuse Him, saying, 'We found this fellow perverting the nation, and forbidding to pay taxes to Caesar, saying that He Himself is Christ, a King.'

(Lk 23:3 NKJV) Then Pilate asked Him, saying, 'Are You the King of the Jews?' He answered him and said, 'It is as you say.'

(Lk 23:4 NKJV) So Pilate said to the chief priests and the crowd, 'I find no fault in this Man.' ...

(Lk 23:13 NKJV) Then Pilate, when he had called together the chief priests, the rulers, and the people,

(Lk 23:14 NKJV) said to them, 'You have brought this Man to me, as one who misleads the people. And indeed, having examined Him in your presence, I have found no fault in this Man concerning those things of which you accuse Him;

(Lk 23:15 NKJV) no, neither did Herod, for I sent you back to him; and indeed nothing deserving of death has been done by Him.' "

f) [1 Pet 2:21-22]:

(1 Pet 2:21 NKJV) "For to this you were called, because Christ also suffered for us, leaving us an example, that you should follow His steps:

(1 Pet 2:22 NKJV) Who committed no sin, Nor was deceit found in His mouth."

g) [1 Pet 3:18]:

(1 Pet 3:18 NKJV) "For Christ also suffered once for sins, the just for the unjust, that He might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh but made alive by the Spirit."

B (Mt 1:19-25) AND JOSEPH, MARY'S HUSBAND IN THE SENSE OF BEING BETHROTHED, BEING RIGHTEOUS, AND NOT WILLING TO MAKE HER AN EXAMPLE OF UNFAITHFULNESS, DID WISH TO PRIVATELY DIVORCE HER AND SEND HER AWAY. WHEREUPON AN ANGEL OF THE LORD IN A DREAM APPEARED TO HIM SAYING TO HIM NOT TO BE AFRAID OF MARRYING MARY, FOR THAT WHICH WAS BEGOTTEN WITHIN HER IS OF THE HOLY SPIRIT - AND SHE WILL BRING FORTH A SON AND JOSEPH WAS INSTRUCTED TO CALL HIS NAME "JESUS," FOR HE WILL SAVE HIS PEOPLE FROM THEIR SINS. AND ALL THIS HAVING COME TO PASS, SO THAT IT MAY BE FULFILLED THAT WAS SPOKEN BY THE LORD THROUGH THE PROPHET SAYING, 'BEHOLD, THE VIRGIN SHALL BE WITH CHILD, AND BEAR A SON, AND THEY SHALL CALL HIS NAME IMMANUEL,' WHICH IS TRANSLATED, 'GOD WITH US.' THEN JOSEPH, BEING AROUSED FROM SLEEP, DID AS THE ANGEL OF THE LORD COMMANDED HIM AND TOOK TO HIM HIS WIFE AND DID NOT HAVE INTIMATE RELATIONS WITH HER UNTIL SHE GAVE BIRTH TO HER FIRSTBORN SON. AND HE CALLED HIS NAME JESUS

(Mt 1:19 YLT) "and Joseph her husband being righteous, and not willing to make her an example, did wish privately to send her away. (Mt 1:20 YLT) And on his [having thought] of these things [behold], [an Angel] of the LORD in a dream appeared to him, saying, 'Joseph, son of David, [you may] not fear to receive Mary [your] wife, for that which in her was begotten is of the Holy Spirit, (Mt 1:21 NKJV) And she will bring forth a Son, and you shall call His name JESUS, for He will save His people from their sins.' (Mt 1:22 YLT) And all this [has] come to pass, that it may be fulfilled that was spoken by the LORD through the prophet, saying, (Mt 1:23 NKJV) 'Behold, the virgin shall be with child, and bear a Son, and they shall call His name Immanuel,' which is translated, 'God with us,' [cf. Isa 7:14] (Mt 1:24 NKJV) Then Joseph, being aroused from sleep, did as the angel of the LORD commanded him and took to him his wife, (Mt 1:25 NKJV) and did not know her till she had brought forth her firstborn Son. And he called His name JESUS." =

Although marital infidelity was punishable by death according to the Mosaic law, the Romans did not allow Jews to carry out the death penalty. Because of this, divorce was substituted as the penalty. In fact, most rabbis among the Pharisees followed the traditions of the famous Rabbi Hillel, who made divorce very easy.

Author Matthew indicates that Joseph was righteous (Greek, "dikaios", upright, righteous) in the sense of being relatively upright as compared to others relative to keeping the Mosaic Law. He was characterized as endeavoring to do what was lawful yet he also desired to be compassionate and merciful. He was not given to passionate vengeance.

Joseph evidently did not wish to marry Mary for a number of reasons: (1) Joseph could not in good conscience marry Mary who was now thought to be unfaithful. (2) Such a marriage would have been a tacit admission of his own guilt.

On the other hand, Joseph was not willing to make Mary a public example as the Law permitted, by making an official complaint, or by punishing her with execution, (cf. Dt 22:23-24). He intended to send her away privately with a secret divorce. For the law allowed for private divorce before two witnesses (Num 5:11-31). This would leave both his righteousness (his conformity to the law) and his compassion intact.

How Matthew became informed of these matters is not stipulated. On the other hand, Matthew's relationship with the LORD Jesus Christ as one of His disciples would be sufficient to explain Matthew's knowing of Joseph's inner thoughts, (Mt 1:19).

But God intervened: "And on his [having thought] of these things [behold], [an Angel] of the LORD in a dream appeared to him, saying, 'Joseph, son of David, [you may] not fear to receive Mary [your] wife, for that which in her was begotten is of the Holy Spirit, And she will bring forth a Son, and you shall call His name JESUS, for He will save His people from their sins.' "

Note that the Angel of the LORD .addressed Joseph as 'son of David,' in the sense of his being a descendant of David, implying a reference to the promise to the house of David of the promised Messiah Savior descending from David through a virgin birth, (cf. Isa 7:13-14; 9:6-7).

When Jerusalem was destroyed in 586 B.C., Palestine became a province under the Persians, bringing a temporary end to the line of David ruling over Judah. Thereafter came the Greeks who ruled over Palestine. Even during the period of independence from 168 to 37 B.C., it was ruled by the Hasmonean or Maccabean family from the tribe of Levi. Then came Herod the Great, one of the Idumeans (Edomites) who was appointed king of the Jews by the Roman Senate in 40 B.C., and with the help of Roman forces, captured Jerusalem and took over rulership of Palestine in 37 B.C. It was about a thousand years since the promise had been given to David, and it was over 500 years since a man of the line of David had been on the throne.

Mt 1:20-21 contains an astounding message from the Angel of the LORD, God Himself, for Joseph which he evidently, wholeheartedly believed and obeyed, (cf. Mt 1:24-25): that his bethrothed Mary had conceived via the work of the Holy Spirit, a Son Whom Joseph was to name Jesus.

The name "Jesus" in Hebrew is, transliterated into English letters, "Jehoshua," pronounced: "Ye-shoo-ah." The name Jesus means, "JEHOVAH IS SALVATION," implying that Jesus would make provision for the salvation of His people and all mankind, (cf. Isa 53:1-12).

The Angel of the LORD explained to Joseph what the name rendered "Jesus" in the NKJV signified: "For He will save His people from their sins." This child was to be the seed of the woman, promised in Gen 3:15 ; and to and through Abraham in Gen 15:5-6 . And He was the subject of numerous other prophecies.

1) [Compare Ps 2:1-12]:

[]:

(Ps 2:1 NKJV) '''Why do the nations rage, And the people plot a vain thing?

(Ps 2:2 NKJV) The kings of the earth set themselves, And the rulers take counsel together, Against the LORD and against His Anointed, saying,

(Ps 2:3 NKJV) "Let us break Their bonds in pieces And cast away Their cords from us."

