SALVATION OF THE LORD FOR ALL PEOPLES BEGINS WITH ISRAEL

This study is endeavored to be in accordance with the framework in which it was written: a framework which is defined by the normative rules of language, context and logic - rules which do not impose undue, unintended meanings to the text , and which largely limit the observer to the in each particular chapter or passage in view. In order for any passage from elsewhere to be considered, it must have a relationship with the context at hand, such as a Scriptural quotation or a specific cross reference in the passage at hand by the author. This will serve to avoid going on unnecessary tangents elsewhere; and more importantly, it will provide the framework for a proper and objective comparison with passages located elsewhere in Scripture.

Remember that something elsewhere may be true, but in the text at hand it may not be in view.

I) [Isaiah 2:1-4]:

A) (Isa 2:1-4) THE WORD THAT ISAIAH THE SON OF AMOZ SAW CONCERNING JUDAH AND JERUSALEM. IN THE LATTER DAYS THE MOUNTAIN OF THE LORD'S HOUSE SHALL BE ESTABLISHED AND EXALTED ABOVE ALL THINGS ON THE EARTH AT JERUSALEM. PEOPLE FROM ALL NATIONS WILL FLOW TO IT TO BE TAUGHT AND FOLLOW THE WAYS OF THE LORD. THE NATIONS OF THE WORLD SHALL LIVE IN PEACE - NO MORE WAR - ACCORDING TO THE SOVEREIGNTY AND JUDGMENTS OF THE LORD. HENCE THE EVENTS RELATED TO THE BABYLONIAN CONQUEST AND CAPTIVITY ARE NOT IN VIEW - BUT THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE ETERNAL KINGDOM OF GOD IS

(Isa 2:1 NKJV) "The word that Isaiah the son of Amoz saw [lit., had seen] concerning Judah and Jerusalem. (Isa 2:2 NKJV) Now it shall come to pass in the latter days That the mountain of the LORD's house Shall be established on the top of the mountains, And shall be exalted above the hills; And all nations shall flow to it. (Isa 2:3 YLT) And gone have many peoples and [have] said, 'Come, and we go up unto the mount of Jehovah, Unto the house of the God of Jacob, And He [teaches] us of His ways, And we walk in His paths,' For from Zion [goes] forth a law, And a word of Jehovah from Jerusalem. (Isa 2:4 YLT) And He [has] judged between the nations, And [has] given a decision to many peoples, And they have beat their swords to ploughshares, And their spears to pruning-hooks, Nation [does] not lift up sword unto nation, Nor do they learn any more - war." =

In 2:1, author Isaiah stipulated that he wrote words which conveyed what He saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem. Verses 2 & 3 describe an event in the future which will occur "in the latter days," i.e., the last days of history during which the LORD will establish His Eternal Kingdom on the earth: "Now it shall come to pass in the latter days That the mountain of the LORD's house Shall be established on the top of the mountains, And shall be exalted above the hills; And all nations shall flow to it. And many peoples will have gone there and they will have said, "Come, and we go up unto the mount of Jehovah, Unto the house of the God of Jacob, And He [teaches] us of His ways, And we walk in His paths." Hence the events related to the Babylonian conquest and captivity are not in view. Isaiah went on to write, "For from Zion [goes] forth a law, And a word of Jehovah from Jerusalem." Hence Isaiah's words conveyed events which had not occurred during Isaiah's lifetime - nor ours - they are a prophetic vision of the Day of the LORD when He establishes His Eternal Kingdom on the earth.

A) [Compare Isa 1:1]:

(Isa 1:1 YLT) "The Visions of Isaiah son of Amoz, that he [had] seen concerning Judah and Jerusalem, in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, Hexekiah, kings of Judah."

Isa 2:2-3 convey a picture of the mountain of the LORD's house - in the sense of its tremendous size - situated on "the top of the mountains, and ... exalted above the hills" in the sense of being exalted above all the mountains and hills of the earth. The LORD's House is at Jerusalem, for Isa 2:3 indicates that the House of the LORD is to be in an exalted elevation at Jerusalem: for all the peoples of the world were stipulated as going up unto the mount of Jehovah, the house of God of Jacob for a word of Jehovah from Jerusalem. The people went on to declare, "And He [the LORD teaches] us of His ways, And we walk in His paths," which implied that the people of the nations of the world will yearn to learn of the ways of the LORD and come often to Jerusalem to seek Him. Isaiah then went on to write, "For from Zion [Jerusalem goes] forth a law, And a word of Jehovah from Jerusalem," in the sense of conveying the absolute sovereignty and authority of every word that comes from the mouth of the LORD, (Isa 2:1-3).

Isa 2:4 then indicates that the LORD had judged between the nations And had given a decision to many peoples, [in the sense of having settled all controversies as sovereign Judge] "And they have beat their swords swords to ploughshares, And their spears to pruning-hooks, Nation does not lift up sword unto nation, Nor do they learn any more - war." This verse further corroborates that the time of the Babylonian conquest up through today (2011) cannot be in view; for there have been multiple wars throughout history since then.

II) [Isa 9:1-7]:

(Isa 9:1-7) FOR A FUTURE GENERATION, THE GLOOM AND DISTRESS UPON ISRAEL WOULD BE NO MORE - AS WHEN AT FIRST THE LORD TREATED WITH CONTEMPT THE LANDS OF ZEBULUN AND NAPHTALI, AND AFTERWARD MORE HEAVILY OPPRESSED THEM THROUGH ASSYRIAN INVASION. THE PEOPLE OF ISRAEL WHO IN PAST GENERATIONS WALKED IN DARKNESS WOULD SEE A GREAT LIGHT FROM THE LORD SHINING UPON THEM. THE NATION WOULD BE MULTIPLIED AND THE LORD WOULD INCREASE THEIR JOY - LIKE THE REJOICING AT HARVEST TIME OR WHEN MEN DIVIDE THE SPOILS. IN THE MANNER THAT THE LORD SUPERNATURALLY PROVIDED VICTORY FOR GIDEON AND ISRAEL OVER THE MIDIANITES, SO THERE WOULD BE AN END TO OPPRESSION AND WAR: FOR UNTO ISRAEL A CHILD WOULD BE BORN. TO HIS PEOPLE ISRAEL THE LORD WOULD GIVE A SON - HIS SON. THE GOVERNMENT WOULD BE UPON HIS SHOULDER; AND HIS NAME WOULD BE CALLED WONDERFUL, COUNSELOR, MIGHTY GOD, EVERLASTING FATHER, PRINCE OF PEACE. AND OF THE INCREASE OF HIS GOVERNMENT AND PEACE THERE WOULD BE NO END. HE WOULD RULE HIS KINGDOM AND THE WORLD FROM THE THRONE OF DAVID - ESTABLISHING JUDGMENT AND JUSTICE FOREVER. ALL OF THIS WOULD BE ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH THE ZEAL OF THE LORD OF HOSTS

(Isa 8:16 NKJV) '''[Isaiah said to] Bind up the testimony, Seal up the law among my disciples. (Isa 8:17 YLT) And I have waited for [the LORD], Who is hiding His face from the house of Jacob, And I have looked for Him. (Isa 8:18 NKJV) Here am I and the children whom the Lord has given me! [We] are for signs and wonders in Israel From the Lord of hosts, Who dwells in Mount Zion. (Isa 8:19 NKJV) And when they say to you, 'Seek those who are mediums and wizards, who whisper and mutter,' should not a people seek their God? [Should they seek] the dead on behalf of the living? (Isa 8:20 NKJV) To the law and to the testimony! If they [are not speaking] according to this word, it is because [there is] no light in them. (Isa 8:21 NKJV) They will pass through it hard-pressed and hungry; and it shall happen, when they are hungry, that they will be enraged and curse their king and their God, and look upward. (Isa 8:22 NKJV) Then they will look to the earth, and see trouble and darkness, gloom of anguish; and [they will be] driven into darkness. (Isa 9:1 NKJV) Nevertheless the [darkness] will not be upon her who is distressed As when at first He [the LORD] [treated with contempt] The land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, And afterward more heavily oppressed her, By the way of the sea, beyond the Jordan, In Galilee of the Gentiles. (Isa 9:2 NKJV) The people who [who are walking] in darkness Have seen a great light; Those who dwelt [are dwelling] in the land of the shadow of death, Upon them a light has shined. (Isa 9:3 KJV) [You have] multiplied the nation, [have you] not increased the joy? They [rejoice] before [You] according to the joy in harvest, and as men rejoice [to divide] the spoil. (Isa 9:4 NKJV) For You have broken the yoke of his burden And the staff of his shoulder, The rod of his oppressor, As in the day of Midian. (Isa 9:5 HOLMAN) [For the warrior's trampling sandle] and the garments [rolled in the blood of battle] will be burned as fuel for the fire. (Isa 9:6 NKJV) "For unto us [Israel, Isa 1:1, 8:18] a Child is born, Unto us a Son is given; And the government will be upon His shoulder. And His name will be called Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace. (Isa 9:7 NKJV) Of the increase of His government and peace There will be no end, Upon the throne of David and over His kingdom, To order it and establish it with judgment and justice From that time forward, even forever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this." =

In the Masoretic Text of the Hebrew Bible, Isaiah chapter 8 ends with the verse which most translated versions have indicated as Isa 9:1. In that verse, the ancient Israelite tribal allotments of Zebulun and Naphtali - the lands of Zebulun and Naphtali - which refer to the northern portion of Israel were caused by the LORD to be oppressed and then invaded by Assyria and annexed by Tiglath-pileser III in 733-732 B.C. This included Galilee. The phrase rendered ''The way of the sea" refers to Sharon or Philistia. It describes a major international highway running through this region. This is the only time this phrase appears in Scripture, but it appears often in Assyrian and Egyptian records. The invading Assyrian soldiers took that route when they invaded the Northern Kingdom. The phrase rendered "Galilee of the Gentiles" refers to the area of Gilead and southeast Syria, when it was under Gentile domination. The Assyrians carved out three provinces for themselves from these areas in three campaigns. These lands were the first to feel the distress caused by Assyrian invasion. But there will be a time when darkness of oppression will not be upon Israel, (Isa 9:1).

Past tenses in Isa 9:2 continue to speak of future events, such that the future was described by the prophet as having already occurred. Light stands for God's blessings, presence, and revelation - all characterized by His absolute Righteousness, (cf. Isa 2:5). The phrase rendered "shadow of death," means the darkness of separation from the fellowship of God and His Righteousness. Past generations of the people of Israel had been walking in darkness for centuries; but a future generation of them would see a great light, which the passage will indicate is embodied in His incarnate Son, (Isa 9:2).

In the future the LORD will multiply the number of His people. Their joy will be increased as those who rejoiced at harvest time or as men of battle who rejoiced in dividing the spoils of war. In view of the context, Isa 9:3b is best rendered, "[You have] multiplied the nation, [have you] not increased the joy? They [rejoice] before [You] according to the joy in harvest, and as men rejoice [to divide] the spoil," (Isa 9:3).

And the reason for joy being brought upon the Israelites is that the LORD will finally break the yoke of oppression upon His people. For generations, God's chosen people, the Israelites had been dwelling in the land of the shadow of death, (Isa 9:2), experiencing invasions by such as Egypt, Assyria and Babylon. The phrases rendered "the yoke of his burden," "the staff of his shoulder" and "the rod of his oppressor" in Isa 9:4 refer to the oppression of the people of Israel. The word rendered "yoke" referred to that which controlled and caused a burden upon Israel, "the staff" to that which struck the shoulder in punishment, "the rod" to that which oppressed them; and the word rendered "his" to the agent of the LORD used to discipline His people, such as Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, etc.

[Compare Isa 10:24-27]:

(Isa 10:24 NKJV) "Therefore thus says the LORD God of hosts: 'O My people, who dwell in Zion, do not be afraid of the Assyrian. He shall strike you with a rod and lift up his staff against you, in the manner of Egypt.

(Isa 10:25 NKJV) For yet a very little while and the indignation will cease, as will My anger in their destruction.'

(Isa 10:26 NKJV) And the LORD of hosts will stir up a scourge for him like the slaughter of Midian at the rock of Oreb; as His rod was on the sea, so will He lift it up in the manner of Egypt.

(Isa 10:27 NKJV) It shall come to pass in that day that his burden will be taken away from your [Israel's] shoulder, And his yoke from your neck, and the yoke will be destroyed because of the anointing oil"

The breaking of oppression which the LORD imposed upon Israel to discipline her was paralleled to "The day of Midian" which referred to the miraculous defeat of the Midianites by Gideon brought about supernaturally by the LORD, (Isa 9:4).

The passage in Isaiah chapter 9 goes on to explain that the sandles of the soldier and the garments rolled in blood, (a tactic of war to frighten enemies in an impending battle), would be burned, i.e., the implements of warfare would be destroyed. So the darkness of war would be no more, (Isa 9:5).

Isaiah 9:6-7 explained why the people of Israel would be delivered from its generations of darkness: It would be accomplished through One Who would be born of Israel: (Isa 9:6 NKJV) "For unto us [Israel, Isa 1:1, 8:18] a Child is born, Unto us a Son is given; And the government will be upon His shoulder. And His name will be called Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace. (Isa 9:7 NKJV) Of the increase of His government and peace There will be no end, Upon the throne of David and over His kingdom, To order it and establish it with judgment and justice From that time forward, even forever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this."

Since it is the LORD Who gives children to man; and since a child was born to Israel, a Son given; then this implied that the LORD had given His Son to be born as a child of Israel - an Israelite - the Son adding Humanity to His eternal essence of Deity. Whereupon, the passage declared that His name would be called Mighty God, Everlasting Father, implying Diety as well as Perfect Humanity. The first person plural "us" referring to Israel in the phrase rendered, "For unto us [Israel, Isa 1:1, 8:18] a Child is born, Unto us a Son is given," in the NKJV, implies a link to the passage of the virgin birth in Isa 7:14:

[Compare Isa 7:14]:

]:

(Isa 7:14 NKJV) "Therefore the LORD Himself will give you [plural] a sign: 'Behold, [a] virgin shall conceive and bear a Son, and shall call His name Immanuel,' [which means God is with us]."

III) Isa 11:1-16

(Isa 11:1 HOLMAN) "Then a shoot will [have grown] from the stump of Jesse, and a branch from his roots will bear fruit.

(Isa 11:2 KJV) And the Spirit of the LORD shall [have rested] upon Him, the Spirit of wisdom and understanding, the Spirit of counsel and might, the Spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD;

(Isa 11:3 NKJV) His delight is in the fear of the LORD, And He shall not judge by the sight of His eyes, Nor decide by the hearing of His ears;

(Isa 11:4 YLT) And He [has] judged in righteousness the poor, and [has] decided in uprightness [i.e., in equity] for the humble [in the sense of the lowly] of [the earth]; And has [struck] the earth with the rod of His mouth, And with the breath of His lips He [puts] the wicked to death.

(Isa 11:5 NKJV) Righteousness shall be the belt of His loins, And faithfulness the belt of His waist.

(Isa 11:6 NKJV) The wolf also shall [have dwelt] with the lamb, The leopard shall lie down with the young goat, The calf and the young lion and the fatling together; And a little child shall lead them.

(Isa 11:7 NKJV) The cow and the bear shall graze; Their young ones shall lie down together; And the lion shall eat straw like the ox.

(Isa 11:8 NKJV) The nursing child shall play by the cobra's hole, And the weaned child shall put his hand in the viper's den.

(Isa 11:9 NKJV) They shall not hurt [lit., do evil toward] nor destroy in all My holy mountain, For the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the LORD As the waters cover the sea.

(Isa 11:10 NKJV) And in that day there shall be a Root of Jesse, Who shall stand as a banner to the people; For the Gentiles shall seek Him, And His resting place shall be glorious.

(Isa 11:11 NKJV) It shall come to pass in that day That the LORD shall set His hand again the second time To recover the remnant of His people who are left, From Assyria and Egypt, From Pathros and Cush, From Elam and Shinar, From Hamath and the islands of the [Mediterranean] sea.

(Isa 11:12 NKJV) [And] He will [have] set up a banner for the nations, And will [have assembled] the outcasts of Israel, And gather together the dispersed of Judah From the four corners of the earth.

(Isa 11:13 ASV) The envy also of Ephraim shall [have departed], and they that vex Judah shall be cut off: Ephraim shall not envy Judah, and Judah shall not [cause distress to] Ephraim.

(Isa 11:14 NKJV) But they shall [have flown] down upon the shoulder of the Philistines toward the west [lit., seaward], Together they plunder the people of the east; they shall [plunder] Edom and Moab; and the [children] of Ammon [obeying] them

(Isa 11:15 NKJV) [And] the LORD will [have utterly destroyed] the tongue of the Sea of Egypt; With His mighty wind He will [have shaken] His fist over the [Euphrates] River, And [thus have made it into] seven streams, [so that] men [will have crossed over it] dryshod.

(Isa 11:16 HOLMAN) [And] there will be a highway for the remnant of His people who will survive from Assyria [in the sense of descendants from the ancient generation of Israelites were captured by Assyria], as there was for Israel when they came up from the land of Egypt."

A) (1-5) A DESCENDANT FROM THE LINE OF DAVID WILL BE BORN. HE WILL PRODUCE GODLY WORKS OF RIGHTEOUSNESS EVIDENTLY AS MESSIAH AND LORD. THE SPIRIT OF THE LORD WILL REST UPON HIM - THE SPIRIT OF WISDOM, UNDERSTANDING, COUNSEL, MIGHT, KNOWLEDGE AND FEAR OF THE LORD. THIS DESCENDANT'S DELIGHT WILL BE IN THE FEAR OF THE LORD. HE WILL JUDGE NOT BY SIGHT OR HEARING, BUT BY THE RIGHTEOUSNESS OF THE LORD. HENCE HE WILL JUDGE THE POOR AND THE LOWLY IN RIGHTEOUSNESS. HE WILL STRIKE THE UNRIGHTEOUS OF THE EARTH WITH THE ROD OF HIS MOUTH. AND WITH THE BREATH OF HIS LIPS HE WILL PUT THE WICKED TO DEATH - IMPLYING A FUNCTION OF GOD ALONE AS RULER OF THE ETERNAL KINGDOM OF GOD: FOR RIGHTEOUSNESS SHALL BE THE BELT OF HIS LOINS, AND FAITHFULNESS THE BELT OF HIS WAIST

(Isa 11:1 HOLMAN) "Then a shoot will [have grown] from the stump of Jesse, and a branch from his roots will bear fruit. (Isa 11:2 KJV) His delight is in the fear of the LORD, And He shall not judge by the sight of His eyes, Nor decide by the hearing of His ears; (Isa 11:3 NKJV) His delight [= a metaphorical meaning of the Hebrew word transliterated, "ruwach," meaning His scent or spirit, in the sense of the prevailing response which defines His essence - that which characterizes Him] is in the fear of the LORD [in the sense of reverance and obedience to the LORD], And He shall not judge by the sight of His eyes, Nor decide by the hearing of His ears; (Isa 11:4 YLT) And He [has] judged in righteousness the poor, and [has] decided in uprightness [i.e., in equity] for the humble [in the sense of the lowly] of [the earth]; And has [struck] the earth with the rod of His mouth, And with the breath of His lips He [puts] the wicked to death. (Isa 11:5 NKJV) Righteousness shall be the belt of His loins, And faithfulness the belt of His waist." =

Although chapter 10 ends in the timeframe of the people of ancient Assryia and the LORD's punishment of them; and although chapter 11 begins with the conjunction rendered "then" in the HOLMAN version; the timeframe of chapter eleven verse one does not continue in the same ancient timeframe. Chapter 10 ends with the LORD's destruction of Assyria and "Then" it goes far into the future when an individual Man will have descended from "the stump of Jesse." The Hebrew word transliterated "geza' " rendered "stump" in the HOLMAN version may refer to the stump of a felled tree (cf. Job 14:8), or a newly planted tree - a shoot, (Isa 40:24). In view of the context of the last phrase of Isa 11:1 rendered "and a branch from his roots will bear fruit," the meaning of "stump" is the best rendering for "geza.' " The portrayal of the Davidic dynasty as a stump of a tree is an accurate portrayal of the line of David at the time the Humanity of the Messiah was born. At that time the line of David had not had royal power for nearly six hundred years. Since the Jesse referred to was in the line of David; then the shoot which will have grown from the stump of Jesse will be a Descendant of David. Although the Assyrians nearly destroyed Judah short of the gate of Jerusalem, the kings of Judah continued in the line of David until the Babylonians destroyed Jerusalem and the Temple in 586 B.C. Hence the portrayal of a tree stump cut off close to the roots, pictures the loss of royal power of Israel and especially a descendant of David. Instead there is the image of the lowly condition of those descendants. Nevertheless, a shoot will grow from the stump of David's descendant, Jesse who was never king, but whose Descendant will bear the fruit of the Righteousness of God. He will rule over His Eternal Kingdom on the throne of David as described in the next 15 verses, (cf. Isa 9:1-7). The Hebrew word transliterated "yiphreh" rendered "will bear fruit" in the HOLMAN version follows the MT and is supported by 1QIsa. On the other hand, the LXX(B) refers back to the Hebrew word "iprAH" rendered "will sprout." Either would support the sense of bearing fruit, (Isa 11:1).

And at that time, the Spirit of the LORD shall have rested upon the Descendant in the sense of a permanent indwelling in Him. Furthermore, the Descendant shall permanently receive the Spirit of wisdom and understanding, the Spirit of counsel and might, the Spirit of knowledge and the fear of the LORD. Note that all three Persons of the Trinity are in view in vv. 1-2. Verse 3 goes on to declare that this Descendant's delight is in the fear of the LORD. The Hebrew word transliterated "ruwach," rendered "delight" in the NKJV refers to the Descendant's scent or spirit. It is used in this verse in the metaphorical sense of His prevailing response; i.e., that which defines the Descendant's essence - that which characterizes Him. The phrase rendered "the fear of the LORD" in the NKJV is in the sense of trust, obedience and worship of the LORD. Hence, Isaiah writes that this Descendant will not judge by what He sees with His eyes; and He will not execute justice by what He hears with His ears. He will not limit Himself to His finite Humanity - as do all other human judges, who have often misused their office to oppress the needy and the poor. Instead Isaiah indicates that He will judge by the counsel, wisdom and understanding of the LORD through the work of the Holy Spirit in Him. So He will have judged in righteousness the poor, and will have decided in uprightness, i.e., equity for the humble in the sense of the lowly. Whereupon, Isaiah declared that this Descendant will have struck the earth with the rod of His mouth - implying condemnatory judgment of unrighteous people throughout the earth, for the context is universal and not limited to Israel, as some contend. With the breath of His lips He puts the wicked to death. All of these attributes are reserved for God alone - yet, being God, He will be a Descendant of David - a Man. Isaiah goes on to write that Righteousness shall be the belt of His loins And Faithfulness the belt of His waist, [in the sense that His reign will be characterized by the Righteousness, (cf. 9:7; 16:5) and the Faithfulness of God as if they were integral parts of Him as a belt and a sash are essential, key foundational elements of His clothing - implying deity.

Note that the Child born of Israel, the Son given to them, is in view when He comes of age to function as Messiah exercising the attributes of the wisdom, understanding and counsel of the LORD via the Spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD with a further view of when He comes to His Righteous rule in the Eternal Kingdom of God. For reasons stated above - especially those which describe His attributes, which are those of God, this Descendant of Jesse cannot be king Hezekiah or some other king of Judah, as some contend, (Isa 11:2-5; cf. 6-16).

B) (Isa 11:6-9) IN THAT DAY, ALL ANIMALS WILL DEMONSTRATE A RESPECT AND SUBMISSION, EVEN BENEVOLENCE AND PROTECTION TOWARD HUMAN BEINGS DURING THE REIGN OF THE LORD IN HIS ETERNAL KINGDOM. AND EVERYONE AND EVERYTHING ON THE EARTH WILL REFLECT A KNOWLEDGE OF GOD IMPLYING A COMPLETE RESTORATION OF THE WORLD TO THE RIGHTEOUSNESS OF THE LORD FROM ITS FALLEN CONDITION

(Isa 11:1 HOLMAN) "Then a shoot will [have grown] from the stump of Jesse, and a branch from his roots will bear fruit. (Isa 11:2 KJV) And the Spirit of the LORD shall [have rested] upon Him, the Spirit of wisdom and understanding, the Spirit of counsel and might, the Spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD; (Isa 11:3 NKJV) His delight is in the fear of the LORD, And He shall not judge by the sight of His eyes, Nor decide by the hearing of His ears; (Isa 11:4 YLT) And He [has] judged in righteousness the poor, and [has] decided in uprightness [i.e., in equity] for the humble [in the sense of the lowly] of [the earth]; And has [struck] the earth with the rod of His mouth, And with the breath of His lips He [puts] the wicked to death. (Isa 11:5 NKJV) Righteousness shall be the belt of His loins, And faithfulness the belt of His waist. (Isa 11:6 NKJV) The wolf also shall [have dwelt] with the lamb, The leopard shall lie down with the young goat, The calf and the young lion and the fatling together; And a little child shall lead them. (Isa 11:7 NKJV) The cow and the bear shall graze; Their young ones shall lie down together; And the lion shall eat straw like the ox. (Isa 11:8 NKJV) The nursing child shall play by the cobra's hole, And the weaned child shall put his hand in the viper's den. (Isa 11:9 NKJV) They shall not hurt [lit., do evil toward] nor destroy in all My holy mountain, For the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the LORD As the waters cover the sea. =

In view of the appearance of the Descendant of Jesse, His indwelling by the Spirit, His demonstration of His innate fear of the LORD as Messiah to come, Isaiah moves to the description of the age in which the Messiah comes to begin His Eternal Kingdom on the earth: "The wolf also shall [have dwelt] with the lamb, The leopard shall lie down with the young goat, The calf and the young lion and the fatling [in the sense of the best, well fed yearling which is used for sacrifice] together; And a little child shall lead them. The cow and the bear shall graze; Their young ones shall lie down together; And the lion shall eat straw like the ox. The nursing child shall play by the cobra's hole, And the weaned child shall put his hand in the viper's den. So predator will no longer be predator. All animals will demonstrate a respect and submission, even benevolence and protection toward human beings during the reign of the LORD in His eternal kingdom. Note that these changes in the animal life are literal, and not to be taken figuratively as some contend. They are possible because the Creator is Sovereign and declared through Isaiah that these changes would be characteristic of His Kingdom on earth in literal language. The restoration of human beings to God is implied in phrase "For the earth shall be full of the knowledge of God As the waters cover the sea" in the NKJV which in turn implies the complete and thorough restoration of the world's environment from its fallen condition. So the world's entire ecological system including plants, animals and people will be in harmony with the Righteous rule of the LORD. In His reign, nature will be at peace with itself and with man. Contrary to what some contend, the Eternal Kingdom rule has not yet begun, since these factors do not characterize any age of history so far: Animal life shall not hurt [lit., do evil toward] nor destroy in all My holy mountain [in the sense that the entire earth will be in that day the LORD's holy mountain], For the earth - plants, animals and people - shall be full of the knowledge of the LORD As the waters cover the sea - in the sense of everything being obedient to Him - all the people, animals and plants. Peace and tranquility will  reign throughout His Kingdom - "As the waters cover the sea," (cf. Isa 9:7); (Isa 11:6-9).

C) (10-16) AND IN THAT DAY THE ROOT OF JESSE WILL STAND AS A BANNER, WHO WILL DRAW ALL THE PEOPLES OF THE WORLD TO HIMSELF - THEY WILL SEEK HIM IN THE SENSE OF COMING TO A KNOWLEDGE AND TRUST IN HIM. HE WILL SIT ON THE THRONE IN THE TEMPLE. AND THE LORD SHALL A SECOND TIME RECOVER THE REMNANT OF HIS PEOPLE FROM EVERYWHERE ON EARTH. AND JUDAH WILL LIVE IN HARMONY WITH ISRAEL. TOGETHER THEY WILL DESTROY THEIR ENEMIES. THE LORD WILL DRY UP THE GULF OF SUEZ WITH A WIND AND REDUCE THE EUPHRATES RIVER INTO SEVEN SHALLOW STREAMS TO CREATE A HIGHWAY FOR HIS PEOPLE TO COME TO HIM

(Isa 11:10 NKJV) "And in that day there shall be a Root of Jesse, Who shall stand as a banner to the people; For the Gentiles shall seek Him, And His resting place shall be glorious. (Isa 11:11 NKJV) It shall come to pass in that day That the LORD shall set His hand again the second time To recover the remnant of His people who are left, From Assyria and Egypt, From Pathros and Cush, From Elam and Shinar, From Hamath and the islands of the [Mediterranean] sea. (Isa 11:12 NKJV) [And] He will [have] set up a banner for the nations, And will [have assembled] the outcasts of Israel, And gather together the dispersed of Judah From the four corners of the earth. (Isa 11:13 ASV) The envy also of Ephraim shall [have departed], and they that vex Judah shall be cut off: Ephraim shall not envy Judah, and Judah shall not [cause distress to] Ephraim. (Isa 11:14 NKJV) But they shall [have flown] down upon the shoulder of the Philistines toward the west [lit., seaward], Together they plunder the people of the east; they shall [plunder] Edom and Moab; and the [children] of Ammon [obeying] them. (Isa 11:15 NKJV) [And] the LORD will [have utterly destroyed] the tongue of the Sea of Egypt; With His mighty wind He will [have shaken] His fist over the [Euphrates] River, And [thus have made it into] seven streams, [so that] men [will have crossed over it] dryshod. (Isa 11:16 HOLMAN) [And] there will be a highway for the remnant of His people who will survive from Assyria [in the sense of descendants from the ancient generation of Israelites were captured by Assyria], as there was for Israel when they came up from the land of Egypt." =

And in that day there shall be a Root of Jesse. As a tree root is the source of life to the tree, so the Root of Jesse, in the line of David, is portrayed as the source of the life to the world. In that day, He shall stand as a Banner - a rallying symbol Who will draw all the peoples of the world to Him: "For the Gentiles shall seek Him" in the sense of coming to a knowledge of Him, trusting and worshipping Him. His "resting place" in the sense of where He sits, i.e., His throne in the Temple - the resting place of God, (cf. Isa 60:13)] shall be glorious, i.e., filled with the visible glory of God. This is an open declaration that this Root of Jesse is God incarnate. Note that this period of rule, considering the references to the sea and the nations in verse 10, ("Gentiles), is for all the peoples of the world, and not to be limited the Israel, as some contend, (Isa 11:10).

"And it shall come to pass in that day That the LORD shall set His hand again the second time to recover the remnant of His people [the first recovery pointing to the Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt where the whole nation was brought out of slavery and into the promised land, (Exodus 11:12-16; cf. Isa 11:16). The second time, the LORD Himself will gather the godly remnant of His people from the areas where they were scattered in the ancient times: They will come from the [SOUTH:] "From Assyria and Egypt, From Pathros [i.e., 'Upper Egypt' - one of the three divisions of Egypt south of Memphis and north of Aswan] and Cush [Ethiopia, south of Egypt, now Abyssinia, and the southern parts of Arabia, along the Red Sea]; [EAST] From Elam [Persia, especially the southern part of it now called Susiana, lying north of the western end of the Persian Gulf ] and Shinar [The Babylonian heartland, lying in the south-eastern part of the Tigris-Euphrates valley] [NORTH] From Hamath [a Syrian city, a small kingdom on the Orontes River] [WEST] and [from] the islands of the sea [the Mediterranean maritime nations and the far western regions beyond the sea], (Isa 11:11).

