GALATIANS CHAPTER SIX

OBSERVATIONS

The purpose of the observation stage is to maintain focus on the text at hand in accordance with the framework in which it was written: a framework which is defined by the normative rules of language, context and logic - rules which do not impose undue, unintended meanings to the text , and which largely limit the observer to the content offered by Paul's epistle to the Galatians and his other writings. In order for any passage from elsewhere to be considered, it must have a relationship with the context at hand, such as a Scriptural quotation or a specific cross reference in the passage at hand by the author. This will serve to avoid going on unnecessary tangents elsewhere; and more importantly, it will provide the framework for a proper and objective comparison with passages located elsewhere in Scripture. Remember that something elsewhere may be true, but in the text at hand it may not be in view.

I) [Gal 6:1-18]:

(Gal 6:1 NASB) "Brethren, even if anyone is caught in any trespass, you who are spiritual, restore such a one in a spirit of gentleness; each one looking to yourself, so that you too will not be tempted.

(Gal 6:2 NASB) Bear one another's burdens, and thereby [you will] fulfill the law of Christ.

(Gal 6:3 NASB) For if anyone thinks he is something when he is nothing, he deceives himself.

(Gal 6:4 NASB) But each one must examine his own work, and then he will have reason for boasting in regard to himself alone, and not in regard to another.

(Gal 6:5 NASB) For each one will bear his own load [Ro 4:12; 1 Cor 3:8].

(Gal 6:6 NKJV) Let him who is taught the word share in all good things with him who teaches.

(Gal 6:7 NASB) Do not be deceived, God is not mocked; for whatever a man sows, this he will also reap.

(Gal 6:8 NASB) For the one who sows to his own flesh will from the flesh reap corruption, but the one who sows to the Spirit will from the Spirit reap eternal life.

(Gal 6:9 NASB) Let us not lose heart in doing good, for in due time we will reap if we do not grow weary.

(Gal 6:10 NASB) So then, while we have opportunity, let us do good to all people, [Prov 3:27], and especially to those who are of the household of the faith"

(Gal 6:11 NKJV) See with what large letters I [wrote] to you with my own hand!

(Gal 6:12 NASB) Those who desire to make a good showing in the flesh try to compel you to be circumcised, simply so that they will not be persecuted for the cross of Christ.

(Gal 6:13 NASB) For those who are circumcised do not even keep the Law themselves, but they desire to have you circumcised so that they may boast in your flesh.

(Gal 6:14 NASB) But may it never be that I would boast, except in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, through which the world has been crucified to me, and I to the world.

(Gal 6:15 NASB) For neither is circumcision anything, nor uncircumcision, but a new creation. [2 Cor 5:17; Eph 4:24; Col 3:10]

(Gal 6:16 NASB) And those who will walk by this rule, peace and mercy be upon them, and upon the Israel of God.

(Gal 6:17 NASB) From now on let no one cause trouble for me, for I bear on my body the brand-marks of Jesus.

(Gal 6:18 NASB) The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit, brethren. Amen."

A) (Gal 6:1) If Any Believer Is Caught In Any Trespass, Fellow Believers Who Are Spiritual In The Sense Of Properly Instructed In The Word Of God To Do So - By The Spirit, To Restore Such A One But In A Spirit Of Gentleness - Each One Looking To Himself So That He Too Will Not Be Tempted To Sin

(Gal 6:1 NASB) "Brethren, even if anyone is caught in any trespass, you who are spiritual, restore such a one in a spirit of gentleness; each one looking to yourself, so that you too will not be tempted." =

Paul addresses "Brethren," i.e., believers, if anyone of the body of believers is caught in any trespass, you of the body of believers who is spiritual, restore such a one in a spirit of gentleness;"

In  Gal 6:1, author and apostle Paul is addressing first and foremost, believers; hence the word rendered, "brethren." He goes on to write, "Even if anyone [any believer] is caught in any trespass, [in the sense of being entrapped into repetitively committing a sin by virtue of ones own propensities to commit sin] you who are spiritual [in the sense of you believers who are at the moment motivated by an accurate understanding of relevant passages within God's Word through submission to the Holy Spirit and a diligent effort to study God's Word] restore such a one in a spirit of [in the sense of behavior characterized by] gentleness [i.e., through gentle instruction - avoiding exposing the sin to the public or excusing or down playing it].