(Ps 2:4 NKJV) He who sits in the heavens shall laugh; The LORD shall hold them in derision.

(Ps 2:5 NKJV) Then He shall speak to them in His wrath, And distress them in His deep displeasure:

(Ps 2:6 NKJV) "Yet I have set My King On My holy hill of Zion.

(Ps 2:7 NKJV) I will declare the decree: The LORD has said to Me, 'You are My Son, Today I have begotten You.

(Ps 2:8 NKJV) Ask of Me, and I will give You The nations for Your inheritance, And the ends of the earth for Your possession.

(Ps 2:9 NKJV) You shall break them with a rod of iron; You shall dash them to pieces like a potter's vessel.'

(Ps 2:10 NKJV) Now therefore, be wise, O kings; Be instructed, you judges of the earth.

(Ps 2:11 NKJV) Serve the LORD with fear, And rejoice with trembling.

(Ps 2:12 NKJV) Kiss the Son, lest He be angry, And you perish in the way, When His wrath is kindled but a little. Blessed are all those who put their trust in Him.' " '''

2) [Compare Ps 16:1-11]:

[]:

(Ps 16:1 NKJV-MT) "Preserve me, O God, for in You I put my trust.

(Ps 16:2 NKJV-MT) O my soul, you have said to the LORD,

My goodness is nothing apart from You.'

(Ps 16:3 NKJV-MT) As for the saints who are on the earth,

They are the excellent ones, in whom is all my [David's] delight.

(Ps 16:4 NKJV-MT) Their sorrows shall be multiplied who hasten after another god;

Their drink offerings of blood I will not offer,

Nor take up their names on my lips.

(Ps 16:5 NKJV-MT) O LORD, You are the portion of my inheritance and my cup;

You maintain my lot.

(Ps 16:6 NKJV-MT) The lines have fallen to me in pleasant places;

Yes, I have a good inheritance.

(Ps 16:7 NKJV-MT) I will bless the LORD Who had given me counsel;

My heart also [has instructed] me in the [nights].

(Ps 16:8 NKJV-MT) I have set the LORD always before me;

Because He is at my right hand I shall not be moved.

(Ps 16:9 NKJV-MT) Therefore my heart is glad, and my glory rejoices: My flesh also will rest in hope.

(Ps 16:10 NKJV-MT) For You will not leave my soul in Sheol,

Nor will You allow Your Holy One to see corruption.

(Ps 16:11 NKJV-MT) You will show me the path of life;

In Your presence is fullness of joy;

At your right hand are pleasures forevermore."

3) [Compare Ps 22:1-31]:

(Ps 22:1 NKJV) "To the Chief Musician.

Set to 'The Deer of the Dawn.'

A Psalm of David.

My God, My God, why have You forsaken Me? Why are You so far from helping Me, And from the words of My groaning?

(Ps 22:2 NKJV) O My God, I cry in the daytime, but You do not hear; And in the night season, and am not silent.

(Ps 22:3 NKJV) But You are holy, Enthroned in the praises of Israel.

(Ps 22:4 NKJV) Our fathers trusted in You; They trusted, and You delivered them.

(Ps 22:5 NKJV) They cried to You, and were delivered; They trusted in You, and were not ashamed.

(Ps 22:6 NKJV) But I am a worm, and no man; A reproach of men, and despised by the people.

(Ps 22:7 NKJV) All those who see Me ridicule Me; They shoot out the lip, they shake the head, saying,

(Ps 22:8 NKJV) "He trusted in the LORD, let Him rescue Him; Let Him deliver Him, since He delights in Him!"

(Ps 22:9 NKJV) But You are He who took Me out of the womb; You made Me trust while on My mother's breasts.

(Ps 22:10 NKJV) I was cast upon You from birth. From My mother's womb You have been My God.

(Ps 22:11 NKJV) Be not far from Me, For trouble is near; For there is none to help.

(Ps 22:12 NKJV) Many bulls have surrounded Me; Strong bulls of Bashan have encircled Me.

(Ps 22:13 NKJV) They gape at Me with their mouths, Like a raging and roaring lion.

(Ps 22:14 NKJV) I am poured out like water, And all My bones are out of joint; My heart is like wax; It has melted within Me.

(Ps 22:15 NKJV) My strength is dried up like a potsherd, And My tongue clings to My jaws; You have brought Me to the dust of death.

(Ps 22:16 NKJV) For dogs have surrounded Me; The congregation of the wicked has enclosed Me. They pierced My hands and My feet;

(Ps 22:17 NKJV) I can count all My bones. They look and stare at Me.

(Ps 22:18 NKJV) They divide My garments among them, And for My clothing they cast lots.

(Ps 22:19 NKJV) But You, O LORD, do not be far from Me; O My Strength, hasten to help Me!

(Ps 22:20 NKJV) Deliver Me from the sword, My precious life from the power of the dog.

(Ps 22:21 NKJV) Save Me from the lion's mouth And from the horns of the wild oxen! You have answered Me.

(Ps 22:22 NKJV) I will declare Your name to My brethren; In the midst of the assembly I will praise You.

(Ps 22:23 NKJV) You who fear the LORD, praise Him! All you descendants of Jacob, glorify Him, And fear Him, all you offspring of Israel!

(Ps 22:24 NKJV) For He has not despised nor abhorred the affliction of the afflicted; Nor has He hidden His face from Him; But when He cried to Him, He heard.

(Ps 22:25 NKJV) My praise shall be of You in the great assembly; I will pay My vows before those who fear Him.

(Ps 22:26 NKJV) The poor shall eat and be satisfied; Those who seek Him will praise the LORD. Let your heart live forever!

(Ps 22:27 NKJV) All the ends of the world Shall remember and turn to the LORD, And all the families of the nations Shall worship before You.

(Ps 22:28 NKJV) For the kingdom is the LORD'S, And He rules over the nations.

(Ps 22:29 NKJV) All the prosperous of the earth Shall eat and worship; All those who go down to the dust Shall bow before Him, Even he who cannot keep himself alive.

(Ps 22:30 NKJV) A posterity shall serve Him. It will be recounted of the Lord to the next generation,

(Ps 22:31 NKJV) They will come and declare His righteousness to a people who will be born, That He has done this."

[The Bible Knowledge Commentary, OT, Walvoord & Zuck, Eds., Victor Books, USA, 1988]:

"The psalmist apparently felt forsaken by God, as he was surrounded by his enemies' scornful persecution. He lamented his tremendous suffering and his desperate struggle with death, pleading with God to deliver him from such a horrible end. Apparently his prayer was answered, for he was able to declare to the elect and to the world that the Lord answered his prayer.

No known incident in the life of David fits the details of this psalm. The expressions describe an execution, not an illness; yet that execution is more appropriate to Jesus' crucifixion than David's experience. The Gospel writers also saw connections between some of the words in this psalm (vv. 8, 16, 18) and other events in Christ's Passion. Also Hebrews 2:12 quotes Psalm 22:22. Thus the church has understood this psalm to be typological of the death of Jesus Christ. This means that David used many poetic expressions to portray his immense sufferings, but these poetic words became literally true of the suffering of Jesus Christ at His enemies' hands. The interesting feature of this psalm is that it does not include one word of confession of sin, and no imprecation against enemies. It is primarily the account of a righteous man who was being put to death by wicked men.

A. Fervent prayer of one who is forsaken (22:1-10)

David, apparently feeling forsaken by God and scoffed at by his enemies, was confident that God would not fully abandon him. Verses 1-10 form the psalmist's general introductory cry out of distress; they include two cycles, one of lament (vv. 1-5) and one of confidence (vv. 6-10).

