ROMANS CHAPTER 5

OBSERVATION STAGE

The purpose of the observation stage is to maintain focus on the text at hand within the normative rules of language, context and logic which limits the observer to the content offered by the book of Romans. This will serve to avoid going on unnecessary tangents elsewhere; and more importantly, it will provide the framework for a proper and objective comparison with passages located elsewhere in Scripture.

Remember that something elsewhere may be true, but in the text at hand it may not be in view.

Notice that verse one of chapter five continues the context of chapter four:

"having been declared righteous [i.e., justified], then, by faith, we have peace toward God through our Lord Jesus Christ"

Immediately below is an excerpt that reviews this context or

Skip to verse 5:1

************* EXCERPT FROM CHAPTER 4 ************

PAUL REITERATES A KEY THEME OF HIS LETTER TO THE ROMANS, THAT ANYONE, JEW OR GENTILE, WHO EXPRESSES THE SAME FAITH THAT ABRAHAM EXPRESSED IN THE PROMISE OF GOD TO PROVIDE THROUGH ABRAHAM'S SEED A MESSIAH/SAVIOR, OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST, WHO WAS RAISED BY GOD FROM THE DEAD AND WAS DELIVERED OVER BECAUSE OF OUR TRANSGRESSIONS AND RAISED BECAUSE OF OUR JUSTIFICATION - THAT PERSON HAS ETERNAL LIFE

(v. 4:18 NAS) "In hope against hope he believed, so that he might become a father of many nations according to that which had been spoken, 'so shall your descendants be.' (v. 4:19 NAS) Without becoming weak in faith he contemplated his own body, now as good as dead since he was about a hundred years old, and the deadness of Sarah's womb; (v. 4:20 NAS) yet, with respect to the promise of God, he did not waver in unbelief but grew strong in faith, giving glory to God, (v. 4:21 NAS) and being fully assured that what God had promised, He was able also to perform. (v. 4:22 NAS) Therefore 'It was reckoned to him as righteousness.' (v. 4:23 NAS) Now not for his sake only was it written that it was reckoned to him, (v. 4:24 NAS) but for our sake also, to whom it will be reckoned, as those who believe in Him who raised Jesus our Lord from the dead, (v. 4:25 NAS) [He] who was delivered over because of our transgressions, and was raised because of our justification." =

Paul reiterates a key theme of his letter to the Romans, that anyone, Jew or Gentile, who expresses the same faith that Abraham expressed in the promise of God to provide through Abraham's seed a Messiah/Savior, our Lord Jesus Christ, Who was raised by God from the dead and was delivered over because of our transgressions and raised because of our justification - that person has eternal life.

Since God gives life to the dead and created the world - even life - out of nothing and since God fulfilled His promise that Abraham and Sarah would give birth to a son, when Isaac was born, in spite of the fact that this was physically and naturally impossible for both of them, then it has been established that God is capable of fulfilling the promise He made to Abraham and to all of those who express the same faith Abraham did, of justification unto eternal life through faith in Abraham's physical descendant, Jesus Christ.

Notice that the word "promise" repeated in vv. 4:13, 14, 16, 20, 21 and the phrases "the righteousness that comes by faith", (v. 4:13), and "credited... as righteousness", (vv. 4:22, 23, 24) refer to and describe the justification, i.e., being declared as perfectly righteous enough and qualified to have eternal life, of the one who believes in Jesus Christ. This justification is received via a moment of faith alone in Jesus Christ alone whereupon one is declared by God to have such righteousness of God and thereby the free gift of eternal life.

************** END OF EXCERPT FROM CHAPTER 4 *************

I) [Ro 5:1 NAS]:

"Therefore, having been justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ"

OBSERVATIONS

A) IN VIEW ARE THOSE WHO HAVE EXPRESSED A MOMENT OF FAITH IN WHAT ABRAHAM BELIEVED (THE GOSPEL) AND THUS HAVE BEEN JUSTIFIED UNTO ETERNAL LIFE BY GOD AS A COMPLETED PERMANENT, PASSIVE ACTION. ONCE EXERCISED, THE FAITH IS NOT STIPULATED AS HAVING TO CONTINUE. IT SHOULD CONTINUE BUT NO LONGER NEEDS TO BE EXPRESSED TO REMAIN JUSTIFIED. HENCE HUMAN DOING IS NOT REQUIRED AT ANY TIME. ONE SIMPLY EXPRESSES A MOMENT OF TRUST IN GOD TO DO IT ALL.

"dikaiOthentes ............................................................oun ..ek pisteOs eirEnEn

"Having been justified, (declared righteous by God) then..by faith, .....peace

echomen pros ....ton theon dia .........tou kuriou hEmOn iEsou christou"

we have .toward .......God ..through .the Lord ...our .......Jesus Christ"

"Having been justified, (declared righteous by God) then..by faith =

"DikaiOthentes" is a nominative participle, i.e., a participle acting as a noun; literally "ones who have been justified" [declared righteous by God]. It is in the aorist tense, signifying a completed action in the past. It is also in the passive voice indicating that the individual who has been justified did not participate in anyway to receive that position. Hence, God has performed this finished forever action of justification on the individual who believed. The individual simply trusted in God to do it all for him.

So the context of vv. 4:18-25 continues into chapter 5. We have in view those who have expressed a moment of faith in what Abraham believed (the gospel) and thus have been justified unto eternal life by God as a completed permanent, passive action. Once exercised, the faith is not stipulated as having to continue. It should continue but it no longer needs to be expressed to remain justified. Hence human doing is not required at any time. One simply expresses a moment of trust in God to do it all.

[William R. Newell states, 'Romans Verse By Verse', Kregel, Grand Rapids, Mi, 1994, p. 163]:

"We must note at once that the Greek form of this verb 'declared righteous,' or 'justified,' is not the present participle, 'being declared righteous,' but rather the aorist participle 'having been declared righteous,' or 'justified.'

[or more specifically the nominative form of the aorist participle: 'ones who have been declared righteous once for all time']

"You say, What is the difference? The answer is, 'being declared righteous' looks to a state you are in; 'having been declared righteous [i.e., justified]' looks back to a fact that happened. 'Being in a justified state' of course is incorrect, confusing, as it does, justification and sanctification. 'Whatsoever God doeth, it shall be forever.' The moment you believed, God declared you righteous, never to change His mind."

B) WE WHO HAVE EXPRESSED A MOMENT OF FAITH ALONE IN CHRIST ALONE HAVE BEEN PERMANENTLY JUSTIFIED, I.E., DECLARED RIGHTEOUS UNTO ETERNAL LIFE BY GOD. AT THAT INSTANT WE BEGAN TO HAVE A PERMANENT POSITION OF ETERNAL PEACE WITH GOD - NEVER AGAIN TO BE SUBJECT TO HIS ETERNAL WRATH - WE HAVE BEEN ETERNALLY RECONCILED TO GOD

"dikaiOthentes ............................................................oun ..ek pisteOs eirEnEn

"Having been justified, (declared righteous by God) then..by faith, .....peace

echomen pros ....ton theon dia .........tou kuriou hEmOn iEsou christou"

we have .toward .......God ..through .the Lord ...our .......Jesus Christ"

"having been declared righteous [i.e., justified], then, by faith, we have peace toward God through our Lord Jesus Christ" =

We who have expressed a moment of faith alone in Christ alone have been permanently justified, i.e., declared righteous unto eternal life by God. At that instant we began to have a permanent position of eternal peace toward God - never again to be subject to His eternal wrath.

The word rendered "toward", (Greek, "pros", accusative case), with the stationary verb "to have", (Greek, "echO"), means "to have" or "to possess" in this case "peace" in an intimate communion, face to face, on an equal level with God. Hence we do not have in view a moment to moment peace with God in our experience, but an eternal position of peace with God Who is eternal, never again to be subject to His wrath relative to eternal life. Hence we have been eternally reconciled to God.

1) [Compare Ro 5:9-10]:

(v. 5:9 NKJV) "Much more then, having now been justified by His blood, we shall be saved from wrath through Him.

(v. 5:10 NIV) For if, when we were God's enemies, we were reconciled to him through the death of His Son, how much more, having been reconciled, shall we be saved through His life!"

"we have been justified" = "dikaiOthentes", aorist nominative participle signifying a completed action.

Notice that the salvation from God's wrath is defined as reconciliation. It is a result of having been justified as a completed action in the past, (aorist participle). Eternal, not temporal, wrath is in view, since God can still exercise His temporal wrath on errant believers.

[Dr Leon Morris states, ('The Gospel According to John, Wiliam B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, Mi, 1971, p. 75-76)]:

"The preposition ["pros" = "with"] implies not merely existence alongside of but personal intercourse. It means more than' meta' = 'with' or 'para' = 'with', 'by', 'near', 'among', and is regularly employed in expressing the presence of one person with another"....According to A. T. Robertson, "the literal idea comes out well, 'face to face with God...[it]...expresses nearness combined with the sense of movement towards God, and so indicates an active relationship." [with a sense of intimacy] So "pros" is used to establish the idea of communion on an equal level."

Certainly if we are declared permanently and absolutely righteous unto eternal life as a completed action in the past, then we are nevermore at enmity with God, rather we are at eternal peace with Him relative to our eternal destiny. Experiential peace with God, on the other hand, is another matter and not in view in this passage.

[The Expositor's Bible Commentary, Zondervan Publishing, Vol 10; Grand Rapids, Michigan, Frank E. Gaebelein, Editor, Commentary on Romans, Everett F. Harrison, 1976, p. 56]:

'''The first of the blessings conveyed by justification is "peace." We have encountered the word in the salutation (1:7) and in an eschatological setting (2:10). Here, however, the milieu is the estrangement between God and man because of sin. Peace takes its meaning from the emphasis on divine wrath in the first section of the Epistle. Observe also, in the present chapter, the occurrence of "wrath" (v. 9) and "enemies" (v. 10). Peace in this setting means harmony with God rather than a subjective [experiential = day to day] state in the consciousness of man.

That the objective meaning is to be adopted in the present passage is put beyond all doubt by the fact that the kind of peace in view is "peace with God." The same expression "with God" is used in John 1:1 to indicate the unity and perfect harmony between the Father and the Son. Since this particular boon is placed first among the benefits of justification, it should be evident how central is the wrath of God to Paul's exposition of the plight of man that God has moved to remedy. Man's plight could be dealt with only through the mediation of our Lord Jesus Christ.'''

[W. R. Newell states, "Romans Verse by Verse, Kregel, Grand Rapids, Mi, 1994,pp. 164-165]:

" 'Peace' means that war is done. 'Peace with God' means that God has nothing against us. This involves:

a) That God has fully judged sin, upon Christ, our Substitute.

b) That God was so wholly satisfied with Christ's sacrifice, that He will eternally remain so: never taking up the judgment of our sin again.

c) That God is therefore at rest about us forever, however poor our understanding of truth, however weak our walk. God is looking at the blood of Christ, and not at our sins. All claims against us were met when Christ 'made peace by the blood of His cross.' [Col 1:20]...

Our peace with God is not as between two nations before at war; but as between a king and rebellious and guilty subjects. While our hearts are at last at rest, it is because God, against whom we sinned, has been fully satisfied at the cross. 'Peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ' does not mean peace through what He is now doing, but through what He did do on the Cross. He 'made peace' by the blood of His cross. All the majesty of God's holy and righteous throne was satisfied when Christ said, 'It is finished.' And, being now raised from the dead, 'He is our peace.' [Eph 2:14] But it is His past work at Calvary, not His present work of intercession, that all is based on; and that gives us a sense of the peace which He made through His blood."

C) SINCE THE PARTICULAR KIND OF PEACE TOWARD GOD IN VIEW IS EXCLUSIVELY THROUGH OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST; AND SINCE THOSE WHO HAVE BEEN JUSTIFIED BY FAITH ARE NOT PICTURED IN THIS CONTEXT AS LEADING SINLESSLY PERFECT LIFESTYLES IN ORDER TO BE CONSTANTLY AT PEACE WITH GOD IN THEIR EXPERIENCE; THEN EXPERIENTIAL (MOMENT TO MOMENT) PEACE WITH GOD, WHICH IS DEPENDENT UPON ONGOING RIGHTEOUS BEHAVIOR, IS NOT IN VIEW IN 5:1

"having been declared righteous [i.e., justified], then, by faith, we have peace toward God through our Lord Jesus Christ" =

Since the particular kind peace toward God in view is exclusively through our Lord Jesus Christ; and since those who have been justified by faith are not pictured in this context as leading sinlessly perfect lifestyles in order to be constantly at peace with God in their experience; then experiential (moment to moment) peace with God, which is dependant upon ongoing righteouos behavior, is not in view in 5:1.

We who have expressed a moment of faith and have been permanently justified, i.e., declared righteous unto eternal life by God, at that instant begin to have a permanent position of eternal peace toward God - never again to be subject to His eternal wrath. On the other hand, this cannot have ones daily life in view because this depends upon the individual and can vary from moment to moment. Notice that the peace toward God in view is exclusively a matter of a moment of faith and is exclusively through our Lord Jesus Christ. So there is no guarantee in view in the context of Romans that the day to day experience of one who has been justified will always be at peace with God and not subject to God's temporal wrath.

This is corroborated in a number of ways in this passage:

1) The absence in the text at hand of anything that points to a justified individual having peace with God in ones day to day experience.

2) The fact that having peace with God in one's daily experience demands human doing which is not stipulated as a requirement toward the peace received in Romans 5:1. The verb rendered "having been justified" is in the passive voice signifying that human doing is excluded, especially ongoing faithfulness.

3) Romans 5:1 stipulates that the peace toward God is exclusively through our Lord Jesus Christ. No one else is stipulated.

4) The experiential, moment to moment peace is not in view in this passage as guaranteed in the life of the one who has been justified by faith. There is made no mention of any effort on the part of the individual to experience the experiential peace of God which requires one to continue to be faithful to the Lord in all that one does.

5) Verse 9 stipulates that we who have been justified will be saved from God's wrath: "Since we have now been justified by His blood, how much more shall we be saved from God's wrath through Him!" This corroborates that we who have been justified are at peace with God relative to never being subject to God's eternal wrath.

This being said, this can only be an eternal, positional peace toward God, no longer at enmity with Him, i.e., no longer under His eternal wrath, rather than a day to day experiential peace with God.

D) ALTERNATIVE READING OF LET US HAVE PEACE TOWARD OR WITH GOD IS RULED OUT

"having been declared righteous [i.e., justified], then, by faith, we have peace toward God through our Lord Jesus Christ" =

Note that an alternate reading of Ro 5:1 which is found in some manuscripts of "let us have peace toward God" = "echwmen", with a long o, ('w') rather than the short o, subjunctive mood = objective possibility but not certainty as a result of our justification must be over ruled on the basis of earlier manuscript evidence. The discovery of the Wyman vellum fragment, (0220) dated latter 3rd century supports echomen, short "o", indicative mood which predates other manuscripts with the long "o", subjunctive mood.

Furthermore the indicative mood which occurs throughout this passage establishes a context of statement of fact and not objective possibility, so 'echomen', indicative mood fits best.

Finally, if one is declared absolutely righteous as a completed action in the past, then one is in fact no longer at enmity with God relative to eternal life, rather one is at eternal peace with Him.

[Daniel B. Wallace, PhD, "Do Christians Have Peace with God? A Brief Examination of the Textual Problem in Romans 5:1", Dallas Theological Seminary, http://www.bible.org/docs/soapbox/rom5-1.htm]:

'''At issue is not two different translations of the same word, but two different words—or, rather, two different forms of the same Greek word. The difference in spelling is one letter (either an omicron or an omega—that is, either a short ‘o’ [o] or a long ‘o’ [w]), but the difference in pronunciation, as far as we can tell, was nil in the first century AD. This is not to say the difference in meaning was nil! Spelled with an omicron, the verb is in the 0indicative mood—“we have peace”; spelled with the omega, the verb is in the subjunctive mood—“let us have peace.”

...A number of important witnesses have the subjunctive ecwmen (“let us have”) for ecomen (“we have”) in v. 1. Included in the subjunctive’s support are * A B* C D K L 33 1739* lat bo and many other witnesses. But the indicative is not without its supporters: 1 B2 F G P Y 0220vid 1241 1506 1739c 1881 2464 and many other witnesses. If the problem were to be solved on an external basis only, the subjunctive would be given the palm. Clearly, the “A” rating in the UBS4 is overly generous. However, the indicative is probably correct. First, the earliest witness to Rom 5:1 has the indicative (0220). Although given a probable vote in this direction (“vid”) by the editors of the standard critical texts, this is due to the fact that the fragment is shorn right in the middle of the letter. An examination of the manuscript, with attention to how the scribe shaped his omicrons and omegas, indicates that the letter could only be an omicron. Second, the first set of correctors is usually of equal importance with the original hand. Hence, 1 should be given equal value with *. Third, there is a good cross-section of witnesses for the indicative: Alexandrian (in 0220, 1 1241 1506 1881 et alii), Western (in F G), and Byzantine (noted in the Nestle text as pm). Thus, although the external evidence is strongly in favor of the subjunctive, the indicative is represented well enough that its ancestry could easily go back to the original.

...In light of the indecisiveness of the transcriptional evidence (what a scribe would be likely to have produced), intrinsic evidence (what an author would be likely to have written) could play a much larger role. This is indeed the case here.

First, the indicative fits well with the overall argument of the book to this point. Up until now, Paul has been establishing the “indicatives of the faith.” There is only one imperative (used rhetorically) and only one hortatory subjunctive—the “let us” exhortations—up till this point (and this in a diatribal quotation), while from ch. 6 on there are sixty-one imperatives and seven hortatory subjunctives. Clearly, an exhortation would be out of place in ch. 5.

Second, Paul presupposes that the audience has peace with God (via reconciliation) in 5:10. This seems to assume the indicative in v. 1.

Third, as Cranfield notes, “it would surely be strange for Paul, in such a carefully argued writing as this, to exhort his readers to enjoy or to guard a peace which he has not yet explicitly shown to be possessed by them” (Romans [ICC] 1.257).

Fourth, the notion that eirEnEn echomen can even naturally mean “enjoy peace” is problematic—yet this is the meaning given to the subjunctive by virtually all who consider the subjunctive to be original. This point is elaborated on below.

The subjunctive here has often been translated something like, “Let us enjoy the peace that we already have.” Only rarely in the NT does the verb mean “enjoy” (cf. Heb 11:25), and it probably never has this as a primary force in the subjunctive. Thus, if the subjunctive were original, it probably would mean “let us come to have peace with God,” but this notion is entirely foreign to the context, particularly to the fact that justification has already been applied. '''

So it is the individual who has been justified through faith once for all time, i.e., the believer, who is in view. And one of the key benefits of being justified by faith is a permanent positional state of peace with God, never again to be under His eternal wrath.

Previously, the unsaved individual was at enmity with God all the time but once reconciled to God through faith alone in Christ alone, he is no longer in a position of being God's enemy:

1) [Compare Ro 5:10-11]:

(v. 5:10 NIV) "For if, when we were God's enemies, we were reconciled to him through the death of His Son, how much more, having been reconciled, shall we be saved through His life!

(v. 11 NAS) And not only [so], but we are also boasting in God, through our Lord Jesus Christ, through Whom now we did receive the reconciliation"

II) [Ro 5:2 NKJV]:

(v. 2 NKJV) "through Whom also we have access by faith into this grace in which we stand, and rejoice in [sure] hope of the glory of God."