And this gentle instruction of a wayward believer is to be done in a humble manner: with the mindset within "each one looking to yourself, so that you too will not be tempted" in the sense of being sure not to be arrogant or prideful, but humble so that you yourself will not fall into temptation and sin.

B) (Gal 6:1-2) Believers Are To Bear One Another's Burdens And Thereby Fulfill The Law Of Christ

(Gal 6:1 NASB) "Brethren, even if anyone is caught in any trespass, you who are spiritual, restore such a one in a spirit of gentleness; each one looking to yourself, so that you too will not be tempted. (Gal 6:2 NASB) Bear one another's burdens, and thereby [you will] fulfill the law of Christ."

1) [Manuscript Evidence For Gal 6:2]:

(Gal 6:2 NASB) "Bear one another's burdens, [Ro 15:1] and thereby [you will] fulfill the law of Christ." =

NU, p46, B, F, G, it, sa, bo, cop, Lach, Tisc, Weis, UBS, various versions have "you will fulfill" (future tense)

variant / TR, WH, sinaiticus, A, C, D, K, L, P, byz, sod, 33, 1739, Maj have "fulfill" (imperative)

The editors of NU preferred the first reading because it was more likely that scribes changed a future tense verb ("you will fulfill the law of Christ") to an imperative ("fulfill the law of Christ") than vice versa, because the preceding verse has two imperative verbs. Furthermore, the evidence of p46 (which has a synonymous verb in the future tense) with B strengthens the case for adopting the first reading.

2) (Gal 6:1-2) Believers Are To Bear One Another's Burdens And Thereby Fulfill The Law Of Christ

(Gal 6:2 NASB) "Bear one another's burdens, [Ro 15:1] and thereby [you will] fulfill the law of Christ." =

Furthermore, in addition to restoring one who is caught in any trespass in a spirit of gentleness: each one looking to yourself, so that he too will not be tempted, (v. 1); believers are to bear one another's burdens - whether they are weaknesses, testing or other matters. And thereby they will fulfill the law of Christ.

3) [Compare 1 Cor 9:21]:

(1 Cor 9:20 NASB) "To the Jews I became as a Jew, so that I might win Jews; to those who are under the Law, as under the Law though not being myself under the Law, so that I might win those who are under the Law;

(1 Cor 9:21 NASB) to those who are without law, as without law, though not being without the law of God but under the law of Christ, so that I might win those who are without law."

Notice the exhortation to act out of self-sacrificial agape love toward others, putting aside ones own desires for the sake of others.

A further example of living under the law of Christ was penned by James, the Apostle:

4) [Compare Jas 5:16]:

(Jas 5:13 NASB) "Is anyone among you suffering? Then he must pray. Is anyone cheerful? He is to sing praises.

(Jas 5:14 NASB) Is anyone among you sick? Then he must call for the elders of the church and they are to pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord;

(Jas 5:15 NASB) and the prayer offered in faith will restore the one who is sick, and the Lord will raise him up, and if he has committed sins, they will be forgiven him.

(Jas 5:16 NASB) Therefore, confess your sins to one another, and pray for one another so that you may be healed. The effective prayer of a righteous man can accomplish much."

Evidently being under the law of Christ is being under His grace through faith and out of gratitude to Christ exemplifying that grace to others, (Eph 2:8-9) and all that He has commanded of us, (as stipulated especially in the epistles and the gospels), not the least of which is to express agape / godly love for one another as a new commandment:

5) [Compare Jn 13:34]:

(Jn 13:34 NASB) "A new commandment I give to you, that you love one another, even as I have loved you, that you also love [= express agape / godly love toward] one another."