1. CYCLE ONE (22:1-5)

22:1-2. Though sensing that God had forsaken him (v. 1), the psalmist drew renewed confidence from the fact that God had answered his ancestors' prayers (v. 4). David's initial cry, My God, my God, why have You forsaken me? is an expression appropriated by Christ on the cross (Matt. 27:46; Mark 15:34). God, whom David was addressing as "my God," had seemingly forsaken him. David prayed constantly (by day and by night) but there was no answer.

22:3. The confidence he mustered was from the knowledge that God answers prayer. God is holy, distinct from all the false gods of the pagans in that He is alive and acts. In fact God is enthroned (cf. comments on 2:4) and therefore received praise from the Israelites for answered prayer.

22:4-5. David's ancestors, putting their trust in the Lord, prayed in their distress and were delivered by Him. So David was encouraged to keep on praying.

2. CYCLE TWO (22:6-10)

22:6-8. The psalmist, though scorned by men, was convinced that the God of his youth would not abandon him forever. David lamented the fact that men despised him. He felt like a worm, worthless, defenseless, and treated with utter contempt. They hurled insults at him (cf. Matt. 27:39, 44), mocking his faith since the LORD was not rescuing him. The expressions used in Psalm 22:8 were adapted by those who mocked at Jesus' cross (Mat. 27:42-43), not realizing that they were fulfilling this prophecy and that He was the suffering Messiah.

22:9-10. The psalmist's confidence was drawn from his training as a child. From the very beginning he was trained to trust in the Lord, who had brought him out of the womb. All his life the Lord had been his God.

B. Lament of the suffering king (22:11-18)

22:11. David lamented his desperate struggle with death at the hands of inhuman enemies. He summarized his lament with a quick plea that the Lord not... be far off, since trouble was near and he was helpless.

1. CYCLE ONE (22:12-15)

Again in two cycles (vv. 12-15 and 16-18; cf. the cycles in vv. 1-5 and 6-10) David described his enemies and his sufferings.

22:12-13. David compared his enemies to cruel and insensitive beasts (bulls and lions) who would destroy him and then described his agony. Bulls of Bashan were well-fed cattle (cf. comments on cows of Bashan in Amos 4:1) east of the Sea of Kinnereth (Galilee). Several other times David spoke of his enemies as lions (cf. Ps. 7:2; 10:9; 17:12; 22:21; 35:17; 57:4; 58:6).

22:14-15. Because of his enemies' attacks, David's strength was sapped like poured-out water, and his joints were racked. Moreover, like melted wax his courage (heart) was gone-he had lost his desire to resist. His strength was gone and his mouth was dry. In his weakness he was at the brink of death.

2. CYCLE TWO (22:16-18)

22:16. David again (cf. vv. 12-15) described his enemies and his agony. His enemies tortured him and watched him insensitively. He compared them to dogs (cf. v. 20), who in the ancient world were scavengers. Like dogs, his foes (evil men) surrounded him, waiting till he was dead so they could tear at his limbs. To compare his enemies to dogs was to say that he was almost dead. The words they have pierced my hands and my feet figuratively describe such a tearing as if by animals. Of course in the New Testament, these words in reference to Jesus Christ have greater significance (cf. Luke 24:39-40).

22:17-18. After speaking of his enemies (v. 16) the psalmist again described his agony. He was weak and emaciated. His enemies stared at him, considering him as good as dead, so they divided up his garments, his last possession (cf. Matt. 27:35).

C. Petition for deliverance from death (22:19-21)

22:19-21. David prayed that the LORD (his Strength; cf. 28:7-8; 46:1; 59:9, 17; 81:1; 118:14) would help him by saving his life from the power of his wicked enemies, who were like dogs (cf. v. 16), lions (cf. v. 13 and comments on 7:2), and wild oxen (cf. bulls, 22:12-13). In his prayer, he became confident that he had been heard. In the Hebrew the last part of verse 21 breaks off in the middle of the prayer and states, "You have heard" (cf. NIV marg.). The psalmist may have received an oracle of salvation, for in the rest of the psalm he said he would praise God for His deliverance.

D. Praise and encouragement for prayer (22:22-31)

22:22. David addressed the congregation of the people with his vow to praise the Lord. Verse 22 is quoted almost verbatim in Hebrews 2:12 as Jesus' praise for deliverance. Of course Jesus' prayer to be delivered from death (Heb. 5:7) was answered in a different way-He was raised from the dead. The psalmist was apparently rescued so that he did not die.

22:23-26. Then the psalmist called on the congregation to praise the LORD with him because He did not despise the afflicted one (the suffering psalmist) but listened to his cry for help (cf. vv. 1-2) and answered his prayer. On the basis of this praise David said he would fulfill his vows and he encouraged the congregation to praise the Lord with him. Moreover, he encouraged them to keep on praying (may your hearts live forever means "do not give up"; cf. "heart" in v. 14).

22:27-31. The psalmist then turned his attention to the world at large. He anticipated that the world would turn to and worship (bow down before) the LORD (v. 27) because He is the sovereign King, the One who rules over the nations (v. 28), including the rich and the dying. From generation to generation the people of the earth will be told that the LORD answered his prayer and rescued him, so therefore the Lord can be trusted. Of course applied to Jesus Christ, these words became more significant. When people would hear how God answered His prayer by raising Him from the dead (Heb. 5:7), many would turn to Him in trust and worship."

4) [Compare Ps 110:1-7]:

[]:

(Ps 110:1 NKJV) "A Psalm of David.

The LORD said to my Lord, 'Sit at My right hand, Till I make Your enemies Your footstool.'

(Ps 110:2 NKJV) The LORD shall send the rod of Your strength out of Zion. Rule in the midst of Your enemies!

(Ps 110:3 NKJV) Your people shall be volunteers In the day of Your power; In the beauties of holiness, from the womb of the morning, You have the dew of Your youth.

(Ps 110:4 NKJV) The LORD has sworn And will not relent, 'You are a priest forever According to the order of Melchizedek.'

(Ps 110:5 NKJV) The Lord is at Your right hand; He shall execute kings in the day of His wrath.

(Ps 110:6 NKJV) He shall judge among the nations, He shall fill the places with dead bodies, He shall execute the heads of many countries.

(Ps 110:7 NKJV) He shall drink of the brook by the wayside; Therefore He shall lift up the head."

5) [Compare Ps 118:1-29]:

[]:

(Ps 118:1 NKJV) "Oh, give thanks to the LORD, for He is good! For His mercy endures forever.

(Ps 118:2 NKJV) Let Israel now say, 'His mercy endures forever.'

(Ps 118:3 NKJV) Let the house of Aaron now say, 'His mercy endures forever.'

(Ps 118:4 NKJV) Let those who fear the LORD now say, 'His mercy endures forever.'

(Ps 118:5 NKJV) I called on the LORD in distress; The LORD answered me and set me in a broad place.

(Ps 118:6 NKJV) The LORD is on my side; I will not fear. What can man do to me?

(Ps 118:7 NKJV) The LORD is for me among those who help me; Therefore I shall see my desire on those who hate me.

(Ps 118:8 NKJV) It is better to trust in the LORD Than to put confidence in man.

(Ps 118:9 NKJV) It is better to trust in the LORD Than to put confidence in princes.

(Ps 118:10 NKJV) All nations surrounded me, But in the name of the LORD I will destroy them.

(Ps 118:11 NKJV) They surrounded me, Yes, they surrounded me; But in the name of the LORD I will destroy them.

(Ps 118:12 NKJV) They surrounded me like bees; They were quenched like a fire of thorns; For in the name of the LORD I will destroy them.

(Ps 118:13 NKJV) You pushed me violently, that I might fall, But the LORD helped me.

(Ps 118:14 NKJV) The LORD is my strength and song, And He has become my salvation.

(Ps 118:15 NKJV) The voice of rejoicing and salvation Is in the tents of the righteous; The right hand of the LORD does valiantly.