Furthermore, the gathering of the remnant of His people will be worldwide: [And] He will [have] set up a banner for the nations, And will [have assembled] the outcasts of Israel, And gather together the dispersed of Judah From the four corners of the earth - the remnant of all twelve tribes will be gathered from everywhere on earth. Note that this second gathering of the remnant of the people of the LORD is not the same as the return of the remnant from Babylon under the edict of Cyrus as some contend; because this latter return was partial, not worldwide. Many Jews remained scattered throughout the world, (cf. Books of Ezra, Nehemiah and Esther). Furthermore, the detailed description of the complete and permanent return of all of God's people Israel from throughout the world as specifically stipulated in Isaiah chapter 11 has not yet occurred. Hence the return of Jews who were scattered after the destruction of Jerusalem in A.D. 70, or after the Bar Kokhba rebellion of about A.D. 132-135 or when Jews returned to Palestine in 1948, or any event so far in history up through 2011 is not in view. But what is in view will be that all of the jealousy and hostility between the tribes will be gone forever: "The envy also of Ephraim shall [have departed], and they that vex Judah shall be cut off: Ephraim shall not envy Judah, and Judah shall not [cause distress to] Ephraim," (Isa 11:12-13).

But they [the restored worldwide remant of Israel] shall [have flown] down upon the shoulder of the Philistines [as a bird attacking its prey] toward the west [lit., seaward], Together they plunder the people of the east; they shall [plunder] Edom and Moab; [Edom - south of Judah, from the Dead Sea to the Red Sea; "Moab"-- east of Jordan and the Dead Sea] and the [children] of Ammon [east of Judea, north of Moab, between the Arnon and Jabbok] [obeying] them [in the sense of the peoples who occupy that geographical area at the future time of the day of the LORD so that all who oppose Israel will be put down into submission throughout the world], (Isa 11:14).

[And] the LORD will [have utterly destroyed] [in the sense of drying up] the tongue of the Sea of Egypt [the Gulf of Suez], [destroyed in the sense that it no longer could be used as a waterway]; With His mighty wind He will [have shaken] His fist over the [Euphrates] River, [in the sense of breaking it up into seven streams] And [thus have made it into] seven [the number of completion] [shallow] streams, [so that] men [will have crossed over it] dryshod. [And] there will be a highway [i.e., a path completely clear of all obstructions] for the remnant of His people who will have descended from those of the Northern Kingdom that survived in captivity in Assyria [in the sense of descendants from the ancient generation of Israelites were captured by Assyria, a symbol of all of the people from all over the world who will return at that time], as there was for Israel when they [the entire nation of Israel in the first complete return] came up from the land of Egypt," (Isa 11:14-16).

Note that this messianic theme was also in view earlier in Isa 9:1-7.

IV) [Isa 12:1-6]:

(Isa 12:1 NKJV) "And in that day you will [have said]: 'O LORD, I will praise You; [Because] You [have been] angry with me, [Let it turn, (imperfect / jussive mood..)] Your anger... away, [that] You [may, (imperfect / jussive mood)] comfort me.

(Isa 12:2 NKJV) Behold, God is my salvation, I will trust and not be afraid; For Yah, [the LORD] the LORD, is my strength and song (cf. Exod 15:2; Ps 118:14); [And] He [is to me... salvation] has become my salvation [in the sense of temporal preservation / deliverance].'

(Isa 12:3 NKJV) Therefore with joy you [plural] will draw water From the wells of salvation.

(Isa 12:4 CBL) And you [plural] [will have said] in that day, 'Give [praise] to the LORD, call [plural] on His name; make [plural] known His deeds among the peoples, Remind [them] that His name is exalted.

(Isa 12:5 CBL) Sing robustly [plural] to [the LORD] because glorious things He has done making this known in all the earth.

(Isa 12:6 CBL) Shout, yes shout for joy [you] dwellers of Zion because great [is] the Holy One of Israel in your midst"

A) (12:1-6) ISAIAH WRITES A PSALM OF PRAISE TO THE LORD RELATIVE TO THE DAY OF THE LORD WHEN HE IS IN THE MIDST OF HIS PEOPLE RULING OVER HIS ETERNAL KINGDOM ON EARTH, TO BE SUNG IN THAT DAY BY THOSE WHO HAVE BEEN SAVED BY GRACE - THE REMNANT - HIS PEOPLE AND THOSE OF OTHER NATIONS WHO HAVE BEEN DELIVERED FROM JUDGMENT - EVIDENTLY BELIEVERS ALL - TO BE SUNG WITH JOY TO OTHERS THROUGHOUT THE WORLD TO EXALT HIS NAME - THE HOLY ONE OF ISRAEL, FOR ALL THAT HE IS AND HAS DONE

(Isa 12:1 NKJV) "And in that day you will [have said]: 'O LORD, I will praise You; [Because] You [have been] angry with me, [Let it turn, (imperfect / jussive mood..)] Your anger... away, [that] You [may, (imperfect / jussive mood)] comfort me. (Isa 12:2 NKJV) Behold, God is my salvation, I will trust and not be afraid; For Yah, [the LORD] the LORD, is my strength and song (cf. Exod 15:2; Ps 118:14); [And] He [is to me... salvation] has become my salvation [in the sense of temporal preservation / deliverance].' (Isa 12:3 NKJV) Therefore with joy you [plural] will draw water From the wells of salvation. (Isa 12:4 CBL) And you [plural] [will have said] in that day, 'Give [praise] to the LORD, call [plural] on His name;' make [plural] known His deeds among the peoples, Remind [them] that His name is exalted. (Isa 12:5 CBL) Sing robustly [plural] to [the LORD] because glorious things He has done making this known in all the earth. (Isa 12:6 CBL) Shout, yes shout for joy [you] dwellers of Zion because great [is] the Holy One of Israel in your midst" =

The context continues into chapter 12 of the Day of the LORD when He will draw all the peoples of the world to Himself; when they will seek Him in the sense of coming to a knowledge and trust in Him; when He will sit on the throne in the Temple in Jerusalem. This is not the time of the return of the remnant from captivity in Babylon, as some contend. The context does not permit that view. For this is the time of the day of the LORD when He shall a second time recover the remnant of His people from everywhere on earth, (not just from Babylon. The first time being from Egypt, (Isa 11:16)); whereupon Judah will live in harmony with Israel; and together they will destroy their enemies, (which did not happen at the time of Babylon). And the LORD will create a highway for His people to come to Him from throughout the world, (Isa 11:10-16).

In chapter 12, Isaiah has written a psalm of praise to the LORD relative to the day of the LORD when He is in the midst of His people, to be sung in that day by those who have been saved by grace - the remnant - His people and those of other nations who have been delivered from judgment - evidently believers all - to be sung with joy to others throughout the world to exalt His name - the Holy One of Israel, for all that He is and has done. The psalm begins with, "You [singular] have said" - referring to an individual Israelite - one of those who will have survived the judgment of the LORD in that day - evidently one of the redeemed of that time in history, a representative voice of the whole redeemed nation - who will have begun singing the hymn with, 'O LORD, I will praise You; Because You have been angry with me, Let it turn Your anger away, that You may comfort me, (Isa 12:1)." Notice that the Hebrew verbs rendered "Let it turn [Your anger away] and [that] "You may comfort me," are in the imperfect jussive mood.. .which expresses a desire for action from a third person - in this case the LORD. And considering His character and grace, He will provide salvation and comfort for His redeemed in that day. The psalm goes on to indicate that those whom the LORD will have saved in the sense of having preserved / delivered them from physical death unto temporal and eternal blessing when He comes to commence His kingdom. And although they evidently will comprise the future remnant of believers in that day, (cf. Isa 11:11, 16); nevertheless, they will not have acted entirely faithfully toward Him. Yet they will have been delivered unto blessing by the grace of God. For the hymn goes on to declare, "Behold, God is my salvation, [referring to temporal preservation / deliverance] I will trust and not be afraid. For Yah [the LORD] the LORD is my strength and song, (cf. Exod 15:2; Ps 118:14); [And] He [is to me... salvation] has become my salvation [in the sense of temporal preservation / deliverance. And in the sense that God is now - in the future day of the LORD, everything to His people: their strength, song, salvation, blessing].' So in that day men will be totally trusting in God - to the exclusion of all else. Hence no longer will there be trusting in mortal man. Recall that Isaiah had to be advised by the LORD that his generation of the people of Judah would not give ear, eyes or mind to the word of the LORD through Isaiah. But the future generation would be totally, supernaturally committed:

1) [Compare Isa 6:5-10]:

(Isa 6:5 NKJV) "So I [Isaiah say] "Woe is me, for I am undone! Because I am a man of unclean lips, And I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips; For my eyes have seen the King, The LORD of hosts."

(Isa 6:6 ASV) Then [flies] one of the seraphim unto me, having a live coal in his hand, which he had taken with the tongs from off the altar:

(Isa 6:7 NKJV) And he touched my mouth with it, and [says] "Behold, this has touched your lips; Your iniquity [has been] taken away, And your sin [is] purged [Hebrew, lit., atoned for]."

(Isa 6:8 YLT) And I hear the voice of [my] LORD, saying: "Whom do I send? and who [goes] for Us?" And I say, "Here [am] I, send me."

(Isa 6:9 YLT) And He [says], "Go, and [have it told] to this people, 'Hear... hear, and [you] do not understand, And see.. see and [you] do not know.'

(Isa 6:10 NKJV) Make the heart of this people fat, And their ears heavy [unable to ear clearly what is said] And shut their eyes; Lest they see with their eyes, And hear with their ears, And understand with [each one with his] heart, And return and be healed.' "

Incidentally, the salvation unto temporal blessing in the day of the LORD for His redeemed is also eternal, considering that the eternal kingdom of God is in view. There will be an absence of fear of human reprisal and cruelty. Note that the Hebrew word rendered salvation (Ls' and Hys' / Yeshu‘ah) in verses 2 and 3 respectively is another form of the Hebrew name for Jesus, (Yeshu‘a). Note also that the LORD is referred to twice in verse 2 to emphasize His almighty power and unchangeable nature: "y" and "yhw" rendered Jah and Jehovah in the YLT , and "YAH," and "the LORD" in the NKJV, (Isa 12:2).

Isaiah's hymn is a hymn of international evangelism; for it goes on to declare, in the second person plural, "Therefore with joy you [plural, referring to the remnant / redeemed people of the LORD in the day of the LORD] - you will draw water From the wells of salvation [in the sense of having, as with drawing water from an artesian well, a constant and unlimited supply of God's salvation of temporal deliverance and blessing], (Isa 12:3).

Note that in verse 4, the second person singular whom Isaiah had representing all redeemed Israelites in the previous 3 verses becomes second person plural giving voice to all the redeemed of Israel together: "And you [plural] will have said in that day, 'Give praise to the LORD, [in the sense of give public acknowledgment of His Righteousness] call on His name,' [in the sense of trusting in His Righteous character and capacity to fulfill what He has promised and to deliver and bless those who are His] Make known His deeds among the peoples [in the sense of causing all the peoples of the world to know Who the LORD is and what He has done], Remind them that His name is exalted [to be honored above all names]. Sing robustly to the LORD because of the glorious things He has done making this known [referring to the people of the LORD singing this hymn so that all the peoples of the world will know of His glorious deeds] in all the earth." For it is the LORD Who is due the praise and worship of all the nations of the world. His name is above all names. It represents His holy, exalted nature and Righteous character. Verse 6 goes on to say, "Shout, yes shout for joy you dwellers of Zion because great is the Holy One of Israel in your midst." Notice that the presence of the LORD will be in the midst of His people in Zion - in the temple in Jerusalem, (Isa 12:4-6).

Isaiah's psalm / hymn of praise resembles Moses and Miriam's hymn of praise after the first Exodus from Egypt:

2) [Compare Ex 15:1-4]:

(Ex 15:1 NKJV) Then Moses and the children of Israel sang this song to the LORD and spoke, saying:

['Let me sing] to the LORD,

For He has triumphed gloriously!

The horse and its rider

He has thrown into the sea!'

(Ex 15:2 NKJV) The LORD is my strength and song,

And He [is to me] salvation;

He is my God, and I will praise [lit., glorify] Him;

[the God of my father], and I will exalt Him.

(Ex 15:3 NKJV) The LORD is a man of war;

The LORD is His name.

(Ex 15:4 NKJV) Pharaoh's chariots and his army He has cast into the sea;

His chosen captains also are drowned in the [Sea of Reeds]."

V) [Isa 25:1-10]:

(Isa 25:1 NASB) "O LORD, You are my God; I will exalt You, I will give thanks to Your name;

(Isa 25:2 NASB) For You have worked wonders, Plans formed long ago, with perfect faithfulness.

(Isa 25:3 NASB) For You have made a city into a heap, A fortified city into a ruin; A palace of strangers is a city no more, It will never be rebuilt.

(Isa 25:4 NASB) Therefore a strong people will glorify You; Cities of ruthless nations will revere You.

(Isa 25:5 NASB) For You have been a defense for the helpless, A defense for the needy in his distress, A refuge from the storm, a shade from the heat; For the breath of the ruthless Is like a rain storm against a wall.

(Isa 25:6 NASB) Like heat in drought, You subdue the uproar of aliens; Like heat by the shadow of a cloud, the song of the ruthless is silenced.

(Isa 25:7 NASB) The LORD of hosts will prepare a lavish banquet for all peoples on this mountain; A banquet of aged wine, choice pieces with marrow, And refined, aged wine.

(Isa 25:8 NASB) And on this mountain He will swallow up the covering which is over all peoples, Even the veil which is stretched over all nations

(Isa 25:9 NASB) He will swallow up death for all time, And the Lord GOD will wipe tears away from all faces, And He will remove the reproach of His people from all the earth; For the LORD has spoken.

(Isa 25:10 NASB) And it will be said in that day, 'Behold, this is our God for whom we have waited that He might save us. This is the LORD for whom we have waited; Let us rejoice and be glad in His salvation.' "

A) [(Isa 25:1-12) Bible Knowledge Commentary]:

"25:1-5. Speaking in the first person Isaiah described the situation which will exist when the kingdom is established on the earth. The prophet ascribed praise to the Lord's name (His revealed character) for His marvelous acts of judgment (vv. 2-3) and deliverance (vv. 4-5). God's judgment on the city, representative of the world (cf. 24:12-13), will cause peoples from ruthless nations to honor and revere God. This will fulfill the promise given Abraham that all the world's nations will be blessed through Israel (Gen. 12:3). The theme of Gentiles knowing and worshiping God in the kingdom is common in the prophets (see, e.g., Isa. 2:3; 11:9; 49:7; 56:6; 66:20-21; Zech. 14:16-19; Mal. 1:11).

When the Lord will establish His kingdom on the earth, a reversal of fortunes will occur (Isa. 25:4-5). The poor (dal, "feeble, weak, helpless") and the needy (ʾeb̠yn, "oppressed") will be rescued and the ruthless will be stilled. God's care for the poor and the needy is mentioned many times in the Old and New Testaments. The reversal of fortunes, in which those who depend on God are helped and those who depend on themselves are judged, is a major theme of Scripture (e.g., 1 Sam. 2:1-10; James 5:1-6). The ruthless in their harsh treatment of others are like a storm and the oppressive desert heat. But God's judgment on them will be like a cloud that suddenly covers the sun, thus limiting its heat.

25:6. God's deliverance of His people in the kingdom is pictured as a banquet feast on the mountain of the Lord Almighty. Mountains are often symbols of governmental authority (e.g., Dan. 2:44-45) but here the mountain probably refers to Jerusalem (Mount Zion) from which the Messiah will rule in the kingdom. Food will be provided for all peoples, which fact once again stresses the worldwide extent of God's kingdom over those who believe. This does not mean that everyone who lives in the Millennium will be saved (though only redeemed people will enter the Millennium at its beginning); instead it means that people in all areas of the world will be saved. The best of meats and the finest of wines picture God's ability to supply the needs of His people during that time. Some Bible interpreters say this refers symbolically to God's care for His people in the present age. However, Isaiah was speaking of a future time when (after God's worldwide judgment) His people in Israel and other nations will feast together in peace and prosperity. This is the 1,000-year reign of Christ.

25:7-8. Death, pictured as a shroud and a sheet, the covering placed over a dead body, will be swallowed up or done away with. This will mean that tears of grief caused by the separation of the dead from the living also will be a thing of the past. This removal of death and wiping away of tears will take place at the end of the 1,000-year reign of Christ (Rev. 21:4), when death, Satan, and hell will be thrown into the lake of fire (Rev. 20:14) and the new heavens and new earth established (Rev. 21:1-3). Since God's future kingdom includes both the Messiah's millennial reign and the eternal state, Isaiah telescoped them together (cf. Isa. 65:17-25). Elsewhere the first and second comings of Christ are seen together (9:6-7; 61:1-3). The certainty of future prosperity and joy and absence of death would encourage Judah in Isaiah's day to trust in the Lord and not lose heart.

25:9. In that day (cf. 24:21), the day when the believing remnant will be delivered, they (the saved ones) will affirm their trust in the Lord, who saved them. In response they will say let us rejoice and be glad in the salvation He provided. Meanwhile, in Isaiah's day, believers in Judah were to rejoice in the Lord's salvation.

25:10-12. Isaiah referred to Moab as representing those who oppose God and will be judged by Him. Moab was east of Israel across the Dead Sea. Israel and Judah had many altercations with Moab, that was known for her pride (v. 11; cf. 16:6). She felt that the works of her hands and her cleverness would protect her, but it would not. Moab—and all God's enemies—will be totally destroyed, trampled, and brought down... low (cf. 26:5) to the very dust. Only God's people, in Israel and in other nations, will enjoy God's time of prosperity and blessing."

VI) (Isa 52:1-15) The LORD's Servant - His Holy Arm Will Bring Salvation To All Mankind. This Servant Of God Acts Wisely. He Has Been Greatly Exalted, Yet His Appearance Was Inhumanly Disfigured. Some Will Choose To Believe In Him For Salvation And He Will Cleanse Their Sins Implying His Personal Atonement For All Of Mankind So That They May Make That Choice. So The Arm Of The LORD Has Evidently Been Revealed To All Mankind - Jews And Gentiles Alike. Most Will Not Choose To Hear About Him

******

(Isa 52:1 NIV) '''Awake, awake, O Zion, clothe yourself with strength. Put on your garments of splendor, O Jerusalem, the holy city. The uncircumcised and defiled will not enter you again.

(Isa 52:2 NIV) Shake off your dust; rise up, sit enthroned, O Jerusalem. Free yourself from the chains on your neck, O captive Daughter of Zion.'''

  [Zion (Jerusalem) is emphatically called by Isaiah, hence the LORD, to awaken from her exile = to be alert and do what is herein commanded: She was to clothe herself with strength, i.e., to rebuild herself hence regain her strength. Jerusalem, the holy city, the capital of Israel representing all Israel was commanded to put on garments of splendor - to rebuild in such a fashion as to set herself apart to the glory of her God. Note that the time of this particular rebuilding is yet future, for the text indicates that the uncircumcised, (= non-Jews and unbelievers) and the defiled (= unclean relative to violations of statutes of the Mosaic Law), will not enter her again. Non-Jews and the defiled have continued to occupy Jerusalem for centuries even up through the 21st century. Hence the eternal kingdom is in view, and not the rebuilding of Jerusalem after being set free from Babylonia. So Israel will be freed from enslavement to other kingdoms forever and be ruler of her own kingdom. Verse 2 further commanded Jerusalem to shake off the dust of her enslavement and to rise up and take charge of ruling herself]

(Isa 52:3 NIV) '''For this is what the LORD says: 'You were sold for nothing, and without money you will be redeemed.'

(Isa 52:4 NIV) For this is what the Sovereign LORD says: 'At first My people went down to Egypt to live; lately, Assyria has oppressed them.

(Isa 52:5 NIV) And now what do I have here?' declares the LORD. [Speaking of Israel's captivity this time by Babylon] 'For My people have been taken away for nothing, and those who rule them mock,' declares the LORD. 'And all day long my name is constantly blasphemed.

(Isa 52:6 NIV) Therefore My people will know My name; therefore in that day [of the future eternal kingdom] they will know that it is I Who foretold it. Yes, it is I.'''

  [Notice that Jerusalem has a history of being enslaved by other kingdoms including Egypt, Assyria and Babylon; but no more, she, i.e., all Israelites of that future time of the eternal kingdom will be redeemed by the LORD as a free gift forever vis vis verse 3b, "and without money you will be redeemed." They will know the name of the LORD in the sense of Him as Redeemer unto eternal life. So the free gift of eternal redemption is in view]

******

(Isa 52:7 NIV) How beautiful on the mountains are the feet of those who bring good news, who proclaim peace, who bring good tidings, who proclaim salvation, who say to Zion, 'Your God reigns!'

(Isa 52:8 NIV) Listen! Your watchmen lift up their voices; together they shout for joy. When the LORD returns to Zion, they will see it with their own eyes.

(Isa 52:9 NIV) Burst into songs of joy together, you ruins of Jerusalem, for the LORD has comforted His people, He has redeemed Jerusalem." '''

  [How beautiful on the mountains, (referring to the mountainous countryside around Jerusalem), are the feet which run on the paths through the mountains to Jerusalem which belong to those who bring good news of peace, good tidings, (the gospel of the free gift of salvation unto eternal redemption, {v. 7}). And that redemption is through the Holy Arm of the LORD for all mankind to see in verse 10 which follows]

(Isa 52:10 NKJV) "The LORD has made bare His Holy Arm In the eyes of all the nations; And all the ends of the earth shall see The Salvation of our God."

  [Notice that the LORD will return some day to redeem all of Israel - all of Jerusalem, i.e., all of the generation of Israel of that future time as a free gift, (ref. Isa 52:3). He will appear in a form that can be seen: the LORD will lay bare His Holy Arm Who will be an individual Man Who will have God's Strength, Righteousness and Authority over all the nations of the earth, (cf. Isa 9:6-7 , 49:1-13 . All mankind will see the salvation / the redemption of the God of Israel through this Man. Evidently the LORD will appear as Savior and Redeemer to Israel and to all of mankind in Human form, (Isa 9:6-7 ; 49:1-13 ; cf. 52:1-9).

So the first phrase of Isa 52:10, "The LORD has made bare His Holy Arm In the eyes of all the nations" has the sense that the LORD has revealed His Holy Arm to the eyes of all nations - for all mankind to see Him, which is corroborated in the second phrase, "And all the ends of the earth," i.e., all the nations - all mankind "shall see the Salvation of our God." The time when this revelation of the Holy Arm of the LORD to all mankind from the ends of the earth will see the Salvation of our God will evidently not be within the mortal lives of most of mankind who will have died before He is revealed to the world. But all mankind that are in mortal bodies on earth at this future time will see Him: They will see the Salvation of God as embodied in the Person of the Holy Arm of the LORD. They will see the Child born of Israel, the Son given by God to His chosen people - the One Who will call His name Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace, the One Who will begin His everlasting rule upon the throne of David, (Isa 9:6-7 , cf. Joel chs 2 & 3 .

Note that the "our" in "our God," refers to those of Israel who believed in God's plan of salvation through His Holy Arm to whom God gave the message of salvation through the prophet Isaiah. For it is the Jewish prophet Isaiah who has written this psalm in chapters 52-53 for Jewish believers to be encouraged by, to sing and to proclaim the message of the Salvation of the LORD to Israel and to all the world, (cf. Isa 43:8-13). The message was not given by God to Gentiles to encourage them while they were in captivity, nor for them to spread the message of salvation throughout the world, nor did the message originate with the Gentiles at all, as some contend.

As this passage continues through chapter 53, it is indicated that the Servant of the LORD, His Holy Arm, (Isa 52:13), will provide that salvation through His personal atonement for the sins of all mankind to anyone who will choose to believe in Him for it unto eternal life - Jew or Gentile, (Isa 53:1-12)]

(Isa 52:12 NASB) "But you will not go out in haste, Nor will you go as fugitives; For the LORD will go before you, And the God of Israel will be your rear guard."

  As in the Exodus out of Egypt and the Exodus away from Babylon, so in Israel's yet-future return, the righteous remnant is exhorted to get away from the evil places where they will be living: Depart, depart.... come out. However, there will be a difference: they will not have to leave in haste. Since the Lord will be with them and will protect them they need have no fear.

(Isa 52:13 YLT) "[Behold], My Servant [acts] wisely, He is [exalted], and [has] been lifted up], And [has] been [greatly exalted]."

  [The LORD's Servant, portrayed as the LORD's Holy Arm of Salvation made bare for all mankind to see Him in Isa 52:10, is described in v. 13 as One Who acts wisely. God's Servant - His Holy Arm of salvation - will have the wisdom to accomplish successfully what God has sent Him to do - to provide for the availability of Salvation to Israel and to all mankind, (cf. Isa 49:1-6; 52:5), through a moment of faith in Him for it, (Isa 52:10 & 53:1). The Servant's wisdom was incredibly self-denying. It meant accepting the determined will of God and willingly shouldering a burden of unimaginable suffering to make salvation possible for mankind. This evidently will result in His supreme exaltation. For there is a threefold emphatic repetition in this regard, "He is exalted, and has been lifted up and has been greatly exalted." The Servant of the LORD will be exalted as only God will be exalted - seated at the Right Hand of God.

Note that some contend that Isa 52:1 through chapter 53 refers to Israel, or to the godly remnant of Israel or to the prophet Isaiah himself as God's Servant, as the Holy Arm of the LORD. But the prophet Isaiah pictures Israel as sinful, suffering because of her sins and accountable for her own sins which are many, (Dt 31:17-18; Jer 1:1-16; 2:20; 3:1ff; 4:1; 7:18-19; 19:1-13; Isa 59:1-14; Ezek 8:17; 11:1-20; 16:26-59; 36:16-21; 31ff; 1 Kgs 19:18; 2 Kgs 23:1-20, etc. ). And for that reason, Israel is neither able to pay for her own sins, nor for the sins of others, nor to provide salvation for herself, nor for all the nations of the world, (Isa 52:10). It will require a sinless, atoning sacrifice for sins, which neither Israel collectively, nor any man born of Adam is capable nor qualified to do. All men born of Adam have sinned and are constantly committing sins, (Isa 64:6-7; Gen 8:21; Eccl 7:20; Jer 17:9; Ps 51:5; Job 14:1-4). Even the godly remnant of believers is still sinful. Only God's Servant, His Holy Arm of salvation, the Righteous One is without sin, (cf. Isa 42:6; 49:2; 53:9, 11), and in His sinless perfection is qualified to be an atoning sacrifice for the sins of mankind in order to be "the Holy Arm of the LORD - "the Salvation of our God."

******

1) [The Doctrine Of Substitutionary Atonement Is Supported In Scripture]

The doctrine of substitutionary atonement / payment for someone elses's sins is not a false doctrine as some contend - some even maintaining that Israel is in view as the Servant of the LORD, which people suffered because of relentless, sinful, undeserved persecution brought upon them by the Gentile nations over centuries of time.

a) [Exodus 12]:

But Scripture does support the doctrine of substitutionary atonement. For example, in Exodus 12 just prior to Israel's Exodus from Egypt, God instituted the Passover observance in which the blood of the lamb of the Passover served as a substitutionary sacrifice for the Israelites' firstborn sons.

******

i) [Compare Exodus 12:5]:

(Exod 12:5 NASB) "Your lamb shall be an unblemished male a year old; you may take it from the sheep or from the goats."

The sacrifice forestalled the penalty of death for those who were within the household - especially the firstborn sins, protecting the household from divine wrath. According to Exod 12:12, the LORD would execute judgment as He passed through the land of Egypt. Israelites who followed the instructions and applied the blood of the slaughtered lamb to the doorposts of their houses would escape that judgment, (ref. Exod 12:13, 23, 27). Indeed the Israelites did escape death, (ref. Exod 12:30). In Exod 12:12 it stipulates that the death of the firstborn of Egypt provided judgment against the gods of the Egyptians. Ezek 20:4-10 indicates that the Israelites participated in idolatry while in Egypt, (ref. Exod 20:7-8; cf. Jos 24:14) - a punishment due to them for which the blood of the sacrificed lamb was substituted.

******

b) [Leviticus & The Day Of Atonement]

Secondly, the Book of Leviticus provides a means for sinners to be accepted and to enter God's Presence through levitical sacrifices and festivals.

An example of this is the Day of Atonement which exceeds all others in its significance to Israel's relationship to the LORD. It was the climax and crown of Israel's theology of sanctification. Its historical setting belongs to God's judgment on Nadab and Abihu (Lev 10:1-20) - a stark reminder of the holiness of God and its incompatibility with human sinfulness. Emphasis thus fell on the necessity of atonement even for the priests' own sins. If the priests were defiled, they could not mediate between the people and God. Without mediators, sinful Israelites could not approach God's Presence and the Presence of God could not continue to reside in their midst. The "scapegoat" symbolized the removal of sin from the Presence of God's glory in the midst of His people. The laying of hands on the head of the goat (Lev 16:21-22), outwardly depicted transference of sins from Israel to the living goat. It served as their substitute - condemned to die in the wilderness, isolated from Israel. The scapegoat carried upon it 'all the iniquities' of the Israelites, (Lev 16:22). In addition, Lev 16:24, 29-34 indicate that the entire ritual, not simply the scapegoat procedure, atones for the sins of the priests and the people. Note that suspension of the penalty applied equally to believer and unbeliever alike within Israel. Thus the Day of Atonement anticipated the Messiah's propitiatory sacrifice in His Humanity, the actual and permanent Human substitutionary atonement for all mankind by the blood of a Human, as depicted in Isaiah 53:1ff. So God suspended the penalty in the light of sins' ultimate, full and permanent removal from mankind through the the Servant of the LORD's perfect and complete atonement for all mankind.

The Day of Atonement was the central observance of the levitical system. It emphasized, more than any other observance, the holiness of God and the sinfulness of His people. For Israel the Day of Atonement provided cleansing or purification so that they might have access to the Presence of the LORD. It emphasized the lack of direct access to God by anyone at any time under the Mosaic Law. Therefore, the Day of Atonement is the point of comparison with regard to the sacrificial work of the Servant of the LORD in Isa 53:1ff. The Day of Atonement expiated the nation Israel's sins, cleansed the sanctuary from the pollution caused by those sins, and removed those sins from the community - suspending them until the permanent atonement for them was accomplished by the Servant of the LORD.

Another example of the Hebrew word transliterated "kappEr" rendered "atonement" is that it represents the phenomenon of the 'substitute' or 'ransom,' the substance to which the sin is transferred and thereupon suspended and then eliminated when the final substitutional atonement is made via a representative Perfect Human, (ref. Isa 52:1-53:12). The stituations in which this term carries this meaning include the law of census in which the ransom averts the penalty of plague when the law is violated, (Exod 30:12-16), laws regarding homicide in which death is the penalty for the crime (Num 35:31; Dt 21:1-9); the matter of the Levites guarding the sanctuary's sanctity so that there will be no wrath or plague or death on the congregation (Num 1:53; 8:19; 18:22-23 - cp. the case of Phinehas, Num 3:32 and 25:11), the inability of Babylon to ransom herself from divine judgment (Isa 47:11; cf. Ps 49), and blood's sacrificial and atoning significance (Lev 17:11). Thus the use of the term "kappEr" explicitly related to both substitution and penalty.

c) [Dan 9:24-27 The End Times - The Finish Of Transgression, The End To Sins, The Atonement For Wickedness, The Bringing In Everlasting Righteousness, The Sealing Up Of Vision And Prophecy, The Anointing Of The Most Holy ]

******

d) [Isa 52:1-53:12 The Servant Of The LORD is mankind's Substitutionary Atonement ]

The text of Isa 52:1-53:12 describes the sufferings of the Servant of the LORD whose griefs and sorrows and transgressions are not His own, but belong to mankind because of their transgressions. That fact appears to identify the Servant's sufferings as substitutionary (cp., v. 4, "our griefs He Himself bore, And our sorrows He carried"). The substitutionary imagery of verse 6c ("the LORD has caused the iniquity of us all to fall on Him") is drawn straight from Leviticus chapter 16. The language of Isa 53 clearly includes the penal aspect (cp. v. 5, "pierced... crushed... chastising ... scourging"). So the sufferings of the Servant of the LORD are not because of the sins of others deliberately committed upon the Servant such as persecution by Gentile nations, as some contend. The sufferings of others were borne / carried by the Servant, (Heb. "nAsA" = borne, carried, (v. 4) is in view in Isa 52:1-53:12).