So in view in Gal 6:2 is treating others with grace,  bearing one another's burdens without condemnation with gentleness and forebearing with a self-sacrifical / agape love as Christ demonstrated to all of mankind in His sacrifice for the sins of the whole world and His forgiveness of the believer in Him for salvation and for all things.

C) (Gal 6:3-4) [For If Anyone Thinks He Is Something When He Is Nothing, He Deceives Himself. But Each One Must Examine His Own Work, And Then He Will Have Reason For Boasting In Regard To Himself Alone, And Not In Regard To Another]

(Gal 6:3 NASB) "For if anyone thinks he is something when he is nothing, he deceives himself [1 Cor 3:18; 2 Cor 12:11]. (Gal 6:4 NASB) But each one must examine his own work, and then he will have reason for boasting in regard to himself alone, and not in regard to another." =

1) [Manuscript Evidence for Gal 6:4]:

Several important witnesses: p46, B, syr(p), cop(sa), omit "hekastos" rendered "each one," making its presence in the text possibly an addition to the original text. Hence WH brackets the word.

Nevertheless, since "hekastos" rendered "each one" appears in the next verse, corroborating its use in verse 4, plus overwhelming manuscript evidence in favor of "hekastos" and finally, in view of the context supporting the phrase as original: it appears that it is part of the original text.

2) (Gal 6:3-4 NASB) For If Anyone Thinks He Is Something When He Is Nothing, He Deceives Himself. But Each One Must Examine His Own Work, And Then He Will Have Reason For Boasting In Regard To Himself Alone, And Not In Regard To Another

(Gal 6:3 NASB) "For if anyone thinks he is something when he is nothing, he deceives himself. (Gal 6:4 NASB) But each one must examine his own work, and then he will have reason for boasting in regard to himself alone, and not in regard to another." =

Paul writes further on the perspective that a believer is supposed to adopt: "For if anyone thinks he is something when he is nothing, he deceives himself" in the sense of thinking of his importance before God and man as something to boast about. The conclusion is that he is nothing except self-deceived.

In light of Gal 6:3, if the believer neglects to bear another's burdens or refuses to bear them, it is because he thinks himself above it. But this is to be self-deceived. Measured by God's standards, no one amounts to anything. In view is a self-centered believer - especially one who is constantly comparing himself as superior to others - trying to arrive at a superior, worthy self-image. In view is one who will not turn those introspective self-centered moments into outward godly agape love toward others.

3) [Compare 1 Cor 3:18]:

(1 Cor 3:18 NASB) "Let no man deceive himself. If any man among you thinks that he is wise in this age, he must become foolish, so that he may become wise."

Then in the next verse - Gal 6:4, Paul writes that each believer must examine his own work in accordance with God's absolutes standards, i.e., Scripture, and then he will have reason for boasting in regard to himself alone, and not in regard to the standards of another man.

D) (Gal 6:5) For Each Believer Will Bear His Own Load

(Gal 6:5 NASB) "For each one will bear his own load." =

For each believer "will bear his own load" in the sense that each will be held accountable for fulfilling his own responsibility before God.

The believer is to carry his own load. This does not contradict verse 2 because the reference there is to heavy, crushing, loads (barē) - more than a man could carry without help. In Gal 6:5 a different Greek word (phortion) is used to designate the pack usually carried by a marching soldier. It is the "burden" Jesus assigns to His followers (cf. Matt. 11:30). There are certain responsibilities or burdens each believer must bear by himself.

1) [Compare Ro 4:12]:

(Ro 14:12 NASB) "So then each one of us will give an account of himself to God."

2) [Compare 1 Cor 3:8]:

(1 Cor 3:8 NASB) "Now he who plants and he who waters are one; but each will receive his own reward according to his own labor."

E) (Gal 6:6 [Let Him Who Is Taught The Word Share In All Good Things With Him Who Teaches]:

(Gal 6:6 NKJV) "Let him who is taught the word share in all good things with him who teaches." =

Believers are commanded to voluntarily share their wealth with those who teach them the Word of God. The concept of voluntary support for those who teach was new amongst Jews who were taxed under the tithing laws of the Mosaic Law. And Gentiles paid fees to sustain their religious organizations as well.