(Ps 118:16 NKJV) The right hand of the LORD is exalted; The right hand of the LORD does valiantly.

(Ps 118:17 NKJV) I shall not die, but live, And declare the works of the LORD.

(Ps 118:18 NKJV) The LORD has chastened me severely, But He has not given me over to death.

(Ps 118:19 NKJV) Open to me the gates of righteousness; I will go through them, And I will praise the LORD.

(Ps 118:20 NKJV) This is the gate of the LORD, Through which the righteous shall enter.

(Ps 118:21 NKJV) I will praise You, For You have answered me, And have become my salvation.

(Ps 118:22 NKJV) The stone which the builders rejected Has become the chief cornerstone.

(Ps 118:23 NKJV) This was the LORD'S doing; It is marvelous in our eyes.

(Ps 118:24 NKJV) This is the day the LORD has made; We will rejoice and be glad in it.

(Ps 118:25 NKJV) Save now, I pray, O LORD; O LORD, I pray, send now prosperity.

(Ps 118:26 NKJV) Blessed is he who comes in the name of the LORD! We have blessed you from the house of the LORD.

(Ps 118:27 NKJV) God is the LORD, And He has given us light; Bind the sacrifice with cords to the horns of the altar.

(Ps 118:28 NKJV) You are my God, and I will praise You; You are my God, I will exalt You.

(Ps 118:29 NKJV) Oh, give thanks to the LORD, for He is good! For His mercy endures forever."

6) [Compare Isa 7:10-16]:

[]:

(Isa 7:10 NKJV) "Moreover the LORD spoke again to Ahaz, saying,

(Isa 7:11 NKJV) 'Ask a sign for yourself from the LORD your God; ask it either in the depth or in the height above.'

(Isa 7:12 NKJV) But Ahaz said, 'I will not ask, nor will I test the LORD!'

(Isa 7:13 NKJV) Then he said, 'Hear now, O house of David! Is it a small thing for you to weary men, but will you weary my God also?

(Isa 7:14 NKJV) Therefore the Lord Himself will give you a sign: Behold, the virgin shall conceive and bear a Son, and shall call His name Immanuel.

(Isa 7:15 NKJV) Curds and honey He shall eat, that He may know to refuse the evil and choose the good.

(Isa 7:16 NKJV) For before the Child shall know to refuse the evil and choose the good, the land that you dread will be forsaken by both her kings.' "

7) [Compare Isa 9:6-7]:

[]:

(Isa 9:6 NKJV) "For unto us a Child is born, Unto us a Son is given; And the government will be upon His shoulder. And His name will be called Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.

(Isa 9:7 NKJV) Of the increase of His government and peace There will be no end, Upon the throne of David and over His kingdom, To order it and establish it with judgment and justice From that time forward, even forever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this."

8) [Compare Isa 11:1-16]:

[]:

(Isa 11:1 NKJV) "There shall come forth a Rod from the stem of Jesse, And a Branch shall grow out of his roots.

(Isa 11:2 NKJV) The Spirit of the LORD shall rest upon Him, The Spirit of wisdom and understanding, The Spirit of counsel and might, The Spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD.

(Isa 11:3 NKJV) His delight is in the fear of the LORD, And He shall not judge by the sight of His eyes, Nor decide by the hearing of His ears;

(Isa 11:4 NKJV) But with righteousness He shall judge the poor, And decide with equity for the meek of the earth; He shall strike the earth with the rod of His mouth, And with the breath of His lips He shall slay the wicked.

(Isa 11:5 NKJV) Righteousness shall be the belt of His loins, And faithfulness the belt of His waist.

(Isa 11:6 NKJV) "The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, The leopard shall lie down with the young goat, The calf and the young lion and the fatling together; And a little child shall lead them.

(Isa 11:7 NKJV) The cow and the bear shall graze; Their young ones shall lie down together; And the lion shall eat straw like the ox.

(Isa 11:8 NKJV) The nursing child shall play by the cobra's hole, And the weaned child shall put his hand in the viper's den.

(Isa 11:9 NKJV) They shall not hurt nor destroy in all My holy mountain, For the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the LORD As the waters cover the sea.

(Isa 11:10 NKJV) "And in that day there shall be a Root of Jesse, Who shall stand as a banner to the people; For the Gentiles shall seek Him, And His resting place shall be glorious."

(Isa 11:11 NKJV) It shall come to pass in that day That the LORD shall set His hand again the second time To recover the remnant of His people who are left, From Assyria and Egypt, From Pathros and Cush, From Elam and Shinar, From Hamath and the islands of the sea.

(Isa 11:12 NKJV) He will set up a banner for the nations, And will assemble the outcasts of Israel, And gather together the dispersed of Judah From the four corners of the earth.

(Isa 11:13 NKJV) Also the envy of Ephraim shall depart, And the adversaries of Judah shall be cut off; Ephraim shall not envy Judah, And Judah shall not harass Ephraim.

(Isa 11:14 NKJV) But they shall fly down upon the shoulder of the Philistines toward the west; Together they shall plunder the people of the East; They shall lay their hand on Edom and Moab; And the people of Ammon shall obey them.

(Isa 11:15 NKJV) The LORD will utterly destroy the tongue of the Sea of Egypt; With His mighty wind He will shake His fist over the River, And strike it in the seven streams, And make men cross over dry-shod.

(Isa 11:16 NKJV) There will be a highway for the remnant of His people Who will be left from Assyria, As it was for Israel In the day that he came up from the land of Egypt."

9) [Compare Isa 52:13-53:12]:

[]:

(Isa 52:13 NKJV) "Behold, My Servant shall deal prudently; He shall be exalted and extolled and be very high.

(Isa 52:14 NKJV) Just as many were astonished at you, So His visage was marred more than any man, And His form more than the sons of men;

(Isa 52:15 NKJV) So shall He sprinkle many nations. Kings shall shut their mouths at Him; For what had not been told them they shall see, And what they had not heard they shall consider.

(Isa 53:1 NKJV) Who has believed our report? And to whom has the arm of the LORD been revealed?

(Isa 53:2 NKJV) For He shall grow up before Him as a tender plant, And as a root out of dry ground. He has no form or comeliness; And when we see Him, There is no beauty that we should desire Him.

(Isa 53:3 NKJV) He is despised and rejected by men, A Man of sorrows and acquainted with grief. And we hid, as it were, our faces from Him; He was despised, and we did not esteem Him.

(Isa 53:4 NKJV) Surely He has borne our griefs And carried our sorrows; Yet we esteemed Him stricken, Smitten by God, and afflicted.

(Isa 53:5 NKJV) But He was wounded for our transgressions, He was bruised for our iniquities; The chastisement for our peace was upon Him, And by His stripes we are healed.

(Isa 53:6 NKJV) All we like sheep have gone astray; We have turned, every one, to his own way; And the LORD has laid on Him the iniquity of us all.

(Isa 53:7 NKJV) He was oppressed and He was afflicted, Yet He opened not His mouth; He was led as a lamb to the slaughter, And as a sheep before its shearers is silent, So He opened not His mouth.

(Isa 53:8 NKJV) He was taken from prison and from judgment, And who will declare His generation? For He was cut off from the land of the living; For the transgressions of My people He was stricken.

(Isa 53:9 NKJV) And they made His grave with the wicked-- But with the rich at His death, Because He had done no violence, Nor was any deceit in His mouth.

(Isa 53:10 NKJV) Yet it pleased the LORD to bruise Him; He has put Him to grief. When You make His soul an offering for sin, He shall see His seed, He shall prolong His days, And the pleasure of the LORD shall prosper in His hand.

(Isa 53:11 NKJV) He shall see the labor of His soul, and be satisfied. By His knowledge [lit. by the knowledge of Him, i.e., by faith in Him] My righteous Servant shall justify many, For He shall bear their iniquities.