OBSERVATIONS

A) WE WHO HAVE BEEN DECLARED RIGHTEOUS BY GOD UNTO ETERNAL LIFE BY OUR EXPRESSION OF A MOMENT OF FAITH ALONE, HAVE GAINED AN ETERNAL STANDING OF GRACE WITH GOD WHICH INCLUDES A POSITION OF ETERNAL PEACE WITH GOD WHICH HAD BEGUN WHEN WE EXPRESSED THAT MOMENT OF FAITH

(v. 5:1 NAS) "Therefore, having been justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, (v. 5:2 NKJV) through Whom [Jesus Christ] we have gained access by faith into this grace in which we now [have begun and continue to forever] stand. And we rejoice [boast] in the [sure] hope of the glory of God." =

(v. 2 Greek) "di' ..........hou ....kai .tEn prosagOgEn eschEkamen tE .......pistei dis ..

......................"through Whom also the access ..........we have had .by the faith ..into

tEn charin tautEn en hE ......hestEkamen ......................................................

the .grace .this .....in .which we have begun and continue to forever stand..

kai kauchOmetha .ep elpidi tEs ......doxEs .........tou .theou."

and we boast .........in ..[sure] hope ..of the glory .......of God."..

The Greek verb "hestEkamen" rendered in the NIV, "[into the grace into which] we [had begun and] now stand [forever] (NAS: "we have stood"), is in the perfect tense. Hence it conveys an action completed in the past with ongoing effect in the present. So we who have been declared righteous by God unto eternal life by our expression of a moment of faith alone, "we now stand", i.e., have gained a position of access into this grace of eternal peace with God which had begun when we expressed that moment of faith; and this grace position continues forever, (perfect tense). This is a statement of receiving an eternal standing, i.e., position of grace with God which includes being at eternal peace with God, no longer subject to His eternal wrath. It is thus not a stipulation of ones day to day experience.

B) THOSE OF US WHO HAVE BEEN JUSTIFIED BY EXPRESSING THE FAITH OF ABRAHAM, (THE GOSPEL), HAVE GAINED ACCESS INTO THIS GRACE OF GOD INTO WHICH WE HAVE BEGUN STANDING IN AND NOW CONTINUE TO STAND: AN ETERNALLY SECURE POSITION WITH GOD WHICH INCLUDES AN ETERNAL COMMUNION OF PEACE WITH GOD - NEVERMORE UNDER HIS ETERNAL WRATH

(v. 5:1 NAS) "Therefore, having been justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, (v. 5:2 NKJV) through Whom also we have access by faith into this grace in which we stand, and rejoice in [sure] hope of the glory of God." =

Those of us who have been justified by expressing the faith of Abraham, (the gospel), have gained access into this grace of God into which we have begun standing in and now continue to stand: an eternally secure communion of peace with God - nevermore under His eternal wrath. The particular grace of God in view includes that which is stipulated in verse 1: An eternally secure communion of peace with God. Notice that it is our Lord Jesus Christ through Whom we have access into this particular grace with God by a moment of faith alone in Him alone which includes an intimate communion of eternal peace with God. The particular grace with God had begun at the moment we began expressing the faith of Abraham, (the gospel), and it is stipulated as including an ongoing, eternally secure communion of peace with God by virtue of the perfect tense Greek verb, " hestEkamen" = "we [have stood and] now stand"

C) THOSE WHO HAVE BEEN JUSTIFIED ARE NOW IN A POSITION OF NEW OPPORTUNITY, BUT MAY NOT CHOOSE, TO REJOICE [BOAST] IN THE SURE HOPE OF PARTICIPATING IN AND EXPRESSING THE ETERNAL GLORY OF GOD

(v. 5:1 NAS) "Therefore, having been justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, (v. 5:2 NKJV) through Whom also we have access by faith into this grace in which we stand, and rejoice in [sure] hope of the glory of God" =

1) TO REJOICE = TO EXPRESS THE EMOTION OF JOY IN A BOASTFUL MANNER

"And [we] rejoice [boast] in hope of the glory of God" =

"we rejoice" = "kauchOmetha" = boast, glory.

We who have been justified are now in a position of new opportunity to rejoice, i.e., express the emotion of joy in a boastful manner in sure hope of participating in and expressing the eternal glory of God. This is not a statement that everyone who has been justified will inevitably and always rejoice in sure hope of the eternal glory of God, for the context of chapter 5 supports positional declarations as opposed to inevitable experiential ones.

Notice that the boasting is in the grace of God through the Lord Jesus Christ and Him alone, hardly an egotistical boasting on the part of one who has been justified by a moment of faith alone in Christ alone - totally by the grace of God.

2) WE WHO HAVE BEEN JUSTIFIED BY FAITH ARE NOW IN A POSITION TO REJOICE IN SURE AND CERTAIN HOPE OF RECEIVING THE ETERNAL GLORY OF GOD. ON THE OTHER HAND WE MAY CHOOSE NOT TO DO THIS

a) THE HOPE OF THE GLORY OF GOD IS A SURE AND CERTAIN HOPE

"In [sure] hope of" =

"hope" = "elpidi" = [Vines, p. 233]: "favorable, confident expectation"

The Greek word "elpidi", rendered "hope," signifies certainty as opposed to possibility, especially considering that it is based on the guarantee of receiving and expressing the glory of God by God Himself. Hence, the individual who has been justified can now rejoice boastfully in sure and certain hope of receiving the eternal glory of God - especially since it depends upon God alone. Note the passive voice of "DikaiOthentes" rendered "having been justified" in v. 5:1 which indicates that we did not participate in anyway to receive that justification.

b) THE CONTEXT OF VERSES 5:1-2 IS ONE OF DECLARATION OF A POSITION OF NEW OPPORTUNTY WHICH WE WHO HAVE BEEN JUSTIFIED HAVE RECEIVED AS OPPOSED TO OUR DAY TO DAY EXPERIENCE

And we rejoice [boast] in the [sure] hope of the glory of God' =

Notice that the context of verses 5:1-2 is one of a declaration of the position of new opportunity which we who have been justified have received, as opposed to our day to day experience. The phrase within this context, "we rejoice in the [sure] hope of the glory of God," contains the Greek verb "kauchOmetha", rendered "rejoice", which in the present tense, indicative mood, i.e., a statement of fact that we who have been justified [are in a position to] rejoice in sure hope of receiving and expressing the eternal glory of God. Hence to conclude that all of us who have been justified will inevitably rejoice boastfully in sure hope of receiving and expressing the glory of God is unwarranted and unsupported in Scripture.

3) WE WHO HAVE BECOME JUSTIFIED WILL ENTER INTO THE EXPRESSION OF THE HONOR, POWER AND HOLINESS OF GOD

"And we rejoice [boast] in the [sure] hope of the glory of God." =

"glory of God" = "doxEs tou theou" = The expression of the honor, power & holiness of God.

Evidently those who have become justified will not just observe God's glory, they will enter into it. They can look forward to receiving, participating in and reflecting the glory of God. For nothing can exist in eternity with God short of participating and reflecting the glory of God.

a) [Compare Ro 1:16-17; 3:21-24]:

(v. 16) "For I am not ashamed of the gospel, because it is the power of God for the salvation of everyone who believes: first for the Jew, then for the Gentile.

(v. 17 NKJV) For in the gospel a righteousness from God is revealed [in one to mankind] from faith to faith, [i.e., out of ones belief in the gospel to faithfulness in ones life to that belief] just as it is written: 'The righteous will live [out the length of their lives] by faith.' "

(v. 3:21) But now a righteousness from God, apart from law, has been made known, to which the Law and the Prophets testify.

(v. 3:22) This righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. There is no difference,

(v. 3:23) for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God,

(v. 3:24) and are justified freely by His grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus."

Notice that the subject that God requires that mankind be righteous in order to be saved unto eternal life continues from the beginning of the Book of Romans. But it is declared that all men have sinned and fall short of the glory and hence are unacceptable to spend eternity with God. So man must possess the righteousness from God, the standard of God's glory in order to be acceptable to God.

III) [Ro 5:3-5]:

(v. 5:3 NIV) "Not only so, but we also rejoice in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance;

(v. 5:4 NIV) perseverance, character; and character, hope.

(v. 5:5 NIV) And hope does not disappoint us, because God has poured out His love into our hearts by the Holy Spirit, Whom he has given us."

OBSERVATIONS

A) NOT ONLY ARE WE WHO HAVE BEEN JUSTIFIED BY FAITH NOW IN A POSITION TO REJOICE IN SURE AND CERTAIN HOPE OF RECEIVING THE ETERNAL GLORY OF GOD BUT WE ARE ALSO IN A POSITION OF NEW OPPORTUNITY TO REJOICE IN OUR SUFFERINGS, I.E., LIFE'S INEVITABLE AFFLICTIONS

(v. 1 NAS) "having been declared righteous [i.e., justified], then, by faith, we have peace toward God through our Lord Jesus Christ, (v. 2 NKJV) through Whom also we have access by faith into this grace in which we stand, and rejoice in [sure] hope of the glory of God. (v. 3 NIV) Not only so, but we also rejoice in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance; (v. 4 NIV) perseverance, character; and character, hope." =

(v. 3) "ou monon de .alla kai kauchOmetha en tais thlipsesin .......................eidotes

........"Not only ..and but also we boast .........in .the .tribulations[sufferings] knowing

hoti hE .thlipsis .....hupomonEn katergazetai

that the tribulation endurance ..works out;

(v. 4) hE .de ..hupomonE dokimEn hE .de ...dokimE elpida"

..........the and endurance proof ......the .and proof ....[sure] hope"

"thlipsesin" = sufferings, life's afflictions. The word rendered "sufferings" and "suffering" refers to afflictions as if they are a given to all individuals, hence life's afflictions in general which come to all individuals.

Paul says, 'Not only are we, who have been justified by faith, now in a position to rejoice in sure and certain hope of receiving the eternal glory of God; but we are also in a position of new opportunity to rejoice in the inevitable sufferings that come to all individuals, justified or not. The position of new opportunity of having the capacity and reasoning to rejoice in life's afflictions is stated as a statement of fact. We who have been justified are in a new position that affords a new opportunity. Hence we who have been justified are exhorted to respond. Sufferings are inevitable in life for all individuals, but now that we are justified, we are in a position of rejoicing in sufferings and should do so because we can benefit from them now and in eternity as explained in the next two verses.

III cont.) [Ro 5:3-5 cont.]:

(v. 3 NIV) "Not only so, but we also rejoice in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance;

(v. 4 NIV) perseverance, character; and character, hope.

(v. 5 NIV) And hope does not disappoint us, because God has poured out His love into our hearts by the Holy Spirit, Whom He has given us."

B) THEREFORE SINCE WE HAVE BEEN JUSTIFIED, WE ARE STIPULATED AS BEING IN A POSITION OF NEW OPPORTUNITIES. WE ARE EXHORTED TO REJOICE IN OUR SUFFERINGS BECAUSE WE ARE TO KNOW THAT SUFFERING PRODUCES PERSEVERANCE; PERSEVERANCE, CHARACTER AND CHARACTER, A SURE HOPE OF THE ETERNAL GLORY OF GOD AND OF BEING DELIVERED THROUGH DAILY AFFLICTIONS BY GOD

(v. 5:1 NAS) "Therefore, having been justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ,, (v. 2 NIV) Through Whom we have gained access by faith into this grace in which we [had begun and] now stand. And we rejoice [boast] in the [sure] hope of the glory of God. (v. 3 NIV) Not only so, but we also rejoice in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance; (v. 4 NIV) perseverance, character; and character, hope." =

(v. 3) "ou monon de .alla kai kauchOmetha en tais thlipsesin .......................eidotes

........"Not only ..and but also we boast .........in .the .tribulations[sufferings] knowing

hoti hE .thlipsis .....hupomonEn katergazetai

that the tribulation endurance ..works out;

(v. 4) hE .de ..hupomonE dokimEn hE .de ...dokimE elpida

..........the and endurance proof ......the .and proof ....[sure] hope

Therefore since we have been justified by faith, we are stipulated as being in a position of new opportunities. We are exhorted to rejoice in our sufferings because we are to know that suffering produces perseverance; perseverance, character and character, a sure hope of eternal glory of God and of being delivered through daily afflictions by God.

The Greek phrase "eidotes hoti" rendered "knowing that" implies that we who have been justified are now in a position to know something, evidently as a result of having been justified. The Greek word "eidotes" comes from the Greek word 'oida' which means to know by intuition or perception as opposed to know by experience, implying in this context that God Himself has provided this knowledge as an impartation to us who have been justified. This is corroborated later by verse 5's declaration as follows: "And hope does not disappoint us, because God has poured out His love into our hearts by the Holy Spirit, Whom He has given us." Hence the Holy Spirit having been imparted to us who have been justified through the pouring out of God's love within us provides this intuitive "knowing."

The context continues to have points of position of new opportunity in view for we who now have been justified. The verb "kateregazetai", literally "works out," is in the indicative mood, i.e., a statement of fact, rendered "produces", (NIV), "brings about", (NAS). This corroborates the context of points being made about new positions of opportunity for us "since we have been been justified", (v. 5:1). Notice that chapter five begins with the phrase, "Therefore, since we have been justified by faith," after which follows all of these new positions of opportunity.

The word "hupomonEn" is rendered "endurance" or perseverance, (NIV, NAS), in the phrase "knowing that suffering produces perseverance."

It is thus implied that life's afflictions for we who have been justified can bring about a capacity for perseverance. This is provided that one trusts God in their circumstance of suffering and thereby comes out of those afflictions alive and whole - not all will. Surviving afflictions whole produces perseverance, which result is enabled through faith in God to us who have been justified.

The verse goes on to say that perseverance leads to "dokimEn", literally, "proof". "DokimEn" means tested or proved out. In this context, an individual is proved out or declared as successfully tested by persevering under afflictions and surviving intact, as a whole person, those afflictions. The word is thus rendered "proven character", (NAS), "character", (NIV).

In the final phrase of verse 4, we return to the word "elpida" = a sure hope. The sure hope is connected to the phrase "we" of verse 1, wherein we who have been justifed not only have sure hope of receiving and participating in the eternal glory of God, but we also have sure hope that trusting in God will enable us to persevere through afflictions thus developing our character. Hence we can rejoice all the more.

[William R. Newell, "Romans, Verse-by-Verse, Kregel Classics, Grand Rapids, MI, 1994, pp. 167-8]:

"So now we find that not only does the believer look back to peace made with God at the cross; at a God smiling upon him in favor; and forward to his coming glorification with Christ, but he is able also to exult in the very tribulations that are appointed to Him...

The word [tribulations] means pressure, straits, difficulties...

The Divine process is as follows: God brings us into tribulations, and that of all sorts; graciously supplying therewith a rejoicing expectation of deliverance in due time; and the knowledge that, as the winds buffeting some great oak on a hillside cause the tree to thrust its roots deeper into the ground, so these tribulations will result in steadfastness, in faith and patient endurance; and our consciousness of steadfastness - of having been brought by grace through the trials, - gives us a sense of Divine approval, or approvedness, we did not before have; and which is only found in those who have been brought through trials, by God's all-sufficient grace. This sense of God's approval arouses within us abounding 'hope' - we might almost say, hopefulness, a hopeful, happy state of soul."

[Expositors, op cit., p. 56]:

"Suffering has this value, that it produces 'perseverance,' or 'steadfast endurance.' This is a suitable element to go along with tribulation, because it denotes resistance to pressure, literally, 'a bearing up under it.' One does not take the pressure passively by abjectly giving in to it, as much Oriental philosophy counsels its devotees to do. Christ 'endured' the cross and thus triumphed over it. Right here lies one of the distinctives of the Christian faith, in that the believer is taught to glory and rejoice in the midst of suffering rather than to sigh and submit to it as a necessary or inevitable evil.

The value of perseverance is that it develops 'character.' "

[The Bible Knowledge Commentary, Walvoord & Zuck, Eds., Victor Books, USA, 1988, p. 456]:

'''5:3-4. Believers can enjoy the peace with God that has been achieved and the glorious future in God's presence that awaits them. But how should they react to the experiences of life that are often adverse and difficult? They are to rejoice in their sufferings. The word "rejoice" is kauchOmetha, the same word in verse 2. 'Sufferings' is thlipsesin 'afflictions, distresses, pressures.'

This is more than mere Stoic endurance of troubles, even though endurance or steadfastness is the first result in a chain reaction outgrowth from distress. This is spiritual glorying in afflictions because of having come to know (from oida, 'to know by intuition or perception') that the end product of this chain reaction (that begins with distress) is hope. Suffering brings about perseverance hypomonEn, 'steadfastness,' the ability to remain under difficulties without giving in.... Only a believer who has faced distress can develop steadfastness. That in turn develops character (dokimEn ['proof'] has here the idea of 'proven character'), which in turn results in hope. As believers suffer, they develop steadfastness; that quality deepens their character; and a deepened, tested character results in hope (i.e., confidence) that God will see them through.'''

III cont.) [Ro 5:3-5 cont.]:

(v. 3 NIV) "Not only so, but we also rejoice in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance;

(v. 4 NIV) perseverance, character; and character, hope.

(v. 5 NIV) And hope does not disappoint us, because God has poured out His love into our hearts by the Holy Spirit, Whom He has given us."

C) OUR SURE HOPE OF ETERNAL LIFE AND DELIVERANCE THROUGH DAILY AFFLICTIONS IS NOT DISAPPOINTED IN US BECAUSE GOD'S LOVE IS STIPULATED AS POURED OUT INTO OUR HEARTS (MINDS) BY THE HOLY SPIRIT WHOM GOD HAS GIVEN TO US WHO HAVE BEEN JUSTIFIED

(v. 5 NIV) "And hope does not disappoint us, because God has poured out His love into our hearts by the Holy Spirit, Whom He has given us." =

"hE de ..elpis .ou ..kataischunei ............hoti .......hE .agapE

"the and hope not does make ashamed because the love

tou theou .ekkechutai ..............en tais .kardiais hEmOn

of ..God ...has been poured out in the ..hearts ...our

dia ........pneumatos hagiou .tou dothentos ..............hEmin"

by [the] Spirit ..........Holy ...the .having been given to us"

We who have been justified, who are stipulated as having sure hope of the eternal glory of God and of being delivered through faith in God through our daily afflictions, will not have that sure hope disappoint us. This is because we are in a position of having God's love poured out into our hearts, (minds), by the Holy Spirit Whom God has given us who have been justified. The phrase "he agape tou theou" rendered God's love refers to the specific, absolute agape love of God which is wholly self-sacrificing and righteous, never prejudiced or self-serving.

The phrase "Because God has poured out His love into our hearts..." begins with the word "because" and then explains the reason why our sure hope of receiving and participating in the eternal glory of God does not disappoint us. In view are "we who have been justified, "(v. 5:1), who rejoice in and persevere by faith in God through daily afflictions developing godly characters which in turn corroborates our sure hope of God's faithfulness all the more. Hence the phrase "because God has poured out His love into our hearts" implies that God sees us successfully through daily afflictions when we rejoice in them with a view to trusting in God to do this. This success in trusting God through suffering in our daily lives testifies to His willingness and capacity to see us through to the reception of the eternal glory of God. Hence the phrase "And hope does not disappoint us" is reinforced as a reality in our daily experience. Evidently God's love poured out into our hearts (minds) provides information in 'our hearts' (minds) to us who have been justified which enables us to successfully come through daily afflictions.