1) [Compare 1 Cor 9:7-14]:

(1 Cor 9:7 NASB) "Who at any time serves as a soldier at his own expense? Who plants a vineyard and does not eat the fruit of it? Or who tends a flock and does not use the milk of the flock?

(1 Cor 9:8 NASB) I am not speaking these things according to human judgment, am I? Or does not the Law also say these things?

(1 Cor 9:9 NASB) "For it is written in the Law of Moses, 'You shall not muzzle the ox while he is thresshing.' God is not concerned about oxen, is He?

(1 Cor 9:10 NASB) Or is He speaking altogether for our sake? Yes, for our sake it was written, because the plowman ought to plow in hope, and the thresher to thresh in hope of sharing the crops.

(1 Cor 9:11 NASB) If we sowed spiritual things in you, is it too much if we reap material things from you?

(1 Cor 9:12 NASB) If others share the right over you, do we not more? Nevertheless, we did not use this right, but we endure all things so that we will cause no hindrance to the gospel of Christ.

(1 Cor 9:13 NASB) Do you not know that those who perform sacred services eat the food of the temple, and those who attend regularly to the altar have their share from the altar?

(1 Cor 9:14 NASB) So also the Lord directed those who proclaim the gospel to get their living from the gospel."

F) (Gal 6:7-8 [Do Not Be Deceived, God Is Not Mocked: For Whatever A Man Sows, This He Will Also Reap]:

(Gal 6:7 NASB) "Do not be deceived, God is not mocked; for whatever a man sows, this he will also reap. (Gal 6:8 NASB) For the one who sows to his own flesh will from the flesh reap corruption, but the one who sows to the Spirit will from the Spirit reap eternal life." =

Paul exhorts believers not to be deceived, God knows and is not mocked by being fooled by man's deceptions; especially things that man does in the name of God when they are not godly oriented. Whatever a man sows, this he will also reap. So the context of two different kinds of sowing and reaping is in view: the ungodly kind - sowing to the flesh - vs godly - sowing to the Spirit - lifestyles that believers may lead moment by moment.

Paul writes that the one - believer or non-believer - who sows to his own flesh will reap from the flesh corruption, but the one who sows to the Sprit will from the Spirit reap eternal life. Note that only believers can do the latter.

1) Gal 3:1ff And Gal 6:7-8 Work Together To Establish The Eternal Security Of The Salvation From Hell Unto Eternal Life Via A Moment Of Faith Alone In Christ Alone Apart From Any Godly Works For The Believer; Yet Together The Passages Also Establish The Availability Through The Spirit Of God Received Via The Believer At The Point Of His Faith In Christ In Order To Enhance That Eternal Life By His Sowing To The Spirit In The Sense Of Performing Godly Works In Order To Reap Eternal Life More Abundantly

Just as Gal 3:1ff   and so many other passages    have established that justification / salvation from hell unto eternal life is secured forever solely via and at the point of a moment of faith alone in Christ alone apart from any godly works before, during or afterward that moment; so Gal 6:6-10  establishes that the believer may build upon his eternally secure salvation from hell unto eternal life by sowing to the Spirit of God through the grace of God in order to reap additional blessings as he lives out his mortal life to further enhance the already secured salvation from hell unto eternal life initially given to him as a free gift at that first moment of faith alone in Christ alone, (ref. Gal 3:1-2 ). So Gal 6:6-10 does not refute the eternal security of the believer by interjecting faithful godly works in order to be saved from hell unto eternal life.

On the other hand, Gal 6:6-10, does exhort the believer to sow to the Spirit in order to reap an ongoing harvest of an enhanced eternal life - an accumulation of the enhancement of the value of the believer's eternal destiny with what he continually sows to the Spirit throughout his mortal life.

But for those moments when a believer might sow to the flesh, then he will reap corruption / destruction upon himself diminishing the value of his eternal life in the sense of losing some or all of his inheritance of the Kingdom of God, but without canceling his eternal destiny of salvation from hell unto eternal life which has already been secured through a moment of faith alone in Christ alone apart from any godly works, (Gal 5:19-21 ).