(Isa 53:12 NKJV) Therefore I will divide Him a portion with the great, And He shall divide the spoil with the strong, Because He poured out His soul unto death, And He was numbered with the transgressors, And He bore the sin of many, And made intercession for the transgressors."

10) [Compare Micah 5:2]:

[]:

(Micah 5:2 NKJV) "But you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, Though you are little among the thousands of Judah, Yet out of you shall come forth to Me The One to be Ruler in Israel, Whose goings forth are from of old, From everlasting."

11) [Compare Zech 9:1-17]:

(Zech 9:1 NKJV) "The burden of the word of the LORD Against the land of Hadrach, And Damascus its resting place (For the eyes of men And all the tribes of Israel Are on the LORD);

(Zech 9:2 NKJV) Also against Hamath, which borders on it, And against Tyre and Sidon, though they are very wise.

(Zech 9:3 NKJV) For Tyre built herself a tower, Heaped up silver like the dust, And gold like the mire of the streets.

(Zech 9:4 NKJV) Behold, the LORD will cast her out; He will destroy her power in the sea, And she will be devoured by fire.

(Zech 9:5 NKJV) Ashkelon shall see it and fear; Gaza also shall be very sorrowful; And Ekron, for He dried up her expectation. The king shall perish from Gaza, And Ashkelon shall not be inhabited.

(Zech 9:6 NKJV) "A mixed race shall settle in Ashdod, And I will cut off the pride of the Philistines.

(Zech 9:7 NKJV) I will take away the blood from his mouth, And the abominations from between his teeth. But he who remains, even he shall be for our God, And shall be like a leader in Judah, And Ekron like a Jebusite.

(Zech 9:8 NKJV) I will camp around My house Because of the army, Because of him who passes by and him who returns. No more shall an oppressor pass through them, For now I have seen with My eyes.

(Zech 9:9 NKJV) "Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion! Shout, O daughter of Jerusalem! Behold, your King is coming to you; He is just and having salvation, Lowly and riding on a donkey, A colt, the foal of a donkey.

(Zech 9:10 NKJV) I will cut off the chariot from Ephraim And the horse from Jerusalem; The battle bow shall be cut off. He shall speak peace to the nations; His dominion shall be 'from sea to sea, And from the River to the ends of the earth.'

(Zech 9:11 NKJV) "As for you also, Because of the blood of your covenant, I will set your prisoners free from the waterless pit.

(Zech 9:12 NKJV) Return to the stronghold, You prisoners of hope. Even today I declare That I will restore double to you.

(Zech 9:13 NKJV) For I have bent Judah, My bow, Fitted the bow with Ephraim, And raised up your sons, O Zion, Against your sons, O Greece, And made you like the sword of a mighty man."

(Zech 9:14 NKJV) Then the LORD will be seen over them, And His arrow will go forth like lightning. The Lord GOD will blow the trumpet, And go with whirlwinds from the south.

(Zech 9:15 NKJV) The LORD of hosts will defend them; They shall devour and subdue with slingstones. They shall drink and roar as if with wine; They shall be filled with blood like basins, Like the corners of the altar.

(Zech 9:16 NKJV) The LORD their God will save them in that day, As the flock of His people. For they shall be like the jewels of a crown, Lifted like a banner over His land -

(Zech 9:17 NKJV) For how great is its goodness And how great its beauty! Grain shall make the young men thrive, And new wine the young women."

[The Bible Knowledge Commentary, NT, Walvoord & Zuck, Eds., Victor Books, USA, 1988]:

"9:1-2. Alexander the Great was probably the human cause of the destruction set forth in these and the following verses (the order of the cities seems to correspond generally with Alexander's line of march). But his involvement is bypassed in this prophecy to stress the ultimate divine cause of the judgment on certain cities and countries beginning north of Israel. The northernmost location, Hadrach, was probably Hatarikka, a city and country lying north of Hamath and mentioned in Assyrian cuneiform inscriptions. Damascus was the capital of Aram (Syria). The words, the eyes of men and all the tribes of Israel are on the LORD indicate the awe of all peoples at the divine judgment brought on their cities. Hamath was an Aramean (Syrian) city north of Damascus on the Orontes River. Westward on the coast were the Phoenician cities of Tyre and Sidon.

9:3-4. Tyre was a stronghold, a citadel of defense which had withstood a 5-year siege by the Assyrians under Shalmaneser V and, years later, a 13-year siege by the Babylonian army of Nebuchadnezzar. Her commercial and economic self-sufficiency is reflected in figures of speech which speak of silver being as common as dust and gold as common as the dirt (cf. Ezek. 28:4-5; 27:33). Her impoverishment and destruction by Alexander's relatively brief five-month siege are ascribed to God's ultimate action in destroying her power on the sea (NASB, "cast her wealth into the sea"; cf. Ezek. 26:17-21; 27:27, 34).

9:5-7. Four of the five principal Philistine cities (Gath is omitted) are next on the judgment march (cf. Amos 1:6-8; Zeph. 2:4; Jer. 25:20). The blood and the forbidden food (from idolatrous sacrifices) removed from the very mouths and clenched teeth of some Philistines indicate their removal from idolatry to belong to the God of Israel and even become leaders in Judah. Like the Jebusites, they will be absorbed into the population of God's people. Since there is no evidence that this was fulfilled in the invasion of Alexander, it apparently awaits future fulfillment as part of the blessing that will result from the messianic rule (Zech. 9:10).

9:8. The Macedonian armies of Alexander passed and repassed the city of Jerusalem without laying siege to it. The ultimate cause of this was the divine protection of the city (I will defend My house). This defense foreshadows God's final protection of the city in the Millennium, when never again will enemies invade Jerusalem (cf. Joel 3:17).

a. The coming of the Prince of Peace (9:9)

9:9. The inhabitants of Jerusalem were personified as the Daughter of Zion (cf. 2:10; Isa. 1:8) and the Daughter of Jerusalem who, representing the whole nation of Israel, were exhorted to welcome the coming King not with fear but with glad rejoicing. The announcement that your King comes to you refers to the long-awaited King and Messiah (cf. Isa. 9:5-7; Micah 5:2-4; Luke 1:32-33). Righteous describes both His character and His reign (cf. Ps. 45:6-7; Isa. 11:1-5; 32:17; Jer. 23:5-6; 33:15-16). The phrase having salvation denotes that He will come as a Deliverer, as One to give salvation to others (cf. Isa. 62:11). His peaceful entrance-riding on a donkey-was fulfilled when He presented Himself to Israel in the Triumphal Entry (Matt. 21:1-5). In the ancient Near East, if a king came in peace, he would ride on a donkey instead of on a war stallion. Christ rode on a colt, the foal (lit., "son") of a donkey.... Like some other Old Testament prophecies this one (Zech. 9:9-10) blends two events into one perspective - events that the New Testament divides into two distinct advents of Christ separated by the present Church Age (cf. Isa. 9:6-7; 61:1-2; Luke 4:18-21). In His First Advent He rode on a donkey and presented Himself to the nation Israel but they rejected Him as their King. So His universal rule (Zech. 9:10) will be established when He comes again.

(1) MESSIAH WILL ESTABLISH PEACE.

9:10. God's destruction of war instruments-removing the chariots, the war horses, and the battle bow-signifies the end of war in the Millennium (cf. Isa. 2:4; Micah 4:3). This peaceful rule of the coming messianic King will extend from sea to sea and from the River (the Euphrates; cf. Micah 7:12; Isa. 7:20) to the ends of the earth. These expressions clearly indicate the worldwide extent of the messianic kingdom.

(2) MESSIAH WILL DELIVER ISRAEL (9:11-17).