According to Scripture the LORD's Servant meets all the requirements for being a substitutionary sacrifice:

(1) identification with condemned sinners (Isa 53:8, "For the transgression of My people, to whom the stroke was due"

(2) being blameless and without any stain or spot to mar His sacrifice (Isa 53:9, "He had done no violence. Nor was there any deceit in His mouth.").

[Note that this excludes the people of Israel, except the One Who is an Israelite born of a woman, the Seed of God - both God and Man, without sin, the New Covenant appointed by the LORD to the people, Israel - to all mankind - to restore Israel forever into the Promised Land and the earth and bring salvation unto eternal life to Israel and to all mankind, (Isa 9:6-7 ; 49:1-13 , cf. Isa 42:1-13 ; 52:5; Ezek chs 36-37; Jer chs 30-31)]

(3) and being acceptable to the LORD, (Isa 53:10, "But the LORD was pleased to crush Him, putting Him to grief ... as a guilt offering," (and not as an act by Gentiles of persecution toward Israel, as some contend).

Other passages such as Isa 9:6-7; 42:1-13; 49:1ff and 50:1ff depict a single Human being Who is God, the Servant of the LORD, the Holy Arm of the LORD Who will be a child born to Israel: to Israel a Son will He be given, (Isa 9:6). And the LORD will appoint Him as a covenant to the people [Israel], and as a Light of salvation to the nations [the Gentiles] of the world, (Isa 42:6 ; 49:6). The LORD will make Him to be a polished (lit., purified) [sinless] shaft, Who was formed by the LORD in the womb to be His Servant to bring Jacob [the people of Israel] back to the LORD, So that Israel is gathered to His Servant. The Servant will raise up the tribes of Jacob, restore the preserved ones [the remnant of believers] of Israel   of Israel. And the LORD will also give His Servant as a light to the Gentiles, that He should be the Salvation of the LORD to the ends of the earth - to be the salvation of all mankind. And the LORD will give His Servant as a covenant to the people, to restore the earth, (Isa 49:1-8).

The government will be upon His shoulder. His name will be called Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace. Of the increase of His government and peace There will be no end, Upon the throne of David and over His kingdom, To order it and establish it with judgment and justice From that time forward, even forever, (ref. Isa 9:6-7 ).

And it is He Who will willingly choose to suffer completely for the propitiation of the sins of all mankind. Israel cannot and will not repent, much less atone for all of her sins, collectively or individually, as some contend. For even if Israel could and did repent perfectly unto a life of sinlessness - which is not possible with sinful mankind, (Isa 64:6-7 ; cf. Gen 8:21; Eccl 7:20; Jer 17:9; Ps 51:5; Job 14:1-4); nevertheless repentance does not pay for sins committed in the past. Good deeds do not erase bad deeds.

Finally, since Israel is no less sinful than the rest of humanity, (ref. Dt 31:17-18; Jer 1:1-16; 2:20; 3:1ff; 4:1; 7:18-19; 19:1-13; Isa 59:1-14; Ezek 8:17; 11:1-20; 16:26-59; 36:16-21; 31ff; 1 Kgs 19:18; 2 Kgs 23:1-20, etc. ); and since the Servant is without sin; and since nothing sinful / imperfect can bring about its own restoration to sinless perfection; and since the Servant is the One Who will restore Israel into the Promised Land - Israel not being capable of doing that herself - then the Servant in the passages under review cannot be the people of Israel.

But He is an Israelite born of a woman, the Seed of God - both God and Man, without sin, the New Covenant appointed by the LORD to the people, Israel - to all mankind - to restore Israel forever into the Promised Land and the earth and bring salvation unto eternal life to Israel and to all mankind, (Isa 9:6-7 ; 49:1-13 , cf. Isa 42:1-13 ; 52:5; Ezek chs 36-37; Jer chs 30-31)]

e) [Other Passages Which Are Cited Do Not Rule Out Substitutionary Atonement ]

VI) (Isa 52:1-15 cont.) The LORD's Servant - His Holy Arm Will Bring Salvation To All Mankind. This Servant Of God Acts Wisely. He Has Been Greatly Exalted, Yet His Appearance Was Inhumanly Disfigured. Some Will Choose To Believe In Him For Salvation And He Will Cleanse Their Sins Implying His Personal Atonement For All Of Mankind So That They May Make That Choice. So The Arm Of The LORD Has Evidently Been Revealed To All Mankind - Jews And Gentiles Alike. Most Will Not Choose To Hear About Him, (cont.)

(Isa 52:10 NKJV) "The LORD has made bare His Holy Arm In the eyes of all the nations; And all the ends of the earth shall see The Salvation of our God.

(Isa 52:13 YLT) [Behold], My Servant [acts] wisely, He is [exalted], and [has] been lifted up], And [has] been [greatly exalted].

(Isa 52:14 HCSB) Just as many [have been astonished] at You - His appearance was so disfigured that He did not look like a man, and His form did not resemble a human being -"

******

  [Isa 52:10, 13-14 together state as follows:

(Isa 52:10 NKJV) "The LORD has bared His Holy Arm, the Servant, in the sight of all the nations, That all the ends of the earth may see the salvation of our God:

(Isa 52:13 YLT) [Behold], My Servant [acts] wisely, He is [exalted], and [has] been lifted up], And [has] been [greatly exalted].

(Isa 52:14 HCSB) Just as many have been astonished at You [the Servant, the Holy Arm of the LORD, (ref. Isa 52:10, 13)] - His appearance was so disfigured that He did not look like a man, and His form did not resemble a human being."

These three verses together convey the sense of many people from all over the world from different times seeing the Servant's visible appearance - His being lifted up and greatly exalted yet with His inhumanly, disfigured appearance - the latter evidently a result of His being beaten during His suffering for mankind's iniquities, (Isa 52:10, 14 & especially verse 15 and Isa 53:1-12 which follow). Consequently unbelieving mankind will be astonished in the sense of astonished disbelief about Who He will appear to be at His exaltation, (Isa 52:13): the Servant of the LORD lifted up in His exalted glory, honored by God for providing for the salvation, the redemption and the restoration of Israel and of the peoples of the world - to the ends of the earth, (Isa 52:3, 7-10, 13), yet also inhuman in His appearance in some way. So "The LORD has bared His Holy Arm, the Servant, in the sight of all the nations, That all the ends of the earth may see the salvation of our God: the Servant's exalted appearance as well as His disfigurement should have reminded people of His atoning sacrifice for their sins," (ref., Isa 52:10, cf. 53:1-12).

******

2) The Servant In Isaiah Chapters 52-53 Is Not Israel

Note that from the beginning of Isaiah chapter 52, the context excludes Israel from being the Servant, and excludes the context of conflict with the Gentile nations. Although Israel / Jacob - the people of Israel, are also called the servant of the LORD in other passages in Isaiah, (as well as others such as the prophets in Scripture; these other passages, such as Isaiah: 20:3, 41:8-9; 43:10; 44:1-2, 21, 26; 45:4; 48:20, have a different context from the four songs in Isaiah comprising chapters 42, 49, 50, 52-53. The "song" chapters and chapter 11 as well   all have in view the Servant as one Man. For anyone from Israel - and no man - can save himself from his own sins, nor purge himself unto righteousness, repentance and salvation via persevering through relentless suffering at the hands of the Gentile nations, nor transform himself into a godly person. Nor can a generation of Israelites come back and take possession of the entire Promised Land forever under its own auspices. The people of Israel - and all mankind - need the Righteous Servant of the LORD as depicted in the song passages in Isaiah as well as in chapter 11 to provide unilateral action to do these things. It takes the Righteousness, Power, Justice and Sovereignty of the LORD to accomplish these things under the auspices of sinless Humanity. The people of Israel have no capacity do do these things themselves as shown by centuries of unfaithful history - nor does any Gentile, (Isa 64:6-7 ; cf. Gen 8:21; Eccl 7:20; Jer 17:9; Ps 51:5; Job 14:1-4). This is what is in view in the context of these four songs and corroborated by the many passages about the fulfillment of the New Covenant such as Jeremiah chapters 30-31, and Ezek chapters 36-37 .

VI) (Isa 52:1-15 cont.) The LORD's Servant - His Holy Arm Will Bring Salvation To All Mankind. This Servant Of God Acts Wisely. He Has Been Greatly Exalted, Yet His Appearance Was Inhumanly Disfigured. Some Will Choose To Believe In Him For Salvation And He Will Cleanse Their Sins Implying His Personal Atonement For All Of Mankind So That They May Make That Choice. So The Arm Of The LORD Has Evidently Been Revealed To All Mankind - Jews And Gentiles Alike. Most Will Not Choose To Hear About Him, (cont.)

(Isa 52:10 NKJV) "The LORD has made bare His Holy Arm In the eyes of all the nations; And all the ends of the earth shall see The Salvation of our God.

(Isa 52:13 YLT) [Behold], My Servant [acts] wisely, He is [exalted], and [has] been lifted up], And [has] been [greatly exalted].

(Isa 52:14 HCSB) Just as many [have been astonished] at You - His appearance was so disfigured that He did not look like a man, and His form did not resemble a human being -"

Relative to people at all the ends of the earth seeing the Salvation of our God - the greatly exalted Servant of the LORD and being astonished by Him, by His disfigured appearance: most of mankind throughout history would not have been present at the time and place in their mortal bodies when the Servant brought salvation to the world through His substitutionary atonement - a time when they would have had the opportunity to observe Him and then would have been astonished in the sense of astonished disbelief at His exaltation with His disfigured, inhuman appearance. Furthermore, most of mankind would not have had the opportunity in their mortal bodies to see Him when He will have been greatly exalted. Hence the timeframe(s) in view in Isa 52:10, 13-14 must be when the Servant will have been resurrected, (ref., Isa 53:10), into a glorified, exalted state, (ref. Isa 52:13); evidently still appearing with / bearing His inhuman disfigurement, (ref., Isa 52:14). So the timeframe is the afterlife of most of mankind as well as those of mankind that are still alive in their mortal bodies at the yet future time of the revelation of Him coming upon the earth in His exalted glory which is in view in Isa 52:13-14 - at which time or times all will be astonished in the sense of astonished disbelief at and in awe of His appearance.

So it is the Servant of the LORD - a single Jewish Individual, not collective Israel - Who is the Salvation of our God, the provider of Israel's redemption and the redemption / salvation of all mankind. It is He Who is the Holy Arm of the LORD Who will have been seen by all the nations to the ends of the earth, (Isa 49:1-13 ; 52:3, 7-10). It is He Who has sprinkled / washed away the sins of many nations in the sense of all mankind, (Isa 52:15, cf. 49:1-13 ); Who has borne their griefs and sorrows - the sins of all mankind, (Isa 53:4); Who has been pierced through for all of mankind's transgressions wherein the chastening / punishment for mankind's restoration to peace with God fell upon Him. And by His having been scourged - severely whipped - all mankind has been [spiritually] healed, (Isa 53:5).

Note that Zech 12:10-14 has in view a single, solitary individual who is evidently the same individual that is the Servant in Isa 53:5, which rules out the Servant being collective Israel or the remnant of Israelite believers:

a) [More on Zech 12:11-14 ]:

"I will pour out on the house of David and on the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the Spirit of grace and of supplication, so that they will look on Me Whom they have pierced and they will mourn for Him, as one mourns for an only son, and they will weep bitterly over Him like the bitter weeping over a firstborn,"

b) with Isa 53:5a:

"But He was pierced through for our transgressions, He was crushed for our iniquities;"

So the Servant has been put to physical death, (Isa 53:8); He has been crushed, He has been put to the grief due mankind, He has been made a guilt offering - a substitutionary atonement for the sins of all mankind - which is scriptural . Nevertheless the LORD will see His Seed and prolong His days - raising Him from the dead to live eternally in greatly exalted prosperity, (Isa 52:10, 13; 53:10). For He - the Servant - has justified many by bearing their iniquities, (Isa 53:11); has borne the sin of many [all mankind], [intercedes] for the transgressors [all mankind, in the sense of substitutionary atonement ], (Isa 53:12)]

Yet there will be an unbelieving mindset by most of mankind which will be evidenced by their not having acknowledged Who the Servant is and what He did for them during their mortal lives; and by their astonished disbelief when they see Him in His exalted glory, (cf. vv 13-15). Although mankind's sins will have been washed away, those who never believe in Him for salvation will not be personally forgiven of their sins because they will never have believed in Him, (cf. Isa 53:1). Hence they will not receive eternal life and dwell forever in the Eternal Kingdom of God, (Isa chapter 49 , and passages on the New Covenant ).

The vast majority of people throughout history will be so irretrievably entrenched in their own religious / philosophical systems that they will not be disposed to consider, much less believe in God's plan of salvation through a moment of faith in His Servant - His Holy Arm of salvation alone, whether told about Him or not, (cf. Isa 53:1). They will have lived out their lives choosing not to consider Who He is.

The Servant's mission for the LORD required Him to raise up the tribes of Jacob, to restore the preserved ones of Israel unto the entire Promised Land; to be the Light of the salvation of the LORD to the Gentiles, to be a covenant of the people of Israel, etc. And it would be the Servant's atoning sacrifice, His physical execution unto death in order to physically and spiritually die for the sins of Israel and all the nations of the world to provide that salvation to all mankind, to the ends of the earth, (cf. Isa 49:6; 52:10). At the time of the completion of His mission, His physical appearance as a result of fulfilling His mission caused Him to be so disfigured that he would not be recognizable as a man - "inhuman," pointing to being so mistreated as to cause such an extreme appearance. Those in their mortal bodies who did witness Him in the fulfillment of His mission for the salvation of mankind - and the disfigurement He suffered; and most of mankind who will have seen Him in His exalted glory - those who did not believe in Who He claimed to be, nor even consider what He claimed to have done, nor even gaze upon Him - considered that He had been executed for His own sins, (Isa 53:4).

3) The Popular Jewish Interpretation Of Isaiah 52:13-14 Refuted

a) [Popular Jewish Interpretaton - Israel The Servant Will Prosper According To God's Plan]:

(Isa 52:13 YLT) [Behold], My Servant [acts] wisely, He is [exalted], and [has] been lifted up], And [has] been [greatly exalted].

(Isa 52:14 HCSB) Just as many have been astonished at You [the Servant, the Holy Arm of the LORD, (ref. Isa 52:10, 13)] - His appearance was so disfigured that He did not look like a man, and His form did not resemble a human being."

The popular Jewish interpretation contends that in Isa 52:13, Isaiah prophesies that, in the end, it is Israel who will prosper and take its rightful place in God's plan.

b) [Rebuttal: Israel's Prospering Due To The Servant Is Not In View In Isa 52:13]:

It is true that Israel will prosper in the Promised Land after being restored to it and after being transformed into a godly people, obedient to God's Law according to passages such as Isa 49:1-26, Ezek 36:22-27. But the prosperity is not the same thing as the exaltation in view in Isa 52:13 which is of the Servant Himself as One Man born of a woman, both God and Man, (Isa 9:6-7 ; Isa 49:1-13 ), not Israel's future restoration which is portrayed elsewhere, but not in Isa 49:1-13 or any of the four song passages or chapter 11. For it is the Servant Himself Who, having acted wisely, (Isa 52:13); Who will have raised up the tribes of Jacob; and by Himself will have restored "the preserved ones of Israel," (Isa 49:5-6). It is He Who is the One providing for the unilateral redemption of Israel, (Isa 52:3, 7-10); through substitutionary atonement, (Isa 53:1-12). He is the One Who has been given by the LORD to Israel as a covenant with the people, - He is the New Covenant, (Isa 42:6 ; 49:8) - the Fulfillment of that New Covenant . He indeed will restore the land, transform the people into godliness and obedience to God's Law, giving them possession of their inheritance of the Promised Land forever, seeing to it that they prosper in it, (Isa 49:1-13 ). The Servant in view in Isaiah 52:1-53:12, as well as in chapters 42, 49 and 50 - is the Servant Who restores the people of Israel. He is not the same servant who is defined as the people of Israel with a different function elsewhere in the Book of Isaiah 20:3, 41:8-9; 43:10; 44:1-2, 21, 26; 45:4; 48:20, to be messengers and examples of the salvation of the LORD to the world which they failed to do throughout the centuries. Israel neither has the capacity to restore herself to godliness, nor to occupy the entire Promised Land, nor to prosper in it in peace forever. The Servant of Isaiah 52:1-53 is the individual, not corporate Israel, Who is God and Man Who will rule the world from the throne of David, Who will restore Israel in the Promised Land, wash away her sins, transform her into a godly people and prosper her forever, (cf. Isa 9:6-7 , Isa 49:1-13 )]

c) [The Popular Jewish interpretation Of Isa 52:14 Contends That It Is Israel Who Will Perservere Relentless Suffering At The Hands Of The Gentiles; And Even Though Disfigured Will Be Exalted To The Astonishment Of The Gentile Nations Who Will Recognize That Israel Is God's Chosen People]

(Isa 52:14 HCSB) "Just as many have been astonished at You [the Servant, the Holy Arm of the LORD, (ref. Isa 52:10, 13)] - His appearance was so disfigured that He did not look like a man, and His form did not resemble a human being."

The popular Jewish interpretation of Isa 52:14 contends that it is the prophet who is still speaking for God, who is describing how the Gentile nations habitually looked down upon the nation of Israel as people who were thought of as being disfigured and 'subhuman, people whose God was not with them - protecting them. Still being the narrator here and speaking for God, Isaiah quotes what the Gentile nations will be saying about Israel in their astonishment. The dismayed (Gentile) nations will see a people, thought to be disfigured and 'sub-human,' become exalted and successful, a people who have God with them and not against them (e.g., Isaiah 52:9-10). Isaiah reassures his people, Israel, that those who had such visions of them will be stunned when they see that Israel is the one who is exalted in the end."

d) [Rebuttal: The Servant Is Not Israel, He Did Not Go Through Relentless Persecution. The Servant Is A Man Who Was The One Who Suffered For Mankind's Sins]:

[(Isa 52:14 HCSB) "Just as many have been astonished at You [the Servant, the Holy Arm of the LORD, (ref. Isa 52:10, 13)] - His appearance was so disfigured that He did not look like a man, and His form did not resemble a human being."

In order to force Isa 52:14 to convey that the Servant is Israel in Isa 52:13-14 and the rest of 52 through 53:12, history must be changed to have in view all of the Gentile nations for centuries relentlessly persecuting the people of Israel, looking upon them collectively as such a disfigured race of people - so ugly that they appeared to be inhuman. Although there has been and will continue to be persecution of the Jews until the Servant, the Arm of the LORD redeems her; there is no history of relentless, persecution worldwide by Gentile nations throughout the centuries since the time of Abraham. Nor have Israelites always being disadvantaged and deprived throughout history. Israel is a Semitic race of people. There are millions of the Jewish and other Semitic races which have a wide range of appearances that do not collectively appear to be so markedly different from other races that they might be thought of as so disfigured as to be inhuman looking. Furthermore, not all of the Gentile nations were relentlessly aggressive toward Israel throughout her history. They often traded with her and participated in her prosperity. And they often intermarried with Jews, despite Jewish separatism in that regard. And many Jews were successful within the nations of the world - and not deprived. And there were times of prosperity for Israel as a nation as well . Although the Gentile nations might very well become astonished in the sense of astonished disbelief when they see Israel in her exalted glory restored to the Promised Land forever at the commencement of the Eternal Kingdom of God, with Israel as the ruling nation of priests, (ref. Ex 19:5-6); the popular Jewish interpretation of Isa 52:13-14 is not supported in this passage]

(Isa 52:15 YLT) "So [does] He sprinkle many nations. Concerning Him kings shut their mouths, For that which was not recounted to them they have seen, And that which they had not heard they have understood!"

  [Isa 52:15 continues the context of the peoples and kings of the world: those who are alive in mortal bodies at the time of the exaltation and glorification of the Servant; and those who have died and are able in the afterlife to view Him - the greatly exalted Servant of the LORD, (Isa 52:13-14).

Note that the Hebrew verb form transliterated "yazzeh" is in the imperfect tense, masculine, singular, is best translated "So does He sprinkle many nations" in the sense of cleansing them of their sins, (cf. Lev 4:6; 8:11: 14:7, Ez 36:25-30).

The phrase "So [does] He sprinkle [wash away the sins of] many nations," in Isa 52:15 refers to all the nations of the world including Israel because it continues the context of verse 10 in which all peoples including Israel are included in God's plan of salvation through His Servant, not just the Gentile nations, as some contend. Everyone needs to have their sins washed away, Israel included! Nevertheless, some contend for the exclusion of Israel from "many nations" in order to force the verse to indicate that the Arm of the LORD, the Servant is Israel, who evidently, by their thinking will save / redeem herself as well as the rest of mankind, contrary to what Scripture teaches, (cf. Isa 52:3, 7-10; 49:1-13 ; 42:1-6). Given their agenda to force the word "Servant" into being Israel all the time it appears in Isaiah, they maintain the unscriptural notion that in Isa 52:15 the Gentiles will be startled at [not sprinkled by] Israel when they - in the after life or at the time of the Servant's exaltation - will view the Servant in greatly exalted glory. The contenders maintain that "yazzeh" means "startled at," chiefly to avoid the idea of the Servant - an Individual Man and God, (Isa 9:6-7; 11:1-16) - washing away the sins of the Gentiles - substitutionary atonement - a doctrine which they reject despite the evidence from Scripture . Since the contenders falsely maintain that the Gentiles previously viewed Israel as inhuman looking and that all of the nations had relentlessly and egregiously persecuted them as a worthless and despicable people for centuries; they will, after seeing Israel in her exalted glory / the ruling nation of the world, become startled by their greatly exalted appearance. Thus the verse according to them does not have in view the Servant's washing of sins of many nations as an individual Who is both God and Man as it is corroborated in Isa 9:6-7 , despite the fact that Israel Who has sins of her own cannot even repent of her own sins, much the more atone for everyone elses. Somehow the contenders maintain that the Eternal Kingdom with the exalted Servant Israel the ruling nation will begin without any atonement for sins at all, by anyone! Everyone will simply start behaving better, with no accountability for past sins! Then the LORD will restore Israel in the Promised Land, her relentless suffering at the hand of the Gentile nations for centuries somehow purging her of her sins so that she will be redeemed and act in a godly manner.

In the first place, the word "startled" is an unsubstantiated meaning for the Hebrew word transliterated "yazzeh," in order to force a meaning which is completely out of the context of the entire passage which has a single, sinless Servant in view Who is the Holy Arm of the salvation of the LORD via His substitutionary atonement   for the sins of Israel and for all the nations to the ends of the earth, (Isa 49:1-13 ; 42:1-13; 52:1-53:12).

Secondly, "yazzeh" is rendered "sprinkled" and not "startled" every time it appears in Scripture, especially muliple times in Leviticus chapter 16  where it has to do with substitutionary atonement .

Thirdly, Hebrew dictionaries do not even include "startled" as an available meaning for "yazzeh."

In any case, the last part of Isa 52:15, "Concerning Him kings shut their mouths, For that which was not recounted to them they have seen, And that which they had not heard they have understood!" best fits with the context of the Servant in His exalted glory, Who is not the entire population of Israel, but a single, humble Man, born of a woman, born of Israel, a Son of Israel, Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace ... upon the Throne of David and over His kingdom ... forever will He rule, (Isa 9:6-7 ; 49:1-13 ); Who, being without sin, (Isa 42:6; 53:9, 11; 49:2), would atone for the sins of Israel and the whole world, (Isa 52:15) and restore Israel to the Promised Land, (Isa 49:1-6; 42:6; 49:6) - which Israel cannot do even for herself; and be greatly exalted because He acted wisely: He was faithful to what the LORD God appointed His Arm to accomplish, i.e., Salvation for all mankind - something which is beyond the capacity of the people of Israel, (Isa 52:13); and in so doing be so brutally beaten that His appearance would be so bad that He would appear inhuman, (Isa 52:14), such that the kings - the rulers of the world, and most of mankind who will not have the above report "recounted to them," nor "have they heard... have [they] understood [it]," about Him when they in the future will have an opportunity to see Him greatly exalted in all of His glory, their mouths will be shut, they will have nothing to say, they will be so astonished in the sense of astonished disbelief, (Isa 52:25b).

So the Servant's life would be a humble one. Among the peoples and kings of the world, He was not to be well remembered because He would have neither worldwide worldly fame nor worldly glory. For He was considered by the world as of no import. But now - too late for those in the afterlife - mankind must consider the truth of the matter that He had cleansed many in the sense of all peoples of all the nations of the world of their sins, but which forgiveness they had not accepted for themselves while in their mortal lives by a moment of faith in Him for that forgiveness unto eternal life.

It is implied that the vast majority of people throughout history will be so irretrievably entrenched in their own religious / philosophical systems that they will not be disposed to consider much less believe in God's plan of salvation through His Servant - His Holy Arm of salvation, whether told about Him or not, (cf. Isa 53:1)]

VIII) (Isa 53:1-4) Throughout History Few Will Have Believed In The Report Of Salvation Through The Arm Of The LORD Which Is Revealed To All Mankind Throughout History And At Judgment - The One Who Has Grown Up In His Humanity Before The LORD With No Stately Form Or Attractive Appearance, Despised And Forsaken - A Man Of Sorrows And Grief, Without Esteem Among Men. He Has Taken Up Mankind's Pain, Borne Our Suffering. Yet He Is Considered Punished And Afflicted By God

(Isa 53:1 NKJV) "Who has believed our report? And to whom has the Arm of the LORD been revealed?"

  [The context of Isa 52:1-10; 13-15 continues to be the subject in chapter 53: that of the Salvation of the LORD via the Holy Arm of the LORD which will have been seen throughout all the ends of the earth - the Servant of the LORD Who will act wisely and be greatly exalted. The Servant of the LORD will be lifted up in His exalted glory, honored by God for providing for the salvation, the redemption and the restoration of Israel and of the peoples of the world - to the ends of the earth, (Isa 52:3, 7-10, 13). Unbelieving mankind in the afterlife will have been astonished at Him in the sense of astonished disbelief at seeing Him in His exalted glory, His appalling appearance testifying to His sacrifice which provided the sprinkling / the washing away of the sins of the world. And they will now understand with astonishment in the sense of astonished disbelief at the Servant of the LORD in His exalted glory , Whom they had not believed in during their mortal lives.

So with this in mind, two questions are asked in Isa 53:1 evidently by the remnant of believing Jewish messengers to whom the message was given by the LORD to be His witnesses to spread throughout the world, (Isa 43:8-13), "Who has believed our report?" = who has believed in the message of the sacrificial death of the Servant, the Holy Arm of the LORD Who by His sacrificial death, (cf. Isa 53:8), has sprinkled / cleansed of sin all mankind to provide for their salvation by individual faith, (ref. Isa 53:1); and the second question, "And to whom has the Arm of the LORD been revealed?"

The words rendered "our report" in the phrase "Who has believed our report" refer to the message that God gave to Israel, which was received faithfully by the remnant of Jewish believers in the Servant to be passed on by them to the world. The message / the report is salvation through the Holy Arm = the Servant of the LORD by God. The Arm of the LORD is the Servant of the LORD Himself in Isa 53:1; and the Servant is the embodiment of the power of God fulfilled through His atonement for the sins of all mankind. This message / this report was to be spread throughout the world at this time in human history and throughout the age by the remnant of Jewish believers who were appointed by God as servants of the LORD, (refs, Isa 41:8-9; 20:3; 43:10; 44:1-2, 21, 26; 45:4; 48:20; Jer 30:10; 46:27-28; Ps 136:22). It was the message that the LORD gave to the Jewish prophets such as Isaiah who is included in the phrase rendered "our report." The four songs in Isaiah 42, 49, 50 and 52-53 and chapter 11 as well, especially speak of the Servant of the LORD Whom the LORD appointed to make provision of the salvation of mankind as an instructional song to sing in the congregation. This same message was given by the LORD to Abraham and Moses and corroborated by the other prophets as evidenced in Scripture; especially in passages about the covenants that God made with Israel which refer to the Servant, the Seed of Abraham who is One individual, not corporate Israel, as some contend, .

1) The Popular Jewish Interpretation Of Isa 53:1 Refuted In The Light Of The Ongoing Context Of Chapter 52 Into Chapter 53

In Chapter 52, Isaiah's message is from the LORD, (v. 3), and it is a message of encouragement and enlightenment to Israel, shortly before the exile in Babylon would end and those in exile would be able to return to their land. It was a message of encouragement to them alone which included Israel's future redemption and restoration forever in the Promised Land, especially including the restoration of Jerusalem - all of this through the Holy Arm of the LORD Who will cleanse many nations, i.e., all mankind of their sins - all by God's grace, nothing to be contributed in order to benefit, (Isa 52:3, 7-10). This future message was stipulated as an evangelistic one: "How lovely on the mountains Are the feet of him who brings good news, Who announces peace And brings good news of happiness, Who announces salvation, And says to Zion, 'Your God reigns!' Listen! Your watchmen lift up their voices, They shout joyfully together; For they will see with their own eyes When the LORD restores Zion. Break forth, shout joyfully together, You waste places of Jerusalem; For the LORD has comforted His people, He has redeemed Jerusalem. The LORD has bared His Holy Arm In the sight of all the nations, That all the ends of the earth may see The salvation of our God How lovely on the mountains," (Isa 52:1-10).

So the message of Isa 53:1 is not the popular Jewish interpretation which conveys the words of the Gentile nations about their report of their own self-generated repentance unto godly behavior for persecuting Israel, as some contend. There is no indication in the passage that the context has changed so drastically from the people of Israel being given the message of a Servant Who will redeem them Himself, and sprinkle / wash the sins away of mankind to the Gentiles repenting and purifying themselves of their own sins. Furthermore, Isaiah, a Jew, who is the writer of the Book of Isaiah, includes himself in the word rendered "our" in the phrase "Who has believed our report?" So he is not a Gentile conveying a Gentile report / message. Much less is it an evangelistic message from the Gentiles to the world through the LORD whom the Gentiles largely do not believe in. The report referred to in Isa 53:1 is not about repentant Gentiles who have realized their mistake in persecuting Jews for centuries in the light of the exaltation / glorification of the Servant Whom it is contended is Israel. Finally, Israel has not suffered centuries of unwarranted persecution by the Gentiles, which will supposedly lead to their purification unto holiness and faithfulness to the LORD resulting in their being lifted up and exalted, as it is contended. For there were times when the people of Israel were not under persecution, but blessing. And not all of her persecution was undeserved . The message which is conveyed in chapters 42, 49, 50 and 52-53 was given by God to Isaiah to convey to Jews - especially those in exile in Babylon, not to Gentiles. It is authored by a Jew who includes himself as one who is conveying the message.

Furthermore, the generation of Israel at the time when they will all choose to believe in the salvation of the LORD through His Servant will experience the fulfillment of the New Covenant to be restored forever to the Promised Land, redeemed from sin, transformed into obedient and faithful people to God, saved unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God. They will not merit their own salvation by their having suffered at the hand of Gentiles or by perfect repentance.

******

{For repentant behavior is not possible with mortal sinful man, (ref. Isa 64:6-7; cf. Gen 8:21; Eccl 7:20; Jer 17:9; Ps 51:5; Job 14:1-4)}:

a) [Compare Isa 64:6-7; cf. Gen 8:21; Eccl 7:20; Jer 17:9; Ps 51:5; Job 14:1-4]:

(Isa 64:6 NASB) "For all of us have become like one who is unclean, And all our righteous deeds are like a filthy garment; And all of us wither like a leaf, And our iniquities, like the wind, take us away.

(Isa 64:7 NASB) There is no one who calls on Your name, Who arouses himself to take hold of You; For You have hidden Your face from us And have delivered us into the power of our iniquities."