The word rendered "heart" means mind:

[Vines Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words, W.E. Vine, Edited by F. F. Bruce, Fleming H. Revell Co. Old Tappan, N.J., 1981, pp. 206-207]:

"The word came to stand for man's entire mental and moral activity, both the rational and the emotional elements... As to its usage in the N.T. it denotes (a) the seat of physical life, Acts 14:17; Jas. 5:5; (b) the seat of moral nature and spiritual life, the seat of grief, John 14:1; Rom. 9:2; 2 Cor 2:4; joy, John 16:22; Eph. 5:19; the desires, Matt. 5:28; 2 Pet 2:14; the affections, Luke 24:32; Acts 21:13; the perceptions, John 12:40; Eph. 4:18; the thoughts, Matt. 9:4; Heb. 4:12; the understanding, Matt. 13:15; Rom. 1:21; the reasoning powers, Mark 2:6; Luke 24:38; the imagination, Luke 1:51; conscience, Acts 2:37; 1 John 3:20; the intentions, Heb 4:12; cp. 1 Pet 4:1; purpose, Acts 11:23; 2 Cor 9:7; the will, Rom. 6:17; Col. 3:15; faith, Mark 11:23; Rom. 10:10; Heb. 3:12. The heart, in its moral significance in the O.T., includes the emotions, the reason and the will."

The Greek phrase "ou kataischunei" rendered "does not disappoint," literally "does not make ashamed," refers to the certainty of God in providing the eternal glory of God and deliverance through daily afflictions for we who have been justified who rejoice in our sufferings.

The reason we who have been justified will not be disappointed, i.e., we will not be shamed in our dependence upon sure hope of eternal glory and deliverance through daily afflictions by God, is that "the love of God has been poured out in our hearts by the Holy Spirit Who has been given to us." This implies that the Holy Spirit has become the permanent possession of we who have been justified and reminds us of God's love in such a way that it is poured out in our hearts, (minds), i.e., we are constantly being reminded of God's love for us which sees us through our daily afflictions, gives us confidence that God is working out our daily afflictions with us, and all of this reminds us of our sure hope of receiving the eternal glory of God.

[The Bible Knowledge Commentary, (BKC), Walvoord and Zuck, Eds., NT Edition, Victor Books, USA, 1988, pp. 456-7]:

'''5:5. A believer's hope, since it is centered in God and His promises, does not disappoint him. 'Disappoint' means 'put to shame because of disappointment' in the unfulfilled promises...

The reason this hope (resulting finally from affliction) does not disappoint is that God has poured out His love into our hearts. God's love, so abundant in believer's hearts (cf. 1 John 4:8, 16), encourages them on in their hope, and this love is poured out by (better, 'through,' dia with the genitive) the Holy Spirit, Whom He has given us. The Holy Spirit is the divine Agent who expresses to a believer the love of God, that is, God's love for him. The reality of God's love in a believer's heart gives the assurance, even the guarantee, that the believer's hope in God and His promise of glory is not misplaced and will not fail."

D) THE HOLY SPIRIT IS PERMANENTLY GIVEN TO WE WHO HAVE BEEN JUSTIFIED SO THAT GOD'S LOVE IS POURED OUT INTO OUR HEARTS (MINDS) SO THAT WE ARE NOT DISAPPOINTED IN OUR SURE HOPE OF RECEIVING THE ETERNAL GLORY OF GOD AND OF BEING DELIVERED THROUGH DAILY AFFLICTIONS

(v. 5 NIV) "And hope does not disappoint us, because God has poured out His love into our hearts by the Holy Spirit, Whom He has given us." =

Given the context of one positional statement after another, the phrase 'the Holy Spirit Whom He [God] has given us' implies that the Holy Spirit is permanently given to all who have been justified. Notice that a purpose is stipulated for God giving the Holy Spirit to all who have been justified, namely so that we who have been justified have God's love poured out into our hearts, (minds), so that we are not disappointed in our sure hope of receiving the eternal glory of God and of being delivered through daily afflictions. Since we who have been justified have a position whereby we can rejoice in sure hope of receiving the eternal glory of God - a permanent eternal position; and since the purpose of the Holy Spirit Who has been given us is as a constant Reminder of this eternal hope; and since there are no words to the effect that the gift of the Holy Spirit to us is temporary or conditional to our response of some kind; then the possession in view of the Holy Spirit is a permanent possession.

E) WE WHO HAVE BEEN JUSTIFIED ARE EXHORTED TO DO MORE THAN RESIGNING OURSELVES TO OUR SUFFERING

[BKC, op. cit., p. 456]:

"This is more than mere Stoic endurance of troubles, even though endurance or steadfastness is the first result in a chain reaction outgrowth from distress. This is spiritual glorying in afflictions because of having come to know (from oida, 'to know by intuition or perception') that the end product of this chain reaction (that begins with distress) is hope. Suffering brings about perseverance hypomonEn, 'steadfastness,' the ability to remain under difficulties without giving in.... Only a believer who has faced distress can develop steadfastness. That in turn develops character (dokimEn ['proof'] has here the idea of 'proven character'), which in turn results in hope. As believers suffer, they develop steadfastness; that quality deepens their character; and a deepened, tested character results in hope (i.e., confidence) that God will see them through."

IV) [Ro 5:6]:

(v. 5:6 KJV) "For when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for [the] ungodly [= all mankind]."

OBSERVATIONS

A) GOD HAS IN VIEW FROM HIS ETERNAL PERSPECTIVE, ALL OF THE UNGODLY, I.E. ALL OF HUMANITY, MORE SPECIFICALLY THE SINS OF ALL MANKIND FOR WHICH CHRIST DIED

(v. 3:23 NIV) "for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God...... (v. 5:5 NAS) and hope does not disappoint, because the love of God has been poured out within our hearts through the Holy Spirit who was given to us. (v. 5:6 KJV) For when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for [the] ungodly [= all mankind]." =

(v. 5:6 GREEK) "Eti ..gar [ei ge] christos ontOn hEmOn asthenOn .....................[eti]

..........................."Still for [if yet] Christ ....being .we ........being without strength [still]

kata .............kairon huper asebOn apethanen"

according to time ....for .....ungodly died"

The word "gar" rendered "for" in v. 5:6 means "because." It indicates that an explanation of v. 5:5 is forthcoming. Recall that v. 5:5 says as follows: "and hope does not disappoint, because the love of God has been poured out within our hearts through the Holy Spirit who was given to us," which has in view "we who have been justified" which context began chapter 5 and has not changed. Then begins the explanation in verse 5:6, "for, [ = because] when we were yet without strength" describing a condition of "We who have been justified," (v. 5:1) at a time "when we were yet without strength." The Greek adjective, "asthenOn" rendered "without strength, in the KJV, literally "being without strength" refers in this context not to physical weakness, for Christ did not die predominately for our physical weaknesses, but for our spiritual weakness - the sin nature as evidenced by acts of sin, a lack of God's righteousness, cf. Ro 1:16-17; 3:21-24).

The word "asebOn" is rendered "the ungodly" in the verse rendered "Christ died for the ungodly" in virtually all English translations. This universal English rendering is without modifying words which would limit the extent of "asebOn" to a population less than all mankind who will ever live. There is actually no definite article in the Greek rendered "the" connected with "asebOn," nor any noun for it to modify in the text. It appears all by itself. On the other hand, English grammar requires "the" in this context.

Furthermore, "asebOn" is an adverbial adjective meaning "ungodly" in the genetive case linking it as a modifier to the word "huper" rendered "for" and the subject and verb of the phrase, "Christ died for the ungodly."

[Syntax of New Testament Greek, Brooks and Winbery, Lanham, MD, 1979, pp. 8, 11]:

"The basic function of the genetive [case] is to describe and define."

Hence in the case of Romans 5:6 the quality of ungodliness is in view which quality applies to all mankind, and not just 'we who have been justified' as some maintain..

Finally, it was previously established that "all men have sinned and fall short of the glory of God," (v. 3:23), hence all men are ungodly, which corroborates the unmodified "asebOn" in v. 5:6 refers to the fact that Christ died for all men whoever lived.

Limiting "asebOn" to those who have been justified, as some maintain, would not make sense, for a number of reasons, not the least of which 'we who have been justified' the main subject since v. 5:1, have already been described as "without [spiritual] strength," i.e., ungodly in the first part of verse 5:6. So to say, 'When we who have been justified were 'without strength', i.e., ungodly, Christ died for we who have been justifed who are ungodly would be awkward and redundant. Secondly, since all men are ungodly, justified or not, and since there is no restriction on the word "asebOn" to limit this word to just those who have been justified; and since those who have been justified are part of all mankind who by nature are all ungodly from conception - many of whom had not been born when Christ died, then "asebOn" rendered "ungodly" must refer to all mankind of which 'we who have been justified' are a part. God has in view from His eternal perspective, the ungodly, i.e., all of humanity, more specifically the sins of all mankind of all time for which Christ died - in due time, i.e., at the historical moment which God decreed that this should happen. Notice that all humanity is in view in this verse from all ages; yet not all humanity was historically present or had already died before Christ died. Hence it is from God's eternal, timeless perspective that we are viewing this verse.

V) [Ro 5:7]:

(v. 5:7 NAS) "For one will hardly die for a righteous man; though perhaps for the good man someone would dare even to die."

OBSERVATIONS

A) HISTORICALLY SPEAKING, HARDLY FOR SOMEONE WHO IS JUST, (BEHAVES ON A RELATIVELY HIGHER MORAL AND ETHICAL PLANE), WILL ONE OFFER TO DIE; PERHAPS ONE MIGHT OFFER TO DIE FOR SOMEONE WHO IS RELATIVELY GOOD, (BENEVOLENT AND SELF-SACRIFICING FOR FELLOW MAN). GOD'S STANDARD OF BEING ABSOLUTELY RIGHTEOUS AND GOOD UNTO ETERNAL LIFE IS NOT IN VIEW HERE

(v. 3:21) "But now a righteousness from God, apart from law, has been made known, to which the Law and the Prophets testify. (v. 3:22) This righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. There is no difference, (v. 3:23) for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God... (v. 5:1 NIV) having been declared righteous [i.e., justified], then, by faith, we have peace toward God through our Lord Jesus Christ ... (v. 5:7 NAS) For one will hardly die for a righteous man; though perhaps for the good man someone would dare even to die." =

(v. 5:7 GREEK) "molis ..gar huper dikaiou .....tis .......apothaneitai huper ..........gar

..........................."Hardly for .for .....a just one anyone will die .........on behalf of for

tou .agathou ..tacha ....tis ...........kai ...tolma .........apothanein

the .good one perhaps someone even .dares......... to die

(v. 5:8) sunistEsin de ..tEn heautou ..agapEn eis hEmas ho ....theos hoti ..eti

.............commends but the of himself love .....to ..us .......[the] God ...that .still

hamartOlOn ontOn hEmOn christos huper hEmOn .apethanen"

sinners .........being .we ........Christ ...for .....us .........died"

Paul points out that from an observation of the behavior of mankind in history as opposed to conveying a spiritual and eternal standing before God: Hardly anyone has been observed offering to die for a just man. The word "dikaiou" in verse 5:7, literally 'a just one', is rendered a "righteous man" in the NIV and NAS versions. "Dikaiou" is without the definite article and does not convey the same meaning as the phrase "DikaiOthentes" rendered "having been justified" that began this discussion in verse 5:1; the latter implying from vv. 4:24-5:1 that God has provided His absolute righteousness through faith in Jesus Christ, (cf. 3:21-3). So "dikaiou" in verse 5:7 instead conveys a relative righteousness compared to the rest of mankind, i.e., a relatively higher standard of moral and ethical behavior. So Paul is saying that hardly for someone who behaves on a higher moral and ethical plan, will one offer to die. Further consideration leads to Paul's next statement, in the second clause of verse 5:7, that perhaps one might offer to die for "tou .agathou" rendered the good one, i.e., one who is not only relatively moral and ethical compared to the rest of humanity, but who does good, i.e., is benevolent and self-sacrificing for his fellow man. Hence he is characterized as 'the good one'. This is a relative good, not a godly or absolute good. The latter being required to be justified unto eternal life before God, (cf. 3:21-3).

[Expositor's, op. cit., p. 59]:

"Paul is illustrating a point from ordinary life. It is a rare thing, he says, to find a person ready to die for an upright man, but conceivably it would be easier to find one willing to die for a good man. Evidently the 'good man' stands on a higher plane than the 'righteous man.'...

The righteous man is righteous, but nothing more.... the good man, while not lacking righteousness, goes beyond the other by being kind and benevolent...."

VI) [Ro 5:8]:

(v. 5:8 ASV) "But God commendeth his own love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us."

OBSERVATIONS

A) THE SACRIFICIAL DEATH OF JESUS CHRIST FOR UNGODLY MANKIND - IS PORTRAYED AS AN ABSOLUTELY GRACIOUS ACT WHEN IT IS COMPARED TO ONE WHO WOULD RARELY DIE FOR A RELATIVELY RIGHTEOUS MAN OR MIGHT POSSIBLY DIE FOR A MAN OF RELATIVE HUMAN GOOD

(v. 3:21) "But now a righteousness from God, apart from law, has been made known, to which the Law and the Prophets testify. (v. 3:22) This righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. There is no difference, (v. 3:23) for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, (v. 3:24) and are justified freely by His grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus. (v. 5:6 KJV) For when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for [the] ungodly [= all mankind]. (v. 5:7 NAS) For one will hardly die for a righteous man; though perhaps for the good man someone would dare even to die. (v. 5:8 ASV) But God commendeth his own love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us." =

The sacrificial death of Jesus Christ for the ungodly = all mankind, is compared to one who would rarely die for a relatively righteous man or might possibly die for a man of relative human good on the basis of worthiness of the individual(s) for that sacrifice. This is a stark contrast between dying for a relatively righteous or even a good individual on one side and ungodly mankind on the other - especially if the One dying for the ungodly [= all mankind] is the Son of God, Jesus Christ Himself! The voluntary sacrificial death of Jesus Christ for ungodly mankind is portrayed as an astounding and absolutely gracious act for unworthy mankind.

B) GOD'S ACTION THROUGH THE DEATH OF HIS SON JESUS CHRIST WAS DONE IN ORDER TO DEMONSTRATE HIS LOVE FOR US SINNERS WHO HAVE BEEN JUSTIFIED; BUT NOT ONLY FOR US BUT FOR ALL MANKIND

(v. 3:21) "But now a righteousness from God, apart from law, has been made known, to which the Law and the Prophets testify. (v. 3:22) This righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. There is no difference, (v. 3:23) for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, (v. 3:24) and are justified freely by His grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus (v. 3:25a NAS) Whom God displayed publicly as a propitiation in His blood through faith [for a display]. (v. 3:25b NAS) This was to demonstrate His righteousness, because in the forbearance of God He passed over the sins previously committed. (v. 5:6 KJV) For when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for [the] ungodly [=all mankind]. (v. 5:8 ASV) But God commendeth his own love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us." =

(v. 5:8) "sunistEsin .de ..tEn heautou ...agapEn eis hEmas ho theos

............."commends .but the .of himself love ......to .us .............God

hoti eti ..hamartOlOn ontOn hEmOn .christos huper

that still sinners .........being .we .........Christ ...for

hEmOn apethanen"

us .........died"

The word "sunistEsin", literally commends or recommends = worthy of notice, is rendered "demonstrates" in the NIV and NKJV. It describes God's action through the death of His Son Jesus Christ in order to commend/recommend, i.e., demonstrate His love for us sinners who have been justified. But not only for us who have been justified did Christ die, but for all mankind as previously stipulated.

The phrase "eti hamartOlOn ontOn hEmOn" rendered "while we were yet sinners", (NIV), is stipulated as the reason why, and is thus attached in history to the event and time when, Christ died. This phrase is limited in view to 'we who have been justified' as established in v. 5:1 and continued to this point. The grammatical construction of verse 8, however, does not limit the effectiveness of Christ's death on the cross to just those who have been justified. It states that Christ died for a group of people who have been justified without restricting it to that group. There is absent in this phrase any exclusionary construction which rules out the group of people who will not become justified.

The death of Christ has previously been portrayed as done for all humanity throughout the ages, (cf. Ro 3:21-25). Furthermore, all mankind has been previously portrayed in Romans as being sinful, (Ro 3:23), i.e., ungodly. So any select group of humanity for whom Christ exclusively died, such as one during the time of Christ's death, or a select group of people while they were still sinners who are no longer sinners, (if that were possible in this mortal life - and it is not), or only those who will be justified is not in view.

VII) [Ro 5:9]:

(v. 5:9 NKJV) "Much more then, having now been justified by His blood, we shall be saved from wrath through Him."

OBSERVATIONS

A) VERSE 5:9 REPEATS THE MESSAGE OF 5:1 EMPHATICALLY DECLARING THAT CHRIST'S SACRIFICAL DEATH WHICH IS FURTHER STIPULATED AS BEING THROUGH HIS BLOOD WILL RESULT IN US WHO HAVE BEEN JUSTIFIED BEING SAVED FROM GOD'S ETERNAL WRATH. NOTE THAT SALVATION FROM GOD'S TEMPORAL WRATH IS NOT IN VIEW

(v. 5:6 KJV) "For when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for [the] ungodly [= all mankind]. (v. 5:7 NAS) For one will hardly die for a righteous man; though perhaps for the good man someone would dare even to die. (v. 5:8 ASV) But God commendeth his own love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us. (v. 5:9 NKJV) Much more then, having now been justified by His blood, we shall be saved from wrath through Him." =

The words "much more" at the beginning of verse 5:9 point emphatically to further details being offered relative to what was just stipulated in the previous verse, (5:8): of God's demonstration of His love for us via Christ's death for us. These further details are that we who who have been justified by His blood will experience the result of being saved from God's eternal wrath.

The phrase "sOthEsometha .....di .autou apo ...tEs orgEs", literally:

...................."we shall be saved by Him ...from .the wrath"

and rendered "we shall be saved from wrath through Him," refers to being delivered from experiencing the anger, indignation and eternal punishment of God toward us for our evil.

Since it is evident that sin brings God's wrath, (cf. Romans 2:5), and since we who have been justified are not stipulated as sinlessly perfect and since the phrase "sOthEsometha di autou apo tEs orgEs" rendered "we shall be saved from wrath, (NIV), points to a future time of God's judgment, then the wrath in view is God's eternal wrath, not His temporal wrath.

The phrase "having been justified by His blood we shall be saved from wrath through Him" is by and large a repeat of verse 5:1 which began this chapter: "having been declared righteous [i.e., justified], then, by faith, we have peace toward God through our Lord Jesus Christ," more specifically faith in the salvific value to us of Christs death for the sins of all mankind. Verses 5:1 and 5:9 have in view those who have been justified by faith in Jesus Christ. Furthermore, verse 5:9 is an emphatic repeat of verse 5:1. It more specifically indicates that Christ's sacrifice was through His blood. The phrase "we shall be saved from wrath through Him," parallels "we have peace with God" in 5:1 and refers to we who have been justified by faith in Christ's blood sacrifice resulting in we being saved from God's wrath, specifically the eternal wrath of God. This corroborates the meaning of the phrase from 5:1, "we [who have been justified] have peace toward God through our Lord Jesus Christ to mean having an eternal peace with God, nevermore subject to His eternal wrath. Salvation from temporal wrath is not in view.