Since the reception of salvation from hell unto eternal life is stipulated in Scripture as a once for all time moment of faith alone in Christ alone excluding any human doing ;

and since sowing and reaping is an ongoing process of human doing, whether good or bad, such that as one continually sows one continually reaps;

then Gal 6:8 cannot be depicting the reception of salvation from hell unto eternal life, but rather the reaping/accumulation of the enhancement of the value of a believer's eternal life with what the believer continually sows in his mortal life to the Spirit.

[Dr. Zane Hodges, "The Gospel Under Siege", Redencion Viva Publishers, Dallas, Texas, Second Edition, 1992, pp. 86-89]:

INTRODUCTION

'''It is important to see exactly what this text [Gal 6:6-10] says. "Everlasting life," Paul states, is the direct consequence of sowing to the Spirit, of doing good. Corruption is what you reap if you do evil. It is all part of the law of the harvest. A man gets what he deserves to get.

It goes almost without saying that there is nothing said here about the "inevitable" results of saving faith. Indeed, the hortatory thrust of the passage shows the opposite. The Galatians must be careful about how they sow. They must never suppose that they can "mock" God or avoid the inexorable law of the harvest. The final reaping is not a foregone conclusion, but rather it is contingent on not "growing weary" while doing good [Gal 6:9].

But equally there is nothing here about justification by faith or the concept of a free gift. Nothing is plainer than that the "everlasting life" of which Paul speaks [in Gal 6:6-10] is not free, but based on the moral merits of those who reap it. To deny this is to deny the most obvious aspect of the text.

All becomes clear, however, if we simply remember that the Apostle is addressing believers.

[Compare Gal 3:2-5]:

(Gal 3:2 NASB) "This is the only thing I want to find out from you: did you receive the Spirit by the works of the Law, or by hearing with faith?

(Gal 3:3 NASB) Are you so foolish? Having begun by the Spirit, are you now being perfected by the flesh?

(Gal 3:4 NASB) Did you suffer so many things in vain—if indeed it was in vain?

(Gal 3:5 NASB) So then, does He who provides you with the Spirit and works miracles among you, do it by the works of the Law, or by hearing with faith?"

So Paul is addressing those who have already been justified by a moment of faith alone in Christ alone and who thereby possess salvation from hell unto everlasting life as a free gift forever - but without any enhancements. Naturally Paul knew that eternal life was freely given (Rom. 6:23; 5:15-18), just as the Apostle John knew this, (Jn 1:12-13 ; 3:16; 5:24 ; 6:1ff ). But Paul is not speaking about what the Galatian believers already have, but about what they may yet receive. Herein lies the key to this text]'''

ETERNAL LIFE IS EXPERIENCED IN MORE THAN ONE DEGREE

[Hodges, cont.]:

"It must not be forgotten that eternal life is nothing less than the very life of God Himself. As such it cannot be thought of as a mere fixed and static entity. Rather, its potentialities are rich beyond the power of the mind to conceive them. Thus we find Jesus declaring, "I have come that they may have life, and that they may have it more abundantly" (John 10:10). From this we learn that eternal life can be experienced in more than one measure or degree.

But it cannot be experienced at all unless first received as a free gift [by a moment of faith alone in Christ alone]. Not surprisingly, the Creator of the universe has illustrated this with every human life that is born into the world.

No man or woman possesses physical life at all except by his parents imparting it to him. Even physical life, therefore, is a free gift! But when a child is born into this present world, the capacities of human life (all present at birth) must be developed by himself under the guidance of his parents and subsequent teachers. How "abundantly" he will experience human life is determined by his response to instruction and to experience itself.

So it is in the spiritual realm too. In order to have life "more abundantly," one must meet the conditions for this. One must respond properly to his heavenly Parent.

Here it should be stated clearly that in the New Testament eternal life is presented both as a free gift and as a reward merited by those who earn it. But one important distinction always holds true. Wherever eternal life is viewed as a reward, it is obtained in the future. But wherever eternal life is presented as a gift, it is obtained in the present.