Present righteous / repentant behavior can never pay for past sins. Hence there is the need for substitutional atonement if anyone wants to be saved from their sins and have eternal life. Since no man is without sin except the Servant Himself, (Isa 53:9, 11; 42:6; 49:2; cf. Isa 64:6-7 ; cf. Gen 8:21; Eccl 7:20; Jer 17:9; Ps 51:5; Job 14:1-4). On this alone, Israel could not be the Servant. Nevertheless, a single individual born of Israel of the Seed of God will be without sin, (Isa 9:6-7; 11:1-16; 3:10; cf. 42:6; 49:2; 53:9, 11). He is the only One capable of fulfilling the New Covenant for all mankind - Himself alone! So salvation can only be totally by the grace of God, Who will unilaterally fulfill every stipulation of the New Covenant through His Servant - even the faith that all of that generation of Israel will choose of their own volition to express in the Servant of the LORD will be by the grace, sovereignty and election of God .

So when the message of Isaiah chapters 52 is carefully considered, the first question of Isa 53:1, "Who has believed our report [i.e., our message]" implies that the Jewish believers' remnant are the ones to whom the message of the Salvation of mankind was given and received. For only a remnant comprising comparatively few Jews  historically will become believers who will then be interested in spreading the message of the gospel, (ref. Isa 52:7 ). Unbelieving Jews would not receive the message, nor be willing to share it at all. So the Jewish remnant of believers have lamented and continued to lament throughout the dispensations of the Jews that only a few individuals, Jew and Gentile, throughout the ages will believe in the Holy Arm of the LORD for salvation - a remnant of believers, (cf. Isa 10:20-23 ); confirming that a moment of faith alone in the Servant of the LORD, His Holy Arm of Salvation, is the one and only essential response needed for each one to personally benefit from the Servant's atonement of mankind's sins - as Abraham did .

It was emphasized in Isa 52:1-10, 13-15 that there would be nothing significant about the Servant of God until a time when He would be revealed by the LORD as the Salvation of our God. Until that time the Holy Arm of the LORD's appearance or what He does, evidently in His Humanity, will attract little attention of the peoples of the world to believe in Him as the Salvation of God. Whereupon the message of Isaiah in chapter 52 continues into the next chapter with further details relative to the Servant of God / the Holy Arm of the LORD making provision for the sprinkling / the cleansing of the sins of all mankind and of Him being raised up and exalted by the LORD. Each individual who chooses to "believe" (Isa 52:13-15; 53:1), in the Servant of the LORD for a personal atonement for ones sins will receive forgiveness of all of ones sins implying the reception of eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God - as opposed to the judgment of those who do not believe and are astonished in the sense of astonished disbelief when they see the Servant of the LORD in His exalted glory.

So in consideration of the question, "Who has believed our message," author Isaiah asks another question: "And to whom has the Arm of the LORD been revealed?" This second question implies that only a few have been given the message / the report of salvation through the Holy Arm, the Servant of the LORD which first was given by the LORD to the remnant of Jews who believes in the LORD's provision of salvation through the Seed of Abraham, beginning with Abraham himself and as reported in Scripture. And only a few individuals - a remnant of Jews (Isa 10:20-23 ) and Gentiles as well, (cf. Acts 15:16-17; Mt 7:13) i.e., only a remnant of mankind throughout the ages from the time of Adam and Eve   will actually choose to seek and receive this revelation / this report and believe in it. The rest of humanity will not be disposed to consider the message, much less believe in it as true. They will be astonished in the sense of astonished disbelief when they learn the truth after their mortal lives are over . They will face that truth when they see the Embodiment of that truth: the resurrected Holy Arm / the exalted Servant of the LORD. For their sins will not have been forgiven because they have not believed in the Servant's atonement for them, so they will not be transformed into godly beings qualifying them to make it into the Eternal Kingdom of God - the fulfillment of the New Covenant ]

(Isa 53:2 NASB) "For He [grows] up before Him [the LORD], like a tender shoot, And like a root out of parched ground; He has no stately form or majesty That we should look upon Him, Nor appearance that we should be attracted to Him."

  [Though lamenting the fact that few people will believe "our" [Israel's, especially the remnant of Jewish believers'] report [including the writer and prophet Isaiah]; which report is the message of salvation to Israel and to all mankind through the Holy Arm, the Servant of the LORD, (Isa 53:1; cf. Isa 42:6 ; 49:1-6; 52:9-10); the remnant of Jewish believers will realize that nothing about the Servant's appearance would generate popularity, much less faith in His Salvation for eternal life, (ref. Isa 53:3). Isa 53:2 reads, "For He [grows] up before Him [the LORD] like a tender shoot, And like a root out of parched ground; He has no stately form or majesty that we should look upon Him, Nor appearance that we should be attracted to Him." This  wording indicates that the Servant of the LORD's Humanity is a Descendant of Jesse, David's father - hence of David himself, corroborating with a previous passage in Isaiah:

******

2) [Compare Isa 11:1-16]:

(Isa 11:1 HOLMAN) "Then a shoot will [have grown] from the stump of Jesse, and a branch from his roots will bear fruit.

  [Since the Jesse referred to is the father of David as follows:

Although the Assyrians nearly destroyed Judah short of the gate of Jerusalem, the kings of Judah continued in the line of David until the Babylonians destroyed Jerusalem and the Temple in 586 B.C. Hence the portrayal of a tree stump cut off close to the roots, pictures the loss of royal power of Israel and especially the descendants of David. Instead there is the image of the lowly condition of those descendants. Nevertheless, a shoot will grow from the stump of David's father, Jesse who was never king, but whose Descendant will bear the fruit of the Righteousness of God. He will rule over His Eternal Kingdom on the throne of David as described in the next 15 verses in Isaiah chapter 11, (cf. Isa 9:1-7 )

- then the shoot which will have grown from the stump of Jesse will be a Descendant of David, the description of Whom in this passage in Isaiah chapter 11 fully corroborates the description of the Servant, the Holy Arm of the LORD in Isaiah chapters 42, 49, 50 and 52-53.

So then the Servant - the Shoot from the stump of Jesse - can hardly be the people of generations of Israel, nor the remnant of Israelite believers throughout centuries of time. For neither all Israelites, nor all Israelite remnant believers are descendant from David, nor even of the same tribe of David, (Judah). Nor do all Israelites meet the description of the individual Descendant in the verses which follow in Isaiah chapter 11]:

(Isa 11:2 KJV) "And the Spirit of the LORD shall [have rested] upon Him, the Spirit of wisdom and understanding, the Spirit of counsel and might, the Spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD;

  [And at that time, the Spirit of the LORD shall have rested upon the Descendant in the sense of a permanent indwelling in Him. Furthermore, the Descendant shall permanently receive the Spirit of wisdom and understanding, the Spirit of counsel and might, the Spirit of knowledge and the fear of the LORD]

(Isa 11:3 NKJV) His delight is in the fear of the LORD, And He shall not judge by the sight of His eyes, Nor decide by the hearing of His ears;

(Isa 11:4 YLT) And He [has] judged in righteousness the poor, and [has] decided in uprightness [i.e., in equity] for the humble [in the sense of the lowly] of [the earth]; And has [struck] the earth with the rod of His mouth, And with the breath of His lips He [puts] the wicked to death.

(Isa 11:5 NKJV) Righteousness shall be the belt of His loins, And faithfulness the belt of His waist.

  [Verse 3 goes on to declare that this Descendant's delight is in the fear of the LORD. The Hebrew word transliterated "ruwach," rendered "delight" in the NKJV refers to the Descendant's scent or spirit. It is used in this verse in the metaphorical sense of His prevailing response; i.e., that which defines the Descendant's essence - that which characterizes Him. The phrase rendered "the fear of the LORD" in the NKJV is in the sense of trust, obedience and worship of the LORD. Hence, Isaiah writes that this Descendant will not judge by what He sees with His eyes; and He will not execute justice by what He hears with His ears. He will not limit Himself to His finite Humanity - as do all other human judges, who have often misused their office to oppress the needy and the poor. Instead Isaiah indicates that He will judge by the counsel, wisdom and understanding of the LORD through the work of the Holy Spirit in Him. So He will have judged in righteousness the poor, and will have decided in uprightness, i.e., equity for the humble in the sense of the lowly. Whereupon, Isaiah declared that this Descendant will have struck the earth with the rod of His mouth - implying condemnatory judgment of unrighteous people throughout the earth, for the context is universal and not limited to Israel, as some contend. With the breath of His lips He puts the wicked to death. All of these attributes are reserved for God alone - yet, being God, He will be a Descendant of David - a Man. Isaiah goes on to write that Righteousness shall be the belt of His loins And Faithfulness the belt of His waist, [in the sense that His reign will be characterized by the Righteousness, (cf. 9:7; 16:5) and the Faithfulness of God as if they were integral parts of Him as a belt and a sash are essential, key foundational elements of His clothing - implying deity.

Note that the Child born of Israel, the Son given to them of Isa 9:6-7 , is in view when He comes of age to function as Messiah exercising the attributes of the wisdom, understanding and counsel of the LORD via the Spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD with a further view of when He comes to His Righteous rule in the Eternal Kingdom of God. For reasons stated above - especially those which describe His attributes, which are those of God, this Descendant of Jesse cannot be king Hezekiah or some other king of Judah, or the collective people of Israel be they the remant or all of Israel throughout the centuries, as some contend, (Isa 11:2-5; cf. 6-16)]

(Isa 11:6 NKJV) The wolf also shall [have dwelt] with the lamb, The leopard shall lie down with the young goat, The calf and the young lion and the fatling together; And a little child shall lead them.

(Isa 11:7 NKJV) The cow and the bear shall graze; Their young ones shall lie down together; And the lion shall eat straw like the ox.

(Isa 11:8 NKJV) The nursing child shall play by the cobra's hole, And the weaned child shall put his hand in the viper's den.

(Isa 11:9 NKJV) They shall not hurt [lit., do evil toward] nor destroy in all My holy mountain, For the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the LORD As the waters cover the sea.

  [In view of the appearance of the Descendant of Jesse, Father of David, His indwelling by the Spirit, His demonstration of His innate fear of the LORD as Messiah to come, Isaiah moves to the description of the age in which the Messiah comes to begin His Eternal Kingdom on the earth: "The wolf also shall [have dwelt] with the lamb, The leopard shall lie down with the young goat, The calf and the young lion and the fatling [in the sense of the best, well fed yearling which is used for sacrifice] together; And a little child shall lead them. The cow and the bear shall graze; Their young ones shall lie down together; And the lion shall eat straw like the ox. The nursing child shall play by the cobra's hole, And the weaned child shall put his hand in the viper's den. So predator will no longer be predator. All animals will demonstrate a respect and submission, even benevolence and protection toward human beings during the reign of the LORD in His eternal kingdom. Note that these changes in the animal life are literal, and not to be taken figuratively as some contend. They are possible because the Creator is Sovereign and declared through Isaiah that these changes would be characteristic of His Kingdom on earth in literal language. The restoration of human beings to God is implied in phrase "For the earth shall be full of the knowledge of God As the waters cover the sea" in the NKJV which in turn implies the complete and thorough restoration of the world's environment from its fallen condition. So the world's entire ecological system including plants, animals and people will be in harmony with the Righteous rule of the LORD. In His reign, nature will be at peace with itself and with man. Contrary to what some contend, the Eternal Kingdom rule has not yet begun, since these factors do not characterize any age of history so far: Animal life shall not hurt [lit., do evil toward] nor destroy in all My holy mountain [in the sense that the entire earth will be in that day the LORD's holy mountain], For the earth - plants, animals and people - shall be full of the knowledge of the LORD As the waters cover the sea - in the sense of everything being obedient to Him - all the people, animals and plants. Peace and tranquility will reign throughout His Kingdom - "As the waters cover the sea," (cf. Isa 9:7); (Isa 11:6-9)]

(Isa 11:10 NKJV) And in that day there shall be a Root of Jesse, Who shall stand as a banner to the people; For the Gentiles shall seek Him, And His resting place shall be glorious.

  [And in that day there shall be a Root of Jesse. As a tree root is the source of life to the tree, so the Root of Jesse, in the line of David, is portrayed as the source of the life to the world. In that day, He shall stand as a Banner - a rallying symbol Who will draw all the peoples of the world to Him: "For the Gentiles shall seek Him" in the sense of coming to a knowledge of Him, trusting and worshipping Him. His "resting place" in the sense of where He sits, i.e., His throne in the Temple - the resting place of God, (cf. Isa 60:13)] shall be glorious, i.e., filled with the visible glory of God. This is an open declaration that this Root of Jesse is God incarnate. Note that this period of rule, considering the references to the sea and the nations in verse 10, ("Gentiles), is for all the peoples of the world, and not to be limited the Israel, as some contend, (Isa 11:10)]

(Isa 11:11 NKJV) It shall come to pass in that day That the LORD shall set His hand again the second time To recover the remnant of His people who are left, From Assyria and Egypt, From Pathros and Cush, From Elam and Shinar, From Hamath and the islands of the [Mediterranean] sea.

  ["And it shall come to pass in that day That the LORD shall set His hand again the second time to recover the remnant of His people [the first recovery pointing to the Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt where the whole nation was brought out of slavery and into the promised land, (Exodus 11:12-16; cf. Isa 11:16). The second time, the LORD Himself will gather the godly remnant of His people from the areas where they were scattered in the ancient times: They will come from the [SOUTH:] "From Assyria and Egypt, From Pathros [i.e., 'Upper Egypt' - one of the three divisions of Egypt south of Memphis and north of Aswan] and Cush [Ethiopia, south of Egypt, now Abyssinia, and the southern parts of Arabia, along the Red Sea]; [EAST] From Elam [Persia, especially the southern part of it now called Susiana, lying north of the western end of the Persian Gulf ] and Shinar [The Babylonian heartland, lying in the south-eastern part of the Tigris-Euphrates valley] [NORTH] From Hamath [a Syrian city, a small kingdom on the Orontes River] [WEST] and [from] the islands of the sea [the Mediterranean maritime nations and the far western regions beyond the sea], (Isa 11:11)]

(Isa 11:12 NKJV) [And] He will [have] set up a banner for the nations, And will [have assembled] the outcasts of Israel, And gather together the dispersed of Judah From the four corners of the earth.

(Isa 11:13 ASV) The envy also of Ephraim shall [have departed], and they that vex Judah shall be cut off: Ephraim shall not envy Judah, and Judah shall not [cause distress to] Ephraim]

  [Furthermore, the gathering of the remnant of His people will be worldwide: [And] He will [have] set up a banner for the nations, And will [have assembled] the outcasts of Israel, And gather together the dispersed of Judah From the four corners of the earth - the remnant of all twelve tribes will be gathered from everywhere on earth. Note that this second gathering of the remnant of the people of the LORD is not the same as the return of the remnant from Babylon under the edict of Cyrus as some contend; because this latter return was partial, not worldwide. Many Jews remained scattered throughout the world, (cf. Books of Ezra, Nehemiah and Esther). Furthermore, the detailed description of the complete and permanent return of all of God's people Israel from throughout the world as specifically stipulated in Isaiah chapter 11 has not yet occurred. Hence the return of Jews who were scattered after the destruction of Jerusalem in A.D. 70, or after the Bar Kokhba rebellion of about A.D. 132-135 or when Jews returned to Palestine in 1948, or any event so far in history up through 2011 is not in view. But what is in view will be that all of the jealousy and hostility between the tribes will be gone forever: "The envy also of Ephraim shall [have departed], and they that vex Judah shall be cut off: Ephraim shall not envy Judah, and Judah shall not [cause distress to] Ephraim," (Isa 11:12-13)]

(Isa 11:14 NKJV) But they shall [have flown] down upon the shoulder of the Philistines toward the west [lit., seaward], Together they plunder the people of the east; they shall [plunder] Edom and Moab; and the [children] of Ammon [obeying] them

  [But they [the restored worldwide remnant of Israel] shall [have flown] down upon the shoulder of the Philistines [as a bird attacking its prey] toward the west [lit., seaward], Together they plunder the people of the east; they shall [plunder] Edom and Moab; [Edom - south of Judah, from the Dead Sea to the Red Sea; "Moab"-- east of Jordan and the Dead Sea] and the [children] of Ammon [east of Judea, north of Moab, between the Arnon and Jabbok] [obeying] them [in the sense of the peoples who occupy that geographical area at the future time of the day of the LORD so that all who oppose Israel will be put down into submission throughout the world], (Isa 11:14)]

(Isa 11:15 NKJV) [And] the LORD will [have utterly destroyed] the tongue of the Sea of Egypt; With His mighty wind He will [have shaken] His fist over the [Euphrates] River, And [thus have made it into] seven streams, [so that] men [will have crossed over it] dryshod.

(Isa 11:16 HOLMAN) [And] there will be a highway for the remnant of His people who will survive from Assyria [in the sense of descendants from the ancient generation of Israelites were captured by Assyria], as there was for Israel when they came up from the land of Egypt."

  [[And] the LORD will [have utterly destroyed] [in the sense of drying up] the tongue of the Sea of Egypt [the Gulf of Suez], [destroyed in the sense that it no longer could be used as a waterway]; With His mighty wind He will [have shaken] His fist over the [Euphrates] River, [in the sense of breaking it up into seven streams] And [thus have made it into] seven [the number of completion] [shallow] streams, [so that] men [will have crossed over it] dryshod. [And] there will be a highway [i.e., a path completely clear of all obstructions] for the remnant of His people who will have descended from those of the Northern Kingdom that survived in captivity in Assyria [in the sense of descendants from the ancient generation of Israelites were captured by Assyria, a symbol of all of the people from all over the world who will return at that time], as there was for Israel when they [the entire nation of Israel in the first complete return] came up from the land of Egypt," (Isa 11:14-16)

  on Isaiah chapter 12]

******

VIII) (Isa 53:1-4 cont) Throughout History Few Will Have Believed In The Report Of Salvation Through The Arm Of The LORD Which Is Revealed To All Mankind Throughout History And At Judgment - The One Who Has Grown Up In His Humanity Before The LORD With No Stately Form Or Attractive Appearance, Despised And Forsaken - A Man Of Sorrows And Grief, Without Esteem Among Men. He Has Taken Up Mankind's Pain, Borne Our Suffering. Yet He Is Considered Punished And Afflicted By God, (cont.)

(Isa 53:2 NASB) "For He [grows] up before Him [the LORD], like a tender shoot, And like a root out of parched ground; He has no stately form or majesty That we should look upon Him, Nor appearance that we should be attracted to Him."

  [The phrase rendered "For He [grows] up before Him [the LORD], like a tender shoot, And like a root out of parched ground;" in Isa 53:2 implies that the Servant of the LORD was born and raised in an arid area, a location where one would not expect a large plant to grow, implying hardship even from His youth as He grew up in His Humanity. Note that this cannot apply to all the people of Israel for all generations, as some contend, because there were different places that the people of Israel were born in, and settled into at different times under vastly different circumstances, not all of which were the same "parched" terrain. Recall that the early years of the people of Israel began in the land of milk and honey in the Promised Land, then into Egypt - a fairly fertile area called Goshen where the crops and herds multiplied. So to make the Servant into a collective of all generations of Israel throughout the centuries makes nonsense out of the verse. The text of Isa 53:2 must be limited to One Person. Furthermore, the text implies with the phrases rendered, "He has no stately form or majesty That we should look upon Him, Nor appearance that we should be attracted to Him," that

(1) He would not amount to much in the world relative to worldly power and wealth;

(2) His physical appearance was not like a royal person of beauty and majesty which might have attracted interest among the population of the time while He was in His Humanity, before His exaltation, (Isa 52:13).

(3) He has no form, nor comeliness, i.e., He would not have the stereotype of a royal person or majesty, nor beauty that one should desire Him. He will be One Who would not be especially sought after, or viewed as amounting to much in a worldly sense. There was nothing in His appearance, nor anything remarkable about His accomplishments for the world to admire such as mighty worldly deeds, military conquests, nor rulership of great kingdoms / empires, nor accumulation of great wealth that would attract great numbers of people of the world to believe in and follow him.

Despite the contention by some, there is no relentless persecution of anyone in view here in Isa 52:1-53:12. Nor will all of Israel die as the Servant of the LORD is stipulated will be in Isaiah 52-53. For this would leave no Israelite in a mortal body to return to the Promised Land as prophesied in passages that describe the New Covenant promises to Israel . But the Servant of Isa 52-53 did die as an atoning sacrifice for sins, (ref. Isa 53:8-10).

3) [The Popular Jewish Interpretation Of Isa 53:2 Is Not Consistent With The Context]

(Isa 53:2 NASB) "For He [grows] up before Him [the LORD], like a tender shoot, And like a root out of parched ground; He has no stately form or majesty That we should look upon Him, Nor appearance that we should be attracted to Him."

The popular Jewish interpretation of Isa 53:2 was contrived from what is found elsewhere in the Hebrew Bible in other passages from which it was falsely concluded that Israel has for centuries been persecuted, despised, forsaken, afflicted by the Gentile nations - all of them all of the time, with adversities often likened to injuries and diseases in order to force these words from passages outside of the context of the passage at hand into the words found in the text of Isa 53:2 - a bit of fancy editorial work to say the least. So on the basis of questionable conclusions about passages elsewhere in Scripture, Isa 53:2 is forced to have in view the people of Israel whom the (Gentile) nations characterized as having been despised by them, a "man of pains" who is accustomed to illness, and similar imagery which was drawn from elsewhere and not the context at hand. Hence there is drawn the false conclusion that all of this has been going on for long periods of time - for centuries; descriptions implying undue persecution of a people over centuries by all the Gentile nations. The literal depiction in Isa 52:1-53:12 of a single individual, in a short period of time, in his single mortal life, resulting in pain and suffering as He was executed to death at the hands of Jew and Gentile alike is rejected in favor of the contrived interpretation where generations of Israel are the Servant. But all of Israel did not die - and the Servant did, (ref. Isa 53:8-10)!

Note that no words which might be construed figuratively, poetically or otherwise as "despised," "forsaken," "afflicted," "injured" or "diseased" in order to serve to characterize persecution over a long period of time appear in Isa 53:2. Other passages may have these words in them or words to that effect which are applicable in some manner to Israel or someone else, but not here in Isa 53:2. Since there are no words to establish that the time line was a very long one - centuries long; such a concept cannot be forced into this verse. It's all about being consistent with the context of the passage at hand .

Since generation after generation of the people of Israel have neither been historically or according to Scripture relentlessly and continually despised nor persecuted over a period of centuries by all Gentile nations; and since the context of Isa 53:2 is not about persecution but about the conditions in which the Servant grew up in - circumstances of hardship; and about His physical characteristics / His appearance and physical stature; and since Isa 53:2 does not endeavor to take into account the great number of variations which would exist within generations of people over the passage of centuries of time adding innumerable circumstances that generations of people experience any of which would belie the context which is literally in view in Isa 53:2: a single individual with a single life experience in Isa 53:2; then the context of an individual life for a short period of time is the best interpretation of Isa 53:2 - the Servant is One Man.

Historically speaking and according to Scripture, Israel has had extended and short periods of prosperity and peace and protection afforded to them by the LORD over centuries of time. The times of captivity, persecution and dispersion have neither been unrelenting, nor lasting for centuries . And there have been a number of Israelite international 'celebrities' of great and / or attractive stature to the Gentile peoples of their time period, refuting the claim that Gentiles wholly viewed the entire Jewish race as inhuman looking and of no account: Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, David, Solomon, Joseph, Samson, Daniel, Moses, the prophets, etc., etc.

The passage in Isa 53:2 is best interpreted just as the words say. The phrases in Isa 53:2, rendered "tender shoot," "and like a root," tie the Servant in Isaiah chapters 52-53 to the earlier Messianic prophecies such as Isa 11:1-16  which verses portray "A shoot will come up from the stump of Jesse" [father to David] of whom the Servant from Isa 53:2 it is implied when corroborating it with Isa 11:1 is the Descendant which Isa 9:6-7 also speaks of ): from his roots a Branch will bear fruit," (Isa 11:1 ). This speaks of a single individual, not a whole nation of Israelites, as some contend. And He will have a belt of Righteousness about His loins, and a belt of faithfulness about His waist, (Isa 11:5) - which speaks of being without sin - corroborating the Servant being an individual without sin, (cf. Isa 42:6; 53:9, 11 and 49:2 ). This is something which the people of Israel cannot be characterized as until after the LORD through His Servant saves a generation of Israel by providing for their Righteousness Himself, (ref., Isa 42:6 ; 49:1-8; 52:10-13, 15; cf. Ezek 36:22-27 ). This "Root of Jesse, whose descendant (son) was David, whose Descendant is the Servant of the LORD, the One Who shall stand as a banner to the people [Israel, (cf. Isa 11:10-12 )], will bring about the return of the remnant of believers of Judah and Ephraim (Israel) together and back forever into the Promised Land . He is Personified as the Fulfillment of the New Covenant (Isa 42:6 ; 49:8) . In Isa 11:3-4, it says, "His delight is in the fear of the LORD, And He shall not judge by the sight of His eyes, Nor decide by the hearing of His ears; And He [has] judged in righteousness the poor, and [has] decided in uprightness [i.e., in equity] for the humble [in the sense of the lowly] of [the earth]; And has [struck] the earth with the rod of His mouth, And with the breath of His lips He [puts] the wicked to death." On this alone, (ref. Isa 11:3-4), the Servant cannot be Israel, because Israel is not even able to bring herself back forever into the entire Promised Land, nor to transform herself into a righteous people without sin who can righteously judge others. But the "tender shoot" in Isa 53:2 who is the Root of Jesse in Isaiah chapter 11 - the Servant of the LORD who will bring salvation and redemption to Israel, (ref. Isa 52:10-15; 49:1-6 ; 42:6), Who is the fulfillment of the New Covenant to Israel,  (ref. Isa 42:6 ; 49:8); indicates that an individual Person can and will do all of these things. So a generation of the people of Israel first needs to be brought back by the Servant of the LORD, Who will transform all Israelites of a generation with a new heart, and the Spirit within to make then righteous, (cf. Ezek 36:22-27 ), by the grace of God on the basis of the Servant of the LORD accounting for their unrighteousness by paying for their sins - a substitutionary atonement for a Righteous God of Absolute Justice can do no less, (Isa 42:6 ; 49:1-6; 52:10-13, 15).

So the Servant, the Holy Arm of the LORD as portrayed in Isa 53:2 and corroborated in Isa 11:1-16 would not amount to much until He completed His mission of providing atonement for the sins of all mankind - the Salvation of God through Him and the restoration of Israel into the Promised Land in fulfillment of the New Covenant. Then there will be exaltation and glory for Him, (Ref. Isa 52:12-13)]

VIII) (Isa 53:1-4 cont.) Throughout History Few Will Have Believed In The Report Of Salvation Through The Arm Of The LORD Which Is Revealed To All Mankind Throughout History And At Judgment - The One Who Has Grown Up In His Humanity Before The LORD With No Stately Form Or Attractive Appearance, Despised And Forsaken - A Man Of Sorrows And Grief, Without Esteem Among Men. He Has Taken Up Mankind's Pain, Borne Our Suffering. Yet He Is Considered Punished And Afflicted By God, (cont.)

(Isa 53:3 NASB) "He was despised and forsaken [= rejected] of men, A Man of sorrows and acquainted with grief; And like One from Whom men hide their face He was despised, and we did not esteem Him."

  [Isa 53:3 declares that the Arm / the Servant of the LORD would be "despised and rejected by men. A Man of sorrows and acquainted with grief." The words rendered "sorrows" refers to the sorrows of pain and suffering and "acquainted with grief," refers to the grief of sickness and suffering of an individual. Notice that the Servant's Humanity is in view - as a single individual: people who were there when His Humanity was present on the earth as onlookers while He was suffering for the sins of all mankind, (ref. Isa 53:5-6; cf. 52:10, 15), would not look upon Him. It was if they were hiding their faces from Him - especially those who had rejected Him with great animosity and often with mockery. He was despised, people did not esteem Him - in the sense that Who He was was vehemently rejected and despised by those of His time - mostly Jews. His actual physical suffering for their iniquities is evidently in view, described as "sorrows," and "pains," or "sickness," (ref. Isa 53:4-6). People, especially those that despised Him would turn to face the other way rather than to gaze upon Him as He suffered so.

****** ******

4) [The Popular Jewish Interpretation Of Isa 53:3  Refuted]

Note that every time that the word rendered "servant" appears in Scripture, it does not always refer to Israel. So Isaiah 53:3 does not have to have Israel in view as the Servant even if she did suffer relentlessly over centuries at the hands of the Gentile nations, as some contend; which she did not . For the Servant is clearly portrayed as a single individual throughout the four songs in chapters 42:1-13 , 49 , 50 and 52-53  and chapter 11 as well . Furthermore, the word rendered "servant" in the context of one appointed by the LORD to serve Him in some capacity appears in other passages in Isaiah which refer to the people of Israel as messengers of the gospel of salvation by being an example of God's saving grace and redemption before the whole world, (Isa 41:8-9; 20:3; 43:10; 44:1-2, 21, 26; 45:4; 48:20; Jer 30:10; 46:27-28; Ps 136:22). But this is not the servant of the LORD in the same capacity as the Servant in chapters 42, 49, 50 and 52-53 and chapter 11 as well - the latter passages conveying a capacity which includes the Servant's attribute of Absolute Righteousness qualifying Him to fulfill His mission to make provision for an atoning sacrifice for the sins of all mankind, (Isa 53:4-12). And there are other passages which have the word rendered "servant" in them which refer to Isaiah as the prophet, (Isa 20:3); Eliakim as the palace administrator, (Isa 22:20); David as king of Israel, (Isa 37:35). And there are many others from the rest of Scripture referring to other individuals in varying capacities of servitude to the LORD God. But the Servant of Isaiah chapters 42, 49, 50, 52-53 and chapter 11 as well is unique . Not one characteristic of the people of Israel, or anybody else meets this Servant's Standard of Righteousness or His purpose to be an atoning sacrifice for the sins of all mankind and the provision of the salvation / restoration of Israel and all mankind.

Futhermore, the Hebrew phrase transliterated "'š mak'ōbt" is rendered literally "a man of sufferings," in Isa 53:3. It portrays a single individual without any corroboration in the passage to make the phrase figurative in order to refer to the entire population of a downtrodden Israel throughout the centuries under undeserved, relentless persecution, worldwide causing continual suffering and deprivation as a result of the transgressions of the Gentiles acting out this suffering upon them. For this concept is neither historically nor biblically accurate:

Although numbers large and small of the people of Israel have suffered deprivation and persecution for extended periods of time throughout the centuries, there were also many periods of relative prosperity and freedom and even world power such as when Solomon ruled; and when the nations of the world sought Israel out for trade and alliances; and when Solomon had many wives, many foreign - testifying to the people of Israel not being so inept, deprived or inhuman looking; and when the first Temple - a magnificent building that was marveled throughout the world - was built; and during the first part of Israel's presence in Egypt to escape famine; and when Moses as Pharaoh's adopted son was being groomed to be a great ruler of the world's leading nation - displaying qualities of humanity that were hardly despicable, downtrodden, deprived or inhuman looking; and when Israel returned to the Promised Land. There were conflicts on the way but never an ongoing captivity nor relentless persecution by Gentile nations. For the LORD God was with them every step of the way to teach, protect, preserve and discipline them to be His Chosen People; and when there was the restoration of Israelites to Jersusalem when the temple was rebuilt; and when many Jews chose to remain in Babylon, preferring the more prosperous lifestyle there with relative freedom under Cyrus the Great, the Persian King, rather than to return to the Promised Land to the hardship of rebuilding the Temple; and when countless Israelites remained over the centuries to live without Gentile persecution in Judah, Samaria and other Middle Eastern regions after having been conquered by Egypt, Assyria, Greece, Babylon, Persia, Rome, Nazi Germany, etc. For many Israelites experienced relative prosperity and freedom after their initial captivity in these regions and around the world - a number often rising to important positions in their adopted countries, like Joseph, Moses and Daniel; and then we have Israel in the 21st century with nearly 70 years of power and prosperity, albeit with ever present conflict with neighboring enemies.