[BKC, op. cit., p. 456]:

"The participle translated 'have... been justified' ('declared righteous) ties these verses to the argument at the beginning of the chapter (cf. v. 1). The immediate connection, however, is with what preceded (vv. 6-8). God gave proof of His love by having Christ die in the place of humans 'while we were still sinners.' Because of the sinner's response by faith (v. 1) to Christ's sacrifice on the cross, God has declared Him righteous. Certainly that now-declared-righteous person will not be forsaken by God's love, which has been poured out effusively in His heart. Since the divine dilemma of justification (3:26), has been solved on the basis of Jesus' shed blood (cf. 3:25), certainly Jesus Christ will see that justified sinners will be saved from God's wrath. Believers will never be condemned to hell."

B) THE PHRASE "JUSTIFIED BY HIS BLOOD" REFERS SPECIFICALLY TO CHRIST'S SACRIFICE WHEREIN HE DIED FOR THE UNGODLINESS OF UNGODLY MANKIND VIA A CRITICAL LOSS OF HIS BLOOD

(v. 5:6 KJV) "For when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for [the] ungodly [= all mankind]. (v. 5:7 NAS) For one will hardly die for a righteous man; though perhaps for the good man someone would dare even to die. (v. 5:8 ASV) But God commendeth his own love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us. (v. 5:9 NKJV) Much more then, having now been justified by His blood, we shall be saved from wrath through Him." =

The phrase "justified by His blood" refers specifically to Christ's sacrifice wherein He died for the ungodliness of ungodly mankind, (cf. 5:8) via a critical loss of His blood. Hence justification can be accurately described as being by His blood.

1) [Compare Ro 3:22-25a]:

(v. 3:22) "This righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. There is no difference,

(v. 3:23) for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God,

(v. 3:24) and are justified freely by His grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus.

(v. 3:25a NAS) Whom God displayed publicly as a propitiation in His blood through faith [for a display]."

a) Redemption, (Being Freed From The Consequence Of Ones Sins Unto A Righteousness From God), Came By Christ Jesus Whom God Displayed Publicly, i.e., Provided An Observable Demonstration To The World Of Christ Jesus' Propitiation In His Blood, i.e., His Satisfactory Atoning Sacrifice In His Blood, For The Sins Of The Whole World Which Redemption Comes Through Faith In That Sacrifice

(v. 23) "for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, (v. 24) and are justified freely by His grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus, (v. 25a NAS) Whom God displayed publicly as a propitiation in His blood through faith. =

The redemption, (being freed from the consequence of ones sins unto a righteousness from God, i.e., justification), came by Christ Jesus - through His satisfactory atonement for sins which atonement is described in v. 3:25a as God's public display of His Son as a propitiation, a satisfactory payment for the sins of the whole world. This involved an atoning sacrifice of the shedding of His blood which redemption unto eternal life is accomplished in an individual through that individual's faith in Christ Jesus' act of propitiation.

VIII) [Ro 5:10-11]:

(v. 5:10 NIV) "For if, when we were God's enemies, we were reconciled to him through the death of His Son, how much more, having been reconciled, shall we be saved through His life!

(v. 5:11 NAS) And not only this, but we also exult [rejoice] in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received the reconciliation."

OBSERVATIONS

A) PRIOR TO BEING JUSTIFIED WE WERE GOD'S ENEMIES, THEN WHEN WE BECAME JUSTIFIED BY FAITH WE WERE RECONCILED, I.E., DECLARED TO HAVE A POSITION OF ETERNAL PEACE AND FRIENDSHIP WITH GOD WHICH IS STIPULATED AS THROUGH THE DEATH OF GOD'S SON

(v. 5:1 NAS) Therefore, having been justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, (v. 2 NIV) through Whom we have gained access by faith into this grace in which we [had begun and] now stand [forever]. And we rejoice [boast] in the [sure] hope of the glory of God. (v. 5:6 KJV) For when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for [the] ungodly [= all mankind]. (v. 5:7 NAS) For one will hardly die for a righteous man; though perhaps for the good man someone would dare even to die. (v. 5:8 ASV) But God commendeth his own love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us. (v. 5:9 NKJV) Much more then, having now been justified by His blood, we shall be saved from wrath through Him. (v. 5:10 NIV) For if, when we were God's enemies, we were reconciled to him through the death of His Son, how much more, having been reconciled, shall we be saved through His life!" =

"ei gar echthroi ontes katEllagEmen .............tO theO .dia

"If for, enemies being we were reconciled to God ........through

tou thanatou tou ....huiou autou .pollO mallon .katallagentes

the death .....of the Son ...His, ...much .more, ..having been reconciled

sOthEsometha .....en tE zOE autou"

we shall be saved by the life .His"

Since prior to being justified we were God's enemies, then when we became justified by faith we were reconciled, i.e., declared to have a position of eternal peace and friendship with God which is stipulated as through the death of God's Son. Verse 5:10 is a restatement of 5:1 which 5:1 states "having been justified, then by faith [in the death of God's Son, (v. 5:10)] we have [eternal] peace toward God." In other words, our relationship with God has been eternally reconciled, (5:10).

The word "gar" rendered "for" = because, in verse 10 provides further information to explain verse 9. The verse describes 'We who have been justified, (v. 5:1),' prior to that justification as God's enemies who were reconciled when we became justified by faith. Notice that the word "ei" rendered "if" is followed by the verb "katEllagEmen" rendered "we were reconciled" which is in the indicative mood indicating a first class "if" condition, i.e., "if" and it is true. Hence it means since while we were God's enemies, we were reconciled to Him through the death of His Son as a result of having been justified by faith, how much more, having been reconciled, shall we be saved through His life!

The word reconciliation comes from the word to reconcile which is defined by Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, G & C Merriam Co, Springfield, Ma, 1980, p. 958: 1 a: To restore to friendship or harmony ...b: settle, resolve 2: to make consistent or congruous."

[BKC, op. cit., p. 457]:

"Reconciliation is the removal of enmity that stands between people and God (cf. "enemies" in 5:10...). Reconciliation is the basis of restored fellowship between people and God..."

The specific kind of reconciliation in view is a change of position from being enemies of God to an eternal position of friendship, peace and harmony with God through justification by faith in the death of His Son. So being justified results in having a position of eternal peace with God, i.e., reconciliation. It is achieved through a moment of faith alone in Jesus Christ alone, (vv. 5:1-2, 10). Since reconciliation with God is stipulated to be through the death of God's Son; then a moment of faith alone in Christ alone unto justification is more specifically a moment of faith alone in the value to one of Christ's death alone, namely that His death paid the penalty for the sins of the ungodly [= all mankind], (v. 5:6), which thereby provides reconciliation with God, (vv. 5:6-10) for all who choose to believe.

Verses 5:1-2 stipulate, (v. 5:1 NAS) "Therefore, having been justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, (v. 5:2) through Whom we have gained access by faith into this grace in which we now [have begun to and continue forever to] stand." The passage goes on to list positions and opportunities as a result of that justification. Verse 5:10 continues this context stipulating that we who have been justified have been declared eternally reconciled to God through faith in the value of the death of His Son for our sins. So we are justified by faith in Jesus Christ, (v. 5:1), through the death of God's Son, (v. 5:9), resulting in a standing of eternal peace and friendship with God, (v. 5:1), which means that we are reconciled to a position of eternal friendship with God through His Son's death. Since being justified by a moment of faith results in an eternal standing of grace with God which includes an eternal position of being at peace with God, (v. 5:1-2), then the reconciliation in view in vv. 5:10-11 is also an eternal position/standing with God. So this kind of reconciliation does not have in view our relationship with God on a day to day basis which may vary in accordance with our day to day behavior .

B) THERE IS A DIFFERENCE BETWEEN (1) BEING RECONCILED WHEREIN THE ACCOUNT OF MAN'S UNRIGHTEOUSNESS HAS BEEN RECONCILED WITH GOD AND HENCE PROVISION HAS BEEN MADE AS A RESULT OF CHRIST'S REDEMPTION FOR THE UNGODLY, I.E., FOR ALL MANKIND AND (2) BEING RECONCILED WHEREIN ONE HAS ACCEPTED AS TRUE, (BELIEVED IN), THAT PROVISION AND IS IN AN ETERNAL POSITION OF BEING NO LONGER AT ENMITY WITH GOD

(v. 5:6 KJV) "For when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for [the] ungodly [= all mankind]. (v. 5:7 NAS) For one will hardly die for a righteous man; though perhaps for the good man someone would dare even to die. (v. 5:8 ASV) But God commendeth his own love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us. (v. 5:9 NKJV) Much more then, having now been justified by His blood, we shall be saved from wrath through Him. (v. 5:10 NIV) For if, when we were God's enemies, we were reconciled to him through the death of His Son, how much more, having been reconciled, shall we be saved through His life!" =

There is a difference between (1) being reconciled wherein the account of man's unrighteousness has been reconciled with God and hence provision has been made as a result of Christ's redemption for the ungodly, i.e., for all mankind and (2) being reconciled wherein one has accepted as true, (believed in), that provision and is in an eternal position of being no longer at enmity with God.

Note that verse 5:10 is paralleled in context to verse 5:6 wherein we who have been justified are described in the latter as "without strength" as a condition that required Christ's death. Notice that verse 5:10 similarly describes a condition of "we who have been justified," (5:1), of being "God's enemies" and "ungodly" which evidently required the "death of His [God's] Son." Hence the phrase "being without strength in verse 5:6 describes a condition which is ungodly, i.e., sinful and therefore at enmity with God.

Since Jesus Christ died for the ungodly [all mankind], (Ro 5:6), then He has paid the penalty for the sins of all mankind; and since the word "redeem" is defined in Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, G & C Merriam Co, Springfield, Ma, 1980, p. 960, as follows: "to buy back, repurchase, ...free from lien by payment, ...to atone for" then it can be said that Jesus Christ has redeemed, i.e., freed from lien by payment, atoned for, the ungodly, (all mankind), in the sense of paying the penalty for all of mankind's sins. So Christ's redemption has reconciled all men in the sense that every individual's account of sins before God has been paid for, (reconciled). But this is not to say that all men are reconciled in the sense that they have an eternal position of peace and fellowship with God. That reconciliation comes only upon those who have expressed a moment of faith alone in Christ's redemption alone unto justification and eternal life.

In the same way that a dispute between two parties over money for example can have their dispute reconciled in position via a free contribution by a third party but which is not reconciled in the actual experience of the two until they accept this free gift;

so the enmity dispute of ungodliness between God and man has been reconciled in position by Jesus Christ via His free gift of righteousness through His act of atonement, but which is not reconciled in the actual experience of each ungodly individual until that individual accepts this free gift by a moment of faith alone in Christ alone.

1) [Compare Ro 5:1 NAS]:

"Therefore, having been justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ,"

C) BEING ETERNALLY RECONCILED TO GOD RESULTS IN BEING SAVED UNTO ETERNAL LIFE BY GOD'S SON'S RESURRECTION LIFE

(v. 5:10 NIV) "For if, when we were God's enemies, we were reconciled to Him through the death of His Son, how much more, having been reconciled, shall we be saved through His life!" =

Since the reconciliation of us who have been justified is stipulated as through the death of His Son, followed by the emphatic phrase, "How much more, having been reconciled, shall we be saved through His life," then a chronological sequence is established on the basis of the necessity of the Son's death first in time in order to provide the source for mankind's reconciliation, namely, a death to pay for mankind's sins so that all who believe in that payment for them will be justified and at eternal peace with God, (Ro 4:23-5:1), i.e., reconciled to God through His Son's death, (Ro 5:10).

Notice that redemption is defined as the payment for sins via the death of God's Son, Jesus Christ, to provide justification for all who choose to believe in Jesus Christ. To be justified is to possess a righteousness from God which leads to salvation unto eternal life.

2) [Compare Ro 4:23-25]:

(v. 4:23 NAS) "Now not for his sake only was it written that it was reckoned to him,

(v. 4:24 NAS) but for our sake also, to whom it will be reckoned, as those who believe in Him who raised Jesus our Lord from the dead,

(v. 4:25 NAS) He Who was delivered over because of our transgressions, and was raised because of our justification."

Notice that verse 4:25 stipulates that our Lord was delivered, i.e., put to death, for our offenses - to pay for our sins, (and for all mankind's, cf. Ro 5:6); and then in time this was followed by being "raised again for our justification" which leads to our reconciliation and salvation unto eternal life. So the chronological sequence is established: the death then the life of God's Son through which comes reconciliation and salvation unto eternal life. We can therefore conclude that the life being referred to in 5:10b is His life after His resurrection which preserves our eternal life and the final stage of our salvation. The human life of our Lord before His death had no power to provide reconciliation and salvation until His death to pay for our sins. Then the position of being justified by faith and reconciled results in being saved unto eternal life by His [the Son's] life. i.e., by the life of God's Son after His resurrection.

[The Expositor's Bible Commentary, Zondervan Publishing, Vol 10; Grand Rapids, Michigan, Frank E. Gaebelein, Editor, Commentary on Romans, Everett F. Harrison, 1976, p. 60]:

"This is a clear reference to his postresurrection life rather than to His life in the days of His flesh. Here Paul conjoins justification and salvation as he did in the theme (1:16-17)."

[BKC, op. cit., p. 457]:

"Since reconciliation was accomplished by Jesus' death, certainly His life [i.e., His life after His death - His resurrected life] is able to insure the complete and final salvation of believers. 'His life' is His present life (not His life on earth) in which He intercedes for believers. He died for His enemies; surely He will save those, His former enemies, who are not fellowshiping in Him. Because Christians, God's reconciled ones, share in Christ's life, they will be saved."

D) WE WHO HAVE BEEN JUSTIFIED ARE IN A POSITION OF NEW OPPORTUNTY TO REJOICE IN GOD THROUGH OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST BECAUSE IT IS THROUGH JESUS CHRIST WE HAVE RECEIVED RECONCILIATION = AN ETERNAL POSITION OF PEACE AND FRIENDSHIP WITH GOD

(v. 4:23 NAS) "Now not for his sake only was it written that it was reckoned to him, (v. 4:24 NAS) but for our sake also, to whom it will be reckoned, as those who believe in Him who raised Jesus our Lord from the dead, (v. 5:1 NAS) "Therefore, having been justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, (v. 2 NIV) through Whom we have gained access by faith into this grace in which we [had begun and] now stand. And we rejoice [boast] in the [sure] hope of the glory of God." (v. 5:10 NIV) For if, when we were God's enemies, we were reconciled to Him through the death of His Son, how much more, having been reconciled, shall we be saved through His life! (v. 5:11 NAS) And not only this, but we also exult [rejoice] in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received the reconciliation." =

We who have been justified are in a position of new opportunty to rejoice in God through our Lord Jesus Christ because it is through Him we have received reconciliation = an eternal position of peace and friendship with God. Once this position of eternal peace and friendship is begun by a moment of faith alone in Christ alone, it becomes a part of the everlasting position of grace in which we who have been justified had begun when we believed and now we stand forever, (vv. 4:23-5:2, perfect tense).

IX) [Ro 5:12]:

(v. 5:12 NAS) "Because of this: [just] as through one man the sin did enter into the world, and through the sin the death; and thus to all men the death did pass through, for that all sinned;

OBSERVATIONS

A) VERSE 12 BEGINS A SERIES OF STARK CONTRASTS BETWEEN THE ONE MAN ADAM WHOSE TRANSGRESSION BROUGHT SIN AND DEATH INTO THE WORLD FOR ALL MANKIND AND THE ONE MAN JESUS CHRIST WHOSE RIGHTEOUS ACT BROUGHT RECONCILIATION WITH GOD AND THE FREE GRACE GIFT OF RIGHTEOUSNESS FOR ALL MEN TO RECEIVE THROUGH AN INDIVIDUAL'S MOMENT OF FAITH UNTO ETERNAL LIFE

(v. 5:11 NAS) And not only this, but we also exult [rejoice] in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received the reconciliation. (v. 5:12 NAS) Because of this: [just] as through one man [the] sin did enter into the world, and through [the] sin [the] death; and thus to all men [the] death did pass through, for that all sinned" =

(v. 5:12) "dia ..............touto ....hOsper ..........di' .henos anthrOpou .hE ...hamartia

..............."Because of this: ......[just] as .........by .one ....man ...........[the] sin

eis ..ton kosmon .eisElthen .

into .the world .....entered,

Verse 12 begins a series of stark contrasts between the one man Adam whose transgression brought sin and death into the world for all mankind and the one Man Jesus Christ Whose righteous act brought reconciliation with God and the free grace gift of righteousness for all mankind to receive through an individual's moment of faith unto eternal life.

Note that a number of translations begin verse 12 render "dia touto" at the beginning of verse 12, as "therefore," but this Greek phrase literally means "through this" or as the NAS renders it, "because of this." It refers to the previous context of reconciliation received through Jesus Christ. "Dia touto" is then followed by "hOsper" rendered "as" in the NAS or better yet, 'just as' to indicate forthcoming comparisons through v. 5:21.

[The Complete Biblical Library, NT Greek-English Dictionary, Sigma-Omega, R. R. Donnelley and Sons, Chicago, Ill., Thoralf Gilbrant, Internat'l Ed., Ralph W. Harris, Exec. Ed., 1991, p. 573]:

"hOsper, conj., As, just as... This adverb of manner appears frequently in the New Testament in the protasis [the subordinate comparison] (i.e., that to which the main idea is being compared) of a comparison."

Hence we have in view an explanation of reconciliation through Jesus Christ by way of stark contrasts. These contrasts cover why reconciliation of man to God was required and accomplished through Jesus Christ and how superlatively superior was what He did to what Adam did. First it is stipulated, "Because of this: [just] as through one man [the] sin did enter into the world and through [the] sin [the] death"

B) MANKIND ORIGINALLY HAD AN ETERNAL PHYSICAL AND SPIRITUAL FELLOWSHIP WITH GOD. WHEN SIN ENTERED THE WORLD THROUGH THE ONE MAN, PHYSICAL AND SPIRITUAL DEATH / SEPARATION FROM DAILY FELLOWSHIP WITH GOD CAME THROUGH THAT SIN TO ALL MANKIND, AND NOT JUST TO ALL TYPES OF MEN

(v. 5:11 NAS) And not only this, but we also exult [rejoice] in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received the reconciliation. (v. 5:12 NAS) Because of this: [just] as through one man [the] sin did enter into the world, and through [the] sin [the] death; and thus to all men [the] death did pass through, for that all sinned" =

(v. 5:12 GREEK) "dia..............touto ....hOsper ..........di' .henos anthrOpou .

.............................."Because of this: ......[just] as .........by .one ....man ...........

hE ...hamartia eis ..ton kosmon .eisElthen 'kai dia 'tEs hamartias ho ''

[the] sin ..........into .the world .....entered, ..and by [the] sin ............the

thanatos 'kai houtOs eis 'pantas .anthrOpous ho '''''thanatos 'diElthen .eph '

death, '''''and thus .....to ..all ''''''.''men '''''''''''[the] ''death '''''''passed, 'for

hO 'pantes hEmarton"

that all '''''''sinned"

By virtue of the phrase "Because of this; [just] as through one man [the] sin did enter into the world and through [the] sin [the] death" in v. 5:12, it is implied that death and sin were not part of mankind's original world - both physical and spiritual death. Evidently mankind originally had an eternal physical and spiritual fellowship with God. When sin did enter the world through the one man, physical death as well as spiritual death / separation from daily fellowship with God, through this sin was applied to all mankind. Evidently the result of the one man's sin is physical inheritance of a sinful nature and physical and spiritual death / separation from daily fellowship with God for the whole human race. Since God's righteousness and sin are mutually exclusive, then mankind is inevitably separated both physically and spiritually from God from conception.