9:11-12. God's faithfulness to His covenants with Israel is His basis for delivering her from worldwide dispersion. The immediate addressees in these verses may have been Jewish exiles still in Babylon, but the covenant-fulfillment theme suggests an ultimate reference to Israel's end-time regathering. At least the nation's future hope (messianic deliverance) was the basis for contemporary encouragement in Zechariah's day. The blood of My covenant with you may refer to the sacrifices of the Mosaic Covenant (cf. Ex. 24:8), but could as well relate back to the foundational Abrahamic Covenant which was confirmed with a blood sacrifice (Gen. 15:8-21). The waterless pit (an empty cistern used for a dungeon) is probably a figure for the place of exile. The fortress refers to Jerusalem. The exiles in Babylon were called prisoners of hope because they had God's promise of being regathered. God will restore twice as much, that is, His blessings in the Millennium will far exceed anything Israel has ever known.

9:13. At least this verse, and perhaps the rest of the chapter, refer to the conflict of the Maccabees (169-135 B.C.) with Antiochus IV Epiphanes (cf. Dan. 11:32; see comments on Dan. 8:9-14), Antiochus V Eupator, Antiochus VI, and Antiochus VII Sidetes, Greek rulers of Syria. This Jewish victory foreshadowed Israel's final conflict and victory when God will bring them into millennial blessing. As the bow and arrow (that which "fills" the bow) are each essential to the other, so Judah and Ephraim (Ephraim represents the 10 Northern tribes of Israel) will be reunited. The reference to these weapons of warfare (including the warrior's sword) indicates that God will empower His people to defeat the enemy, the sons of Greece.

9:14-15. The description of a thunderstorm controlled by God (v. 14) pictures poetically Israel's empowerment for victory over her enemies (v. 15). The divine appearance was through providential means in the Maccabean period but will be literal and visible when Christ appears victoriously at His Second Advent. The last part of verse 15 pictures Israel's unrestrained joy and fullness of rejoicing because of God's mighty deliverance.

9:16-17. The divine deliverance predicted here will come on that day, a reference to the end time. God will care for them as a shepherd cares for his flock (cf. 10:3). Then Israel will sparkle in His land like jewels in a crown. This is a beautiful cameo of the fulfilled promises concerning the people in the land (cf. Amos 9:11-15). They will be attractive and beautiful symbols of all God has done for them. Divine blessing on nature will produce conditions of plenty (cf. Joel 2:21-27) so that physical health will also be assured (Zech. 9:17)."

12) [Compare Zech 14:1-21]:

(Zech 14:1 NKJV) "Behold, the day of the LORD is coming, And your spoil will be divided in your midst.

(Zech 14:2 NKJV) For I will gather all the nations to battle against Jerusalem; The city shall be taken, The houses rifled, And the women ravished. Half of the city shall go into captivity, But the remnant of the people shall not be cut off from the city.

(Zech 14:3 NKJV) Then the LORD will go forth And fight against those nations, As He fights in the day of battle.

(Zech 14:4 NKJV) And in that day His feet will stand on the Mount of Olives, Which faces Jerusalem on the east. And the Mount of Olives shall be split in two, From east to west, Making a very large valley; Half of the mountain shall move toward the north And half of it toward the south.

(Zech 14:5 NKJV) Then you shall flee through My mountain valley, For the mountain valley shall reach to Azal. Yes, you shall flee As you fled from the earthquake In the days of Uzziah king of Judah. Thus the LORD my God will come, And all the saints with You.

(Zech 14:6 NKJV) It shall come to pass in that day That there will be no light; The lights will diminish.

(Zech 14:7 NKJV) It shall be one day Which is known to the LORD-- Neither day nor night. But at evening time it shall happen That it will be light.

(Zech 14:8 NKJV) And in that day it shall be That living waters shall flow from Jerusalem, Half of them toward the eastern sea And half of them toward the western sea; In both summer and winter it shall occur.

(Zech 14:9 NKJV) And the LORD shall be King over all the earth. In that day it shall be-- "The LORD is one," And His name one.

(Zech 14:10 NKJV) All the land shall be turned into a plain from Geba to Rimmon south of Jerusalem. Jerusalem shall be raised up and inhabited in her place from Benjamin's Gate to the place of the First Gate and the Corner Gate, and from the Tower of Hananeel to the king's winepresses.

(Zech 14:11 NKJV) The people shall dwell in it; And no longer shall there be utter destruction, But Jerusalem shall be safely inhabited.

(Zech 14:12 NKJV) And this shall be the plague with which the LORD will strike all the people who fought against Jerusalem: Their flesh shall dissolve while they stand on their feet, Their eyes shall dissolve in their sockets, And their tongues shall dissolve in their mouths.

(Zech 14:13 NKJV) It shall come to pass in that day That a great panic from the LORD will be among them. Everyone will seize the hand of his neighbor, And raise his hand against his neighbor's hand;

(Zech 14:14 NKJV) Judah also will fight at Jerusalem. And the wealth of all the surrounding nations Shall be gathered together: Gold, silver, and apparel in great abundance.

(Zech 14:15 NKJV) Such also shall be the plague On the horse and the mule, On the camel and the donkey, And on all the cattle that will be in those camps. So shall this plague be.

(Zech 14:16 NKJV) And it shall come to pass that everyone who is left of all the nations which came against Jerusalem shall go up from year to year to worship the King, the LORD of hosts, and to keep the Feast of Tabernacles.

(Zech 14:17 NKJV) And it shall be that whichever of the families of the earth do not come up to Jerusalem to worship the King, the LORD of hosts, on them there will be no rain.

(Zech 14:18 NKJV) If the family of Egypt will not come up and enter in, they shall have no rain; they shall receive the plague with which the LORD strikes the nations who do not come up to keep the Feast of Tabernacles.

(Zech 14:19 NKJV) This shall be the punishment of Egypt and the punishment of all the nations that do not come up to keep the Feast of Tabernacles.

(Zech 14:20 NKJV) In that day "HOLINESS TO THE LORD" shall be engraved on the bells of the horses. The pots in the LORD'S house shall be like the bowls before the altar.

(Zech 14:21 NKJV) Yes, every pot in Jerusalem and Judah shall be holiness to the LORD of hosts. Everyone who sacrifices shall come and take them and cook in them. In that day there shall no longer be a Canaanite in the house of the LORD of hosts."

[The Bible Knowledge Commentary, OT, Walvoord & Zuck, Eds., Victor Books, USA, 1988]:

2. The Return of the King (Chap. 14)

This chapter pictures the triumphant return of Israel’s Messiah as the divine King. Thus it portrays the fulfillment of eschatological psalms—such as Psalms 93; 96-97; 99—which envision the universal earthly reign of the Lord. This reign is known from other Scriptures as the personal reign of the Messiah on the throne of David. Zechariah 14 progresses from the initial plundering of Jerusalem near the end of the future Tribulation, through the catastrophic judgment on the Gentile armies at Messiah’s Second Advent and the establishment of His millennial reign, to a description of the worship in Jerusalem during the Millennium. The fact that these events have not yet occurred points to a premillennial return of Christ, that is, His return before the Millennium.

a. The deliverance of Jerusalem from the nations (14:1-3).

14:1. This summary verse announces the sack of Jerusalem in the day of the Lord, a theme occurring many times in the Old Testament, in relation to the severe judgments in the Tribulation period (e.g., Zeph. 1:14-18), as well as those accompanying the Second Advent (as here). The New Testament (2 Peter 3:10) makes it clear that the Millennial Age is also included within “the day of the Lord.” The plunder which will be divided refers to the valuables in Jerusalem that will be taken and shared by the Gentile armies “in your midst” (better than niv’s among you), that is, within the city itself. This speaks of the self-assurance and seeming security of the conquerors.