So the context of Isa 53:3 cannot be forced to portray an extreme, unrelenting, undeserved, non-historical, unbiblical suffering of generations of the people of Israel throughout centuries of time by Gentile nations, while it is contended that God's chosen people consistently acted righteously 'most' of the time - not deserving most of the Gentile persecution that they actually suffered. Scripture indicates that the people of Israel were frequently being disciplined by the LORD, (cf. Jer 10:24; 25:8ff; 30:11-15 ; 46:28; Isa 9:18-10:34; 2 Kgs 18:9-12); and Israel and the whole world will experience unparalleled persecution and destruction in the end times, (ref. Dan 9:24-27 ). Nevertheless, it is only the Servant of the LORD Who is in view in Isa 53:3 especially because of the relatively short time span in view, and the unique, sinless, unparalleled capacity of the Servant - far beyond that of the people of Israel]

(Isa 53:4 NIV) "Surely He [has taken up] our pain and [has borne] our suffering, yet we [have] considered him punished by God, stricken by Him, and afflicted."

  [Isa 53:4 concludes the context of the previous verses with, "Surely he [has taken up] our pain and [has borne] our suffering, yet we [have] considered him punished by God, stricken by Him, and afflicted" in the sense that the prophet was speaking for all mankind, and not just on behalf of the Gentile nations, as some contend. Isa 52:10, 13 & 15 confirm that the salvation of all of mankind is in view:

5) [Compare Isa 52:10, 13, 15]:

(Isa 52:10 NKJV) "The LORD has made bare His Holy Arm In the eyes of all the nations; And all the ends of the earth shall see The Salvation of our God.

(Isa 52:13 YLT) [Behold], My Servant [acts] wisely, He is [exalted], and [has] been lifted up], And [has] been [greatly exalted].

(Isa 52:15 YLT) So [does] He sprinkle many nations. Concerning Him kings shut their mouths, For that which was not recounted to them they have seen, And that which they had not heard they have understood!"

Notice the words of Isa 53:4: "Surely He [has taken up] our pain and [has borne] our suffering, yet we [have] considered him punished by God, stricken by Him, and afflicted." The author and prophet Isaiah wrote the words "our" and "we" to include himself in this group of people for whom the Servant will bring salvation, thereby encompassing the whole world - which includes, Jews and Gentiles. But while they viewed Him being executed, people considered that He had mistakenly considered that He was not taking up their sins, but being punished for His own transgressions. He was considered to have been convicted of a capital crime, because of the method of His death which was designated for such offenses . But writer and prophet Isaiah concluded that the Servant's suffering would not be for any sins of His own. For He was without sin, (Isa 53:9, 11; cf. 42:6; 49:2). He would suffer for "our," i.e., all of Isaiah's, Israel's and mankind's sins, (cf. Isa 52:10, 13-15; 53:4). This is described here as follows: "Surely He [has taken up] our pain and [has borne] our suffering," evidently referring to the eternal pain and suffering individuals who have trusted in Him would have been subjected to had the Servant not taken it upon Himself to suffer that eternal pain for all of mankind.

6) [The Popular Jewish Interpretation Of Isa 53:4]

(Isa 53:4 NIV) "Surely He [has taken up] our pain and [has borne] our suffering, yet we [have] considered him punished by God, stricken by Him, and afflicted."

The popular Jewish interpretation of Isa 53:4 is that the one speaking in this verse is the voice of the Gentile nations. It is maintained that the Jewish people are the Servant who experienced ills and pains caused by the direct and evil actions of the Gentile nations - the Gentiles' deliberate and willful persecution of them for personal gain - territorial, slave labor, natural resources, etc. The people of Israel as the Servant of the LORD throughout the centuries are maintained to have borne the consequences of the Gentile nations' sinful actions toward them and many other peoples. They have suffered and continue to suffer because of them. But it is maintained that the Gentile nations have held that the Jewish people were cursed by God - their excuse for their deliberate persecution of them. They were, and many still are, determined to see that they suffer the consequences of this alleged curse, so they continue to deliberately seek to punish Israel. It is further maintained, that some of Israel’s suffering was due to its own transgressions of Torah, but the Gentile nations, by "going overboard" with their misdeeds, inflicted most of the suffering on Israel. So it was not that God was actually punishing Israel for her sins, nevertheless it was God Who has, indeed, used the Gentile nations as a "rod" against Israel for its misdeeds, but He is not pleased with the way the Gentile nations have exceeded their "license" in this function (e.g., Zechariah 1:15).

******

7) [The Popular Jewish Interpretation Of Isa 53:4 Is Neither Logical Nor Consistent With The Context - The Servant Is Not Israel]

(Isa 53:4 NIV) "Surely He [has taken up] our pain and [has borne] our suffering, yet we [have] considered him punished by God, stricken by Him, and afflicted."

From the beginning of Isaiah chapter 52, the context excludes Israel from being the Servant; albeit Israel / Jacob - the people of Israel, are also called the servant of the LORD in other passages in Isaiah, (as well as others such as the prophets in Scripture, but in a different context from the four songs in Isaiah comprising chapters 42, 49, 50, 52-53. The "song" chapters and chapter 11 as well all have in view the Servant as one Man. The Servant of the LORD elsewhere in Scripture which refers to the people of Israel is indicated in the following verses in Isaiah: 20:3, 41:8-9; 43:10; 44:1-2, 21, 26; 45:4; 48:20); but not in the four song passages. For Israel can neither save herself from her own sins, nor transform herself into a godly people, (Dt 31:17-18; Jer 1:1-16; 2:20; 3:1ff; 4:1; 7:18-19; 19:1-13; Isa 59:1-14; Ezek 8:17; 11:1-20; 16:26-59; 36:16-21; 31ff; 1 Kgs 19:18; 2 Kgs 23:1-20, etc. ), nor come back to take possession of the entire Promised Land forever under her own auspices. The people of Israel need the Servant of the LORD of the song passages in Isaiah to provide unilateral action to do these things. It takes the Power and Justice and Sovereignty of the LORD to accomplish this, under the auspices of sinless Humanity to save the people of Israel from their sins, transform them into a godly people, restore them to the Promised Land, and provide unparalleled prosperity for them, (ref. Ezek 36:22-27 . The people of Israel have no capacity to do this by themselves as shown by centuries of unfaithful history . This is what is in view in the context of these four songs and corroborated by the many passages about the fulfillment of the New Covenant :

So it is the Servant of the LORD - a single Jewish Individual, not collective Israel - Who is the Salvation of our God, the provider of Israel's redemption and the redemption / salvation of all mankind. It is He Who is the Holy Arm of the LORD Who will have been seen by all the nations to the ends of the earth, (Isa 49:1-13 ; 52:3, 7-10). It is He Who has sprinkled / washed away the sins of many nations in the sense of all mankind, (Isa 52:15, cf. 49:1-13 ); Who has borne their griefs and sorrows - the sins of all mankind, (Isa 53:4); Who has been pierced through for all of mankind's transgressions wherein the chastening / punishment for mankind's restoration to peace with God fell upon Him. And by His having been scourged - severely whipped - all mankind has been [spiritually] healed, (Isa 53:5). So the Servant has been put to physical death, (Isa 53:8); He has been crushed, He has been put to the grief due mankind, He has been made a guilt offering - a substitutionary atonement for the sins of all mankind - which is scriptural . Nevertheless the LORD will see His Seed and prolong His days - raising Him from the dead to live eternally in greatly exalted prosperity, (Isa 52:10, 13; 53:10). For He - the Servant - has justified many by bearing their iniquities, (Isa 53:11); has borne the sin of many [all mankind], [intercedes] for the transgressors [all mankind], in the sense of substitutionary atonement ], (Isa 53:12)]

a) [Review Of Isa 52:10, 13-14]:

(Isa 52:10 NKJV) "The LORD has made bare His Holy Arm In the eyes of all the nations; And all the ends of the earth shall see The Salvation of our God.

(Isa 52:13 YLT) [Behold], My Servant [acts] wisely, He is [exalted], and [has] been lifted up], And [has] been [greatly exalted].

(Isa 52:14 HCSB) Just as many [have been astonished] at You - His appearance was so disfigured that He did not look like a man, and His form did not resemble a human being -"

Relative to the context of people at all the ends of the earth seeing the Salvation of our God - the greatly exalted Servant of the LORD - and their being astonished by Him, by His disfigured appearance: most of mankind throughout history would not have been present at the time and place in their mortal bodies when the Servant brought salvation to the world through His substitutionary atonement - a time when they would have had the opportunity to observe Him and then would have been astonished in the sense of astonished disbelief at His exaltation with His disfigured, inhuman appearance. Furthermore, most of mankind would not have had the opportunity in their mortal bodies to see Him when He will have been greatly exalted. Hence the timeframe(s) in view in Isa 52:10, 13-14 must be when the Servant will have been resurrected, (ref., Isa 53:10), into a glorified, exalted state, (ref. Isa 52:13); evidently still appearing with / bearing His inhuman disfigurement, (ref., Isa 52:14). So the timeframe of Isa 52:10, 13-14 is the afterlife of most of mankind as well as those of mankind that are still alive in their mortal bodies at the yet future time of the revelation of the Servant coming upon the earth in His exalted glory which is in view in Isa 52:13-14 - at which time or times all will be astonished in the sense of astonished disbelief at and in awe of His appearance, (cf. Zech 12:10-14 ).

There will be an unbelieving mindset by most of mankind which will be evidenced by their not having acknowledged Who the Servant is and what He did for them during their mortal lives; and by their astonished disbelief when they see Him in His exalted glory, (cf. vv 13-15). Although mankind's sins will have been washed away, those who never believe in Him for salvation will not be personally forgiven of their sins because they will never have believed in Him, (cf. Isa 53:1). Hence they will not receive eternal life and dwell forever in the Eternal Kingdom of God, (Isa chapter 49 , and passages on the New Covenant ).

The vast majority of people throughout history will be so irretrievably entrenched in their own religious / philosophical systems that they will not be disposed to consider, much less believe in God's plan of salvation through a moment of faith in His Servant - His Holy Arm of salvation alone, whether told about Him or not, (cf. Isa 53:1). They will have lived out their lives choosing not to consider Who He is.

The Servant's mission for the LORD required Him to raise up the tribes of Jacob, to restore the preserved ones of Israel unto the entire Promised Land; to be the Light of the salvation of the LORD to the Gentiles, to be a covenant of the people of Israel, etc. And it would be the Servant's atoning sacrifice, His physical execution unto death in order to physically and spiritually die for the sins of Israel and all the nations of the world to provide that salvation to all mankind, to the ends of the earth, (cf. Isa 49:6; 52:10). At the time of the completion of His mission, His physical appearance as a result of fulfilling His mission caused Him to be so disfigured that he would not be recognizable as a man - "inhuman," pointing to being so mistreated as to cause such an extreme appearance. Those in their mortal bodies who did witness Him in the fulfillment of His mission for the salvation of mankind - and the disfigurement He suffered; and most of mankind who will have seen Him in His exalted glory - those who did not believe in Who He claimed to be, nor even consider what He claimed to have done, nor even gaze upon Him - considered that He had been executed for His own sins, (Isa 53:4).

So the one who is 'speaking' in Isa 53:4 is Isaiah the Jewish prophet and writer. He would not be speaking on behalf of the Gentile nations, as some contend, but on behalf of God. Nevertheless, some contend that the Gentiles are declaring through Isaiah that they have repented of persecuting Israel relentlessly for centuries and now, somehow in the light of what they mistakenly view in Isa 52:13 as the Servant, Israel's glorious exaltation, they understand that Israel is truly God's chosen people who have wrongly suffered under their persecution. The contenders further impose the idea that the Gentile nations had always considered that it was God Who was punishing Israel despite the fact that it was they, in their own minds, who were doing the persecution for their own personal gain; and they did not even know the God of Israel. For the contenders maintain that at some future time Israel will be glorified and exalted as if they are the Servant in Isa 52:13 - and they are not ; and they further maintain that the Gentile nations will have repented of their relentless persecution Israel under their own auspices, as if such perfect repentance is possible with sinful man, in the sense of ceasing to doing all wrong things which then will forgive their past sinfulness. But this does not make sense, nor does it fit the context of the passage. Why would a Jewish writer and prophet speak on behalf of the Gentiles? There are no words in the text that indicate such a dramatic change in the point of view of Isaiah's writing in verse 4 such as "Thus say the nations." And why would the Gentiles think that their supposed persecution of Israel was caused by a God they did not believe in or even know in the first place? For in the Gentile mindset, it was their decision to do the persecution - which usually included other peoples besides Israel as well - for their own personal gain - they weren't doing anything for the God of Israel? Even if perfect repentance is possible with sinful man - and it is not, how does repenting from evil result in forgiveness of past evils - it does not! And what about all the prosperous times when Israel was not under persecution ? And what about all the times when God used other nations - the Gentile nations to punish Israel for being so unfaithful - and not in a small way as this "popular" interpretation suggests, (refs. cf. Jer 10:24; 25:8ff; 30:11-15 ; 46:28; Isa 9:18-10:34; 2 Kgs 18:9-12)? Finally, Isa 53:4 indicates that the Servant was innocent of anything that He was suffering for, (Isa 53:9b, 11; 49:2), unlike the people of Israel, (Dt 31:17-18; Jer 1:1-16; 2:20; 3:1ff; 4:1; 7:18-19; 19:1-13; Isa 59:1-14; Ezek 8:17; 11:1-20; 16:26-59; 36:16-21; 31ff; 1 Kgs 19:18; 2 Kgs 23:1-20, etc. ), or anyone born of Adam, (Isa 64:6-7; Gen 8:21; Eccl 7:20; Jer 17:9; Ps 51:5; Job 14:1-4). The text of Isa 53:4 says that He took up "our" pain, and bore "our" suffering, the "our" evidently including the writer Isaiah, Israel and all mankind for the purpose of providing salvation for all mankind throughout history as stipulated in Isa 52:1-10 - key verses which contribute mightily to the context of this passage of all mankind - Israel, the Gentiles and Isaiah - being in view in Isaiah chapter 53 as those whose iniquities were being borne by the Servant - and not just the Gentile nations . But Israel was not so innocent, as previously indicated . Therefore the people of Israel cannot be in view as the Servant in Isa 53:4, nor can the Gentiles be speaking in this verse, or Isaiah speaking for them.

Note that the Hebrew verbs tranliterated "ānśā," literally, "He has borne," which is best rendered "He [the Servant] has taken up [our - Isaiah's, Israel's and all mankind's suffering, (Isa 52:1-10]" and "sĕbālām," literally, "He [the Servant] has carried" [our - all mankind's pain] cannot be construed to refer to the Gentile nations' bringing suffering and pain upon the Servant by persecuting Him. The words rendered "suffering" and "pain" are modified by the word rendered "our" referring to the suffering and pain which were due to the Gentile nations and due to Israel, and the whole world for all of mankind's own wrong doing. Hence Isaiah included himself as part of this group of all mankind for whom the Servant suffered. He was not being a spokesman for the Gentile nations, as some contend. And He suffered and died for mankind's own sins, taking punishment upon Himself, i.e., substitutionary atonement which is Scriptural ]

******

IX) (Isa 53:5-6) The Holy Arm Of The LORD, The Salvation Of Our God, His Servant Was Pierced For Mankind's Transgressions, Crushed For All Of Mankind's Iniquities. The Chastisement For The Purpose Of Establishing Mankind's Peace With God Falls Upon Him. By His Scourging All Mankind Is Healed Spiritually From Sins. For All Mankind Has Gone Astray / Sinned. And The LORD Has Laid On Him The Iniquity Of All Mankind

(Isa 53:5 NASB) "But He was pierced through for our transgressions, He was crushed for our iniquities; The [chastisement] for our [peace = absence of conflict and strife with God] [falls] upon Him, And by His scourging [= stripes] we are healed. [lit., "there is healing to us."]

  [The remnant of Jewish believers who were entrusted by God with the report / the message through the prophets, such as Isaiah, (Isa 3:1), goes on to say in Isa 53:5 that instead of paying for His own sins (of which He had none, (ref. Isa 53:9b, 11; 49:2), "He was pierced through for our transgressions" - the prophet here writing / speaking on behalf of all mankind, not just Israel. For the Servant is the Salvation of all mankind to the ends of the earth throughout the ages and into eternity, (cf. Isa 52:10, 15; 49:1-6; 42:6).

Note that the Hebrew participal of the verb transliterated "chālal" - which can mean to fatally wound, bore through, pierce through transliterated "mĕhōlāl" and rendered "pierced" is not a translation error, as some contend in order to break the corroboration with later New Testament Scripture; {the reference of Jesus being nailed to the cross, (Jn 19:18), and pierced with a Roman spear, (Jn 19:34)}. The meaning of "pierced through" is one of a number of available meanings for the Hebrew verb. And it best fits the context of Isa 53:5. Another example of this verb meaning best fitting the context of "piercing through" unto death is in Isa 51:9 with the same Hebrew verb in the form of a participle transliterated "mĕhŏlelet" and rendered "pierced" in the NASB, or more literally "piercing," in the YLT referring to the piercing of Rahab, cutting her in pieces as with a sword in order to slaughter her to death:

1) [Compare Isa 51:9]:

(Isa 51:9 NASB) "Awake, awake, put on strength, O arm of the LORD; Awake as in the days of old, the generations of long ago. Was it not You who cut Rahab in pieces, [piercing, YLT] the dragon?"

******

2) [Compare Zech 12:10-14]:

(Zech 12:10 NASB) "I will pour out on the house of David and on the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the Spirit of grace and of supplication, [Ezek 36:26-27 ], so that they will look on Me whom they have pierced [Isa 53:5 ] and they will mourn for Him, as one mourns for an only son, and they will weep bitterly over Him like the bitter weeping over a firstborn.

[Just as in Exek 36:26-27 which has in view the fulfillment of the New Covenant, so Zech 12:10 has in view the same event which includes the LORD pouring out His Spirit on the house of David and on the inhabitants of Jerusalem, i.e., "the Spirit of grace and supplication." And the focus at that time is the Servant Who has been pierced [Isa 53:5 ], Who will restore all of Israel into the Promised Land, (Isa 49:1-6 ).

Notice that a single individual Who was pierced for mankind's transgressions is in view in Zech 12:10 upon Whom all of that generation of Israel is looking and acknowledging Who He is, i.e., believing in Him for justification unto forgiveness of sins, (cf Isa 53:11 ): One Who then cannot be all of Israel. Hence the Servant in Isa 53:5 Who was pierced is also a single individual, Who cannot be all Israel at the same time.

[Bible Knowledge Commentary, Walvoord & Zuck, Editors, Victor Books, USA, 1988]:

12:10a. Both leaders (the house of David) and commoners (the inhabitants of Jerusalem)—thus excluding no Israelites (cf. 13:1) - will be the objects of the outpouring of the divine spirit of grace and supplication. This is most probably a reference to the Holy Spirit..., so called because He will minister graciously to Israel in her sinful condition and will lead her to supplication and repentance.

12:10b. Thus Israelites will receive divine enablement to look on Me, the One they have pierced. The Lord refers to the nation's action of piercing Him, a term usually indicating "piercing to death." ... The "looking" could be either physical vision (sight) or spiritual vision (faith). Probably it refers here to both, ... when Israel will recognize her Messiah and turn to Him [byfaith]. The change to the third person (mourn for Him, rather than "mourn for Me") is common in prophetic literature. The mourning for sin that is prompted by the outpoured Spirit is illustrated by a private act of mourning (v. 10) and a public act of mourning (v. 11). The loss of an only child or of a firstborn son was aggravated by the felt curse associated with childlessness and the lack of an heir to continue the family name and property]

(Zech 12:11 NASB) In that day there will be great mourning in Jerusalem, like the mourning of Hadadrimmon in the plain of Megiddo. 

(Zech 12:12 NASB) The land will mourn, every family by itself; the family of the house of David by itself and their wives by themselves; the family of the house of Nathan by itself and their wives by themselves; 

(Zech 12:13 NASB) the family of the house of Levi by itself and their wives by themselves; the family of the Shimeites by itself and their wives by themselves;

(Zech 12:14 NASB) all the families that remain, every family by itself and their wives by themselves."

IX) (Isa 53:5-6 cont.) The Holy Arm Of The LORD, The Salvation Of Our God, His Servant Was Pierced For Mankind's Transgressions, Crushed For All Of Mankind's Iniquities. The Chastisement For The Purpose Of Establishing Mankind's Peace With God Falls Upon Him. By His Scourging All Mankind Is Healed Spiritually From Sins. For All Mankind Has Gone Astray / Sinned. And The LORD Has Laid On Him The Iniquity Of All Mankind, (cont.)

(Isa 53:5 NASB) "But He was pierced through for our transgressions, He was crushed for our iniquities; The [chastisement] for our [peace = absence of conflict and strife with God] [falls] upon Him, And by His scourging [= stripes] we are healed. [lit., "there is healing to us" (cont.)]

And "He [the Servant] was crushed," in the sense of physically and spiritually being destroyed unto death - for our / all mankind's iniquities - a physical and emotional destruction.

The word "peace" in the phrase rendered "The chastisement for our peace falls upon Him" signifies that the Servant, the Holy Arm of the LORD took upon Himself God's chastisement / God's punishment for mankind's sins. The "our" includes author Isaiah, a Jew representing all Israel and speaking for all the (Gentile) nations as well due to Isa 52:10, 15; 49:1-6; 42:6 being included in the Servant's salvation. So all of mankind's sins are included in God's chastisement / punishment of the Servant in order to reconcile man to God with the result of providing eternal peace between God and man to those who trust in the Servant's sacrifice for forgiveness of sins unto eternal life, (Isa 53:1, 11). So peace here is defined as the absence of an individual's conflict and strife with the LORD God because of unforgiven sins which place him under the eternal wrath of God. So those who will choose to trust alone in the atonement work of the Servant alone will have eternal peace, i.e., eternal life with God, (cf. Isa 53:1 ; 53:11 ). The peace in view is an eternal peace - a positional eternal peace wherein one is in an eternal, peaceful position with God, no longer under His eternal wrath which is reserved for unbelievers - the unforgiven. It is not necessarily a temporal peaceful experience because that depends upon the believer being in fellowship with God moment to moment in his temporal life, beginning first with trusting in the Servant - the Arm of the LORD alone for eternal life to become a believer; and thereafter through confession of sins and consequent faithfulness as David wrote about, (Ps 32:1-11 ).

The phrase rendered, "And by His scourging, [i.e., stripes] we are healed," indicates that the Servant of the LORD would be severely whipped - scourged - as part of the punishment He would suffer for the sins of mankind. This rules out the Servant being collective Israel all receiving such a punishment throughout the centuries.

The phrase has in view all of mankind who believe being healed of ones iniquities, i.e., ones sins; i.e., of being spiritually healed which is clear from the words,  "transgressions," (vv. 5, 8); "iniquities," (vv. 5, 11); "iniquity," (v. 6); "wicked," (v. 9); "transgressors," (v. 12 twice); and "sin," (v. 12); and not healed physically as some contend. For physical healing has not been a part of the context of this passage. Believers, even faithful ones, will still suffer physically while in their mortal bodies. On the other hand once an individual has been totally healed of sin, wherein their being no longer has the capacity to commit sins, then physical ailments will not be an intrinsic part of ones being - which is not today in this age until the resurrections of believers commence. Then physical ailments will not be an intrinsic part of ones being. On the other hand, physical ailments will not be part of the experience of believers after the fulfillment of the New Covenant .

Notice a singular, masculine individual human being is in view Who was pierced and crushed not only for the "people" of Israel but for "our transgressions" and "our iniquities," i.e., for "many nations," i.e., for the salvation of all mankind including author Isaiah representing all of Israel and mankind, (ref. Isa 52:10, 15; 49:1-6; 42:6). Hence all of mankind's transgressions are in view being put upon a single individual human being, and not upon Israel, nor upon the prophets, nor upon a remnant of believers, as some contend. An individual is in view Who "was cut off out of the land of the living," [i.e., He was executed for the transgression of My people [and all people, (Isa 52:10, 15)] to whom the blow was due," (Isa 53:8). He was not only executed by His people when they sinned and murdered Him, not only by the Gentiles when they sinned and murdered Him, but also He died for the sins of His people and all the nations of the world, taking the blow - the punishment for their sins - in their stead, to atone for their sins. Therefore, in view in Isa 53:5 is not the Servant being Israel, because the verse would deteriorate into nonsense because Israel or any group of humans cannot take upon itself their own sins in substitution for themselves, in order to be forgiven of them, and die in the process, leaving no Israelite alive to be redeemed and to inherit the Promised Land in their mortal bodies.

The doctrine of substitutionary atonement / payment for someone elses's sins is not a false doctrine, as some contend. It is in view in Isa 53:5 and elsewhere in Scripture . Furthermore, the contention that the people of Israel are the Servant of the LORD which people suffered because of relentless, undeserved persecution brought upon them by the Gentile nations over centuries of time is not valid because the Servant in the context of this passage is a single individual according to Isa 52:1-53:3 , Isa 53:4   and Isa 9:6-7 .

3) [The Popular Jewish Interpretation Of Isa 53:5a & b Selects An Available Meaning, (And Excludes Other Meanings), For The Preposition Transliterated "min" Because It Is Consistent With Their View Against Substitutionary / Vicarious Atonement]

(Isa 53:5 NASB) "But He was pierced through for our transgressions, He was crushed for our iniquities; The [chastisement] for our [peace = absence of conflict and strife with God] [falls] upon Him, And by His scourging [= stripes] we are healed. [lit., "there is healing to us" (cont.)]

The Hebrew preposition rendered "for" in the two phrases, Isa 53:5a & b are - מ-\ מ (mei-\mi-). Both are abbreviations of the preposition מִן (min), meaning "because of" or "for" depending upon the context.

The popular Jewish interpretation of Isa 53:5 conveys the servant as Israel being repeatedly hurt because of the sinful acts of the Gentile nations toward them, not being punished for in the sense of in place of the iniquity - the sins committed by all mankind, i.e., substitutionary atonement for all mankind. This punishment that Israel will have received is falsely perceived as originating with the Gentile nations as deliberate, relentless, cruel and enduring persecution for centuries - beyond anything that the LORD intended. But the length of time, the relentlessness and severity of this persecution is neither historically, nor biblically accurate . Furthermore, the Bible conveys that the Servant in Isaiah chapters 42, 49, 50, 52-53 is an individual man, not Israel or anyone else and chapter 11 as well . These chapters convey that the Servant vicariously took upon Himself the sins - the iniquity - of all mankind. So the iniquity of all mankind caused him, and not mankind, to bear the consequences for all of mankind's iniquities. This is a context that has been consistent from the beginning of this passage in Isa 52:1. This is especially in view at Isa 53:2 . This context continues on through to the end of chapter 53; and it is present in other passages in Isaiah such as Isa 9:6-7 ; 11:1-16 49:1-13 ; 42:1-13; and throughout Scripture - especially in the New Testament .

So the two prepositions should be rendered "for" in the first two phrases of Isa 53:5 - instead of "because of." The two are abbreviations of the Hebrew preposition "min." According to the ongoing context they must serve to convey that the Servant took upon Himself the iniquities of all mankind, not just suffered because of the iniquity / the persecution of them by the Gentile nations. So the Servant was crushed for all of mankind's sins - expiating them through His suffering. This idea contradicts the popular Jewish interpretation of Isa 53:5a & b which demands "because of" the iniquities of the Gentiles. For to them, vicarious atonement is strictly forbidden. They insist that each person is responsible for his or her own sins, citing a number of passages such as Exodus 32:31-33; Numbers 35:33; Deuteronomy 24:16; 2 Kings 14:6; Jeremiah 31:29 [30 in Christian Bibles]; Ezekiel 18:4,20; Psalms 49:7-8). Properly examined, none of these passages rule out substitutionary atonement , rather there are key passages in Scripture rule it in .

4) [The Popular Jewish Interpretation Of Isa 53:5a & b Arbitrarily Rules Out An Available Meaning Of The Preposition "min" Because It Signifies Substitutionary Atonement Which Doctrine They Reject Because Of False Interpretations Derived From An Improper Interpretation Of Passages Elsewhere Which Do Not Have The Subject Of Substitutionary Atonement For Forgiveness Of Sins Unto Eternal Life In View. But Substitutionary Atonement Is Corroborated By Isa 53:c & d And The Rest Of Scripture]:

(Isa 53:5 NASB) "But He was pierced through for our transgressions, He was crushed for our iniquities; The [chastisement] for our [peace = absence of conflict and strife with God] [falls] upon Him, And by His scourging [= stripes] we are healed. [lit., "there is healing to us" (cont.)]

The Hebrew preposition transliterated "mi-" and "mē" both rendered "for" [Str #H4480] in the phrases in Isa 53:5a & b rendered "but He was pierced through for our transgressions" and "He was crushed for our iniquities" has a large number of available meanings, not the least of which is "for" in the sense of "in place of another" as opposed to "as a result of another's actions," or "because of another's actions toward one," which these latter meanings are also available but do not best fit the context of the verse or the passage from 52:1 on. The last two phrases of Isa 53:5 determine the best interpretation of the first two phrases by virtue of the context of the verse and the overall context leading up to the verse from Isa 52:1. These last two phrases are rendered as follows:

(Isa 53:5c) "The [chastisement] for our peace falls upon Him" where the Hebrew preposition transliterated " 'ā" [Str #H5921] is clearly rendered "for" in the sense of punishment received in place of that punishment which is due to another;" i.e., substitutionary / vicarious atonement; and the phrase,

(Isa 53:5d) "And by ["with"] His scourging [=stripes] we are healed [lit. "there is healing to us"]" where the Hebrew preposition transliterated "ba" [Complete Biblical Library Hebrew Lexicon #904] which is best rendered "by" or "with" in the sense of "because of the Servant receiving the punishment due to all mankind, i.e., being scourged we [all mankind] are healed."

So the last two phrases of Isa 53:5 convey the message of the Servant receiving punishment that was due to all mankind, thereby causing all mankind to be able to be spiritually healed. This meaning comes by applying the available meaning "for" for the preposition "min," which best fits the context of the verse, the passage, Isa 52:1-53:12 and related passages in Isa 9:6-7; 49:1-13; 42:1-13; . Therefore the first two phrases of Isa 53:5 must convey the same message in order to be consistent with the last two which clearly convey substitutionary atonement, in order not to have the verse deteriorate into contradictory nonsense.

******

The following passages some contend - those who espouse the popular Jewish interpretation of Isa 52-53  - prove that Substitutionary atonement is not biblical; but in fact, when carefully examined they either do not address the subject at all, or fully support the concept of substitutionary atonement in order to provide mankind with salvation unto forgiveness of sins unto eternal life whenever one believes in the Servant and His provision of it, (cf. Isa 53:1):

a) [Compare Exod 32:30-33]:

(Exod 32:30 NASB) "On the next day Moses said to the people, 'You yourselves have committed a great sin; and now I am going up to the LORD, perhaps I can make atonement for your sin.'

[In view is the forestalling of temporal judgment, i.e., early physical death for the perpetrators of idolatry. Atonement for sins unto eternal life is not in view. And God's answer for the idolatry was to cause the early physical death for the guilty parties. What happens to them after physical death is not addressed]

(Exod 32:31 NASB) Then Moses returned to the LORD, and said, 'Alas, this people has committed a great sin, and they have made a god of gold for themselves.

(Exod 32:32 NASB) But now, if You will, forgive their sin - and if not, please blot me out from Your book which You have written!'

[In Ex 32:31-33 we do not have in view a reference to the Book of Life. Moses was not asking God to have his name blotted out in order to go to hell. He was asking God to let him die rather than be associated with such an idolatrous people. The Book in view operates as a census book of Israel in which physical death results in ones name being blotted out - which is what occurred to those in Israel who practiced idolatry, (v. 35; Dt 1:35-36; 2:14)]

(Exod 32:33 NASB) The LORD said to Moses, 'Whoever has sinned against Me, I will blot him out of My book.' "

[So Ex 32:20-33 is not a statement about substitutionary atonement for mankind's sins relative to eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God]

[Bible Knowledge Commentary, Walvoord & Zuck, Editors, Victor Books, USA, 1988]:

"32:30-35. Though the major instigators of the plot were put to the sword (except for Aaron, for whom Moses interceded, Deut. 9:20) Moses recognized that the nation as a whole shared the guilt. Therefore he again entreated the Lord for atonement for their sin. Moses told God that if He refused to forgive His people he would prefer to have his name removed from the book God had written (Ex. 32:32). Some say this was the book of life (Rev. 20:15; 21:27) that lists believers' names but, more likely, it was the census of the people. Moses' statement probably indicated he was willing to die a premature death (but not suffer eternal torment in hell). He did not want to be associated with a sinful, unforgiven people. Rejecting Moses' offer, God promised to punish the sinners (by premature death). Some died of a plague (Ex. 32:35) and all fighting men (except Joshua and Caleb) died later in the desert (Deut. 1:35-36; 2:14). Yet God said Moses would lead the nation (the younger generation) to the land promised them (Ex. 32:34)."

b) [Compare Nu 35:31-33]: 

(Nu 35:31 NASB) " 'Moreover, you shall not take ransom for the life of a murderer who is guilty of death, but he shall surely be put to death.