1) [Compare Ro 1:18, 20, 29-32; 2:7-8]:

(v. 1:18) "The wrath of God is revealed [to men] from heaven against all the godlessness and wickedness of men who suppress the truth by their wickedness...

(v. 1:20) For since the creation of the world God's invisible qualities - His eternal power and divine nature - have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made, so that men are without excuse...

(v. 1:29) They have become filled with every kind of wickedness, evil, greed and depravity. They are full of envy, murder, strife, deceit and malice. They are gossips,

(v. 1:30) slanderers, God-haters, insolent, arrogant and boastful; they invent ways of doing evil; they disobey their parents;

(v. 1:31) they are senseless, faithless, heartless, ruthless.

(v. 1:32) Although they know God's righteous decree that those who do such things deserve death, they not only continue to do these very things but also approve of those who practice them.

(v. 2:6) God will give to each person according to what he has done.

(v. 2:7) To those who by persistence in doing good seek glory, honor and immortality, He will give eternal life

(v. 2:8) But for those who are self-seeking and who reject the truth and follow evil, there will be wrath and anger."

Notice that death, wrath and anger from God is the result of violating the truth about God's righteousness. Hence God's righteousness and sin are mutually exclusive. Furthermore, it is stated that doing good = God's righteousness, results in eternal life and eternal fellowship with God; and evil, i.e., sin results in God's wrath and anger - a separation from God both physically and spiritually.

Since verse 5:12a stipulates that the one man Adam caused sin to enter the world, ("kosmon"), which has in view all mankind; and since there only was one type of man at the time in history when the one man, Adam, sinned; and since 5:12b stipulates that death through sin was then caused to enter the world, i.e., all mankind; then the phrase "pantas anthrOpous" rendered "all men" in 5:12c refers to all individuals who will ever live, not just all types of men as some maintain:

(v. 5:12 NAS) "Because of this: [just] as through one man [the] sin did enter into the world, and through [the] sin [the] death; and thus to all men ['pantas anthrOpas'] [the] death did pass through, for that all sinned"

C) ALTHOUGH ONE MAN SINNED IN THE BEGINNING, ALL MEN WERE CAUSED BY THAT ACTION TO BE HELD ACCOUNTABLE FOR THAT ORIGINAL SIN, INHERIT A SINFUL NATURE AND EXPERIENCE PHYSICAL AND SPIRITUAL DEATH / SEPARATION FROM DAILY FELLOWSHIP WITH GOD AND ETERNAL CONDEMNATION

(v. 5:12 NAS) "Because of this: [just] as through one man [the] sin did enter into the world, and through [the] sin [the] death; and thus to all men [the] death did pass through, for that all sinned" =

So physical and spiritual death / separation from daily fellowship with God entered the world which effected all mankind as a result of one man's sin as stipulated by the following Greek phrase with the English words below:

"kai dia tEs ..hamartias ho .....thanatos .kai houtOs eiS pantas anthrOpous

"and by [the] sin ............[the] .death, .....and thus .....to .all men

ho ....thanatos diElthen eph hO ..pantes .hEmarton"

the ...death .....passed ..for .that .all ........sinned"

Although one man sinned in the beginning, all men were caused by that action to be held accountable for that original sin, inherit a sinful nature and experience physical and spiritual death / separation from daily fellowship with God. The reason for this is given in the final phrase of verse 12: "eph hO pantes hEmarton" literally, "for that all sinned" which is rendered in the NIV and NJKV, "because all sinned." Notice that all the verbs in verse 12, namely 'sin entered into the world', 'death passed to all men', 'for that all sinned', are in the aorist tense which point to a completed action in the past of all mankind at some time in history.

[A. T. Robertson, Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament, on "hEmarton" in Romans 5:12]:

"Constative (summary) aorist active indicative of amartanO, gathering up in this one tense the history of the race (committed sin)."

Since the main clause of verse 5:12, "Because of this: [just] as through one man [the] sin did enter into the world, and through [the] sin [the] death", by virtue of the word "thus" in the subordinate clause, "and thus to all men [the] death did pass through, for that all sinned" dictates the context of the verse and has in view a single completed action of a particular sin at a particular time in history by one man, ("Because of this: [just] as through one man [the] sin entered [aorist tense] the world);" and since the verb forms in the subordinate clause, "and thus to all men [the] death did pass through, for that all sinned," are also in the aorist tense wherein a single particular sin for the entire population of all of mankind is in view; and since not all mankind can be said to have been present at the same time to commit that particular sin at that particular historical time; (this is especially evident with respect to mankind who have not yet been conceived and born, who are nevertheless referred to as having sinned already in history); then the phrase "for that all sinned' is a characterization of all mankind, past, present and future and refers not to any daily personal act of sin(s) by each individual whoever will live as causing physical and spiritual death / separation from daily fellowship with God, but to a one time completed action of sin by one man in particular in the past who represented all mankind, ( "and thus to all men [the] death did pass through, for that all sinned"). Evidently all men are conceived and born corrupted and sinful even before they commit their first sin, even before they were conceived because of that one man's sin:

1) [Compare Ro 3:9-12]:

(v. 3:9) "What shall we conclude then? Are we any better? Not at all! We have already made the charge that Jews and Gentiles alike are all under sin.

(v. 3:10) As it is written: 'There is no one righteous, not even one;

[Note that if no one is righteous then all men are born in sin and sinners]

(v. 3:11) there is no one who understands, no one who seeks God.

(v. 3:12) All have turned away, they have together become worthless; there is no one who does good, not even one' "

Notice that with respect to all mankind, "Jews and Gentiles alike are all under sin", i.e., are conceived and born sinners before they commit their first sin. The phrase "under sin" implies more than the fact that all individuals inevitably commit sins after they are born, especially considering that many individuals have not been born yet and yet are included in this characterization of "all under sin." So the phrase "all under sin" implies a condition that existed before any individual was ever born as a result of something that occurred before they were even conceived. So mankind does not have a chance to express the righteousness of God. And mankind's sinful actions did not, do not and will not cause this condition of being under sin, but simply prove it out by their sinful actions.

a) OT Scripture Corroborates Paul's Statement That Jews and Gentiles Alike Are All Under Sin

(v. 3:9) What shall we conclude then? Are we any better? Not at all! We have already made the charge that Jews and Gentiles alike are all under sin. (v. 3:10) "As it is written: 'There is no one righteous, not even one; (v. 3:11) there is no one who understands, no one who seeks God. (v. 3:12) All have turned away, they have together become worthless; there is no one who does good, not even one." =

i) [Compare Psalms 14:1-3; 53:1-3]:

(v. 1) "The fool says in his heart, 'There is no God.' They are corrupt, their deeds are vile; there is no one who does good.

(v. 2) The LORD looks down from heaven on the sons of men to see if there are any who understand, any who seek God.

(v. 3) All have turned aside, they have together become corrupt; there is no one who does good, not even one."

ii) [Compare Eccl 7:20]:

"There is not a righteous man on earth who does what is right and never sins."

With the phrase "as it is written" in Ro 3:10, author Paul refers to OT Scripture to confirm his conclusion, which began at 1:18, that all men are under sin, Jews and Gentiles alike, (Ro 3:9). He quotes in Ro 3:12, 'There is no one who does good, not even one' from Psalms 14:1-3. Eccl 7:20a confirms this with "There is not a righteous man on earth." Paul also refers Psalms 14:2 with "there is no one who seeks God" and "there is no one who understands" in Ro 3:11.

2) [Compare Ro 3:21-23]:

(v. 3:21) "But now a righteousness from God, apart from law, has been made known, to which the Law and the Prophets testify.

(v. 3:22) This righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. There is no difference,

(v. 3:23) for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God"

Notice that the phrase "all have sinned" is in the aorist tense = a completed action of an act of sin followed by the phrase "and fall short of the glory of God" which is in the present tense pointing to an ongoing action of falling short of the glory of God in the present. Notice that not all mankind have been born, many have already died and only some were present at the time of Paul's writing of his letter to the Roman believers. Furthermore, the phrase rendered "all have sinned," (Ro 3:23), is in the aorist tense and thus has in view a completed action in the past by all mankind as if all mankind were present together to commit that particular sin. This is not physically possible, considering that not all mankind will ever be present at the same time in history in their mortal bodies. This is especially evident with respect to mankind who have not yet been conceived and born, who are nevertheless referred to has having sinned already and continue to sin. Hence this verse is a characterization of mankind and the phrase "all have sinned" refers not to daily personal act of sin(s), but to a one time completed action of sin by one man in particular in the past who represented all mankind.

So since not all men were present when the one man sinned, (Ro 5:12), especially those who hadn't been born yet, and since scripture and history indicate that all men sin all the time - no one experiences a sinless life, then it is evident that the one completed action sin of the past, the first ever sin by the one man in the past is in view in Ro 5:12. So the completed action sin in Ro 5:12 not only caused the one man to experience physical and spiritual death / separation from daily fellowship with God, but that first sin caused all mankind to experience physical and spiritual death through the action of the one man. Evidently the one man is the federal head of the whole human race and what he did effected all mankind. Just as the President of the United States can act as the federal head of all Americans which consequences for that act can come to bear on all Americans; so the consequences of the one man's completed action sin came to bear on all mankind.

X) [Ro 5:13-14]:

(v. 5:13 NKJV) "For until law sin was in the world, but sin is not imputed when there is no law.;

(v. 5:14 NAS) but the death did reign from Adam till Moses, even upon those not having sinned in the likeness of Adam's transgression, who is a type of Him Who is coming."

OBSERVATIONS

A) NO LAW, I.E., RULES BY GOD GOVERNING HUMAN BEHAVIOR WAS IN FORCE FROM THE BEGINNING UNTIL THE TIME OF MOSES, EVEN THOUGH SIN WAS IN THE WORLD. ON THE OTHER HAND, INDIVIDUALS ARE NOT HELD ACCOUNTABLE FOR THEIR ACTS OF SIN WHEN THERE IS NO LAW

(v. 5:12 NAS) "Because of this: [just] as through one man [the] sin did enter into the world, and through [the] sin [the] death; and thus to all men [the] death did pass through, for that all sinned; (v. 5:13 NKJV) For until law sin was in the world, but sin is not imputed when there is no law." =

Since the word "nomou" rendered "law" is without the definite article, then we have in view any rules by God governing human behavior. Notice that no law, i.e., no rules of God governing human behavior was in force from the beginning of human history until the time of Moses, with the exception of a number of commands from God, even though sin was in the world. This refutes those who stipulate that there was some form of the Law or Ten Commandments in force from the beginning.

Sin is defined as a falling short of the glory, the holiness, the righteousness of God:

1) [Compare Ro 3:21-23]:

(v. 3:21) "But now a righteousness from God, apart from law, has been made known, to which the Law and the Prophets testify.

(v. 3:22) This righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. There is no difference,

(v. 3:23) for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God"

The phrase "righteousness from God" in verse 3:21 is equated with "the glory of God" in verse 3:23. Notice that the phrase "all have sinned" is paralleled with the phrase "fall short of the glory of God", equating the two: to sin is to fall short of the glory of God, i.e., the expression of the honor, power & holiness of God which is the righteousness of God. So any law by God must necessarily be of the standard upholding the glory of God, i.e., His righteousness and holiness, (cf Ro 5:2 ).

On the other hand, verses 5:12-13 indicate that although sin did enter the world and men did sin, "but sin is not imputed when there is no law," i.e., that individuals are not held accountable for their acts of sin when there are no rules by God in effect governing human behavior.

B) WHILE THERE WAS NO LAW BY GOD GOVERNING HUMAN BEHAVIOR, INDIVIDUALS WERE NOT HELD ACCOUNTABLE FOR ACTS OF SIN RELATIVE TO THE CONSEQUENCE OF PHYSICAL AND SPIRITUAL DEATH / SEPARATION FROM DAILY FELLOWSHIP WITH GOD. NEVERTHELESS, DEATH DID REIGN POINTING TO THE COMPLETED ACTION OF SIN IN THE PAST BY THE ONE MAN, ADAM AS THE CAUSE OF PHYSICAL AND SPIRITUAL DEATH

(v. 5:12 NAS) "Because of this: [just] as through one man [the] sin did enter into the world, and through [the] sin [the] death; and thus to all men [the] death did pass through, for that all sinned; (v. 5:13 NKJV) For until law sin was in the world, but sin is not imputed when there is no law.; (v. 5:14 NAS) but [the] death did reign from Adam till Moses, even upon those not having sinned in the likeness of Adam's transgression, who is a type of Him Who is coming." =

(v. 5:14 GREEK) "alla ebasileusen ho..thanatos apo ..adam .mechri mOuseOs

.............................."but .reigned .......the .death .....from Adam until ....Moses

kai ...epi ...tous mE hamartEsantas .epi tO .homoiOmati .tEs

even .upon the ..not having sinned ...in ..the likeness .......of the

parabaseOs ...adam ....hos .estin .tupos .......tou ....mellontos

transgression of Adam who is ......[a] figure .of the coming [One]

Even though individuals were not held accountable for their individual acts of sin while there was no law by God, from the time of Adam to the time of Moses, it was evident that sin and physical death reigned from the time of Adam to the time of Moses when the Law was instituted by God upon the Israelites. Hence the cause of physical and spiritual death / separation from daily fellowship with God was not due to the individual acts of sin, i.e., violations of a law or command of God, but the one time, completed action of sin by the one man, Adam - who, verse 5:14 stipulates, violated a command of God.

C) BEFORE LAW THERE WERE COMMANDS GIVEN BY GOD WHICH TO VIOLATE ONE WAS TO COMMIT SIN. ADAM IS STIPULATED AS HAVING DONE THIS WHICH CAUSED SIN TO ENTER THE WORLD AND DEATH THROUGH SIN TO ALL MANKIND

(v. 4:7 NAS) 'Blessed are those whose lawless deeds have been forgiven, and whose sins have been covered, (v. 5:12 NAS) "Because of this: [just] as through one man [the] sin did enter into the world, and through [the] sin [the] death; and thus to all men [the] death did pass through, for that all sinned; (v. 5:13 NKJV) For until law sin was in the world, but sin is not imputed when there is no law.; (v. 5:14 NAS) but the death did reign from Adam till Moses, even upon those not having sinned in the likeness of Adam's transgression, who is a type of Him who is coming" =

The word "transgression" means a deliberate violation of a known command:

1) [Compare Romans 4:7]:

(v. 4:7 NAS) " 'Blessed are those whose lawless deeds have been forgiven, and whose sins have been covered.' "

Paul renders the Hebrew word "pesha" = "transgression" in Psalm 32:1 for his letter to the Romans in verse 4:7 in the Greek as "anomiai" = "lawless deeds" which accurately reflects the idea of deliberate violation of a known law or command of behavior by God, with the Jew and the Mosaic Law especially in view as part of the context theme begun in Romans 3:1.

So the phrase in Ro 4:14, "even upon those not having sinned in the likeness of Adam's transgression" implies that there were commands given by God to various individuals and groups of individuals beginning with Adam. Evidently a command is not considered law in that it only constititutes one or a limited number of rules by God to obey. Law, on the other hand, is a total system of rules to live by given by God which encompasses a system of life by which His righteousness is to be attained. A violation of a command is stipulated as a transgression, a sin. The context of (v. 5:12 NAS) "Because of this: [just] as through one man the sin did enter into the world, and through the sin the death; and thus to all men the death did pass through, for that all sinned; flows into (v. 5:14 NAS) but the death did reign from Adam till Moses, even upon those not having sinned in the likeness of Adam's transgression, (breaking of a known command), implies that Adam is the one man through a breaking of God's command who caused sin to enter the world, and death through sin to all mankind.

D) ADAM IS THEN DESCRIBED AS A PATTERN OF THE ONE WHO IS COMING, JESUS CHRIST. THE PATTERN IN VIEW IS A PATTERN OF REPRESENTING ALL HUMANITY IN SOME FUNCTION. FOR JESUS CHRIST IT WAS TO PROVIDE REDEMPTION BY DYING FOR THE SINS THE UNGODLY, I.E., ALL MANKIND

(v. 3:21) "But now a righteousness from God, apart from law, has been made known, to which the Law and the Prophets testify. (v. 3:22) This righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. There is no difference, (v. 3:23) for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, (v. 3:24) and are justified freely by His grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus. (v. 5:12 NAS) Because of this: [just] as through one man [the] sin did enter into the world, and through [the] sin [the] death; and thus to all men [the] death did pass through, for that all sinned; (v. 5:13 NKJV) For until law sin was in the world, but sin is not imputed when there is no law.; (v. 5:14 NAS) but [the] death did reign from Adam till Moses, even upon those not having sinned in the likeness of Adam's transgression, who is a type of Him Who is coming =

Notice the context from v. 5:12 through 14 has the one man, now named in v. 12, Adam, through whom sin entered the world by breaking a command and hence sin and death came to all mankind through that sin. Adam is then described as a pattern of "the One Who is coming." The pattern in view is a pattern of representing all humanity in some function. In Adam's case, it was being the representative of all mankind when he broke a command of God's and sinned, hence all mankind sinned in Adam's sin and received the consequences of his action by physical and spiritual inheritance. Evidently the One Who is coming is Jesus Christ Who provided redemption by dying for [the] ungodly [mankind] - all mankind:

1) [Compare Ro 3:21-24]:

(v. 3:21) "But now a righteousness from God, apart from law, has been made known, to which the Law and the Prophets testify.

(v. 3:22) This righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. There is no difference,

(v. 3:23) for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God,

(v. 3:24) and are justified freely by His grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus."

Notice that a righteousness from God was testified to in the Law and the Prophets, i.e., the Old Testament, (Ro 3:21) which pointed to "the redemption that came by Jesus Christ," (v. 3:24). So "the One Who is coming" is Jesus Christ through Whom came the redemption of all mankind when He "died for [the] ungodly [= all mankind]", (v. 5:6). But each individual must choose to believe in Him and be justified by faith to receive a righteousness from God unto eternal life through that redemption, (Ro 3:21-24).

Since Adam is stipulated as a "type of Him Who is coming," (5:14);

and since it is indicated that Adam's sin effected all mankind who will ever live, (5:12);

then what He Who is coming did likewise effected all mankind who will ever live, (5:14).

[BKC, op. cit., p. 459-460]:

"5:14. The fact that sin did exist during the period from Adam to the Law is proved by the fact that 'death reigned from the time of Adam to the time of Moses' (lit., 'from Adam until Moses'). And death also reigned over people who had not broken 'a command as did Adam'... Adam had disobeyed a specific command of God (Gen 2:17) and committed a transgression, something that his descendants did not do when they sinned till other specific commands from God were received. But yet all Adam's descendants had sinned with Adam (Rom. 5:12), and therefore death did reign (cf. Gen 5:5, 8, 11, 14, 17, 20, 27, 31). Since death was present, that proved all had sinned in Adam...

The mention of Adam by name (cf. 'one man,' v. 12) brought Paul back to the point of referring to him, 'who was a pattern of the One to come'. A parallelism exists between Adam and Jesus Christ as heads of groups of human beings... but the parallelism is more contrastive than comparative."