14:2. This siege of Jerusalem by all the nations (i.e., their representative armies) is an early stage of the siege by the confederated Gentile armies described in 12:2-9 (cf. Isa. 34:2; Obad. 15; Rev. 16:14, 16) and known as the Battle (or better, Campaign) of Armageddon. Before the peoples of Judah and Jerusalem will be empowered for victory (Zech. 12:6-8; 14:14) and before the Lord brings about the destruction of the Gentile armies (12:9; 14:12-15), the Gentiles will at first obtain an initial but fleeting taste of victory in Jerusalem, including the typical characteristics of conquest described in verse 2. Either half of the population of Jerusalem will be left in the city (perhaps under occupational troops), or the Lord will return to destroy the enemies before their job is more than half completed.

14:3. Concerning the military intervention of the Messiah, Zechariah announced that the LORD will go out and fight against those nations. In military context the term "go out" is a technical term for a king going out to battle, which is the clear meaning here. The Lord will "fight" as a warrior (cf. Ex. 15:3; Isa. 42:13; Rev. 19:11-21).

b. The return of the Deliverer (14:4-5)

14:4-5. After affirming the fact of Messiah's military intervention, Zechariah explained the details of its accomplishment. It will begin with the personal appearance of the Messiah when His feet will stand on the Mount of Olives, the very place from which He ascended (Acts 1:11-12). Interestingly God's glory in Ezekiel's vision (Ezek. 11:23) departed from Jerusalem at a mountain east of Jerusalem. The apparent earthquake which will split the Mount of Olives... in two from east to west seems to be a direct intervention by the divine King. It will form a great valley eastward from Jerusalem as far as Azel, an unknown location, through which the remnant of Jews will flee. This may be the Valley of Jehoshaphat, spoken of by Joel, where God will judge the Gentiles (see comments on Joel 3:2, 12). The Lord will call the valley My mountain valley.

The earthquake in the days of Uzziah is mentioned in Amos 1:1 but not in the historical books. Josephus regarded it as a divine judgment on Uzziah for his intrusion into the temple to assume the priest's function (2 Chron. 26:16). When the LORD returns He will be accompanied by all the holy ones, probably angels as well as the souls of the redeemed (cf. 1 Thes. 3:13).

c. The establishment of the messianic kingdom (14:6-11)

At the heart of this section is the affirmation that "the LORD will be King over the whole earth" and that He will be accepted as the "one LORD" (v. 9). This great pronouncement is set in the context of changes in illumination, climate, and topography which God will bring on Jerusalem, Palestine, and no doubt the whole earth during the Millennium.

(1) THE PHENOMENA IN THE KINGDOM (14:6-8).

14:6-7. The unique day, without daytime or nighttime, may refer to the actual day of the Lord's return when the celestial darkness accompanying the divine judgments will be replaced by light when evening comes. At any rate the time of Christ's Second Advent will be accompanied by unparalleled natural phenomena (Isa. 13:10; 34:4; Joel 2:10, 30-31; 3:15; Matt. 24:29).

14:8. A perennial spring of water (living water as opposed to rainwater) will erupt in Jerusalem dividing its water flow between the eastern sea (the Dead Sea) and the western sea (the Mediterranean). This year-round provision apparently will promote unsurpassed fertility throughout the land (cf. Isa. 27:6; 35:1-3, 6-7; Amos 9:13-14).

(2) THE ABSOLUTE LORDSHIP OF THE MESSIAH-KING.

14:9. The Messiah will not only reign as King of Israel but He will also be King over the whole earth. The worldwide scope of His reign is supported by Zechariah's description of Him elsewhere as "the LORD of all the earth" (4:14; 6:5; cf. Micah 4:13). This is confirmed by the Apostle John's identification of Him as the "Lord of lords and King of kings" (Rev. 17:14; 19:16). He has always been the one Lord (Deut. 6:4) in His unique, solitary, incomparable Being (cf. Isa. 37:16; 45:5-6, 14, 18, 22; 46:9). When He establishes His millennial kingdom, He will be universally recognized as such and worshiped as the one true God (Rev. 21:3). With idolatry and false worship cut off from the land (Zech. 13:1-2) His name will be the only name (cf. Acts 4:12) recognized in worship by people.

(3) THE RENOVATION OF JUDAH AND THE SECURITY OF JERUSALEM.

14:10-11. The whole land of Judah-from Geba on its northern border (Josh. 21:17) to Rimmon, probably on its southern border, 35 miles southwest of Jerusalem (Josh. 15:32)-will be miraculously leveled to a broad valley like the Arabah, the low plain stretching from below Mount Hermon down the Jordan River Valley and the Dead Sea on to the Gulf of Aqabah. This will help make Jerusalem more prominent (cf. Isa. 2:2), as the capital city of the great King. Mention of the city's gates indicate the whole city. The Benjamin Gate (cf. Jer. 37:13; 38:7) may have been near the east part of the northern wall; the site of the First Gate is unknown; the Corner Gate was on the west wall; and the Tower of Hannanel (cf. Neh. 3:1) was on the north wall (see the map "Jerusalem in the time of Nehemiah," near Neh. 3:1-5). The royal winepresses were probably south of the city. Not only will Jerusalem be fully inhabited (cf. Joel 3:20); it will also be free of the curse or ban to destruction associated with holy war. It will be eternally secure (cf. Isa. 32:18; 33:20; Amos 9:15; Micah 4:4; Zech. 3:10).

d. The destruction of Israel's enemies (14:12-15)

14:12-15. In this parenthetical flashback (the words the nations that fought against Jerusalem look back to v. 2), Zechariah described the second phase of the invasion of Jerusalem by the confederated Gentile armies. In this phase the Gentile armies will be destroyed around Jerusalem (as previously described in 12:2-9). This section in chapter 14 summarizes: (a) the divine plague on the enemies, both man and beast (vv. 12, 15; cf. 12:4); (b) the panic from the LORD (14:13); and (c) the plunder taken from the Gentile armies (v. 14), much of which no doubt will be plunder that the Gentiles have just taken from Jerusalem (vv. 1-2).

e. The worship of Messiah-King by the nations (14:16-19)

14:16. After Jerusalem becomes secure and Messiah's worldwide reign has been established (vv. 9-11), then the survivors from all the nations will worship annually in Jerusalem. "The survivors" are not the Jewish remnant that had been scattered among "all the nations," for the Jewish remnant will already have been regathered to the land at the time of the Second Advent. Rather, these survivors are from nonmilitary personnel of those nations whose armies were destroyed by Messiah in the attack on Jerusalem (vv. 1-5; cf. Rev. 19:19). The armies in the Campaign of Armageddon will be destroyed, but not the people of the nations they will represent. Furthermore, they will be the survivors of the divine judgment on the Gentile nations who will enter the kingdom of Christ as "sheep," the "goats" having been barred from entrance into the Millennium (Matt. 25:31-46).

That Gentiles will go to Jerusalem (cf. Isa. 2:2; 14:1; 66:23; Zech. 8:23) to worship does not mean they will become Jewish proselytes, as in Old Testament times. Millennial religious worship will not be a restored Judaism but a newly instituted worldwide religious order embracing both Jews and Gentiles. It will center in Jerusalem and will incorporate some features identical with or similar to certain aspects of Old Testament worship. One of these aspects is the annual celebration of the Feast of Tabernacles (cf. Lev. 23:33-43; Zech. 14:18-19). The need to go to Jerusalem is partially explained by the presence there of the object of worship-the King, the LORD Almighty, that is, Jesus Christ who will be ruling on the throne of David (2 Sam. 7:13, 16; Luke 1:32) in Jerusalem (Isa. 24:23).