[Note that this is capital punishment not subsititutionary atonement for sins unto eternal life. What happens to them after physical death is not addressed]

(Nu 35:32 NASB) 'You shall not take ransom for him who has fled to his city of refuge, that he may return to live in the land before the death of the priest.

(Nu 35:33 NASB) So you shall not pollute the land in which you are; for blood pollutes the land and no expiation can be made for the land for the blood that is shed on it, except by the blood of him who shed it.' " 

[Bible Knowledge Commentary, Walvoord & Zuck, Editors, Victor Books, USA, 1988]:

"A murderer could not merely pay a fine (ransom) or otherwise redeem himself - he must die (Num. 35:31). Likewise a manslayer who had been confined to a city of refuge could not pay a monetary compensation (ransom) in lieu of his confinement (v. 32). The reason for such strict measures was the fact that bloodshed in murder pollutes the land and the only "cleansing" agent was the blood of the murderer himself (Gen. 4:10; 9:6). It was not fitting that Israel and the Lord, who lived in Israel's midst, should occupy a polluted land. So blood vengeance was not an option but a theological necessity."

c) [Compare Dt 24:16; 2 Kgs 14:6]:

(Dt 24:16 NASB) "Fathers shall not be put to death for their sons, nor shall sons be put to death for their fathers; everyone shall be put to death for his own sin."

(2 Kgs 14:6 NASB) "But the sons of the slayers he did not put to death, according to what is written in the book of the Law of Moses, as the LORD commanded, saying, 'The fathers shall not be put to death for the sons, nor the sons be put to death for the fathers; but each shall be put to death for his own sin.' "

[Again this is about capital punishment, not about substitutionary atonement for mankind's sins unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God]

[Bible Knowledge Commentary, Walvoord & Zuck, Editors, Victor Books, USA, 1988]:

"Dt 24:16. Though personal responsibility was the norm in the law codes of the ancient Near East, in some cases a son was permitted to be put to death in place of his father (e.g., Code of Hammurabi, Law 230), though again (cf. comments on 22:22) no court records indicate that this was ever enforced. Moses forbade such a practice: each is to die for his own sin (cf. comments on Num. 14:26-35). It was true, however, that a father who rebelled against the Lord might influence his descendants to do the same (see comments on Deut. 5:9).

"2 Kgs 14:6 In obedience to God's Law (Deut. 24:16) Amaziah did not execute the children of his father's assassins as was customarily done by Near Eastern monarchs. He trusted God to control these potential rebels."

d) [Compare Jer 31:30-31]:

(Jer 31:30 NASB) " 'But everyone will die for his own iniquity; each man who eats the sour grapes, his teeth will be set on edge.

(Jer 31:31 NASB) [Jer 31:31-34; Jer 32:40; 33:14; Dt 10:1-10; Ezek 36:24-33; 37:24-28] 'Behold, days are coming,' declares the LORD, 'when I will make a New Covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah,

[As this passage unfolds, it is evident that the New Covenant is intimately connected with substitutionary atonement, not disconnected from it! ]

[Bible Knowledge Commentary, Walvoord & Zuck, Editors, Victor Books, USA, 1988]:

"Jer 31:27-30. God vowed to provide a new beginning for His covenant people. In this new age God will plant the nations of Israel and Judah with the offspring of men and animals. Jeremiah again used agricultural and architectural metaphors to illustrate God's work (cf. comments on 1:10). God had judged Judah for her sin, but He will reverse that judgment.

God's work for the nation will silence a proverb that was common in Jeremiah's day (cf. comments on Ezek. 18:2-4). Those facing judgment in Jeremiah's day felt they were being unfairly punished by God for their ancestors' sins. Though the fathers had eaten sour grapes, it was the children who experienced the effects of having their teeth... set on edge. This proverb was false because it implied that God was unrighteous. God's justice will guarantee that each guilty person will die for his own sin.

Jer 31:31-37. In addition to a new beginning God promised to make a New Covenant with His people. This New Covenant was expressly for the house of Israel (the Northern Kingdom) and the house of Judah (the Southern Kingdom). It would not be like the covenant God had made with Israel's forefathers at the time of the Exodus because that covenant had been broken by the people (cf. 11:1-8). The earlier covenant God referred to was the Mosaic Covenant contained in the Books of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. Twice God had announced a series of punishments or "curses" that would be invoked on those who violated His Law (Lev. 26; Deut. 28). The final judgment would be a physical deportation from the land of Israel. With the destruction of Jerusalem in 586 b.c. this final "curse" was completed. God had set a holy standard of conduct before the people, but because of their sinful hearts they could not keep those standards. A change was needed.

God's New Covenant will involve an internalization of His Law. He will put His Law in their minds and on their hearts, not just on stones (Ex. 34:1). There will be no need to exhort people to know the Lord because they will already all know God (cf. Isa. 11:9; Hab. 2:14). God's New Covenant will give Israel the inner ability to obey His righteous standards and thus to enjoy His blessings. Ezekiel indicated that this change will result from God's bestowal of the Holy Spirit on these believers (cf. Ezek. 36:24-32). In Old Testament times the Holy Spirit did not universally indwell all believers. Thus one different aspect of the New Covenant is the indwelling of the Holy Spirit in all believers (cf. Joel 2:28-32).

A second aspect of the New Covenant will be God's provision for sin. The sins of the people resulted in the curses of the Old Covenant. However, as part of the New Covenant God will forgive Israel's wickedness and remember their sins no more. But how could a holy God overlook sin? The answer is that God did not "overlook" sin—its penalty was paid for by a Substitute (cf. Isa. 53:4-6). In the Upper Room Christ announced that the New Covenant was to be inaugurated through the shedding of His blood (cf. Matt. 26:27-28; Luke 22:20). Forgiveness of sin would be part of the New Covenant only because God provided a Substitute to pay the penalty required of man."

e) [Compare Ezek 18:4, 20]:

(Ezek 18:4 NASB) "Behold, all souls are Mine; the soul of the father as well as the soul of the son is Mine. The soul who sins will die.

(Ezek 18:20 NASB) The person who sins will die. The son will not bear the punishment for the father's iniquity, nor will the father bear the punishment for the son's iniquity; the righteousness of the righteous will be upon himself, and the wickedness of the wicked will be upon himself.

(Ezek 18:21 NASB) But if the wicked man turns from all his sins which he has committed and observes all My statutes and practices justice and righteousness, he shall surely live; he shall not die."

[Premature physical death due to sinfulness or death forestalled by repentance, i.e., temporal deliverance is in view, substitutionary atonement unto eternal life is not]

[Bible Knowledge Commentary, Walvoord & Zuck, Editors, Victor Books, USA, 1988]:

"18:1-4. God asked Ezekiel about a proverb being circulated. This proverb—The fathers eat sour grapes, and the children's teeth are set on edge—must have been well known in Israel because Jeremiah also quoted it (cf. Jer. 31:29-30). The proverb's point was that children were suffering because of their parents' sins. True, Jerusalem was suffering, but as stated in the proverb the people thought they were suffering not because of their sins but because of their parents' sins. So these people were blaming God for punishing them unjustly (cf. Ezek. 18:25).

God saw that this false proverb had to be refuted. Yet, as with all false doctrines, a kernel of truth in the teaching made it seem plausible. In the Ten Commandments God indicated that He was "a jealous God, punishing the children for the sin of the fathers to the third and fourth generation of those who hate Me" (Ex. 20:5). This same threat was repeated in Exodus 34:6-7 and Deuteronomy 5:9. Even Ezekiel had traced God's coming judgment back to the people's past actions (cf. Ezek. 16:15-29). But the point of these passages was that the effects of sin are serious and long-lasting, not that God capriciously punishes the innocent for their ancestors' evil ways.

Blaming others for their misfortunes, the people were denying their own guilt. This was wrong because every individual is personally responsible to God. For every living soul belongs to Me, the father as well as the son. Those who are guilty will receive their own deserved punishment. The soul who sins is the one who will die (cf. 18:20). The people of Israel could not rightly charge God with injustice.

Ezek 18:14-20. Ezekiel's third case continued to follow this hypothetical family. Suppose (cf. "suppose" in vv. 5, 10) this wicked son has a son who sees all the sins of his father but does not do such things himself. Instead of following in the sin of his father, this son followed in the righteous path of his grandfather (cf. vv. 15-16 with vv. 6-9).

God's conclusion is obvious: He will not die for his father's sin; he will surely live. A righteous son will not be punished for his father's evil deeds. But his father will die for his own sin. The proverb being quoted (v. 2) was incorrect. When the people were judged, it was not for the sins of someone in a former generation. Only those who remained faithful to God would be delivered (v. 19). (By the word live Ezekiel meant escaping punishment in this life. See comments on v. 24.) Ezekiel then repeated his point: The soul who sins is the one who will die (v. 20; cf. v. 4).

Ezek 18:21-23. However, escape from judgment was possible. Sinners could avoid judgment if they repented of their sins by turning from them (cf. Prov. 28:13) and kept God's decrees. Ezekiel was not teaching salvation by works. First, he was speaking of a temporal deliverance from Babylon's armies rather than eternal deliverance from the second death (Ezek. 18:13). Second, he clearly indicated that these righteous works would spring only from a "new heart and a new spirit" (v. 31). Good works result from a changed life; they do not bring about such a change."

f) [Compare Ps 49:7-13]:

(Ps 49:7 NASB) "No man can by any means redeem his brother Or give to God a ransom for him -

(Ps 49:8 NASB) For the redemption of his soul is costly, And he should cease trying forever -

(Ps 49:9 NASB) That he should live on eternally, That he should not undergo decay.

(Ps 49:10 NASB) For he sees that even wise men die; The stupid and the senseless alike perish And leave their wealth to others.

(Ps 49:11 NASB) Their inner thought is that their houses are forever And their dwelling places to all generations; They have called their lands after their own names.

(Ps 49:12 NASB) But man in his pomp will not endure; He is like the beasts that perish.

(Ps 49:13 NASB) This is the way of those who are foolish, And of those after them who approve their words. Selah."

[This passage in Ps 49 is all about mortal man thinking he can be immortal somehow - such as giving his brother in payment for living on eternally, or paying a ransom, or leaving behind 'eternal' monuments like their name living on in history through descendants, or their name being on monuments, institutions, cities, countries, etc. But in the end all will perish, their mortal lives will cease. Although it is true that a sinful man cannot be a ransom for another relative to the other's punishment for sins unto eternal life, because the sacrificial lamb must be without imperfection before God and all men are sinners, (ref. Isa 64:6-7; Gen 8:21; Eccl 7:20; Jer 17:9; Ps 51:5; Job 14:1-4); Scripture has foretold of One Who will be without sin, called by the LORD to be His Arm of salvation as an atoning sacrifice for mankind's sins unto eternal life ]

[Bible Knowledge Commentary, Walvoord & Zuck, Editors, Victor Books, USA, 1988]:

Ps 49:5. In verses 5-12 the wise poet reported his observation that the prosperous have a false security. He introduced his theme in verse 5 by stating that he marveled that he ever feared evil times brought on by the wicked. Their glory is only temporary.

Ps 49:6-9. He developed this idea by noting that the proud and arrogant cannot redeem (cf. comments on 26:11) another person's life. Life is too costly for a man to ransom, even by great riches. Wealth cannot prevent death.

Ps 49:10-12. The truth stated in verses 6-9 is known even among the wealthy. They—as well as the foolish—die (cf. Ecc. 2:15-16) and leave their wealth to their heirs (cf. Ecc. 2:19-21). Their new places of residence will be the grave, even though their earthly dwellings or lands may bear their names. Man's body, like the bodies of animals, dies (cf. Ecc. 3:19-20)."

5) [The Popular Jewish Interpretation Of Isa 53:5d  Maintains That The Last Phrase Is To Be Rendered "And By His Scourging [= stripes] We Were Healed" Instead Of "We Are Healed" Which Appears In Most Christian Versions. But The Verb Is Literally And Best Rendered "There Is Healing To Us," Within The Context Of A Yet Future Event - Which Largely Agrees With "We Are Healed"]

(Isa 53:5 NASB) "But He was pierced through for our transgressions, He was crushed for our iniquities; The [chastisement] for our [peace = absence of conflict and strife with God] [falls] upon Him, And by His scourging [= stripes] we are healed. [lit., "there is healing to us" (cont.)]

According to the popular Jewish interpretation of Isa 53:5, the closing phrase of this verse which the Christian Bibles have [KJV, NASB, NKJV, HOLMAN, ASV, KJV, NIV, etc.] is "we are healed," [the YLT has "is healing to us"]; whereas the Jewish translation has "we were healed" portraying a past event. The popular Jewish interpretation maintains that the literal translation of the phrase נִרְפָּא־לָנוּ is "[it] was healed for us," refers to an illness from which one has been healed. And from this comes their interpretation of an idiomatic expression translated  "we were healed."

But there is no indication of past action in the Hebrew form of the verb in question. The Hebrew verb נִרְפָּא־לָנוּ transliterated "nirpā'-lān" consists of nirpā' which is a participle, masculine singular, literally "[it is] healing" not healed or we were healed. The verb comes with the preposition as a pronomial suffix in the first person common singular "-lān," literally "us." The Youngs Literal Translation has the phrase literally as "there is healing to us," in the context of a yet future event.

The timeframe of Isaiah's writing of this passage is during the latter stages of the Babylonian captivity of a large number of Israelites. Since Israel had not yet been completely restored to and in full possession of the entire Promised Land, nor had the exaltation of the Servant occurred yet, (Isa 52:13); nor had the scourging of the Servant been completed in Isaiah's timeframe; then the action portrayed in Isa 53:5 was still in the future to the timeframe of when Isaiah wrote chapters 52-53. So the popular Jewish interpretation of a past event of healing does not suit the context. Furthermore, the literal phrase "it is healing" best suits the context of an ongoing healing begining when the events portrayed in Isa 53:5 occur - yet future events.

6) [The Popular Jewish Interpretation Of The Last Phrase Of Isa 53:5 Which They Interpret To Say "And by His [Israel's] bruise we [Gentiles] were healed" Is In Error]

(Isa 53:5 NASB) "But He was pierced through for our transgressions, He was crushed for our iniquities; The [chastisement] for our [peace = absence of conflict and strife with God] [falls] upon Him, And by His scourging [= stripes] we are healed. [lit., "there is healing to us" (cont.)]

The popular Jewish interpretation of the last phrase of Isa 53:5 which they maintain should be rendered "And by His [Israel's] bruise we [Gentiles] were healed" is also in error relative to the word rendered "bruise" and relative to their understanding that the Servant "He" is Israel.

The Hebrew word transliterated "chăvurāh is a collective noun which means "injuries" or "bruises," plural. The Christian Bibles render it "stripes," (KJV), (NKJV), (ASB) - (as is imparted by a whip); "scourging," (NASB);  "bruise," (YLT); "wounds," (HOLMAN), (NIV); while the Jewish translation renders it as a singular wound and implies that this wound is not a substitutionary wound that was due another. But the popular Jewish interpretation maintains that the wound that the Gentile nations perpetrated upon the Servant [Israel] will cause the Gentiles to realize their wrongdoing, repent of it and thereby be healed, thereby avoiding substitutionary atonement.

On the other hand, the context of Isa 52:1-10-53:12 repeatedly describes the sufferings [plural] of the Servant of the LORD as a single individual; the One Who is an Israelite; Who is born of a woman; Who is the Seed of God, both God and Man, without sin, Who is the Personification of the New Covenant appointed by the LORD to the people, Israel - to all mankind, (Isa 42:6 ; 49:8) - to restore Israel forever into the Promised Land and the earth and to bring salvation unto eternal life to Israel and to all mankind, (Isa 9:6-7 ; 49:1-13 , cf. Isa 42:1-13 ; 52:5; Ezek chs 36-37; Jer chs 30-31). In view in the context is One Whose griefs and sorrows and transgressions [plural] for which He suffered are not His own.

The following points especially identify the Servant's sufferings as substitutionary (cp., v. 4, "our griefs He Himself bore, And our sorrows He carried"). The substitutionary imagery of verse 6c ("the LORD has caused the iniquity of us all to fall on Him") is drawn straight from Leviticus chapter 16 . The language of Isa 53 clearly includes the penal aspect (cp. v. 5, "pierced... crushed... chastising ... scourging"). So the sufferings of the Servant of the LORD are not because of the sins or collective sin of others deliberately committed upon the Servant, who is Israel being wrongfully persecuted by Gentile nations, as some contend. The sufferings due others for their iniquity being borne / carried by the Servant, (Heb. "nAsA" = borne, carried, (v. 4)) is in view in Isa 52:1-53:12).

So according to Scripture the LORD's Servant meets all the requirements for being a substitutionary sacrifice - which is prophetically pictured in Scripture :

(1) identification with condemned sinners (Isa 53:8, "For the transgression of My people, to whom the stroke was due," including all mankind, (Isa 52:9-13; 15)

(2) being blameless and without any stain or spot to mar His sacrifice (ref. Isa 53:9, cf. 11; 49:2 "He had done no violence. Nor was there any deceit in His mouth").

[Note that this excludes the people of Israel, except the One Who is an Israelite born of a woman, the Seed of God - both God and Man without sin, the New Covenant appointed by the LORD to the people, Israel - to all mankind - to restore Israel forever into the Promised Land and the earth and bring salvation unto eternal life to Israel and to all mankind, (Isa 9:6-7 ; 49:1-13 , cf. Isa 42:1-13 ; 52:5; Ezek chs 36-37; Jer chs 30-31)]

(3) and being acceptable to the LORD as a guilt offering, (Isa 53:10, cf. 11) "But the LORD was pleased to crush Him, putting Him to grief ... as a guilt offering;" (and not as an act by Gentiles of persecution toward Israel, as some contend)]

(Isa 53:6 NKJV) "All we like sheep have gone astray; We have turned, every one, to his own way; And the LORD has laid on Him the iniquity [the sum of a collection of sins, i.e., all kinds of and the sum total of the sins of all mankind] of us all."

  [Notice that all mankind is in view - again the prophet / writer is speaking for all of mankind, not just Israel or the remnant of believers, as some contend - corroborating that the entire passage has all mankind throughout history in view relative to for whom the Servant paid for sins, (cf. Isa 52:9-13, 15; 49:1-6; 49:6; 53:4-12). So it is all of mankind which is contaminated with sin. They have all been in sin with sin natures who commit acts of sin all the time, (Isa 64:6-7; Gen 8:21; Eccl 7:20; Jer 17:9; Ps 51:5; Job 14:1-4). And like sheep we all follow one another into sin - one sin after the other. No one is without sin, except the Righteous One, the Servant of the LORD, (Isa 42:6; 49:2; 53:9, 11). So verses 5 & 6 stipulate that the Servant was crushed for all of mankind's iniquities, i.e., for all sins committed both conscious and unaware, past, present and future for all time. But because of the Servant's atoning sacrifice, no one is going to be held accountable for paying for his own sins - even the worst of us. On the other hand, each person must be forgiven of his sins unto eternal life so that he will not remain a sinner after his mortal life is over . It is by a moment of faith in the Servant that one will be given the gift of the Righteousness of God, as Abraham experienced , and thereby qualifying that person to be with God in eternity in the Eternal Kingdom of God; and thereby be resurrected after death into a perfect, sinless being unto eternal life, ]

7) [The Popular Jewish Interpretation Of Isa 53:6 Attempts To Force An Alternative Translation That Better Suits Their Point Of View Instead Of One That Suits The Context. Furthermore The Alternative Translation Adds Information From Elsewhere In Scripture That Is Not In View And Which Does Not Fit The Context Of Isa 53:6 Either]

(Isa 53:6 NKJV) "All we like sheep have gone astray; We have turned, every one, to his own way; And the LORD has laid on Him the iniquity [the sum of a collection of sins, i.e., all kinds of and the sum total of the sins of all mankind] of us all."

Relative to the phrase rendered in the NKJV, "The LORD has laid on Him [the Servant] the iniquity of us all," the popular Jewish interpretation conveys that "the LORD has inflicted upon him [reinterpreting him to be Israel as the Servant] the iniquity of all of us [restricting this word to refer only to the Gentile nations]," with Israel being subjected to the Gentile nations' iniquity - its sinful, unrelenting, centuries-long persecution toward Israel, meting out undeserved punishment toward the Israelites which in the end, it is maintained, will serve to purify, redeem and exalt her. There is notably the absence of forgiveness of sins through payment for them either by themselves or by a qualified, sinlessly perfect Substitute, despite the fact that substitutionary atonement is biblical .

This popular Jewish interpretaton of Isa 53:6 has another version which moves even further away from the doctrine of the substitutionary atonement of one Man for all mankind: The Hebrew verb "hipga' " rendered "has laid upon Him" in the sense of inflicted upon Him the iniquity of us all in the phrase rendered in the NKJV, "the LORD has laid upon Him the iniquity of all of us," has other possible / available meanings such as 'has hit," 'has hurt,' 'has insulted,' 'has bid,' 'has prayed,' 'has requested,' has interceded [in prayer] for, has supplicated, (cf., Genesis 23:8, Isaiah 53:12, 59:16, Jeremiah 7:16, 27:18, Job 21:15, Ruth 1:16).

So based on another available meaning for this verb, i.e., "has interceded [in prayer] for" an alternative meaning for Isa 53:6 is arrived at which better suits the Jewish point of view; namely, "[the LORD] has accepted His [the Servant Israel's] prayers for us all [the Gentile nations]," which meaning is arrived at despite not fitting the context in order to avoid conveying a message of vicarious atonement, and to promote a message of Israel's purification, redemption and exaltation as the servant of the LORD, which now includes Israel's intercessory prayer for the Gentiles as an act that, it is contended, will help to provide Israel with purification, redemption and exaltation.

According to this alternative popular Jewish interpretation, the Gentile nations, like stray sheep, left the path of their designated mission given to them by the LORD and will go beyond the limits that God set for them, and persecute the servant, Israel, relentlessly for centuries. But the Servant is neither Israel ; nor were the people relentlessly persecuted for centuries . Nevertheless, the popular Jewish interpretations contend that through all of their persecution, the Jewish people will pray and intercede on the Gentile's behalf as part of both of their redemptions.

An example of this is, they maintain, can be found in Jeremiah's letter to the Jewish exiles in Babylon, wherein he conveys to them God's message to pray for the peace of the cities in which they dwell:

a) [Compare Jer 29:7]:

(Jer 20:7 NASB) "Seek the welfare of the city where I have sent you into exile, and pray to the LORD on its behalf; for in its welfare you will have wellfare."

Although intercessory prayer is commanded by God for ones welfare, etc., it is never stipulated in Scripture as a means of forgiveness of sins.

So both popular Jewish interpretations of Isa 53:6 contradict a proper examination of the Bible . For Israel is improperly forced into the context via these interpretations in order to be the servant. But this is clearly not the case for the Servant at any time in chapters 42, 49 , 50 or in 52-53 ; nor in chapter 49 ; nor in chapter 11 as well . And by these interpretations, the iniquity that the LORD laid upon the Servant is manipulated away from being a substitutionary atonement; and instead it is viewed as relentless, undeserved, persecutory evil foistered upon Israel by the Gentile nations throughout the centuries in order to purify the generations of Israel from their sins.

But the contexts of Isa 49:1-13 and 52:1-53:12, (and chapters 42 & 50, etc.), support the Servant of the LORD as a single Individual, Who is born an Israelite, born of a woman, the Redeemer of Israel, the Holy One Of Israel Who is both God and Man: Isa 49:1-13  and Isa 9:6-7 , Who is described  in Isa 52:1-53:12 as the Servant of the LORD Who has brought salvation through His atonement for the sins of all mankind. He is the Salvation, and the Redeemer of Israel and of all mankind, (Isa 52:9-13) .

Despite the fact that the popular Jewish interpretations of Isa 53:6 avoid substitutionary atonement; the context of the passage up to this point is decidedly in favor of substitutionary atonement which is fully corroborated by Old Testament Scripture .

The popular Jewish interpretations maintain that God punished Israel wherein He often used Gentile nations as His "rod of discipline,"and they cite Scripture to support this:

b) [Compare Isa 10:5; cf. Jer 51:20]:

(Isa 10:5 NASB) "Woe to Assyria, the rod of My anger And the staff in whose hands is My indignation,"

c) [Compare Hab 1:6-12]:

(Hab 1:6 NASB) "For behold, I am raising up the Chaldeans, That fierce and impetuous people Who march throughout the earth To seize dwelling places which are not theirs.

(Hab 1:7 NASB) They are dreaded and feared; Their justice and authority originate with themselves.

(Hab 1:8 NASB) Their horses are swifter than leopards And keener than wolves in the evening. Their horsemen come galloping, Their horsemen come from afar; They fly like an eagle swooping down to devour.

(Hab 1:9 NASB) All of them come for violence. Their horde of faces moves forward. They collect captives like sand.

(Hab 1:10 NASB) They mock at kings And rulers are a laughing matter to them. They laugh at every fortress And heap up rubble to capture it.

(Hab 1:11 NASB) Then they will sweep through like the wind and pass on. But they will be held guilty, They whose strength is their god.

(Hab 1:12 NASB) Are You not from everlasting, O LORD, my God, my Holy One? We will not die. You, O LORD, have appointed them to judge; And You, O Rock, have established them to correct."

Furthermore, Israel will experience unparalleled persecution in the end times, (Ezek chs 38 & 39; Joel 3:9-14; Zeph 3:15-20; Dan 9:24-27 ).

From these passages the case is attempted to be made that the Gentile nations were used by God to punish Israel relentlessly for centuries, and that the Gentiles went beyond their specific mission from God and thereby caused Israel to suffer more than what God had intended.

And such suffering, even if God had ordained it, would not lead to Israel's purification unto holiness and faithfulness to the LORD resulting in their being redeemed, forgiven, lifted up and exalted, as it is contended. No where in Scripture does it teach that salvation unto eternal life is available through temporal suffering - deserved or undeserved. Even eternal suffering will not change an individual into a sinless being and qualify him to spend eternity with the LORD God. Either an individual is born without sin and leads a perfectly sinless life, or he accepts by faith the free gift of eternal life in God's provision through substitutionary atonement for him made by the Descendant (the Seed) of Abraham as Abraham did .

Furthermore, Israel has not suffered centuries of unwarranted persecution by the Gentile nations, as some contend. For there were times when the people of Israel were not under persecution, but blessing. And not all of her persecution was undeserved . Furthermore, without a sacrifice for sins, there can be no forgiveness of sins, (Lev 17:11): a substitutionary atonement is needed and promised - through the Servant, the One Individual born of Israel, born of a woman, Who is without sin, (Isa 53:9, 11; 42:6; 49:2), and both God and Man, (Isa 9:6-7 ). And the Servant in this passage in Isa 52:1-53:12 is not Israel ).

X) (Isa 53:7-9) The Holy Arm Of The LORD, The Salvation Of Our God, His Servant, Despite His Innocence, He Has Been Oppressed And Afflicted. He Did Not Open His Mouth: Like A Lamb That Is Led To Slaughter - Like A Sheep That Is Silent Before Its Shearers. By Oppression And False Judgment He Has Been Taken Away, And Executed For The Transgressions Of All Mankind, To Whom That Punishment Was Due - Few Of Whom Considered Him At All. His Grave Was To Be With The Wicked, But He Was Buried In A Tomb Assigned For The Rich. He Had Done No Violence, Neither Was There Any Deceit In His Mouth - Without Sin

(Isa 53:7 NASB) "He [has been] oppressed and He is afflicted, Yet He [does not] open His mouth; Like a lamb that is led to slaughter, And like a sheep that is silent before its shearers, So He [does not] open His mouth."

  [He [the Servant] was oppressed - persecuted in the sense of one who is innocent, i.e., without sin, (Isa 42:6; 49:2; 53:9, 11). Yet He was persistently attacked as if guilty. And He was afflicted - tortured. And through this, the Arm = the Strength and Representative of God submitted to the sacrifice of Himself willingly as a sheep led to the slaughter - in silence, without complaint. It is implied here that there was absolutely no case against Him. Nevertheless He did not attempt to defend Himself, but went willingly to His sacrifice. He is "the salvation of our God," Who was sacrificed for the sins of the whole world, (Isa 52:10-13, 15; 53:4-12); so as to bring to mankind - Jew and Gentile alike - the availability of eternal and temporal peace and spiritual healing = eternal forgiveness of their sins, (ref. Isa 53:5) - all through believing in this availability through His atoning sacrifice for forgiveness of one's sins, (Isa 53:1), just as Abraham was accounted for righteousness when he believed .

1) The Popular Jewish Interpretation of Isa 53:7 Maintains That The Remnant Of Israel Has Been Relentlessly Massacred Like Sheep Being Slaughtered, A Symbolism That Is Reflected Throughout Scripture Which They Maintain Corroborates Their Interpretation

(Isa 53:7 NASB) "He [has been] oppressed and He is afflicted, Yet He [does not] open His mouth; Like a lamb that is led to slaughter, And like a sheep that is silent before its shearers, So He [does not] open His mouth."

The popular Jewish interpretation of Isa 53:7 is one that suggests a portrayal of the people of all generations of or the remnant of faithful believers of Israel being relentlessly massacred like sheep being slaughtered - a portrayal that is - they maintain - symbolic of Israel's history and experience throughout the ages at the hand of the Gentile nations which they contend is reflected elsewhere in Scripture as well, such as in Zech 11:4-7; Ps 44:11-26; Dan 9:24-27; Ezek chs 38-39; Joel 3:9-14; Zeph 3:15-20. But the context of these six passages and others, although they might reflect Israel's conflicts with Gentile nations, because of incompatible contexts they are not applicable to be compared with the passage at hand in Isaiah chapter 52-53, especially 53:7.

For from the beginning of Isaiah chapter 52, the context excludes Israel from being the Servant, and excludes thus the context of their being in conflict with the Gentile nations. Although Israel / Jacob - the people of Israel, are also called the servant of the LORD in other passages in Isaiah, (as well as others such as the prophets in Scripture; these other passages, such as Isaiah: 20:3, 41:8-9; 43:10; 44:1-2, 21, 26; 45:4; 48:20, have a different context from the four songs in Isaiah comprising chapters 42 , 49 , 50 and 52-53 . The "song" chapters and chapter 11 as well   all have in view the Servant as one Righteous, sinless Man, Who will suffer and die for the sins of all mankind, not because of the persecution of the Gentile nations against Him or Israel or anyone in order Himself to be purged from sins - for the Servant has no sins. No one from Israel - and no man except the sinless One, the Arm and salvation of the LORD - can save oneself from ones own sins, nor purge oneself to achieve perfect righteousness, repentance and salvation via persevering through relentless suffering at the hands of the Gentile nations or any agent. Nor can one transform oneself into a godly person. Nor can a generation of Israelites come back from the dead after suffering persecution that cuts them off from the land of the living, (Isa 53:8), and then take possession of the entire Promised Land forever in mortal bodies in order to fulfill God's New Covenant with them. They would already be dead! The people of Israel - and all mankind - need the Righteous Servant of the LORD as depicted in the song passages in Isaiah as well as in chapter 11 which teach that God will provide His unilateral action to do these things. It takes the Absolute Righteousness, Almighty Power, Perfect Justice and Absolute Sovereignty of the LORD to accomplish these things through One Perfectly Sinless Human born of a woman unto Israel in order to fulfill that New Covenant, (Isa 9:6-7). The people of Israel have no capacity do do these things themselves as shown by centuries of unfaithful history - nor does any Gentile, (Isa 64:6-7 ; cf. Gen 8:21; Eccl 7:20; Jer 17:9; Ps 51:5; Job 14:1-4). This is what is in view in the context of these four songs and corroborated by the many passages about the fulfillment of the New Covenant such as Jeremiah chapters 30-31, and Ezek chapters 36-37 .