XI) [Ro 5:15-21]:

(v. 5:15 ASV) "But not as the trespass, so also is the free gift? For if by the trespass of the one the many died, much more did the grace of God, and the gift by the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, abound unto the many.

(v. 5:16 ASV) And not as through one that sinned, so is the gift? For the judgment came of one unto condemnation, but the free gift came of many trespasses unto justification.

(v. 5:17 NAS) For if by the transgression of the one, death reigned through the one, much more those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness [these abundances] will reign in life through the One, Jesus Christ.

(v. 5:18 NAS) So then as through one transgression there resulted condemnation to all men, even so through one act of righteousness there resulted justification of [eternal] life to all men.

(v. 5:19 NAS) For as by one man’s disobedience many were made sinners, so also by one Man’s obedience many will be made righteous.

(v. 5:20 NKJV) Moreover ....law entered that the offense might abound. But where sin abounded, grace abounded much more,

(v. 5:21 NKJV) so that as sin reigned in death, even so grace might reign through righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord."

A) SUMMARY OF VERSES 15-21

This section's theme contrasts Adam's transgression with so much the more Christ's superlative righteous act of redemption of all mankind. Verse 15 & 16 each begins with an emphatic rhetorical question which reflects this theme; after which the contrast between Adam and Jesus Christ is presented.

1) VERSE 15

(v. 5:15 ASV) "But not as the trespass, so also is the free gift? For if by the trespass of the one the many died, much more did the grace of God, and the gift by the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, abound unto the many." =

By the trespass of the one man Adam, many = all mankind died

so much the more

By the grace of God the grace gift of the one Man Jesus Christ did abound in availability to the many = all mankind, (v. 5:15; Ro 3:21-24.

2) VERSE 16

(v. 5:16 ASV) "And not as through one that sinned, so is the gift? For the judgment came of one unto condemnation, but the free gift came of many trespasses unto justification." =

- By the judgment of the one trespass, (v. 15b), came condemnation unto physical and spiritual/eternal death to the many = all mankind, (v. 5:15b).

so much the more (v. 5:15)

- By the free gift which came as a result of all offenses [sins] which motivated Him to pay the price for many = all transgressions, (v. 5:15b), is thereby a declaration of 'righteous' [a righteousness from God unto eternal life, (Ro 3:21-22)] made available to the many = all mankind, (v. 5:15b), to be received by each one who believes, (Ro 3:22).

3) VERSE 17

(v. 5:17 NAS) For if by the transgression of the one, death reigned through the one, much more those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness [these abundances] will reign in life through the One, Jesus Christ." =

- By the transgression of the one man Adam, (v. 5:14), death reigned in life for all mankind, (v. 5:12, 15b)

so much the more

- By the redemptive act of the one Man Jesus Christ for all mankind an abundance of God's grace and an abundance of the gift of His righteousness reigns in temporal life for those that receive them by faith in Jesus Christ, (cf. Ro 3:21-24).

4) VERSE 18

(v. 5:18 NAS) "So then as through one transgression there resulted condemnation to all men, even so through one act of righteousness there resulted justification of [eternal] life to all men." =

- By the one trespass judgment came to all men unto condemnation unto physical and eternal death, (v. 5:16).

so much the more, (v. 5:15)

- By the one act of righteousness, i.e., Christ's redemption came the availability of justification unto eternal life to all men through a moment of faith alone in Christ alone, (cf. Ro 3:21-24)

5) VERSE 19

(v. 5:19 NAS) "For as by one man’s disobedience many were made sinners, so also by one Man’s obedience many will be made righteous." =

- By the one man Adam's disobedience = trespass, (v. 5:14) many = all men were made sinners, (v. 5:15).

so much the more, (v. 5:15)

- By the obedience of the One Man Jesus Christ, (v. 15) will be the means by which through faith, the many = all men, v. 5:15, will have an opportunity to be made righteous, (cf Ro 3:21-24).

6) VERSE 20

(v. 5:20 NKJV) "Moreover .....law entered that the offense might abound. But where sin abounded, grace abounded much more" =

- By God's design law in the form of the Law came so that men might be conscious of sin, (3:20) and thereby trespasses against law might increase thus exposing an individual's sin nature for what it is to himself, (cf. v. 3:20);

so much the more, (v. 5:15)

- where sin abounded, God's grace abounded all the more, (cf. 5:17), to cover those sins for all mankind so that those individuals who express a moment of faith in the redemption that came from Jesus Christ our Lord receive God's righteousness which reigns in life in them unto eternal life, (cf. 5:17; 3:21-24).

7) VERSES 20-21

(v. 5:20 NKJV) "Moreover ... law entered that the offense might abound. But where sin abounded, grace abounded much more

(v. 5:21 NKJV) so that as sin reigned in death, even so grace might reign through righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord." =

- By God's design law came so that men might be conscious of sin, (3:20), and thereby trespasses against law might increase thus exposing an individual's sin nature for what it is to himself. Hence sin reigned, producing physical and spiritual death / separation from daily fellowship with God throughout the world.

even so (= so much the more, v. 5:15)

- Where sin abounded, God's grace abounded all the more to cover those sins for all mankind so that those individuals who express a moment of faith in the redemption that came from Jesus Christ our Lord receive God's righteousness, (cf. Ro 3:21-24), which reigns in life in them unto eternal life.

B) OBSERVATIONS OF VERSE 5:15

1) THE PHRASE "BUT, NOT AS THE OFFENSE SO ALSO [IS] THE FREE GIFT?" POSES A RHETORICAL QUESTION IN AN EMPHATIC NEGATIVE WAY TO SAY 'IN NO WAY IS THE OFFENSE OF THE ONE MAN ADAM LIKE THE FREE GIFT OF THE ONE MAN JESUS CHRIST'

(v. 5:10 NIV) "For if, when we were God's enemies, we were reconciled to Him through the death of his Son, how much more, having been reconciled, shall we be saved through His life! (v. 5:11 NAS) And not only this, but we also exult [rejoice] in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received the reconciliation. (v. 5:12 NAS) Because of this: [just] as through one man [the] sin did enter into the world, and through [the] sin [the] death; and thus to all men [the] death did pass through, for that all sinned; (v. 5:13 NKJV) For until law sin was in the world, but sin is not imputed when there is no law.; (v. 5:14 NAS) but the death did reign from Adam till Moses, even upon those not having sinned in the likeness of Adam's transgression, who is a type of Him Who is coming. (v. 5:15 ASV) But not as the trespass, so also is the free gift? For if by the trespass of the one the many died, much more did the grace of God, and the gift by the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, abound unto the many." =

all .ouch .hOs .to ..paraptOma houtOs kai ..to ...charisma

but not ...as ....the offense, ......so ........also .the .free gift?

Notice that Adam in v. 5:14 is stipulated as "a type of Him Who is coming" which will be further explained in v. 5:15. The phrase "all ouch hOs to paraptOma houtOs kai to charisma" in 5:15 rendered in the ASV: "But not as the trespass, so also is the free gift?" poses a rhetorical question in an emphatic way as to say 'in no way' is the offense of the one man Adam like the free gift of the one man Jesus Christ.

2) ON THE ONE HAND ADAM CAUSED SIN AND DEATH TO INFECT ALL MANKIND; ON THE OTHER HAND, SO MUCH THE MORE DID THE FREE GIFT OF THE GRACE OF GOD OF REDEMPTION UNTO ETERNAL LIFE THROUGH JESUS CHRIST ABOUND TO ALL MANKIND TO BE RECEIVED AS EACH INDIVIDUAL CHOOSES TO ACCEPT THE GIFT VIA A MOMENT OF FAITH ALONE IN CHRIST ALONE

(v. 3:21) "But now a righteousness from God, apart from law, has been made known, to which the Law and the Prophets testify. (v. 3:22) This righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. There is no difference, (v. 3:23) for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, (v. 3:24) and are justified freely by His grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus. (v. 5:6 KJV) For when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for [the] ungodly [= all mankind]. (v. 5:8 ASV) "But God commendeth his own love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us.. (v. 5:9 NKJV) Much more then, having now been justified by His blood, we shall be saved from wrath through Him. (v. 5:10 NIV) For if, when we were God's enemies, we were reconciled to Him through the death of his Son, how much more, having been reconciled, shall we be saved through His life! (v. 5:11 NAS) And not only this, but we also exult [rejoice] in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received the reconciliation. (v. 5:12 NAS) Because of this: [just] as through one man [the] sin did enter into the world, and through [the] sin [the] death; and thus to all men [the] death did pass through, for that all sinned; (v. 5:13 NKJV) For until law sin was in the world, but sin is not imputed when there is no law; (v. 5:14 NAS) but the death did reign from Adam till Moses, even upon those not having sinned in the likeness of Adam's transgression, who is a type of Him Who is coming. (v. 5:15 ASV) But not as the trespass, so also is the free gift? For if by the trespass of the one the many died, much more did the grace of God, and the gift by the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, abound unto the many." =

(v. 5:15 GREEK) "all.ouch .hOs .to ..paraptOma houtOs kai ..to ...charisma

.............................."but not ...as ....the offense, ......so ........also .the .free gift?

ei gar tO ......tou ....henos paraptOmati hoi .polloi apethanon

If for .by the of the one ....offense .........the many died

pollO mallon hE charis tou theou ....kai hE .dOrea en chariti

much more ...the grace .......of God, and the gift .....in .grace

tE ......tou .....henos anthrOpou iEsou christou eis tous pollous eperisseusen"

by the of the one .....man ..........Jesus Christ, ..to .the ..many ...did abound"

The context of "the many died" through the one offense of Adam in the second clause, (5:15b), has in view all mankind. Hence in the clause which follows, (5:15c), wherein it stipulates by virtue of contrast: By the grace of God the grace gift of the one Man Jesus Christ did abound in availability to the many = all mankind, (v. 5:15; Ro 3:21-24; the many also has in view all mankind in order to complete the contrast.

The first phrase of 5:15 is an emphatic negative rhetorical question: "But, not as the offence so also [is] the free gift?" It is followed by an emphatic declaration of extreme opposites, wherein the second opposite is declared to be so much more - a superlative. On the one hand is the offense committed by the one man Adam which caused sin and death to enter the world and infect all mankind, ("the many", cf. 5:12); on the other hand so much the more did the grace of God and the free grace gift of justification unto eternal life through the one man Jesus Christ abound in availability to all mankind, ("the many"), and as each individual chooses to accept the gift via a moment of faith alone in Christ alone, (Ro 3:21-24). Notice that verse 15c stipulates that the grace of God and the free grace gift of the one Man Jesus Christ did abound, aorist tense. The aorist tense is a completed action type of verb which points to a once for all time availabilty of the free grace gift of reconciliation unto eternal life which abounded, i.e., overflowed to the many with the definite article 'the" signifying the specific 'the many' previously in view in 5:15b, i.e., all mankind. Both "many's" must refer to the same thing as they are presented in a parallel contrast of Adam's effect on 'the many' vs Christ's effect on that same 'many'. For 'many' to refer to only those who have been or will be justified, Adam's transgression could only then bring sin and death to those who are to be justified. This is hardly the case according to Scripture and history - all men sin and all men die and have been sinning and dying since the one man's transgression.

Since the words of the original text and the context do not support a different 'many' from 5:15b to 5:15c such as only those who will be justified; then the free grace gift of redemption abounded [ = was made available] to all mankind to receive by a moment of faith alone in Christ alone, (cf. 3:21-24, 5:6).

a) There Is A Difference Between (1) Being Reconciled Wherein The Account Of Man's Unrighteousness Has Been Reconciled With God And Hence Provision Has Been Made As A Result Of Christ's Redemption For The Ungodly, i.e., For All Mankind And (2) Being Reconciled Wherein One Has Accepted As True, (Believed In), That Provision And Is Immediately In An Eternal Position Of Being No Longer At Enmity With God

(v. 5:6 KJV) "For when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for [the] ungodly [= all mankind]. (v. 5:7 NAS) For one will hardly die for a righteous man; though perhaps for the good man someone would dare even to die. (v. 5:8 ASV) But God commendeth his own love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us. (v. 5:9 NKJV) Much more then, having now been justified by His blood, we shall be saved from wrath through Him. (v. 5:10 NIV) For if, when we were God's enemies, we were reconciled to him through the death of His Son, how much more, having been reconciled, shall we be saved through His life!" =

There is a difference between (1) being reconciled wherein the account of man's unrighteousness has been reconciled with God and hence provision has been made as a result of Christ's redemption for the ungodly, i.e., for all mankind and (2) being reconciled wherein one has accepted as true, (believed in), that provision and is immediately in an eternal position of being no longer at enmity with God.

Note that verse 5:10 is paralleled in context to verse 5:6 wherein we who have been justified are described in the latter as "without strength" as a condition that prompted Christ's death. Verse 5:10 similarly describes a condition of "we who have been justified," (5:1), of previously being "God's enemies" and "ungodly" which evidently prompted the "death of His [God's] Son." Hence the phrase "being without strength in verse 5:6 describes a condition which is ungodly and at enmity with God.

Since Jesus Christ is stipulated as having died for the ungodly without limitation, (Ro 5:6); and since all mankind is ungodly, (Ro 3:23), then Jesus Christ died to pay the penalty for the sins of all mankind. Since the word "redeem" is defined in Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, G & C Merriam Co, Springfield, Ma, 1980, p. 960, as follows: "to buy back, repurchase, ...free from lien by payment, ...to atone for" then it can be said that Jesus Christ has redeemed, i.e., freed from lien by payment, atoned for, the ungodly = all mankind, in the sense of paying the penalty for all of mankind's sins. Hence personal reconciliation and salvation is thereby made available to all who choose to believe. So Christ's redemption has reconciled all men in the sense that every individual's account of sins before God has been paid for, (reconciled). But this is not to say that all men are reconciled in the sense that they have an eternal position of peace and fellowship with God. That reconciliation comes only upon those who have expressed a moment of faith alone in Christ's redemption alone unto justification and eternal life.

In the same way that a dispute between two parties over money for example can have their dispute reconciled in position via a free contribution by a third party but which is not reconciled in the actual experience of the two until they accept this free gift;

so the enmity dispute of ungodliness between God and man has been reconciled in position by Jesus Christ via His free gift of righteousness through His act of atonement; but it is not reconciled in the actual experience of each individual until he accepts this free gift by a moment of faith alone in Christ alone.

i) [Compare Ro 5:1 NAS with Ro 5:15 ASV]:

(v. 5:1 NAS) "Therefore, having been justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ,"

(v. 5:15 ASV) "But not as the trespass, so also is the free gift? For if by the trespass of the one the many died, much more did the grace of God, and the gift by the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, abound unto the many."

Notice, in verse 5:15a, that the offense of the one man Adam caused the many to die, i.e., all mankind. Hence the word "many" to whom the grace gift of God did abound in v. 5:15b is to be all mankind, the same many who were infected by sin and death by the one man Adam, in verse 5:12. On the other hand, this cannot be forced to say that all mankind will receive the gift of eternal life. The phrase rendered "much more did the grace of God and the free gift in grace of the one Man Jesus Christ abound to the many" in verse 5:15 stipulates that the gift abounded to all mankind. The word "eperisseusen" rendered "did abound" is defined as "did become copiously supplied", (Webster's New Collegiate, 1980); i.e., that a copious supply of redemption and reconciliation was made available to, but not necessarily accepted by, all mankind. It has already been established that each individual must make a choice to accept the free grace gift via a moment of faith alone in Christ alone and be justified, hence receive eternal peace and reconcilation with God, (v. 5:1):

[Compare Ro 3:21-24]:

(v. 3:21) "But now a righteousness from God, apart from law, has been made known, to which the Law and the Prophets testify.

(v. 3:22) This righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. There is no difference,

(v. 3:23) for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God,

(v. 3:24) and are justified freely by His grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus."

Notice that Romans 3:21 stipulates that a righteousness from God was testified to in the Law and the Prophets, i.e., the Old Testament. This testimony has in view "being justified freely by His [God's] grace through the redemption that came by Jesus Christ," (v. 3:24). In view of this we can conclude that the "the One Who is coming" in Romans 5:14:

(v. 5:14 NAS) "but the death did reign from Adam till Moses, even upon those not having sinned in the likeness of Adam's transgression, who is a type of Him Who is coming."

is Jesus Christ through Whom came God's free grace gift of the redemption made available to all mankind when His Son "died for [the] ungodly [mankind]", i.e., all mankind, (Romans 5:6, 15). Note that each individual must choose to believe in the redemption of Jesus Christ which has already been provided for all mankind to receive by faith in order for one to be justified and receive a righteousness from God unto eternal life, (Ro 3:21-24).

[BKC, op. cit., p. 459]:

"5:15. The details of the parallelism between Adam and Christ (begun by Paul in v. 12 with the words 'just as') are given in verses 15-17. The apostle made clear the contrastive nature of the parallelism by stating, 'But the gift (charisma, 'grace-gift') is not like the trespass.' What Christ 'gives' contrasts with what Adam did, his 'trespass' (paraptOma, 'false step'... ). The point of the first contrasting parallel is the degree - 'how much more. The trespass of the one man' brought physical death to 'the many,' in this case the entire human race... By contrast, 'God's grace - and the gift' ... that came by the grace of the one Man, Jesus Christ' - abounded to the many' "

C) OBSERVATIONS OF VERSE 5:16

1) A SECOND CONTRAST IS PRESENTED BEGINNING WITH THE RHETORICAL QUESTION BY NO MEANS IS THE FREE GIFT OF ETERNAL LIFE THROUGH THE ONE WHO SINNED?

(v. 5:15 ASV) But not as the trespass, so also is the free gift? For if by the trespass of the one the many died, much more did the grace of God, and the gift by the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, abound unto the many. (v. 5:16 ASV) And not as through one that sinned, so is the gift? For the judgment came of one unto condemnation, but the free gift came of many trespasses unto justification." =

(v. 5:16 GREEK) "kai.ouch hOs di ..henos hamartEsantos .to ...dOrEma

.............................."And not ..as ...by .one ....having sinnned .the .gift?

to ...men ....gar .krima ......ex henos .eis katakrima ..........to ...de ..charisma

the .indeed for ..judgment .of one .....to ..condemnation, ..the ..but .free gift

ek pollOn paraptOmatOn eis .dikaiOma"

of .many ..offenses ............to ..justification"

The first emphatic rhetorical question in verse 5:15, "And not as by the one man Adam who sinned is the gift?" is followed by another in verse 16, literally, "And [shall] not as by one having sinned [be] the gift?" which asks shall the gift of righteousness unto eternal life be as a result of the one man Adam having sinned? It answers itself in the next phrase with, "for the judgment indeed [is] of one to condemnation, but the gift [is] of many offenses to justification, i.e., a declaration of 'Righteous.' " Paraphrased in the NIV, we have: "Again, the gift of God is not like the result of the one man's sin: The judgment followed one sin and brought condemnation, but the gift followed many trespasses and brought justification." The NKJV has an excellent rendering also: "And the gift is not like that which came through the one who sinned. For the judgment which came from one offense resulted in condemnation, but the free gift which came from many offenses resulted in justification." Note that the word "dikaiOma" rendered "justification" means declared Righteous, i.e., declared having a Righteousness from God unto eternal life, (Ro 3:21-24).