14:17-19. Worshiping annually in Jerusalem will be necessary for the people to enjoy fertility of crops. Those nations that neglect or refuse such opportunities for worship will forfeit their water supply. For most nations this simply means they will have no rain. But Egypt, whose irrigation depends not on rain (at least not directly) but rather on the flooding of the Nile, will still experience the plague of drought as punishment from the LORD, as will all the nations that do not go up to celebrate the Feast of Tabernacles.

f. The holiness of Judah and Jerusalem during Messiah's reign (14:20-21)

14:20-21. In that day holiness will characterize millennial life (cf. 8:3) whether it be in public life (the bells of the horses), religious life (the cooking pots in the LORD's house, the millennial temple, Ezek. 40-43), or private life (every pot in Jerusalem and Judah). Perhaps the general thought is the removal of a dichotomy between secular and sacred. In the Old Testament a Canaanite had become symbolic of anything ceremonially unclean and ungodly (the dishonest "merchant" in Hosea 12:7 is lit., "the Canaanite"). In the millennial temple no such defilement will occur. Thus Zechariah's prophetic book which began with a call to repentance (Zech. 1:2-6) concludes with an affirmation that all will be holy to the LORD (14:20-21). Because He is the LORD Almighty and the Holy One, He will establish holiness throughout the glorious Millennium!"

13) [Compare 2 Sam 5:2]:

(2 Sam 5:2) "Also, in time past, when Saul was king over us, you were the one who led Israel out and brought them in; and the LORD said to you, 'You shall shepherd My people Israel, and be ruler over Israel.' "

Note that the word rendered "shepherd," in Mt 2:6 in the phrase "For out of you shall come forth a Ruler Who will shepherd My people Israel" is a reflection of 2 Sam 5:2, where the word rendered "shepherd," in the NASB is used to refer to a Ruler over Israel.

14) [Compare Num 24:15-17]:

(Nu 24:15 NKJV) '''So he took up his oracle and said: "The utterance of Balaam the son of Beor, And the utterance of the man whose eyes are opened;

(Nu 24:16 NKJV) The utterance of him who hears the words of God, And has the knowledge of the Most High, Who sees the vision of the Almighty, Who falls down, with eyes wide open:

(Nu 24:17 NKJV) "I see Him, but not now; I behold Him, but not near; A Star shall come out of Jacob; A Scepter shall rise out of Israel, And batter the brow of Moab, And destroy all the sons of tumult.'''

Matthew uses language almost certainly alluding to Numbers 24:17: "A star will come out of Jacob; a scepter will rise out of Israel." This oracle, spoken by Balaam, who came "from the eastern mountains" (Num 23:7), was widely regarded as messianic (Targ. Jonathan and Onkelos; CD 7:19-20; 1QM 11:6; 1QSb 5:27; 4QTest 12-13; T Judah 24:1).

The paths of star bodies do not naturally follow the path that the Star that led the magi to Jesus followed, nor can stars in the natural be used to locate a house or a small village - as the Star did relative to Bethlehem. Hence Matthew 2:2 has presented this Star as supernatural," (Mt 1:20-21).

B (Mt 1:19-25) (cont.)) AND JOSEPH, MARY'S HUSBAND IN THE SENSE OF BEING BETHROTHED, BEING RIGHTEOUS, AND NOT WILLING TO MAKE HER AN EXAMPLE OF UNFAITHFULNESS, DID WISH TO PRIVATELY DIVORCE HER AND SEND HER AWAY. WHEREUPON AN ANGEL OF THE LORD IN A DREAM APPEARED TO HIM SAYING TO HIM NOT TO BE AFRAID OF MARRYING MARY, FOR THAT WHICH WAS BEGOTTEN WITHIN HER IS OF THE HOLY SPIRIT - AND SHE WILL BRING FORTH A SON AND JOSEPH WAS INSTRUCTED TO CALL HIS NAME "JESUS," FOR HE WILL SAVE HIS PEOPLE FROM THEIR SINS. AND ALL THIS HAVING COME TO PASS, SO THAT IT MAY BE FULFILLED THAT WAS SPOKEN BY THE LORD THROUGH THE PROPHET SAYING, 'BEHOLD, THE VIRGIN SHALL BE WITH CHILD, AND BEAR A SON, AND THEY SHALL CALL HIS NAME IMMANUEL,' WHICH IS TRANSLATED, 'GOD WITH US.' THEN JOSEPH, BEING AROUSED FROM SLEEP, DID AS THE ANGEL OF THE LORD COMMANDED HIM AND TOOK TO HIM HIS WIFE AND DID NOT HAVE INTIMATE RELATIONS WITH HER UNTIL SHE GAVE BIRTH TO HER FIRSTBORN SON. AND HE CALLED HIS NAME JESUS, (cont.)]:

(Mt 1:19 YLT) "And Joseph her husband being righteous, and not willing to make her an example, did wish privately to send her away. (Mt 1:20 YLT) And on his [having thought] of these things [behold], [an Angel] of the LORD in a dream appeared to him, saying, 'Joseph, son of David, [you may] not fear to receive Mary [your] wife, for that which in her was begotten is of the Holy Spirit, (Mt 1:21 NKJV) And she will bring forth a Son, and you shall call His name JESUS, for He will save His people from their sins.' (Mt 1:22 YLT) And all this [has] come to pass, that it may be fulfilled that was spoken by the LORD through the prophet, saying, (Mt 1:23 NKJV) 'Behold, the virgin shall be with child, and bear a Son, and they shall call His name Immanuel,' which is translated, 'God with us,' [cf. Isa 7:14] (Mt 1:24 NKJV) Then Joseph, being aroused from sleep, did as the angel of the LORD commanded him and took to him his wife, (Mt 1:25 NKJV) and did not know her till she had brought forth her firstborn Son. And he called His name JESUS," (cont.) =

Matthew then declared in Mt 1:22-23 that all of what the Angel of the LORD declared to Joseph has come to pass in the sense that since it is a declaration from God, then it will absolutely come to pass - for it is to be a fulfillment of that which was spoken by the prophet (Isaiah): "And all this [has] come to pass, that it may be fulfilled that was spoken by the LORD through the prophet, saying, 'Behold, the virgin shall be with child, and bear a Son, and they shall call His name Immanuel,' which is translated, 'God with us,' " (cf. Isa 7:14 )

Note that the phrase rendered, "And she [has called] His name Immanuel," does not demand that One born of the virgin was to have been given the proper name "Immanuel," as some contend; but that the One born of the virgin be called "Immanual," as a title or a descriptive term which means "God with us" - an affirmation of Who this One is: God with us. So Joseph, being aroused from his sleep, forthrightly obeyed the Angel's command and took Mary as his wife and brought her to live with him. Joseph had not had sexual relations with Mary beforehand, nor did he have them with her until she gave birth to her firstborn Son - the promised Messiah / Savior, (Mt 1:23-25)

Matthew clearly implied that after Jesus was born Joseph and Mary did live together as a normal husband and wife, and children were born to them .

Note that Joseph also violated custom when he immediately brought her home and began to care and provide for her rather than waiting till the one-year time period of betrothal had passed. Joseph demonstrated a remarkable obedience and submission to the LORD.

Gospel writer, Luke recorded details surrounding the birth:

16) [Compare Lk 2:1-7]:

(Lk 2:1 NKJV) "And it came to pass in those days that a decree went out from Caesar Augustus that all the world should be registered.

(Lk 2:2 NKJV) This census first took place while Quirinius was governing Syria.

(Lk 2:3 NKJV) So all went to be registered, everyone to his own city.

(Lk 2:4 NKJV) Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judea, to the city of David, which is called Bethlehem, because he was of the house and lineage of David,

(Lk 2:5 NKJV) to be registered with Mary, his betrothed wife, who was with child.

(Lk 2:6 NKJV) So it was, that while they were there, the days were completed for her to be delivered.

(Lk 2:7 NKJV) And she brought forth her firstborn Son, and wrapped Him in swaddling cloths, and laid Him in a manger, because there was no room for them in the inn."

MATTHEW CHAPTER 2