So it is the Servant of the LORD - a single Jewish Individual, not collective Israel - Who is the Salvation of our God, the provider of Israel's redemption and the redemption / salvation of all mankind. It is He Who is the Holy Arm of the LORD Who will have been seen by all the nations to the ends of the earth, (Isa 49:1-13 ; 52:3, 7-10). It is He Who has sprinkled / washed away the sins of many nations in the sense of all mankind, (Isa 52:15, cf. 49:1-13 ); Who has borne their griefs and sorrows - the sins of all mankind, (Isa 53:4); Who has been pierced through for all of mankind's transgressions wherein the chastening / punishment for mankind's restoration to peace with God fell upon Him. And by His having been scourged - severely whipped - all mankind has been [spiritually] healed, (Isa 53:5). So the Servant has been put to physical death, (Isa 53:8); He has been crushed, He has been put to the grief due mankind, He has been made a guilt offering - a substitutionary atonement for the sins of all mankind - which is scriptural . Nevertheless the LORD will see His Seed and prolong His days - raising Him from the dead to live eternally in greatly exalted prosperity, (Isa 52:10, 13; 53:10). For He - the Servant - has justified many by bearing their iniquities, (Isa 53:11); has borne the sin of many [all mankind], [intercedes] for the transgressors [all mankind, in the sense of substitutionary atonement ], (Isa 53:12)]

(Isa 53:8 NASB) "[Because] of oppression and [because of] judgment He [the Servant will have been] taken away; And as for His generation, who [considers] that He was cut off out of the land of the living? For the transgressions of My people...

[מ in the word מִפֶּשַׁע (transliterated "mippeša',") altogether may be translated "for the transgression" or “because of the transgression," of My people]

... [a blow [came] to Him.

[literally, "nega" = a stroke or "a blow." + [came is implied] + lām = to Him]

  [The Servant would be unjustifiably oppressed - unlawfully arrested, bound and taken away as a prisoner to die. He would evidently be illegally tried, judged and sentenced to die - not because of any sins of His own, (for He was without sin, (ref. Isa 42:6; 53:9, 11; 49:2); but for the sins of His people and not only for the sins of Israel, but for all mankind from the ends of the earth, (cf. Isa 52:1-10, 15), to whom such a punishment He received, was due. The phrase rendered, "And as for his generation, who considers that He was cut off out of the land of the living? For the transgression of My people [God's people, Israel] a blow [came] to Him," implies that those of His generation, His contemporaries did not consider that the reason for His death was in payment for the transgressions, the sins of the whole world, Jew and Gentile throughout the ages. Note that this verse cannot have in view Israel being the Servant of the LORD ; for the Servant will be cut off from the land of the living, leaving no one to inherit the Promised Land - a key point of fulfillment of the New Covenant, which gathers from the ends of the earth and restores a generation of mortal Israelites into the entire Promised Land . And even a figurative death of Israel has insurmountable problems in Scripture for those who interpret Israel to be the Servant in Isaiah chapters 42, 49, 50 and 52-53 and chapter 11 as well . Although the LORD viewed particular generations of His chosen people to be excluded from blessings, it neither excluded a future generation of Israelites from inheriting and being restored to the entire Promised Land, (Hos 1:10; 2:23); nor excluded them from being His chosen people if they repented and turned to Him. So Israel was never dead in the figurative sense either - in the sense of no longer His chosen people. There has always been, will always be a faithful remnant of Israelties throughout the ages which the LORD will preserve for eternal life as His chosen people since Abraham first believed and was declared righteous .

 2) [Compare Hos 1:10; 2:23]:

(Hosea 1:10 NASB) "Yet the number of the sons of Israel Will be like the sand of the sea, Which cannot be measured or numbered; And in the place Where it is said to them, "You are not My people," It will be said to them, "You are the sons of the living God."

(Hos 2:23 NASB) "I will sow her for Myself in the land. I will also have compassion on her who had not obtained compassion, And I will say to those who were not My people, 'You are My people!' And they will say, 'You are my God!' "

Furthermore, the verse literally stipulates that it was for the transgressions of "My people," Israel [as well as all the nations of the world, (Isa 52:10, 13)] that the Servant paid for in suffering, i.e., for which a blow came to the Servant. The blow to the Servant was not because of the transgressions of the Gentile nations which they committed in their persecution of Israel, as some contend. For the expression rendered "My people" cannot be understood as referring to transgressions of the Gentiles. God's chosen people will always be the descendants of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. Gentiles are never referred to by the LORD as "My people" anywhere in Scripture. The gymnastics to arrive at this misinterpretation is largely motivated by the rejection of the idea of substitutionary atonement by God for man. But this then rejects the premise of the New Covenant which God has promised He will unilaterally fulfill without any contribution from His people or anyone - totally by His grace through His Servant, Who is the New Covenant given to God's people, Israel and to the nations, (Isa 49:8 ; Isa 42:6 ).

The phrase rendered "And as for His generation who considers that He was cut off out of the land of the living?," implies the answer that only a few of those who were living at the time that the Arm of the LORD, the Servant of God was executed gave any consideration that He was the salvation of God: that His death - the blow which came to Him was in payment for the sins of "My people" - as well as all mankind, (Isa 42:6; 49:6; 52:10, 15) in order to provide for them the means to receive eternal life as Abraham did - by grace through faith ]

3) The Popular Jewish Interpretation Of Isa 53:8 Does Not Stand Up To Scripture Properly Interpreted

a) [Hebrew - English Interlinear]:

mē'ōser                            ȗmimmišpāt                     luqqāh                               wĕ'et-dr               m

Because of oppression  and because of judgment He will have been taken  and his generation  who


yĕśhēah          k      nigzar                mē'eres                hayyȋm    mippeša'

it will consider that  He was cut off  from the land of  the living  because of the transgressions of


'ammȋ        nega'       lām

my people  a blow    to Him

b) [Judaica Press Complete Tanach Isa 53:8]:

(Judaica Press Complete Tanach Isa 53:8) "From imprisonment and from judgment he is taken, and his generation who shall tell? For he was cut off from the land of the living; because of the transgression of my people, a plague befell [to] them."

Notice the difference with the text from a Christian Bible:

c) [Compare Isa 53:8]:

(Isa 53:8 NASB) "[Because] of oppression and [because of] judgment He [the Servant will have been] taken away; And as for His generation, who [considers] that He was cut off out of the land of the living? For the transgressions of My people...

[The prefixed preposition מ in the word מִפֶּשַׁע (transliterated "mippeša',") altogether may be translated “for the transgression" or “because of the transgression,"]

... [a blow [came] to Him.

[literally, "nega" = a stroke or "a blow." + [came is implied] + lām = to Him]

The debate involving this verse primarily concerns two matters:

i) [The Hebrew word לָמוֹ transliterated "lām" can be rendered "to Him" or "to them."]:

The Hebrew word לָמוֹ transliterated "lām" can be rendered "to Him" or "to them." The word consists of the preposition ל which is usually translated as “for," or "to" combined with a rare pronominal suffix מו- which can be either 3rd person singular "to him," or plural, "to them," depending upon the context.

Some (most Jewish translations) translate the word לָמוֹ "to them," indicating a plural object which they insist can only be plural; as in "For he [referring to the Servant as collective Israel] was cut off from the land of the living; because of the transgression of My people [which is forced to refer to the Gentiles, since the Servant is supposed to be Israel], a plague befell [to] them [referring to the Gentiles as "My people" in order to be consistent with the Servant being collective Israel. So in their viewpoint the verse indicates that it is a plague or a blow befalling to the Gentiles unto physical death.They obviously cannot render "My people" to be Israel because then all of the Jews would perish in a plague, and that would leave no one to exist in mortal bodies to inherit the Promised Land, thus voiding God's promises to Israel in the New Covenant.

But the word can also include a masculine, singular meaning as well:

[Compare Job 22:2]:

(Job 22:2 NKJV) "Can a man be profitable to God, Though he who is wise may [he] be profitable to himself?" = singular

(Job 22:2 Hebrew) הַלְאֵל יִסְכָּן גָּבֶר כִּי יִסְכֹּן עָלֵימֹו מַשְׂכִּיל;

[Compare Job 20:23b]:

(Job 20:23 NASB) "[When he fills his belly, God will send His fierce anger on him.] = singular

And will rain it on him while he is eating."

(Job 20:23b Hebrew) וְיַמְטֵר עָלֵימוֹ בִּלְחוּמוֹ.

So other versions which include most Christian translations, render the Hebrew word לָמוֹ (lām) in Isa 53:8 "to Him" indicating a 3rd person singular object; as in "He was cut off out of the land of the living; for the transgression of My people [Israel] a blow [came] to Him

[a blow which led to physical death, i.e., cut off out of the land of the living].

Although the word "nega' " can be rendered "plague," or "blow; it is best rendered "blow" because it best fits the context of "pierced," "bruised," from verse 5. And verse 8 also seems to convey more of a sudden death than a plague; although "sicknesses," "pains," and "plagued" are in view in vv. 3-4.

So, contrary to the popular Jewish interpretation which limits the suffix to plural, the pronomial suffix מוֹ is not only a 3rd person, masculine plural suffix when joined with verbs, nouns, and words; but מוֹ is also a 3rd person, masculine singular suffix when joined with verbs, nouns, and words depending upon context:

For the מ and the ו (i.e., מוֹ) contain the masculine gender, plural and the masculine gender, singular, respectively. The מ indicates the 3rd person, masculine plural; and the ו indicates the 3rd person, masculine singular. Therefore, מוֹ indicates 3rd person, masculine, plural; and 3rd person, masculine, singular, depending upon context.

Since the context in Isa 53:8 from the beginning of the passage in chapter 52 has in view the Servant, ("He") Who is not collective Israel, but a single Jewish Individual, and since the Servant here in Isa 53:8 could not be collective Israel having suffered to death under Gentile persecution for generations / for centuries because the phrase "And as for his generation, who considers that he was cut off out of the land of the living?" as collective Israel would include many generations, not just one. And if all of Israel died it would leave no one to inherit the Promised Land, cancelling the New Covenant that the LORD made with Israel.

So it is the single individual Jew Who is the Salvation of our God, the provider of Israel's redemption and the redemption / salvation of all mankind. It is He Who is the Holy Arm of the LORD Who will have been seen by all the nations to the ends of the earth as the salvation of our God, the New Covenant to Israel, the Righteous One, the One Who will raise up the tribes of Jacob and restore the preserved ones of Israel - their salvation, and restore her to prosperity in the Promised Land (Isa 49:1-13 ; 52:3, 7-10). It is He Who has sprinkled / washed away the sins of many nations in the sense of all mankind, (Isa 52:15, cf. 49:1-13 ); Who has borne their griefs and sorrows - the sins of all mankind, (Isa 53:4); Who has been pierced through for all of mankind's transgressions wherein the chastening / punishment for mankind's restoration to peace with God fell upon Him. And by His having been scourged - severely whipped - all mankind has been [spiritually] healed, (Isa 53:5). So the Servant has been put to physical death, (Isa 53:8); He has been crushed, He has been put to the grief due mankind for mankind's iniquities, He has been made a guilt offering - a substitutionary atonement for the sins of all mankind - which is after all is said and done, scriptural . Nevertheless the LORD will see His Seed and prolong His days - raising Him from the dead to live eternally in greatly exalted prosperity, (Isa 52:10, 13; 53:10). For He - the Servant - has justified many by bearing their iniquities, (Isa 53:11); has borne the sin of many [all mankind], [intercedes] for the transgressors [all mankind, in the sense of substitutionary atonement ], (Isa 53:12)]

ii) The prefixed preposition מ in the word מִפֶּשַׁע (transliterated "mippeša',") altogether may be translated "for the transgression" or "because of the transgression,"]:

The prefixed preposition מ in the word מִפֶּשַׁע (transliterated "mippeša',") altogether may be translated "for the transgression" or "because of the transgression," or "on account of the transgression," depending upon the context of the verse and passage that it is in.

The context of Isa 53:8 has been corroborated consistently by chapters 42 , 49 & 50 , and chapter 11 as well ; and especially from the beginning of chapter 52 to the end of 53 - of the Servant being a single Jewish Individual without sin; with attributes and functionality far beyond those of collective Israel - even far beyond the remnant of faithful believers - not the least of which are the washing / the cleansing of the sins, the salvation / redemption of Israel and of all the nations to the ends of the earth - the transforming all of mankind into godly people, the bringing about Israel's restoration to and rule over the entire Promised Land in unparalleled prosperity as the world's ruling nation forever . But first and foremost is the Servant being the One and only substitutionary atonement for the sins of all mankind, which after all is said and done, is Biblical ]

******

(Isa 53:9 NKJV) "And it [has been made, (perfect tense)] His grave with the wicked - but with the rich at his death; Because he had done no violence, Nor was any deceit in his mouth."

  [The Arm of God was evidently an individual Man; a Descendant of Israel, (cf. Isa 9:6-7 ); without violence, lies or sin: "He had done no violence, neither was any deceit in His mouth." (Isa 53:9d; cf. Isa 53:11: "The Righteous One"). He was oppressed, taken prisoner, illegally tried, judged nevertheless and declared guilty although innocent, and executed as if wicked. He was to be buried in a mass grave assigned for the "wicked" - for those who are guilty of a capital offense, (cf. Jn 19:31). But He would be buried instead in a grave which was assigned to someone who was rich, (cf. Mt 27:57-61)

4) [The Popular Jewish Interpretation Of Isa 53:9 Examined]

(Isa 53:9 NKJV) "And it [has been made, (perfect tense)] His grave with the wicked - but with the rich at His death; Because He had done no violence, Nor was any deceit in His mouth."

The popular Jewish interpretation of Isa 53:9 maintains that there is a significant discrepancy in the first part of Isa 53:9 between the Christian translations of the Hebrew text and the Jewish translations relative to the Hebrew phrase בְּמֹתָיו (transliterated "bĕmōtāyw," rendered "at His death" which is literally in the 3rd person, singular in the Hebrew). The Jewish translations of "bĕmōtāyw" render the phrase to be "in his deaths," plural, citing a sense of an inherent plurality with a view toward the Servant being Israel, ("his"), who they consider to be a collective singular, i.e., a plurality of individuals. But then there was offered no explanation as to the interpretation of collective / plural Israel being in view in the other phrases of Isa 53:9: "His grave was assigned with wicked men," "He had done no violence" and "Nor was there any deceit in His mouth." Certainly collective Israel has more than one grave, is not innocent of committing sinful violent acts, and has more than one mouth which is not innocent of acts of a deceitful tongue.

On the other hand, Christian Bibles render the term "in [at] his death, in the singular form, because the term is 3rd person, singular in the Hebrew, and in accordance with the context of the entire passage from Isa 52:1-53:12 which has the Servant to be a singular individual Jew Who died for the sins of Israel and all mankind . In the portrayal of the Servant in the Christian Bible, the three other phrases in Isa 53:9 are wholly consistent with the context of a single Individual buried in a single grave - one prepared for a rich man. For not all Israelites have been buried in graves for the rich. And this Individual is without sin, not having done violence in a sinful manner, nor was there any deceit in His mouth, (Isa 42:6; 49:2; 53:9, 11). And not any other Israelite is without sin]

XI) (Isa 53:10-11) Yet It Pleased The LORD To Bruise [Crush] Him / Cause Him To Suffer The Grief Of Such A Physical And Spiritual Death As To Accomplish His Purpose Of An Offering For Sin For The Restoration Of Mankind To Himself Via The LORD's Servant's Atoning Sacrifice. Thereafter The LORD Shall Raise His Seed - His One And Only Son - From The Dead, And Prolong His Days Forever. And In His Hand, The LORD Will Take Pleasure In Prospering Him - In Exalting Him Forever

And As A Result Of The Anguish Of His Soul In His Physical And Spiritual Death For His Atonement For Sins, The Seed Of God, The Arm / The Servant Of The LORD, The One And Only Son Of God Will See What He Has Accomplished And Be Satisfied With That. For By The Knowedge - By A Moment Of Faith In Him - In His Atonement, The Righteous One - The One Without Sin Will Justify The Many - Those Who Have Believed, As He Has Borne Upon Himself Their Iniquities And Those Of All Mankind

(Isa 53:10 NASB) "But the LORD was pleased To crush Him, putting Him to grief; If He would render Himself as a guilt offering, He will see His offspring, He will prolong His days, And the good pleasure of the LORD will prosper in His hand."

  [It pleased the LORD to "bruise" [Heb "dakkĕ' = "to crush"] Him - to cause Him to suffer physical and spiritual death in the sense of being pleased to accomplish His purpose through His Servant of restoring mankind to Himself via an atoning sacrifice for the sins of all mankind through those that choose to believe, (Isa 53:1, , 11 ). This "offering for sin," where the word for "guilt" or "sin offering," transliterated "AsAm" from the Hebrew, is used in Lev 5:15; 6:5; 19:21 and elsewhere to refer to a sacrificial offering to atone for ones sin. The statement, "When You [the LORD] make His [the Servant's] soul [life] an offering for sin," does not mean that the sacrifice of the Servant's life satisfied the wrath of God against the Servant's own sin, as some contend. For He was without sin, (Isa 42:6 ; 49:2 , 53:9 , 11 ). Hence collective Israel over the centuries cannot be the sinless Servant, (Isa 64:6-7 ; cf. Gen 8:21; Eccl 7:20; Jer 17:9; Ps 51:5; Job 14:1-4). On the other hand, the sinless Servant's life which culminated in His death was sufficient sacrifice / atonement for all sins wherein it satisfied the righteous demands of the LORD in order to make provision for the justification of any man who trusted in that atonement - Jew and Gentile. Thereafter He [the LORD] "shall see His Seed," in the sense of the LORD shall see the Servant - His Son in His Humanity, (Isa 9:6-7; Isa 49:5), be resurrected from the dead - no longer cut off out of the land of the living, (Isa 53:8); and He will prolong His days, referring to the Humanity of His One and only Son being raised from the dead to everlasting life. And the LORD shall take pleasure in prospering Him - in exalting Him forever, (ref. Isa 52:13) - all this by the hand of His Almighty power.

Note that the word rendered "Seed" does not refer to the seed of the Servant of the LORD in Isaiah 53:10 in the plural sense of the word so that those that believe in the Servant for salvation unto eternal life become children of God, born of God as in John 1:12, as some contend; because the context in Isaiah 53 does not address the issue of Jews and Gentiles becoming born of God, children of God when they believe in the One Who has provided atonement for ones sins. So the reader would not be informed within the context of the Book of Isaiah to draw that conclusion. On the other hand, the Seed as the One born of a woman, (Isa 49:1, 5), Who is both God and Man according to Isa 9:6-7, Isa 49:1-13 and Isa 52:1-53:12 build up the context to clearly support that the Seed is the One and only Son of God, born of a woman, both God and Man, the Redeemer of Israel, the Holy One of God, the Servant of the LORD, the Seed of God - Who has made atonement for the sins of all mankind; and through a moment of faith in Him alone each one will receive forgiveness of sins and eternal life.

So the physical death and burial of the Servant of the LORD - the Arm of the LORD - appeared to end His physical existence for those that executed and / or opposed Him relative to His Humanity, (not His Diety as the Son of God, cf. Isa 9:6-7). For Isaiah 53:8 stipulates that He was "cut off" in the sense of being cut off out of the land of the living. On the other hand, verse 10 stipulates that He [the LORD] "shall see His Seed, [in the singular sense of the word] He shall prolong His days," i.e., He will resurrect His Humanity and the LORD God will prolong His days, i.e., live on forever as the Son of God in His Humanity, (His Deity is by nature eternal). So the Servant will be blessed (prosper; cf. Isa. 53:12a) because of His obedience to the will and plan of the LORD by the hand of His Almighty power.

1) [The Popular Jewish Interpretation Of Isa 53:10]

(Isa 53:10 NASB) "But the LORD was pleased To crush Him, putting Him to grief; If He would render Himself as a guilt offering, He will see His offspring, He will prolong His days, And the good pleasure of the LORD will prosper in His hand."

The popular Jewish interpretation of Isa 53:10 maintains that the second phrase should be translated "if his [referring to the Servant as Israel] soul would acknowledge guilt" whereas the Christian Bible rendering such as in the NASB, "If He [referring to the Servant as an individual Jew - both God and Man ] would render Himself as a guilt offering." The Christian translation is linguistically accurate but rejected because the Jewish mindset behind their interpretation rejects the concept of substitutionary atonement, despite it being clearly biblical .

Whereupon the popular Jewish interpretation concludes that should Israel acknowledge her guilt, she will be rewarded: "he [referring to Israel] shall have descendants [or see progeny] in the sense of biological offspring, i.e., his physical descendants, his progeny. Although acknowledging ones guilt to the LORD, i.e., confession of ones sins to Him, may afford temporal forgiveness and temporal blessings, (ps 32 ), eternal life can only come by faith in God's promise of this through the faith of Abraham through a Messiah / Savior Descendant

But the context is of one single individual Who has been cut off from the land of the living, having chosen / rendered Himself as a guilt offering for mankind which is corroborated in the next verse. So the physical death and burial of the Servant of the LORD - the Arm of the LORD - ended His physical existence - a physical death of His Humanity, (not His Diety as the Son of God, cf. Isa 9:6-7). For Isaiah 53:8 stipulates that He was "cut off" in the sense of being cut off out of the land of the living. So if collective Israel is in view in Isa 53:11 as the Servant, then all of a generation of Israel is destined to be cut off from the land of the living, preventing her restoration to the Promised Land in mortal bodies; and hence the failure of God to fulfill the New Covenant - God's promise to Israel and all mankind. On the other hand, verse 10 stipulates that He [the LORD] "shall see His Seed, [in the singular sense of the word], He shall prolong His days," i.e., He will resurrect His Humanity and the LORD God will prolong His days, i.e., live on forever as the Son of God in His Humanity, (His Deity is by nature eternal - see "Mighty God," "Everlasting Father" in Isa 9:6-7 ). So the Servant will be blessed (prosper; cf. Isa. 53:12a) because of His obedience to the will and plan of the LORD by the hand of His Almighty power.

******

(Isa 53:11 NASB) "As a result of the anguish of His soul, He will see it and be satisfied; by [(the) knowledge of Him] the Righteous One, My Servant, will justify the many, As He will bear their iniquities."

  [As a result of the anguish of His [the Servant's] soul / of His life which has in view the suffering of being pierced for mankind's transgressions, crushed for all of their iniquities, (ref. Isa 53:4-7, 10 and especially 53:5 ), He [the LORD God] will be satisfied, i.e., propitiated by the Servant's actions which resulted in all of mankind's sins being satisfactorily atoned for without violating God's Righteousness and Justice.

For without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness of sins:

2) [Compare Lev 17:11]:

(Lev 17:11 NASB) "For the life of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it to you on the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood by reason of the life that makes atonement."]

Note that the phrase in Isa 53:7 rendered "by the knowledge of Him," has the Hebrew word transliterated "beda'att" = which can mean subjectively "by His knowledge," or objectively "by the knowledge of Him." According to the Masoretic markings, the phrase links to the words which follow it and thus it is best rendered "by [the] knowledge of Him" as opposed to "by His knowledge." So the former, rather than the latter rendering best suits the context:

Since the context of this passage, (Isa 52:1-53:12) has One - a single Human Being in view - Who would provide Himself as a subsitutionary atonement, i.e., a sacrifice for the sins of all mankind by bearing all of their iniquities, as the last phrase in the verse stipulates, (Isa 53:11c); so that a Savior, the knowledge of Whom - and not a Teacher who has knowledge - would justify, i.e., declare righteous, those of mankind who have a knowledge of Him doing this for them, in the sense of those who believe in Him for it, (cf. Isa 50:10-11 ; 53:1);

and since the context of this passage cannot  have in view the Servant solely by His knowledge - solely by means of what He would know - automatically justify the many without any participation or volition on their part because that would violate the perfect Justice and Righteousness of God;

and since any alternative for God's provision of justification to an individual without the individual's consent and without exacting payment for the individual's sins would also violate the perfect Justice of God Who cannot forgive sins without exacting payment for them or trusting in a substitutionary atonement for him as Abraham did ;

then the correct rendering for the phrase in question in Isa 53:11 would be that one is justified by the knowledge of Him, i.e., by a moment of faith alone in Who He is and what He did - that He [the Servant] bore ones iniquities for justification / God's declaration of one being Righteous resulting in everlasting life.

Note that the Servant of God in Isa 53:11 is stipulated as "the Righteous One" implying sinlessness - an absolutely necessary personal attribute in order to qualify to be an acceptable atoning sacrifice for the sins of mankind. Anyone of Humankind less than perfect would neither qualify as a substitutionary atonement for sins, (Exod 12:5 ), nor be able to satisfy the Justice and Righteousness of God, (ruling out collective Israel being the Servant in this passage).

So a singular, masculine individual human being is in view in Isa 52:1-53:11 Who was wounded not only for the "people" of Israel but for "many nations," i.e., all mankind, (ref. Isa 52:10, 15; 53:5-6, 10-11); in order that those of "all the nations," those to "all the ends of the earth," may see, i.e., may be provided with the salvation of our God, (ref. Isa 49:6; 52:10). Hence all of mankind's transgressions are in view, with no limitations as some contend. For verses 5 & 6 and 10  & 11 of Isa 53 stipulate that He was pierced for all of mankind's iniquities - with no limitations stipulated, i.e., for all sins committed both conscious and unaware, past, present and future for all time.

Consider Isa 53:11 as the core message of the gospel upon which message all of the gospel passages in the bible are based: By the knowledge of Him, i.e., by a moment of faith in the Righteous Servant of God bearing their iniquities, an individual will be justified, i.e., declared to have the eternal righteousness of God unto [for] eternal life.

So here in Isaiah 52:13-53:11 is contained the gospel of eternal life. Israelites especially should know the content of Isaiah 53, since it was given to them first in order to know, understand and witness to all mankind. If any individual, Jew or Gentile, in any age understands and accepts by a moment of faith alone in the Servant alone as it is presented in Isaiah chapter 53 they would be justified unto an eternal righteouness of God unto [for] eternal life.

The last verse of this passage of Isa 52:1-53:12 completes and corroborates Isa 53:11 as follows:

3) [Isa 53:11-12]:

(Isa 53:11 NASB) "As a result of the anguish of His soul, He will see it and be satisfied; by [(the) knowledge of Him] the Righteous One, My Servant, will justify the many, As He will bear their iniquities.

(Isa 53:12 NKJV) Therefore I will divide Him a portion with the great, And He shall divide the spoil with the strong, Because He [has] poured out His soul unto death, And He [has been] numbered with the transgressors, And He [has borne] the sin of many, And [intercedes] for the transgressors."

Notice that the Servant has borne the sin of many, and [intercedes] for the transgressors. This is not sinful Israel being purified of her own sins, or enlightening the world about God and the Torah in order to receive forgiveness and be exalted, as some contend. In view in Isa 52:1-53:12 is a Righteous / sinless Individual Who is qualified to and pays the penalty for the transgressions of all of mankind throughout the ages - something which sinful Israel is not qualified to do]

4) [The Popular Jewish Interpretation Of Isa 53:11 Forces The Servant To Be Collective Israel. The People Will Be Justified By Suffering Unjustly At The Hands Of The Gentile Nations And By Instructing The Gentile Nations In God's Law. Rebuttal in Blue

(Isa 53:11 NASB) "As a result of the anguish of His soul, He will see it and be satisfied; by [(the) knowledge of Him] the Righteous One, My Servant, will justify the many, As He will bear their iniquities."

According to the popular Jewish interpretation of Isa 53:11, Israel will eventually discover and understand that God has had a special purpose in allowing such wickedness by the (Gentile) nations that leads to her persecution over centuries - evidently a purification of sins that does not require atonement for sins, whereupon they will no longer rebel against God's actions anymore, but repent into godly, faithful behavior and become purified of all sins and be exalted by the LORD forever as His chosen people.

[The Servant as collective Israel cannot be in view in Isa 53:7-11 because the Servant will be executed - cut off from the land of the living, (Isa 53:8). So if Israel was the Servant, the people would all have died and thus have failed to fufill God's promise of the New Covenant of restoring a generation of alive Israelites in mortal bodies in the Promised Land . Furthermore, repentance does not erase past sins, nor result in forgiveness; nor is it possible in sinful mortal bodies to repent at all, (Isa 64:6-7 ). Forgiveness unto eternal life requires a substitutionary atonement - the Servant via a moment of faith in Him, (ref. "by the knowledge of Him the Righteous One, My Servant, will justify the many, as He will bear the iniquities," (Isa 53:11b)]

So in the end it is contended that Israel will vindicate mankind by her vicarious sufferings at the hand of the Gentile nations; and through her suffering she will somehow attain the knowledge of God and the Torah, a theme, they contend, often encountered in the Hebrew Bible in terms of Israel being a light unto the (Gentile) nations and teaching them (e.g., Exodus 19:5-6; Isaiah 42:6, 60:3, 61:6-9; Zechariah 8:13, 23).

[Israel repeatedly failed to accurately enlighten mankind of the message of Scripture. Furthermore, Scripture does not teach that mankind can be vindicated, i.e., justified / declared righteous before God via persevering through unrelenting, undeserved persecution from others. For this would be insufficient payment for sins before God. Scripture teaches that without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness of sins:

a) [Compare Lev 17:11]:

(Lev 17:11 NASB) "For the life of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it to you on the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood by reason of the life that makes atonement."

Nor can one be vindicated through the knowledge of God or the Torah because it leaves ones sins unatoned for / unpaid for by anyone. The passages cited do not prove that knowledge will lead to salvation, except via a moment of faith alone in the atoning sacrifice of the Servant for them alone:

b) [Exodus 19:5-6]:

(Exod 19:5 NASB) " 'Now then, if you will indeed obey My voice and keep My covenant, then you shall be My own possession among all the peoples, for all the earth is Mine;

(Exod 19:6 NASB) and you shall be to Me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.' These are the words that you shall speak to the sons of Israel."

This passage requires Israel to obey God's voice and keep God's Covenant of the Law, i.e., to act in a godly / righteous manner all the time in order to be God's own possession, which Israel did not do - and won't do until all of a generation of Israel will trust in the substitutionary atonement of the Messiah as He comes again to earth ; whereupon all of that generation of Israel will be transformed into a godly people   - God fulfilling the New Covenant unilaterally . This is God's plan of justification through faith alone in a Descendant of Abraham which Abraham is the example for Jew and Gentile  .

******

c) [Isa 42:1-6]:

(Isa 42:1 NASB) "Behold, My Servant, Whom I uphold; My chosen One in Whom My soul delights. I have put My Spirit upon Him; He will bring forth justice to the nations.

[The Servant cannot here be collective Israel throughout the centuries because not all of Israel have received the Spirit of God. Furthermore, Israel was not always delighting the soul of God.]

(Isa 42:2 NASB) He will not cry out or raise His voice, Nor make His voice heard in the street.

(Isa 42:3 NASB) A bruised reed He will not break And a dimly burning wick He will not extinguish; He will faithfully bring forth justice.

(Isa 42:4 NASB) He will not be disheartened or crushed Until He has established justice in the earth; And the coastlands will wait expectantly for His law.