2) THE FREE GIFT IS NOT AS THE OFFENSE, FOR BY THE JUDGMENT OF THE ONE OFFENSE CAME CONDEMNATION UNTO PHYSICAL AND SPIRITUAL DEATH / SEPARATION FROM DAILY FELLOWSHIP WITH GOD TO ALL MANKIND; SO MUCH THE MORE BY THE FREE GIFT WHICH CAME AS A RESULT OF ALL OFFENSES [SINS] IS THERE A DECLARATION OF 'RIGHTEOUS' MADE AVAILABLE TO ALL MANKIND AND RECEIVED BY EACH ONE WHO BELIEVES

(v. 5:15 ASV) But not as the trespass, so also is the free gift? For if by the trespass of the one the many died, much more did the grace of God, and the gift by the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, abound unto the many. (v. 5:16 ASV) And not as through one that sinned, so is the gift? For the judgment came of one unto condemnation, but the free gift came of many trespasses unto justification. " =

- By the judgment of the one trespass, (v. 15b), came condemnation unto physical and spiritual/eternal death to the many = all mankind, (v. 5:15b).

so much the more (v. 5:15)

- By the free gift which came as a result of all offenses [sins] which motivated Him to pay the price for many = all transgressions, (v. 5:15b), is thereby a declaration of 'righteous' [a righteousness from God, (Ro 3:21-22)] made available to the many = all mankind, (v. 5:15b), to be received by each one who believes, (Ro 3:22).

Note the word rendered "many" in the following phrase: "For if by the offense of the one, the many did die," (v. 5:15b). Here many refers to all mankind which is many in number, not just some of all types of men - for all men do die. Similarly, the next phrase "and the free gift in grace of the One Man Jesus Christ did abound to the many," (v. 5:15c), the word "many" refers by parallel contrast to the "many" in v. 5:15b, to all mankind which is many, not just some of all types of men. Finally, in the phrase "but the gift [is] of many offenses to a declaration of "Righteous," the word "many" refers by parallel contrast to the "many" in v. 5:15b to all offenses not just all types of offenses with a view to all mankind's offenses, i.e., the sins of the whole world.

[BKC, op. cit., p. 459]:

"5:16. Here Paul presented a second contrasting parallelism; this one is different in kind. He began by emphasizing the contrast: 'Again, the gift of God is not like the result of the one man's sin.' Literally, the Greek is, 'Also not as through the one who sinned is the gift.'... Paul continued, 'The judgment followed' ('was out of') one sin (lit., 'one,' i.e., Adam) and brought condemnation.' God passed judgment (krima) on Adam and he (and the entire human race) received condemnation (katakrima, 'punishment')... But, by contrast, the gift (charisma, 'grace-gift,' i.e., righteousness, 5:17; cf v. 15) followed ("was out of") many trespasses and brought justification (dikaiOma, 'a declaration of righteousness,'... God's grace, as Paul stated repeatedly, beginning in 3:24, is the basis of a person's being justified, declared righteous. And this was in the face of 'many trespasses' (paraptOmatOn...) One man (Adam) trespassed (v. 15) God's command, and everyone since has repeatedly overstepped God's instructions."

3) THE GIFT OF CHRIST'S ATONEMENT FOR THE SINS OF THE WHOLE WORLD RESULTS IN THE AVAILABILITY OF JUSTIFICATION UNTO ETERNAL LIFE FOR ALL MANKIND. ANYONE OF ALL MANKIND MAY CHOOSE TO TRUST ALONE IN CHRIST ALONE AND BE JUSTIFIED - WHICH JUSTIFICATION IS THEREBY FREE - NO STRINGS ATTACHED

(v. 5:15 ASV) But not as the trespass, so also is the free gift? For if by the trespass of the one the many died, much more did the grace of God, and the gift by the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, abound unto the many. (v. 5:16 ASV) And not as through one that sinned, so is the gift? For the judgment came of one unto condemnation, but the free gift came of many trespasses unto justification. " =

Notice that the free gift of Christ's redemption of all mankind, (His sacrificial atonement for the sins of the whole world), resulted in the availability of eternal life for all mankind to be received by each one who chooses to believe alone in Him alone for the free gift of eternal life, (v. 5:16; 3:21-24), no strings attached. Although a gift is by definition free, author Paul chose to repeatedly emphasize this quality of a gift being free, no strings attached.

a) [Compare Ro 3:21-24]:

(v. 3:21) "But now a righteousness from God, apart from law, has been made known, to which the Law and the Prophets testify.

(v. 3:22) This righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. There is no difference,

(v. 3:23) for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God,

(v. 3:24) and are justified freely by His grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus."

Notice the phrases "for all [= all individuals] have sinned, (3:23a); and [all individuals] fall short of the glory of God, (3:23b); and [the same "all" individuals] are justified freely by His [God's] grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus," (3:24) through faith, (3:22). So the word "pantas" rendered "all" in v. 3:23a which is linked to 3:23b and 3:24 is a universal "all" and not just "all types" of mankind. Scripture teaches and history verifies that all men are sinners, not just some of each type, as some maintain. Hence the words "freely" and "by His grace" tell the tale of salvation unto eternal life being free, no strings attached, by God's grace = unmerited favor, for all mankind through a moment of faith alone in Jesus Christ alone, (v. 3:23). On the other hand, since there is a condition of faith required of all mankind in v. 3:22 in order to freely receive a righteousness from God, i.e., be freely justified, then all men have available freely to them justification by God's grace through faith in the redemption that came by Christ Jesus - no strings attached.

D) OBSERVATIONS OF VERSE 5:17

1) BY THE ONE OFFENSE OF ADAM, DEATH REIGNED IN LIFE FOR ALL MANKIND, SO MUCH THE MORE, BY THE ONE RIGHTEOUS ACT OF JESUS CHRIST THE ABUNDANCE OF GOD'S GRACE AND THE ABUNDANCE OF THE GIFT OF A RIGHTEOUSNESS FROM GOD WILL REIGN IN LIFE FOR THE ONES RECEIVING THEM BY FAITH

(v. 3:21) But now a righteousness from God, apart from law, has been made known, to which the Law and the Prophets testify. (v. 3:22) This righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. There is no difference, (v. 3:23) for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, (v. 3:24) and are justified freely by His grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus. (v. 5:14 NAS) but the death did reign from Adam till Moses, even upon those not having sinned in the likeness of Adam's transgression, who is a type of Him Who is coming. (v. 5:15 ASV) But not as the trespass, so also is the free gift? For if by the trespass of the one the many died, much more did the grace of God, and the gift by the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, abound unto the many. (v. 5:16 ASV) And not as through one that sinned, so is the gift? For the judgment came of one unto condemnation, but the free gift came of many trespasses unto justification. (v. 5:17 NAS) For if by the transgression of the one, death reigned through the one, much more those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness [these abundances] will reign in life through the One, Jesus Christ." =

- By the transgresion of the one man Adam, (v. 5:14), death reigned in life for all mankind, (v. 5:12, 15b)

so much the more

- By the redemptive act of the one Man Jesus Christ for all mankind an abundance of God's grace and an abundance of the gift of His righteousness reigns in temporal life for those that receive them by faith in Jesus Christ, (cf. Ro 3:21-24).

(v. 5:17b GREEK) " .hoi .ten .b .tes .....charitos .kai tes ......dOrEas

................................"*the .the .abundance .of the .grace ....and of the .gift

tes ....dikaiosunEs ...............lambanontEs ..........En .ZOe basileusin

of the righteousness [*the] .receiving [ones] .....in ...life ..will reign

dia ........tou henos Iesou Christou"

through the One ...Jesus Christ"

By the one offense of Adam, (5:14) death reigned in life for all mankind,(5:12).

By the one righteous act of Jesus Christ, (v. 5:18, the abundance of God's grace and the abundance of the gift of a righteousness from God will reign in life for the ones receiving them by faith, (3:21-24).

Much more than eternal and temporal death reigning in the lives of all mankind by the trespass of the one man Adam is the abundance of God's grace and the gift of His righteousness reigning in the temporal lives by those who receive it by a moment of faith alone in the one act of redemption for all mankind by the one Man Jesus Christ. It is not the believer who reigns here but the abundances of God's grace and His gift of righteousness that reigns in life the temporal life for the believer. This parallels the first part of the verse wherein death reigns in life for all mankind.

Notice that by the one offense of Adam, death reigned. Death is portrayed as having ruled from the time of Adam's offense over life for all mankind. In other words, every individual who was ever born as an ancestor of Adam - which is all mankind except Jesus Christ - is born spiritually dead and dies physically. This is contrasted with the one redemptive act of Jesus Christ whereby an abundance of God's grace and an abundance of the gift of a righteousness from God will reign in life, i.e., in the lives of the ones receiving such abundances by a moment of faith alone in Christ alone, (Ro 3:21-24).

Note that the verb, "basileusin" rendered "will reign" refers to the abundance of grace and the abundance of the gift of righteousness which will reign in life" for the ones receiving them. The phrase "En zoe" rendered "in life" is without the definite article "the", hence the quality of life for the believer relative to his temporal existence is in view.

The future tense in the phrase "will reign in life" in 5:17b is immediate future, (not eternity future), beginning the reign in life of these abundances for the individual at the point of that individual's becoming the receiving one of both abundances by a moment of faith alone in Christ alone. This must be so in order to be in parallel contrast to the immediate reign of death in the life of all mankind at the point of Adam's one offense.

Furthermore, verse 5:16 has already stipulated that the free gift of righteousness came of many trespasses unto justification unto eternal life.

The abundance of grace which begins to "reign in life" for the ones receiving it by faith, (cf. Ro 3:21-24), is the grace of God, His unmerited favor in life for the "receiving ones." i.e., believers. Evidently, God provides undeserved blessings to reign in life for the ones receiving them by a moment of faith alone in Christ alone so that their lives may be directed by God toward righteousness in their experience. Note that this is in contrast to the rest of mankind for whom death reigns in life.

The abundance of the gift of righteousness which begins to "reign in life for the ones receiving it at the moment of faith alone in Christ alone, (cf. Ro 3:21-24), indicates that the believer's life is ruled by the righteousness of God. Relative to the abundance of the gift of righteousness reigning in the believer's life, it is not the believer's experience that is in view, as some maintain; for a believer to behave in an abundantly righteous manner would not qualify as a gift; rather the abundance of the gift of a righteousness from God would be an ongoing crediting to the believer of righteousness in lieu of the believer's lack of it in his experience. This comes as a result of God's reign of righteousness in life for the believer's life. The fact that it is a gift makes it clear that it is all part of the reign of the abundant grace of God in life for the believer.

Note that the word "ebasileusen" in 5:17a, rendered "reigned" in the phrase "death reigned in life" is not restricted by any modifying words or context; hence all mankind is in view. On the other hand, the phrase, "pollO mallon hoi tEn perisseian tEs charitos kain tEs dOreas tEs dikaiosunEs lambanontes." rendered in the ASV "much more that they that receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness reign in life, through the One, even Jesus Christ." does restrict the population of mankind in view to all those "that receive the gift of righteousness", i.e., to we who have believed and been justified, (v. 5:1).

Notice that the restricted group of individuals who receive the gift of God's righteousness is nevertheless a part of all mankind over which sin and death reigns universally, (v.5:17a); yet all mankind has available to them the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness in life through a moment of faith alone in Christ alone, (vv. 3:21-24).

[Expositor's, op. cit., pp. 63-64]:

"15-17. In this section Christ's effect on men is seen as totally different from that of Adam, and vastly superior. Note the repeated expression 'how much more,' Any hint of parallelism suggested by 'pattern' is replaced by the element of contrast. True, there appears to be a similarity in one point, in that the work of Adam and that of Christ relate to the many. It will readily be seen by comparing v. 15 with v. 12 that 'the many' is the same as 'all men' ('death came to all men' and 'the many died'). The use of 'the many' has this advantage, that it underscores the importance of Adam and Christ respectively. What one did, in each case, affected not one but many...

Another notable feature of the passage is the expression 'how much more' (vv. 15, 17). The force of this seems to be bound up with the recurring use of 'grace' and 'gift,' suggesting that the work of Christ ... cancelled the effects of Adam's transgression... Paul makes a further observation to the effect that in Adam's case, a single sin was involved, and that was sufficient to bring condemnation, but in the work of Christ a provision is found for the many acts of sin that have resulted in the lives of his [Adam's] descendants, (v. 16).

Whereas up to this point Paul's train of thought has been concerned with developing the concept of sin taken over from v. 12, now it turns to its companion factor, death, likewise mentioned in v. 12, with a view to enlarging upon it (v. 17). The point of the 'much more' appears to be this - that in Christ not only is the hold of death, established by Adam's sin, effectively broken, but because of Christ's redeeming work the believer is able to look forward to reigning in life through Christ. This, of course, implies participation in the resurrection. Believers will have a share in the Lord's kingdom and glory."

E) OBSERVATIONS OF VERSE 5:18

1) BY ONE TRESPASS JUDGMENT CAME TO ALL MEN OF CONDEMNATION UNTO ETERNAL DEATH

(v. 5:16 ASV) And not as through one that sinned, so is the gift? For the judgment came of one unto condemnation, but the free gift came of many trespasses unto justification. (v. 5:17 NAS) For if by the transgression of the one, death reigned through the one, much more those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness [these abundances] will reign in life through the One, Jesus Christ. (v. 5:18 NAS) So then as through one transgression there resulted condemnation to all men, even so through one act of righteousness there resulted justification of [eternal] life to all men." =

By one trespass judgment came to all men of condemnation unto eternal death. This is a reiteration of verse 5:16b of the effect of the one man Adam's trespass: through the one trespass to all mankind who will ever live, judgment came resulting in universal condemnation of all mankind unto the eternal wrath of God.

a) [Compare Ro 2:6-8]:

(v. 2:6) "God will give to each person according to what he has done.

(v. 2:7) To those who by persistence in doing good seek glory, honor and immortality, He will give eternal life

(v. 2:8) But for those who are self-seeking and who reject the truth and follow evil, there will be [eternal] wrath and anger."

Notice in these verses that there are two opposing destinies in view which are paralleled: Eternal life resulting from good, (v. 2:17), and eternal wrath and anger resulting from evil, (v. 2:8). Hence by the one trespass was brought physical and eternal death to all men.

2) SO MUCH THE MORE BY THE ONE ACT OF RIGHTEOUSNESS, I.E., CHRIST'S REDEMPTIVE ACT CAME THE AVAILABILITY OF JUSTIFICATION UNTO ETERNAL LIFE TO ALL MEN THROUGH A MOMENT OF FAITH ALONE IN CHRIST ALONE

(v. 5:18 NAS) So then as through one transgression there resulted condemnation to all men, even so through one act of righteousness there resulted justification of [eternal] life to all men." =

"ara oun ..hOs .di henos .paraptOmatos eis .......pantas anthrOpous eis

"so ..then as ....by one ....offense ............toward all ........men ............to

katakrima ......houtOs .kai .di henos dikaiOmatos .........................eis

condemnation so .........also by one ...accomplished righteousness towards

pantas anthrOpous eis .dikaiOsin .....zOEs"

all .......men .............to ..justification ..of life"

- By the one trespass judgment came to all men unto condemnation [unto eternal death, (v. 5:16)]

much more, (v. 5:15)

- By the one act of righteousness, Christ's redemption came the availability of justification unto eternal life to all men through a moment of faith alone in Christ alone, (cf. Ro 3:21-24).

Most major versions, (ASV, NAS, NIV, NKJV, KJV, AMP, etc.), translate "pantas anthrOpous" which occurs twice in this verse as "all men", i.e., the entire human race as opposed to all types of men. This must be so because the context is not limited to all types of men as some maintain. The word "pantas", (Str. # 3956), rendered "all" in this verse has in view the entire population of mankind. This word, (Strongs, #3956), is used 1111 times in the KJV, New Testament. The vast majority of usage has "all" meaning an entire population in view. In Romans the following verses have this word which is rendered the meaning of "all" to the entire population of humanity, (cf. 1:5, 7, 8, 16, 18, 29; 2:1, 9, 10; 3:2, 4, 9, 12, 19, 20, 22, 23; 4:11, 16).

a) [Compare Ro 1:16]:

(v. 16) "For I am not ashamed of the gospel, because it is the power of God for the salvation ofeveryone who believes: first for the Jew, then for the Gentile."

Furthermore, the false argument that "pantas" is always used for describing "all types" based on how it is used elsewhere in Scripture so as to force this meaning on Ro 5:18 violates the normative rules of language, context and logic. One cannot force the meaning of a word in one passage with one context onto another with a different context.

Secondly, the argument that if all mankind, meaning the entire human race, were intended then another word "hopas" would have been in the original text. But this is a false argument because "pantas" has for its primary meaning that same universal "all". Since 5:12a stipulates that the one man caused sin to enter the world, ("kosmon"), which has in view all mankind; and since 5:12b stipulates that death through sin was also caused to enter the world which also has all mankind in view, and which is expressed by the phrase "pantas anthrOpous" and correctly rendered "all men", then 5:18a which repeats this same truth as 5:12 "through one trespass the judgment came unto "pantas anthrOpous" to condemnation", wherein "all men" is the rendering of the identical phrase in 5:12, then "pantas anthrOpous" does not refer to all types of men but to all individuals, all mankind.

Finally, 5:18b NAS is rendered "even so through one act of righteousness there resulted justification of [eternal] life to 'pantas anthrOpous' [= all men]." The phrase "pantas anthrOpous" must refer again to all individuals not just all types of individuals. in order to remain in contrastive parallel with 5:18a.

F) OBSERVATIONS OF VERSE 5:19

1) BY THE ONE MAN ADAM'S DISOBEDIENCE, I.E., TRESPASS, MANY = ALL MANKIND, WERE MADE SINNERS; SO MUCH THE MORE, BY THE OBEDIENCE OF THE ONE MAN JESUS CHRIST SHALL BE THE MEANS BY WHICH THROUGH FAITH IN HIM THE MANY = ALL MANKIND, WILL BE MADE RIGHTEOUS

(v. 5:19 NAS) For as by one man’s disobedience many were made sinners, so also by one Man’s obedience many will be made righteous" =

- By the one man Adam's disobedience, (5:14), ( = trespass) many (= all men) were made sinners, (5:15).

much more, (v. 5:15)

- By the obedience of the One Man Jesus Christ, (v. 5:15) shall be the means by which through faith, (3:21-24) the many (=all men, v. 5:15) will be made righteous.

Note that verse 5:19b stipulates that through the obedience of the One Man Jesus Christ will the many, i.e., all mankind be made righteous in the sense of universal provision. This is not to say that all men will be made righteous, which previous passages indicate requires a moment of faith alone in Christ alone, (cf. Ro 3:21-24). What Romans 5:19b can and does say with the previous context of Ro 3:21-24 in mind is that by the obedience of the One Man Jesus Christ will all mankind have the opportunity to be made righteous through a moment of faith alone in Christ alone.

Just as by the decision of a business to provide free health care for its employees whereupon it can be correctly stated, "all employees have received free health care" in the sense of universal provision or opportunity; but each individual employee must still choose to avail himself of that care in his life to receive it in the sense of individual experience, (Ro 3:21-24);

so by the obedience of the One Man Jesus Christ wherein provision was made for all mankind to be made righteous, whereupon it can be correctly stated, (v. 5:19 NAS), "For as by one man’s disobedience many were made sinners, so also by one Man’s obedience many [= all men] will be made righteous" in the sense of universal provision or opportunity; but each individual must still choose to avail himself of that righteousness in his life through a moment of faith alone in Christ alone, (Ro 3:21-24), in order to receive it in the sense of individual experience. Note that just as not all employees may avail themselves of the free available health care, so it is true that not all individuals will avail themselves of the freely available righteousness of God and eternal life.

a) [Compare Ro 3:21-24]:

(v. 3:21) "But now a righteousness from God, apart from law, has been made known, to which the Law and the Prophets testify.

(v. 3:22) This righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. There is no difference,

(v. 3:23) for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God,

(v. 3:24) and are justified freely by His grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus.'

Notice that verse 3:23 stipulates that "all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God" wherein "all" refers to all mankind, for that is the extent of the context and the human population that have sinned and fall short of the glory of God. This word cannot be limited to "all types of men" nor "all who believe" because either would deteriorate the understanding of the passage into nonsense and redundancy. On the other hand, since there is a condition of faith required of all mankind in v. 3:22 in order to receive a righteousness from God, i.e., be justified, then all men have available to them justification by God's grace through faith in the redemption that came by Christ Jesus.

i) All Individuals Have Available To Them The Opportunity To Be Justified, i.e., Declared To Have The Righteousness From God Unto Eternal Life Freely And By God's Grace, (i.e., Via Unmerited Favor) Which Both Support The Eternal Security Of The Believer And Do Not Obligate Him In Any Way

(v. 3:21) "But now a righteousness from God, apart from law, has been made known, to which the Law and the Prophets testify. (v. 3:22) This righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. There is no difference, (v. 3:23) for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, (v. 3:24) and are justified freely by His grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus." (cont.) =

Notice that verse 24 as constructed in the Greek indicates that ALL men have the opportunity to be "justified" in only one way - by the grace gift of God, which is a free gift for which man does nothing to receive it or keep it. Man, therefore, this verse says, is justified in no other way but by the FREE grace gift of God. This does not say that all men are automatically justified as some will maintain. The context does not support this conclusion nor do chapters one and two. Not all men will be saved as the context of chapters one and two clearly imply. Rather the phrase in Ro 3:24, "and [all men] are justified freely by His grace.." follows Ro 3:22 which states that "There is no difference" among men as to how one is justified. Jews and Gentiles, religious and non-religious, moral and immoral are all justified only in the one way. So this phrase says "and [all men] are justified [in one way only:] by His [God's] grace." If a man is justified at all he can only be justified by faith alone in Jesus Christ alone asSavior-no other way: by the grace gift of God through faith in Christ.

[Expositors, op. cit., p. 64 on Romans 5:18-19]:

(v. 5:12 NAS) "Because of this: [just] as through one man [the] sin did enter into the world, and through [the] sin [the] death; and thus to all men [the] death did pass through, for that all sinned; (v. 5:18 NAS) So then as through one transgression there resulted condemnation to all men, even so through one act of righteousness there resulted justification of [eternal] life to all men. (v. 5:19 NAS) For as by one man’s disobedience many were made sinners, so also by one Man’s obedience many will be made righteous." =

"18, 19. At this point... Paul provides something of a conclusion to v. 12, but in such a way as to take account of the intervening material. The opening word, 'consequently,' shows his intent to summarize. Notice the careful balancing of the clauses. One trespass brought condemnation for all humanity and one act of righteousness brought justification for all. Adam's sin is labeled 'trespass,' indicating that it was deliberate (cf. 'breaking a command' in v. 14). The basic meaning of the word rendered 'trespass' is to convey the idea of falling aside or going astray. 'It refers directly to the disruption of man's relation to God through his fault' (Michaelis in TDNT VI, p. 172).

The reference is clearly to the violation of the divine restriction laid down in Genesis 2:17, with resulting condemnation for the entire human race. His act involved others directly; it did not merely set a bad example. Over against Adam's act, Paul put another of an entirely different character - an act of righteousness. The same Greek word occurs at the end of v. 16, where it is rendered 'justification.' Perhaps 'act' is a bit narrow for this context. 'Work of righteousness' might be better. In fact, the whole scope of the ministry of our Lord could be in view. He came 'to fulfill all rightgeousness' (Matt 3:15). The word 'justification' is set over against 'condemnation,' but something is added, namely, the observation that justification is more than the antithesis of condemnation, more than the setting aside of an adverse verdict due to sin, more than the imputation of divine righteousness. It is the passport ot life, the sharing of the life of God (cf. v. 21).

Another term for Adam's failure occurs in v. 19, namely, 'disobedience.' This accents the voluntary character of his sin. Matching it is the obedience of Christ...

But 'will be made righteous' may simply be the equivalent of 'will become righteous' in the forensic sense, ... in which case the future tense need not be thought of as eschatological but as embracing all who in this age are granted justification. Most of these were indeed future to Paul's time. The milieu of thought has not shifted from the forensic.

Does the sweeping language used ('the many' being all men) suggest that all mankind will be brought within the circle of justification, so that none whatever will be lost? Some have thought so. But if the doctrine of universalism were being taught here, Paul would be contradicting himself, for he has already pictured men as perishing because of sin (2:12; cf. 1 Cor 1:18). Furthermore, his entire presentation of salvation has emphasized the fact that justification is granted only on the basis of faith. We must conclude, therefore, that only as 'the many' are found in Christ can they qualify as belonging to the righteous."

2) THE IMPLICATION HERE IS THAT THE PERFECT OBEDIENCE OF JESUS CHRIST IS ESSENTIAL TO THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE REDEMPTION THAT CAME BY HIM

(v. 5:15 ASV) "But not as the trespass, so also is the free gift? For if by the trespass of the one the many died, much more did the grace of God, and the gift by the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, abound unto the many. (v. 5:19 NAS) For as by one man’s disobedience many were made sinners, so also by one Man’s obedience many will be made righteous" =

(v. 5:19a) - By the one man Adam's, (v. 5:14) disobedience (trespass, (v. 5:15) many (= all men, (v. 15) were made sinners

much more, (v. 5:15)

(v. 5:19b) - By the obedience of the One Man Jesus Christ, (v. 15) will be the means by which through faith, (3:21-24) the many =all men, v. 5:15) be made righteous.

Notice the contrast in effect of the lifestyles of the one man, Adam vs. the one Man Jesus Christ on all humanity:

By the one man Adam's disobedience of a single command, i.e., a trespass, the many = all mankind were made sinners, (cf. Ro 5:15);

So much the more

By the one Man Jesus Christ's obedience of every command of the righteousness of God, especially the Law throughout His entire life, shall be the means by which through faith in Him to provide a righteousness from God by God's grace through the redemption that came by Jesus Christ, (cf. 3:21-24), the many = all mankind, will be made righteous. The implication here is that the perfect obedience of Jesus Christ is essential to the effectiveness of the redemption that came by Him.

a) [Compare Ro 3:21-24]:

(v. 3:21) "But now a righteousness from God, apart from law, has been made known, to which the Law and the Prophets testify.

(v. 3:22) This righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. There is no difference,

(v. 3:23) for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God,

(v. 3:24) and are justified freely by His grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus."

Notice that provision has been made for a righteousness from God for all mankind to be received by each one who expresses a moment of faith alone in Christ alone, (v. 3:22). For all individuals "are justified = declared righteous by His [God's] grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus, (v. 3:24).

G) OBSERVATIONS OF VERSE 5:20

1) BY GOD'S DESIGN LAW CAME SO THAT MEN MIGHT BE CONSCIOUS OF SIN AND THEREBY TRESPASSES AGAINST LAW MIGHT INCREASE THUS EXPOSING AN INDIVIDUAL'S SIN NATURE FOR WHAT IT IS TO HIMSELF. SO MUCH THE MORE WHERE SIN ABOUNDED, GOD'S GRACE ABOUNDED ALL THE MORE TO COVER THOSE SINS FOR ALL MANKIND SO THAT THOSE INDIVIDUALS WHO EXPRESS A MOMENT OF FAITH IN THE REDEMPTION THAT CAME FROM JESUS CHRIST OUR LORD RECEIVE GOD'S RIGHTEOUSNESS WHICH REIGNS IN LIFE IN THEM UNTO ETERNAL LIFE

(v. 3:19) "Now we know that whatever the Law says, it says to those who are under the Law, so that every mouth may be silenced and the whole world held accountable to God. (v. 3:20) Therefore no one will be declared righteous in His sight by observing law; rather, through law we become conscious of sin. (v. 3:21) But now a righteousness from God, apart from law, has been made known, to which the Law and the Prophets testify. (v. 3:22) This righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. There is no difference, (v. 3:23) for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, (v. 3:24)... and are justified freely by His grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus... (v. 5:17 NAS) For if by the transgression of the one, death reigned through the one, much more those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness [these abundances] will reign in life through the One, Jesus Christ. (v. 5:20 NKJV) Moreover... law entered that the offense might abound. But where sin abounded, grace abounded much more" =

The word "nomos" rendered "law" in v. 5:20 is without the definite article, hence the principle of law = godly rules governing human behavior is in view. Nevertheless, the specific Mosaic Law is the prime example of law used and focused on for demonstrating this principle in the Book of Romans. The word "charis" rendered "grace" defined in general as God's unmerited favor toward mankind specifically refers here to God's gracious covering of all sins that will ever be committed by humanity through the redemption that came by the One Jesus Christ in order to make provision for the gift of a righteousness from God for all who believe in that redemption, (cf. 3:20-24; 5:17). So to summarize v. 5:20:

- By God's design law in the form of the Law came so that men might be conscious of sin and thereby trespasses against law might increase thus exposing an individual's sin nature for what it is to himself, (cf. v. 3:20);

so also [so much the more (cf. v. 5:15)]

- where sin abounded, God's grace abounded all the more to cover those sins for all mankind so that those individuals who express a moment of faith in the redemption that came from Jesus Christ our Lord receive God's righteousness which reigns in life in them unto eternal life, (cf. vv. 5:17; 3:21-24).

a) [Compare Ro 3:19-20]:

(v. 3:19) Now we know that whatever the Law says, it says to those who are under the Law, so that every mouth may be silenced and the whole world held accountable to God.

(v. 3:20) Therefore no one will be declared righteous in His sight by observing law; rather, through law we become conscious of sin."

Notice that through law, man becomes conscious of sin, resulting in a number of responses, not the least of which is an increase in sin, (cf. 5:20) - proving out man's rebellious nature, that he has an intrinsic sin nature. This is not to say that this is the only purpose of God for imposing law upon mankind, just one of the purposes. Furthermore, the increase in sin points to man's intrinsic nature which has a propensity to sin and does so all the more when rules of human behavior are made evident.

a) [Compare Ro 3:21-24]:

(v. 3:21) "But now a righteousness from God, apart from law, has been made known, to which the Law and the Prophets testify.

(v. 3:22) This righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. There is no difference,

(v. 3:23) for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God,

(v. 3:24) and are justified freely by His grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus."

Notice that God freely justifies by His grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus, i.e., His payment for the sins of the whole world - including those which abounded 'when law entered'. So God provides a righteousness from Himself through faith in the redemption that came by Jesus Christ.

H) OBSERVATIONS OF VERSE 5:21

(v. 3:20 NIV) "Therefore no one will be declared righteous in His sight by observing law; rather, through law we become conscious of sin.

(v. 3:21 NIV) But now a righteousness from God, apart from law, has been made known, to which the Law and the Prophets testify.

(v. 3:22 NIV) This righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. There is no difference,

(v. 3:23 NIV) for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God,

(v. 3:24 NIV) and are justified freely by His grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus.

(v. 5:17 NAS) For if by the transgression of the one, death reigned through the one, much more those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness [these abundances] will reign in life through the One, Jesus Christ.

(v. 5:20 NKJV) Moreover..... law entered that the offense might abound. But where sin abounded, grace abounded much more.

(v. 5:21 NKJV) so that as sin reigned in death, even so grace might reign through righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord."

1) BY GOD'S DESIGN LAW CAME SO THAT MEN MIGHT BE CONSCIOUS OF SIN AND THEREBY TRESPASSES AGAINST LAW MIGHT INCREASE THUS EXPOSING AN INDIVIDUAL'S SIN NATURE FOR WHAT IT IS TO HIMSELF. HENCE SIN REIGNED PRODUCING PHYSICAL AND SPIRITUAL DEATH / SEPARATION FROM DAILY FELLOWSHIP WITH GOD THROUGHOUT THE WORLD. SO MUCH THE MORE WHERE SIN ABOUNDED, GOD'S GRACE ABOUNDED ALL THE MORE TO COVER THOSE SINS FOR ALL MANKIND SO THAT THOSE INDIVIDUALS WHO EXPRESS A MOMENT OF FAITH IN THE REDEMPTION THAT CAME FROM JESUS CHRIST OUR LORD RECEIVE GOD'S RIGHTEOUSNESS WHICH REIGNS IN LIFE IN THEM UNTO ETERNAL LIFE

(v. 3:20 NIV) "Therefore no one will be declared righteous in His sight by observing law; rather, through law we become conscious of sin. (v. 3:21) But now a righteousness from God, apart from law, has been made known, to which the Law and the Prophets testify. (v. 3:22) This righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. There is no difference, (v. 3:23) for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, (v. 3:24)... and are justified freely by His grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus... (v. 5:17 NAS) For if by the transgression of the one, death reigned through the one, much more those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness [these abundances] will reign in life through the One, Jesus Christ. (v. 5:20 NKJV) Moreover... law entered that the offense might abound. But where sin abounded, grace abounded much more (v. 5:21 NKJV) so that as sin reigned in death, even so grace might reign through righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord." =

- By God's design law came so that men might be conscious of sin and thereby trespasses against law might increase thus exposing an individual's sin nature for what it is to himself. Hence sin reigned, producing physical and spiritual death throughout the world / separation from daily fellowship with God, (3:20; 5:20-21).

even so (= so much the more, v. 5:15)

- Where sin abounded, God's grace abounded all the more to cover those sins for all mankind so that those individuals who express a moment of faith in the redemption that came from Jesus Christ our Lord receive God's righteousness, (cf. Ro 3:21-24), which reigns in life in them unto eternal life.

In view in verse 5:20 is the fact that law, God's rules governing human behavior - especially including the Mosaic Law, came for the purpose that men be conscious of their sins that the trespass might abound; but where trespasses abounded, grace abounded all the more. The word "charis" rendered "grace" defined in general as God's unmerited favor toward mankind specifically refers here to God's gracious covering of all sins that will ever be committed by humanity through the redemption that came by the One Jesus Christ in order to make provision for the gift of a righteousness from God for all who believe in that redemption, (cf. 3:20-24; 5:17). Verse 5:21 continues this train of thought beginning with "hina" rendered "that" pointing to forthcoming details: Notice the phrase "as sin reigned in death", i.e., as sin rules the world to the end that all men are born sinners and spiritually dead; hence all men physically die and are initially headed for eternal death. This situation of death reigning throughout the world is contrasted with God's grace which might reign as a sovereign position through righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord. Notice the word "might" indicating objective possibility, a potential for each individual to respond to. This means that by God's design law came so that men might be conscious of sin and thereby trespasses against law might increase thus exposing an individual's sin nature for what it is to himself. Hence sin has reigned producing physical and spiritual death / separation from daily fellowship with God throughout the world. So much the more where sin abounded, God's grace is demonstrated as abounding all the more and reigning in the life of individuals who express a moment of faith in the redemption that came from Jesus Christ our Lord unto eternal life.

Since the righteousness the individual receives is by God's grace, i.e, it is a free gift from God as a result of a moment of faith alone in Christ alone. And since it is a declaration by God of that individual's position of having the righteousness of Christ before God; then the possession of that righteousness does not have anything to do with that individual's effort or experience, i.e., his lifestyle. So the phrase in verse 5:21 rendered, "so grace might reign as a sovereign position through righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord" does not have anything to do with how the believer conducts himself, i.e., the believer's experience is not in view. There is no requirement or expectation of a righteous lifestyle in order to verify if one is a 'true' believer who possesses eternal life or not. The phrase "so grace might reign through righteousness to eternal life thorugh Jesus Christ our Lord" does indicate that God's grace, specifically His declaration that the believer has the righteousness of Christ credited to his account is sovereign and reigns as an eternally secure position before God.

The verb "basileusE" rendered "might reign" is in the subjunctive mood, a mood of objective possibility. Hence the reign through God's righteousness unto eternal life is provisional for the whole world and depends upon each individual's response to it by a moment of faith alone in Christ alone. So in 5:20-21 law was added so that men might be conscious of sin that the trespass - a deliberate violation of a now made known statute of God's holiness - might increase; but where sin increased, God's free grace covering of that sin increased all the more in order that, just as sin had ruled in man causing temporal and eternal death so God's grace which covers sins might reign as a sovereign position in the individual through His provision of righteousness to those who expressed a moment of faith alone in Jesus Christ our Lord alone.

Notice that the reception of God's righteousness is tantamount to the reception of eternal life. Hence the words 'Judgment,' 'condemnation,' 'death' being presented in opposition to this in vv. 20-21 then refer to physical and eternal death.

[Expositors, op. cit., p. 65]:

"20, 21 At the conclusion of the chapter, Adam as a figure fades from view. Yet his influence is still present in the mention of sin and death. Paul now introduces another factor - the Mosaic Law - to show its bearing on the great issues of sin and righteousness. There is scarcely a subject treated by Paul in Romans that does not call for some consideration of the Law. The closest affinity to the thought in v. 20 is found in 3:20, 'Through the Law we become conscious of sin.' Also, chapter 7 traces the relationship between the law and sin in rather elaborate fashion.

The apostle is not maintaining that the purpose of the giving of the Law is exclusively 'that the trespass might increase,' because he makes room for the law as a revelation of the will of God and therefore a positive benefit (7:12). The law also serves to restrain evil in the world (implied in 6:15... ). Paul says the Law 'was added.'...

This function of the law - viz., to increase transgression - was not recognized in rabbinic Judaism...

Lest someone raise a charge against the Almighty that to make possible an increase in sin is not to His credit, Paul insists that only where sin is seen in its maximum expression can divine grace truly be appreciated. 'Grace increased all the more.' The apostle waxes almost ecstatic as he revels in the superlative excellence of the divine overruling that makes sin serve a gracious purpose.

With great effect Paul brings the leading concepts of the passage together in the final statement (v. 21). 'Sin reigned in death' picks up vv. 12, 14, 'grace' looks back to vv. 15. 17: 'reign' reflects vv. 14, 17; 'righteousness' harks back to v. 17 as well as to 1:17 and many other passages; 'eternal life' completes and crowns the allusion to 'life' in vv. 17, 18. Sin and death are virtually personified throughout. Sin poses as absolute monarch, reigning through death as its vicar, but in the end it is exposed as a pretender and is obliged to yield the palm to another whose reign is wholly absolute and totally different, being as much a blessing as the other is a curse.

The treatment of sin, death, and salvation in terms of righteousness is crucial to our understanding of our relation to God. It loudly proclaims that no sinner, whether a mystic aspiring to direct contact with God or a legalist counting on his good works to approve him in God's sight, is able in his own way to find acceptance with God. Because another man, Adam, has intervened between him and the Creator, still another, even Jesus Christ, must be the medium of his return as a sinner to a righteous God."

Continue to Romans chapter 6