[Note that the Law here refers to the Law and the Justice of the Servant to be established on the earth by the Servant, the Righteous One, Who by nature is both God and Man, (ref. Isa 9:6-7 ), and not by Israel who is by nature unlawful and unjust]

[Bible Knowledge Commentary, Walvoord & Zuck, Editors, Victor Books, USA, 1988]:

"42:1-4. Some ... say My Servant here refers to Israel, which is clearly the case in verse 19. True, Israel was upheld and chosen by the Lord, and was His delight. However, the statements in verses 1b-4 suggest that here the Servant is the Messiah. This One has the Spirit of God on Him (cf. 11:2), and He will bring justice to the nations (cf. 9:7; 11:3-4; 16:5). He will be gentle (42:2-3a) - most people would break a weak, useless reed, but He will not do so - and He will be faithful (v. 3b) and not... discouraged (v. 4). He gave the Law in which the islands (i.e., people in remote parts; cf. 41:1) will... hope. ...God's Servant... did what Israel could never do. He perfectly carried out the will of the Father so that people everywhere may believe in the Holy One of Israel"]

(Isa 42:5 NASB) Thus says God the LORD, Who created the heavens and stretched them out, Who spread out the earth and its offspring, Who gives breath to the people on it And spirit to those who walk in it,

(Isa 42:6 NASB) I am the LORD, I have called You in righteousness, I will also hold You by the hand and watch over You, And I will appoint You as a covenant to the people, As a light to the nations,

[Notice that the LORD God called the Servant in righteousness and appointed Him as a covenant to the people, and as a light to the (Gentile nations). Only One Who is without sin can be called in Righteousness to be a covenant to the people, and as a light to the (Gentile nations), and "to faithfully bring forth justice" in the world, (Isa 42:1), (cf. Isa 42:6; 49:2; 53:9, 11). The New Covenant was the LORD's covenant with Israel, His people, as a light to the nations - the Gentiles - with the capacity of God alone to unilaterally fulfill that covenant as promised, (ref. Ezek 36:22-27 and Jer 31:31-34 ). So collective Israel cannot be the Servant Who must have the capacity of God, be Absolutely Righteous . One Who has been appointed by the LORD as the New Covenant to Israel cannot be Israel. Otherwise, the Servant has been appointed as a covenant to himself to fulfill with himself Who is God alone!]

[Bible Knowledge Commentary, Walvoord & Zuck, Editors, Victor Books, USA, 1988]:

"42:5-7. The Lord promised to assist the Servant in His mission, which God can do because He is the Creator (cf. 40:12-14, 26). He created the immense heavens and the earth (cf. 44:24; 45:12, 18; 48:13; 51:13, 16) and life in it, including man, giving him breath. Speaking to His Servant (42:6-7) God assured Him that He had been called to perform the will of God. To be called... in righteousness (as Cyrus also would be, 41:2), meant to be responsible to do God's righteous will. Of course the Messiah, unlike Cyrus, lived a righteous life (for He is God). Because the Lord would take hold of the Servant's hand the Messiah would have the power to carry out God's will.

Also the Servant was assured that He would be a covenant for the people (cf. 49:8). He would fulfill God's covenant promises to Israel, and would also be a light (cf. 42:16) for the Gentiles (cf. Isa. 49:6). Spiritually unredeemed Israel and the Gentiles are blind, and they are captives... in darkness. Though Cyrus would be the servant to release Jewish captives from exile, the Messiah gives spiritual release (cf. 61:1), sight, and light to those who trust Him. (On eyes being opened; cf. Isa. 32:3; 35:5.) This spiritual salvation to both Jews and Gentiles will eventuate in the glorious messianic kingdom."]

d) [Isa 60:1-3; 61:6-9]:

(Isa 60:1 NASB) "Arise, shine; for your light has come, And the glory of the LORD has risen upon you.

(Isa 60:2 NASB) For behold, darkness will cover the earth And deep darkness the peoples; But the LORD will rise upon you And His glory will appear upon you.

(Isa 60:3 NASB) Nations will come to your light, And kings to the brightness of your rising."

[Israel is in view here as the restored world's leading nation, a light to the Gentiles as a result of the unilateral fulfillment of the New Covanent by the Servant of the LORD ]

[Bible Knowledge Commentary, Walvoord & Zuck, Editors, Victor Books, USA, 1988]:

"60:1-3. Because of the Lord's redeeming work (59:19a, 20-21), light (blessing) will fall on Israel, who in turn is to shine forth, as a spiritual light to the nations, revealing God's Word and glory to them. In that way, she will be instrumental in removing the spiritual darkness that pervades the world (cf. 29:18...). When the Lord returns to live among His people (Isa. 60:2) the nations will be attracted to the light of His glory (cf. vv. 19-20) and will flock to Israel for the light (the blessings of salvation from spiritual darkness). This will occur in the Millennium. Though everyone entering the Millennium will be saved, people will be born during that 1,000-year period of time. Many of them will come to salvation because of God's work on Israel's behalf"]

(Isa 61:1 NASB) "The Spirit of the Lord GOD is upon me, Because the LORD has anointed me To bring good news to the afflicted; He has sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, To proclaim liberty to captives And freedom to prisoners; 

(Isa 61:2 NASB) To proclaim the favorable year of the LORD And the day of vengeance of our God; To comfort all who mourn,

(Isa 61:3 NASB) To grant those who mourn in Zion, Giving them a garland instead of ashes, The oil of gladness instead of mourning, The mantle of praise instead of a spirit of fainting. So they will be called oaks of righteousness, The planting of the LORD, that He may be glorified."

[Bible Knowledge Commentary]:

61:1-3. In verse 1 all three Persons of the Trinity are mentioned: the Spirit... the Sovereign Lord, and the Messiah. Three factors indicate that Me refers to the Messiah: (1) The association of the Holy Spirit with the anointing points to Jesus Christ. After being anointed with oil, Israel's first two kings, Saul and David, were blessed with the Spirit's ministry (1 Sam. 10:1, 10; 16:13). Similarly Christ was anointed by the Holy Spirit (Matt. 3:16-17) to be Israel's King. The Hebrew word for Messiah (māšaḥ) means "the Anointed One," and Christ (christos, from chriō, "to anoint") is the Greek equivalent of māšaḥ. (2) Part of this passage (Isa. 61:1-2a) was read by Jesus (Luke 4:18-19) in reference to Himself. (3) The mission of this Anointed One was Jesus' ministry: to preach good news, to heal and free (Isa. 61:1; cf. 42:7), to proclaim... favor and... vengeance (61:2), and to comfort (vv. 2-3). When Jesus read from this passage He stopped in the middle of the sentence, after the word "favor" (Luke 4:18-19). By doing this He was showing that His work would be divided into two advents. In His First Advent He did the things mentioned in Isaiah 61:1-2a; in His Second Advent He will do the things in verses 2b-3. When He returns He will bring judgment on unbelievers (Micah 5:15; Rev. 19:15-20); this will be the day of God's "vengeance" (cf. Isa. 34:8; 35:4; 63:4). But the Messiah will also "comfort" Israel, for she will have undergone great persecution, the Great Tribulation, in the preceding years (cf. Dan. 7:21, 24-25; Rev. 12:13-17).

When the Messiah comes He will change believing Israelites' sadness to joy, a truth Isaiah mentioned frequently. In place of ashes, put on one's head as a sign of mourning (cf. 2 Sam. 13:19; Es. 4:1; Dan 9:3), they will wear a crown. Light olive oil, when applied to one's face and hair, would soothe him and brighten his spirits (cf. Pss. 23:5; 45:7; 104:15; Ecc. 9:8; Matt. 6:17; Heb. 1:9), thus dispelling mourning. Another sign of joy is a bright garment (cf. Ecc. 9:7-8). Israel will be righteous (cf. Isa. 54:14; 58:8; 60:21; 62:1-2) and like stalwart oak trees will display God's splendor (cf. 35:2; 46:13; 49:3; 55:5; 60:9, 21; 62:3)."]

(Isa 61:4 NASB) Then they will rebuild the ancient ruins, They will raise up the former devastations; And they will repair the ruined cities, The desolations of many generations.

(Isa 61:5 NASB) Strangers will stand and pasture your flocks, And foreigners will be your farmers and your vinedressers.

(Isa 61:6 NASB) But you will be called the priests of the LORD; You will be spoken of as ministers of our God. You will eat the wealth of nations, And in their riches you will boast.

(Isa 61:7 NASB) Instead of your shame you will have a double portion, And instead of humiliation they will shout for joy over their portion. Therefore they will possess a double portion in their land, Everlasting joy will be theirs.

(Isa 61:8 NASB) For I, the LORD, love justice, I hate robbery in the burnt offering; And I will faithfully give them their recompense And make an everlasting covenant with them.

(Isa 61:9 NASB) Then their offspring will be known among the nations, And their descendants in the midst of the peoples. All who see them will recognize them Because they are the offspring whom the LORD has blessed"

[Bible Knowledge Commentary]:

"61:4-9. After the Messiah's Second Advent Israel will rebuild her ruined cities, even those that had been destroyed many years before. Israel will be so revered that Gentiles (aliens and foreigners) will join her (cf. 14:1; 60:10) in her farming and shepherding. As a nation of priests each one will know the Lord, and have access to Him, and mediate on behalf of others, as did the Levitical priests. This was to be one of Israel's functions in the world (Ex. 19:6), but unfortunately she will not fully carry out that responsibility till in the Millennium. Nations will bring their wealth to Israel (see comments on Isa. 60:5, 11). The double portion refers to the inheritance the eldest son in a family would receive from his father's estate (Deut. 21:17). The eldest son was given special honor. Similarly Israel, like the Lord's firstborn (Ex. 4:22), will be honored. Because of these blessings and God's giving Israel an everlasting covenant (the New Covenant; cf. Jer. 32:40; Ezek. 16:60; 37:26; Heb. 13:20), people everywhere will acknowledge that she is indeed God's special people."

e) [Zech 8:1-23]:

(Zech 8:1 NASB) "Then the word of the LORD of hosts came, saying, 

(Zech 8:2 NASB) Thus says the LORD of hosts, 'I am exceedingly jealous for Zion, yes, with great wrath I am jealous for her.' 

(Zech 8:3 NASB) Thus says the LORD, 'I will return to Zion and will dwell in the midst of Jerusalem. Then Jerusalem will be called the City of Truth, and the mountain of the LORD of hosts will be called the Holy Mountain.' 

(Zech 8:4 NASB) Thus says the LORD of hosts, 'Old men and old women will again sit in the streets of Jerusalem, each man with his staff in his hand because of age. 

(Zech 8:5 NASB) 'And the streets of the city will be filled with boys and girls playing in its streets.'

(Zech 8:6 NASB) Thus says the LORD of hosts, 'If it is too difficult in the sight of the remnant of this people in those days, will it also be too difficult in My sight?' declares the LORD of hosts. 

(Zech 8:7 NASB) Thus says the LORD of hosts, 'Behold, I am going to save My people from the land of the east and from the land of the west; 

(Zech 8:8 NASB) and I will bring them back and they will live in the midst of Jerusalem; and they shall be My people, and I will be their God in truth and righteousness.' 

(Zech 8:9 NASB) Thus says the LORD of hosts, 'Let your hands be strong, you who are listening in these days to these words from the mouth of the prophets, those who spoke in the day that the foundation of the house of the LORD of hosts was laid, to the end that the temple might be built. 

(Zech 8:10 NASB) 'For before those days there was no wage for man or any wage for animal; and for him who went out or came in there was no peace because of his enemies, and I set all men one against another.

(Zech 8:11 NASB) 'But now I will not treat the remnant of this people as in the former days,' declares the LORD of hosts.

(Zech 8:12 NASB) 'For there will be peace for the seed: the vine will yield its fruit, the land will yield its produce and the heavens will give their dew; and I will cause the remnant of this people to inherit all these things. 

(Zech 8:13 NASB) 'It will come about that just as you were a curse among the nations, O house of Judah and house of Israel, so I will save you that you may become a blessing. Do not fear; let your hands be strong.' 

(Zech 8:14 NASB) For thus says the LORD of hosts, 'Just as I purposed to do harm to you when your fathers provoked Me to wrath,' says the LORD of hosts, 'and I have not relented,

[Notice that Israel's persecution was not always undeserved, ]

(Zech 8:15 NASB) so I have again purposed in these days to do good to Jerusalem and to the house of Judah. Do not fear! 

(Zech 8:16 NASB) 'These are the things which you should do: speak the truth to one another; judge with truth and judgment for peace in your gates. 

(Zech 8:17 NASB) 'Also let none of you devise evil in your heart against another, and do not love perjury; for all these are what I hate,' declares the LORD."

(Zech 8:18 NASB) Then the word of the LORD of hosts came to me, saying, 

(Zech 8:19 NASB) Thus says the LORD of hosts, 'The fast of the fourth, the fast of the fifth, the fast of the seventh and the fast of the tenth months will become joy, gladness, and cheerful feasts for the house of Judah; so love truth and peace.'

(Zech 8:20 NASB) Thus says the LORD of hosts, 'It will yet be that peoples will come, even the inhabitants of many cities. 

(Zech 8:21 NASB) 'The inhabitants of one will go to another, saying, "Let us go at once to entreat the favor of the LORD, and to seek the LORD of hosts; I will also go."

(Zech 8:22 NASB) 'So many peoples and mighty nations will come to seek the LORD of hosts in Jerusalem and to entreat the favor of the LORD.' 

(Zech 8:23 NASB) Thus says the LORD of hosts, 'In those days ten men from all the nations will grasp the garment of a Jew, saying, "Let us go with you, for we have heard that God is with you."

Also, as was noted in the analysis of Isaiah 53:4, Israel was the victim who unjustly bore the penalties from the iniquities of others.

[Israel is neither the Servant of Isa 52:1-53:12   nor has she suffered centuries of unrelenting, unwarranted persecution by the Gentiles which will lead to her purification unto holiness and faithfulness to the LORD resulting in her being lifted up and exalted, as it is contended. Israel's purification will be unilaterally accomplished by the Servant - the God Man of Isa chapters 42 , 49 , 50 , 52-53 as well as 11   as a result of His substitutionary atonement for all of mankind's sins via as each individual exercises faith in that atonement, (Isa 53:1, 11). For there were times when the people of Israel were not under persecution, but blessing. And not all of her persecution was undeserved .

Furthermore, all of the generation of Israel at the time when they will all at once choose to believe in the salvation of the LORD through His Servant will experience the fulfillment of the New Covenant, (ref. Zech 12:10-14 ) to be restored forever to the Promised Land, redeemed from sin, transformed into obedient and faithful people to God, saved unto eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, (ref. Jer 31:31-34 and Ezek 36:22-27 . They will not merit their own salvation by their having suffered at the hand of Gentiles or by perfect repentant behavior, but by faith alone in the Servant alone, (Isa 53:11) as Abraham did centuries before . For neither sufficient temporary suffering nor righteous, repentant behavior are possible with mortal sinful man:

f) [Compare Isa 64:6-7; cf. Gen 8:21; Eccl 7:20; Jer 17:9; Ps 51:5; Job 14:1-4]:

(Isa 64:6 NASB) "For all of us have become like one who is unclean, And all our righteous deeds are like a filthy garment; And all of us wither like a leaf, And our iniquities, like the wind, take us away.

(Isa 64:7 NASB) There is no one who calls on Your name, Who arouses himself to take hold of You; For You have hidden Your face from us And have delivered us into the power of our iniquities."

Present righteous / repentant behavior can never pay for past sins - even if it involves the enlightenment of mankind relative to the Law of God. Nor can suffering unwarranted persecution for any amount of time at the hand of the Gentiles be sufficient to transform one into a righteous being qualified to have eternal life with God. Hence there is the need for substitutional atonement through the Servant of the LORD, if anyone wants to be saved from their sins and have eternal life. Since no man is without sin except the Servant Himself, (Isa 53:9, 11; 42:6; 49:2). On this alone, Israel could not be the Servant. Nevertheless, a single individual born of Israel of the Seed of God will be without sin, (Isa 9:6-7; 11:1-16; 3:10; 42:6; 53:9, 11; 49:2). He is the only One capable of fulfilling the New Covenant for all mankind - Himself alone! So salvation can only be totally by the grace of God,Who will unilaterally fulfill every stipulation of the New Covenant through His Servant - even the faith that all of that generation of Israel will choose of their own volition to express in the Servant of the LORD will be by the grace, sovereignty and election of God ]

The (Gentile) nations' own misdeeds were what inflicted the excessive suffering on Israel. The Jewish people have been forced to carry ills and pains because of the direct actions of the (Gentile) nations throughout history, and they have suffered (and continue to suffer) the results of the (Gentile) nations' sickness. The (Gentile) nations have held that the Jews are cursed by God, and they were (and still are) determined to see that the Jews suffer the consequences of this supposed curse that is upon them.

[There has been conflict between Israel and the Gentile nations of the world throughout the years, but none of it can be instrumental in purifying Israel or the world of sins, nor is it in view in Isa 52:1-53-12 . The Servant is not collective Israel or a remnant faithful of believers, as some contend. The Servant of the LORD is a single individual born of a woman, an Israelite, both Man and God . Since Covenant Law demands punishment for sins committed , Israel's temporal persecution will be insufficient for eternal forgiveness; and her spiritual enlightenment and repentant behavior even if possible with sinful man will fall short as well. So since sinful Israel cannot provide anything acceptable to God in order to be forgiven of her sins, and since Scripture teaches that the Servant will be cut off out of the land of the living; then the Servant, if Israel, will not be able to fulfill the New Covenant as God promised. On the other hand, since Israel is not the Servant according to Scripture, and since it will take a substitutionary atonement of a Righteous Man to take upon Himself the sins of Israel and of all mankind as depicted in Isaiah 52:1-53:12, and since that Covenant extends to the nations to the ends of the earth, then there is a certain hope of redemption because man has nothing to do with it except to believe in the Servant for it - Jew or Gentile]

XII) (Isa 53:12) Therefore, In View Of The Victory Over Sin Via The Atoning Sacrifice Of The Seed Of The LORD, The LORD Will Divide Him A Portion Of That Victory Commensurate With The Great And The Strong; Because He Has Poured Out His Soul Unto Death For That Victory. While Numbered With The Transgressors, He Bore The Sin Of Many - Of All Of Mankind, And Intercedes For The Transgressors - Which Numbers All Of Mankind

(Isa 53:12 NKJV) "Therefore I will divide Him a portion with the great, And He shall divide the spoil with the strong, Because He [has] poured out His soul unto death, And He [has been] numbered with the transgressors, And He [has borne] the sin of many, And [intercedes] for the transgressors."

  [In chapter 52, Isaiah indicated that the LORD's Servant, portrayed as the LORD's Holy Arm of Salvation made bare for all mankind to see Him in Isa 52:10, is described in v. 13 as One Who acts wisely. God's Servant - His Holy Arm of salvation - will have the wisdom to accomplish successfully what God has sent Him to do - to provide for the availability of Salvation to Israel and to all mankind, (cf. Isa 49:1-6; 52:5), through a moment of faith in Him for it, (Isa 52:10 & 53:1). The Servant's wisdom was incredibly self-denying. It meant accepting the determined will of God and willingly shouldering a burden of unimaginable suffering to make salvation possible for mankind. This evidently will result in His supreme exaltation. For there is a threefold emphatic repetition in this regard, "He is exalted, and has been lifted up and has been greatly exalted." The Servant of the LORD will be exalted as only God will be exalted - seated at the Right Hand of God.

So in Isa 53:12, the Servant of the LORD, having willingly followed the LORD's plan of salvation for mankind - having poured out Himself, lit., His soul, unto death, His Servant will have been greatly exalted as it stated in Isa 52:13. And as part of that exaltation,  the LORD said to Isaiah as recorded in Isa 53:12, "I will divide Him a portion with the great, And He shall divide the spoil with the strong," pictures a general after winning a battle, sharing goods taken from the enemy. Because He was numbered with the transgressors, that is, was considered a sinner, i.e., because He allowed Himself to go to His death letting Himself be identified with sinful humankind - though He was treated as a rebel,  and bore the sin of many, that is, everyone - all mankind, (cf. Isa. 53:6); He was to be exalted. And the phrase rendered, "And He shall divide the spoil with the strong," implies that He will allow believers to share in the benefits of that exaltation. And because He is alive (cf. v. 10). And now He has made intercessions / prayers to God for transgressors.

So the Servant of the LORD will receive an inheritance of the dominion of the earth which will evidently be restored to mankind with the Servant of the LORD Who is both God and Man as Sovereign Ruler, (ref. Isa 9:6-7). And He will share His inheritance with all who have believed in Him for forgiveness of sins, (cf. Isa 53:1, 11) - the fulfillment of the New Covenant, (ref. ).

Notice that there is no restriction as to the number or kinds of sins borne by the Arm of the LORD, as some contend. All the sins of all of mankind are in view - past, present and future - before one believes and after one believes, (ref Isa 52:15). Because of the victory of the Seed of the LORD over sin, every individual human being has the opportunity to be eternally reconciled with God via a moment of faith alone in the sacrificial work of the Seed relative to sin alone. (Isa 53:1 , 11 ; cf. Isa 10:20-23 ; 50:10-11 ). Finally, the Servant here cannot be Israel who will have "poured out His soul unto death" by having "borne the sin of many" as some contend. If all of Israel has died, that would not leave anyone of Israel to be restored in physical, mortal bodies to the Promised Land to receive "a portion with the great," and to "divide the spoil with the strong." And there would be no Israelite alive to fulfill the New Covenant that the LORD made with His chosen people .

******

1) [Compare Isa 11:1-5 ]:

(v. 1) "A shoot will come up from the stump of Jesse; from his roots a Branch will bear fruit.

(v. 2) The Spirit of the LORD will rest on Him-- the Spirit of wisdom and of understanding, the Spirit of counsel and of power, the Spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD -

(v. 3) and He will delight in the fear of the LORD. He will not judge by what He sees with His eyes, or decide by what He hears with His ears;

(v. 4) but with righteousness He will judge the needy, with justice He will give decisions for the poor of the earth. He will strike the earth with the rod of His mouth; with the breath of His lips He will slay the wicked.

(v. 5) Righteousness will be His belt and faithfulness the sash around His waist."

Notice that a descendant of Jesse, David's father, is through the line of David. Hence this Man Who is God will be a descendant of David Who will rule the earth.

The rest of the passage indicates that a generation of Israelites of both Judah and Ephraim (Israel) together will be recovered from the four corners of the earth to possess the Promised Land by the "Shoot from the stem of Jesse," ;  i.e., by the Servant of the LORD Who will sprinkle many nations, bear mankind's iniquities, justify the many , and in fulfillment of and as the Personification and Actualization of New Covenant which the LORD God unilaterally made with His chosen people Israel forevermore .

2) The Popular Jewish Interpretation Of Isa 53:12 Contends That The Servant Is Collective Israel Baring Her Soul To Death; That Israel Will Continue To Intercede For The Transgressors In The Sense Of Pray For Them; That Israel As God's Servant Will Be Compensated For Having Had To Carry The Ills Inflicted Upon Them By The Gentile Nations Throughout The Centuries - Bearing The Results Of The Wicked Acts Of Others Upon Them; That They Will Be Rewarded For Choosing This Fate Rather Than To Abandon The Jewish Faith And Follow Other gods Their Forefathers Had Not Known. Rebuttal In Blue Font

(Isa 53:12 NKJV) "Therefore I will divide Him a portion with the great, And He shall divide the spoil with the strong, Because He [has] poured out His soul unto death, And He [has been] numbered with the transgressors, And He [has borne] the sin of many, And [intercedes] for the transgressors."

The popular Jewish interpretation of Isa 53:12 goes as follows:

"Apart from a change in tenses in the last phrase, the two translations are reasonably consistent. The Hebrew phrase תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר הֶעֱרָה לַמָּוֶת נַפְשׁ ו (TAhat aSHER he'eRAH la'MAvet naphSHO), is generally rendered in two ways by Jewish sources, (a) "... because he has bared his soul to death ...," and (b) "... because he poured out his soul to death ...". The KJV renders it, "... because he hath poured out his soul unto death ...," which agrees with the latter of the common Jewish renditions. The somewhat subtle difference here does not significantly impact context. The latter of the two Jewish renditions is based on a single instance of the root verb ערה (Ayin-RESH-HEH) in a different conjugation at Genesis 24:20, where it is rendered as "... she poured out [her jug] ..." in reference to Rebecca (even here one can say that pouring out of a container is tantamount to exposing whatever was contained in it). In two other instances, at Leviticus 20:18,19, where the verb appears exactly as in Isaiah 53:12, הֶעֱרָה , it is rendered as "... he has bared [her source] ..." and "... he would be baring [his flesh] ...", respectively. In every other application of this verb in the Hebrew Bible, a total of 16 cases excepting Genesis 24:20, particularly in the five other applications by Isaiah – Isaiah 3:17, 19:7, 22:6, 32:11,15 – the verb is used in the context of baring or exposing something. Therefore, it is reasonable to conclude that the former of the above two Jewish renditions, "... because he has bared his soul to death ...," is more consistent with its general usage both by Isaiah and throughout the rest of the Hebrew Bible.

[Taking a survey / census on this word in other passages of Scripture and using the meaning of the word most popular elsewhere as the meaning of the word in Isa 53:12 is not logical, nor grammatical, nor contextual. The best meaning for this word is the meaning that best fits the context.

The Hebrew word transliterated "he'ĕr" according to Hebrew dictionaries which reflect the proper use of the word, may indeed portray "having poured out." It is in the perfect mood, portraying a completed action as follows "having poured out His soul unto death" as opposed to the possibility of the word meaning "having bared His soul to death" which death would not necessarily be a logical end to talking about oneself! In view of the context which already pervades Isaiah chapters 52-53 of a substitutionary atonement for the sins of all mankind , there has not been developed anywhere in this passage of two chapters that the Servant has been baring His soul in the sense of revealing details about His Person / His personal life to the world, as opposed to fulfilling His mission to be the Salvation of the world in the sense of being an atoning sacrifice for sins - sprinkling many nations, washing away their sins evidently via having borne mankind's griefs and carried their sorrows, having been pierced through for mankind's transgressions - the iniquity of us all falling upon Him, to His physical and spiritual death, as a guilt offering in order to justify many - through knowledge / faith in Him, bearing their iniquities / their sins, (Isa 52:10, 15; 53:4-6, 10-12). Most of the world was not well acquainted with the details of His soul at all, (Isa 53:2-3); but the pouring out of His soul in the sense of giving all that He had, physically and spiritually and emotionally to fulfill His mission of atonement for mankind's sins unto death for the justification of many is certainly in view from the beginning of the passage]

This rendition also removes the subtlety built into the Christian interpretation aimed at advancing the concept of human vicarious atonement.

[An agenda to filter out any interpretation that is feasible because it might imply human vicarious atonement is neither logical, linguistically accurate, nor true to the context. Nor is substitutionary atonement unbiblical ]

The last phrase in the verse, rendered as "... and he will [continue to] intercede for the transgressors." in the Jewish translation, and as "... and made intercession for the transgressors." in the KJV, requires comment. It was previously noted in the analysis of Isaiah 53:6, the root verb פגע is used in the Hebrew in two different contexts. Both translations agree on its application here, in Isaiah 53:12, but they differ on the tenses. The verb used here is יַפְגּי ע (yafGI'a), the 3rd-person singular, masculine, future tense conjugation of the root verb פָּגַע in the hif'IL stem (the active causative form of the Hebrew verb). The significance of the correct tense here is that, in His response to the (Gentile) nations, God expects Israel to continue in its role as intercessor on their behalf. This is, in fact, still the case today as well.
Most Jewish congregations recite, usually in the vernacular, a prayer for the government. The text varies from congregation to congregation.

[The Hebrew word  יַפְגּיע transliterated "yapga" which means intercede in this context, considering the previous phrase to which it is connected which is rendered "And He has borne the sin of many." This verb, rendered "has borne" is in the perfect tense - a completed action portrayed as a future event - evidently a one-time for all time event. On the other hand, "yapga" rendered "intercedes" in Isa 53:12 is in the imperfect mood which indicates an incomplete / an ongoing action as a future event of not only prayer but of ongoing atonement / forgiveness of sins when they are committed by believers for temporal and eternal forgiveness, (Ps 32, 1 Jn 1:1-9). For forgiveness of ones sins is not possible unless it is backed by atonement, i.e., payment for those sins. Scripture teaches that without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness of sins:

a) [Compare Lev 17:11]:

(Lev 17:11 NASB) "For the life of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it to you on the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood by reason of the life that makes atonement."]

Isaiah 53:12 foretells that the people of Israel, as God's servant, will be compensated for having had to carry the ills afflicted on them throughout the ages, and will be rewarded for choosing this fate rather than abandon the Jewish faith and follow other gods their forefathers had not known. As was previously noted, the idea that Israel has borne the results of the wicked acts of others is not a new concept, neither is the fact that exiled Jews have interceded and prayed on behalf of those who ruled over them.

[Isa 53:12 does not have the people of Israel in view as God's Servant at all. Israel is God's servant for other purposes , but not for what is stated in Isa 53:12, namely the Servant being an individual Jew having poured out His soul unto death, having borne the sin of many, and an ongoing interceding for the transgressors . If Israel were in view, then she would have died and a future generation of Israel would not have been able to be restored in the Promised Land, and the New Covenant would remain forever unfulfilled.

There is no passage in Scripture that indicates that Israel was promised to be compensated for having had to carry the ills afflicted upon them throughout the ages by the Gentile nations, much less receive eternal life without having to pay for the sins they inevitably committed. Even the good deeds of righteousness that mortal men may attempt to perform would be unacceptable by God in order to earn rewards of any kind, (Isa 64:6-7 ; cf. Gen 8:21; Eccl 7:20; Jer 17:9; Ps 51:5; Job 14:1-4), much less Israel's restoration into the Promised Land and eternal life in the Kingdom of God.

******

Furthermore, Israel has had such an egregious history of abandoning the faith and following other gods, (ref. Dt 31:17-18; Jer 1:1-16; 2:20; 3:1ff; 4:1; 7:18-19; 19:1-13; Isa 59:1-14; Ezek 8:17; 11:1-20; 16:26-59; 36:16-21; 31ff; 1 Kgs 19:18; 2 Kgs 23:1-20, Zech 8:14; etc.); that there is no chance that the people of Israel - or any people - will ever be rewarded for their faithfulness under their own auspices. Salvation cannot be a reward, it must be a gift, by grace through faith alone - as Abraham learned it would be through his Seed, a descendant Who would make provision for his righteousness through a substitutionary atoning sacrifice . This was pictured for Abraham by his son Isaac upon on the altar when a ram appeared on the scene, (Gen 22). This is why the people of Israel and all mankind need the grace of God in order to fulfill the New Covenant which God unilaterally made and will unilaterally fulfill for them - without any help from Israel or mankind .

Finally, although it is true that Israel did intercede in prayer for her enemies, (cf., Jeremiah 27:18), it is not in view in Isa 53:12 because the Servant in view in this verse and the entire passage comprising chapters 52 & 53 is not Israel ]

The Jewish people will finally be vindicated, a vision that Ezekiel expresses so eloquently:

The ArtScroll Siddur [Kol Yaakov], p. 451, Published by Mesorah Publications, Ltd. (1997). Ezekiel 34:27-30 – (27) "And the tree of the field will give forth its fruit and the land will give forth its produce, and they will know that I am the Lord when I break the bars of their yoke and rescue them from those who enslave them. (28) And they will no longer be a prey to the nations, and the beasts of the earth will not devour them, and they will dwell securely, with no one frightening them. (29) And I shall establish for them a plantation for renown, and they will no longer be hidden because of hunger in the land, and they will no longer bear the disgrace of the nations. (30) And they will know that I, the Lord their God, am with them, and they are My people, the house of Israel," says the Lord God."

[The passage in Ezek 34:27-30 does not establish that the restoration of a generation of the people of Israel will be a vindication of their righteousness and faithfulness to the LORD throughout the centuries. It has already been established that Israel has an egregiously unfaithful history indicating her incapacity to restore herself to godliness and thus vindicate herself . The passages that do address the New Covenant more thoroughly indicate that it is the LORD alone Who will unilaterally bring about Israel's restoration  through a substitutionary atonement by the Servant in view in Isa chapters 52-53 , Who is both God and Man