Naturally, it goes without saying that no one can ever receive eternal life as a reward who does not first accept it as a free gift. This is the same as saying that a person must first have life before he can experience it richly.

ENHANCING ONES ETERNAL LIFE

[Hodges, cont.]:

"If Galatians 6:8 is understood as speaking only of a man's final salvation from hell, then it teaches clearly that this final salvation is by works. Not to admit this is not to be candid. But no one excludes works from his doctrine of salvation more vigorously than Paul does, and he insists that to mix works and grace is to alter the character of both (see Rom. 11:6).

Galatians 6:8 is irreconcilable with fundamental Pauline truth so long as one holds the view that final salvation is under discussion.

But why hold this view? It is easy to understand how the measure and extent of one's experience of God's life must depend on the measure of his response to God. From that perspective the image of a harvest is exactly right. The nature and quantity of the seed we sow determines the nature and quantity of the harvest.

It is obviously wise for a Christian to be reminded that every act he performs is like a seed sown in a field. Its harvest will be either corruption or eternal life. And is there a Christian alive who has not sown much more often to his flesh than he ought to have done? Clearly the Church needs this reminder about the law of life. To make the issue here a man's final destiny in heaven or hell is to lose the whole point of the exhortation.

If the matters just discussed are kept in mind, other passages which offer eternal life as a future experience based on works can be understood in their proper bearing. One might think especially of Matthew 19:29 with its parallels in Mark 10:30 and Luke 18:30. The eschatological "harvest" is in view in these places. Obedient men reap an experience of eternal life precisely because they are obedient. But this in no way conflicts with the reality that such obedience must be preceded by, and motivated through, a gift of life given freely and without any condition but faith alone.'''

2) (Gal 5:19-21 vs Gal 6:7-8) The Phrase Rendered "Those Who Live Like This Will Not Inherit The Kingdom Of God" In Gal 5:19-21 Is A Warning To Believers Of The Possibility Of The Loss Of Their Eternal Inheritance Of The Kingdom Of God. It Is Not A Warning To Believers That They Might Lose Their Salvation From Hell Unto Eternal Life If They Commit Such Sins As Specified. Both Passages Have The Same Context: Believers Walking In The Spirit Enhancing Their Own Eternal Inheritance Verses Believers Walking In The Flesh Resulting In Losing Their Inheritance Of The Kingdom Of God

(Gal 5:19 NASB) Now the deeds of the flesh are evident, which are: immorality, [i.e., sexuality immorality], impurity, sensuality,

(Gal 5:20 NASB) idolatry, sorcery, enmities, strife, jealousy, outbursts of anger, disputes [NKJV: selfish ambitions], dissensions, factions [NKJV: heresies],

(Gal 5:21 NASB) envying, drunkenness, carousing, and things like these, of which I forewarn you, just as I have forewarned you, that those who practice such things will not inherit the Kingdom of God."

vs

(Gal 6:7 NASB) "Do not be deceived, God is not mocked; for whatever a man sows, this he will also reap.

(Gal 6:8 NASB) For the one who sows to his own flesh will from the flesh reap corruption, but the one who sows to the Spirit will from the Spirit reap eternal life."

The Phrase Rendered "Those who live like this will not inherit the Kingdom of God," in Gal 5:21 is a warning to believers of the possibility of loss of their eternal inheritance of the Kingdom of God. It is not a warning to believers that they might lose their salvation from hell unto an inheritance of eternal life if they commit such sins as specified in Gal 5:19-21.

a) [Compare Eph 5:1-14]:

[= NO IMMORAL OR IMPURE PERSON OR COVETOUS MAN, OR ONE WHO IS AN IDOLATOR BE HE BELIEVER OR UNBELIEVER HAS AN INHERITANCE IN THE KINGDOM OF GOD ]:

(Eph 5:1 NASB) "Therefore [believers, v. 4:30)] be imitators of God, as beloved children;

(Eph 5:2 NASB) and walk in love, just as Christ also loved you and gave Himself up for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God as a fragrant aroma..

(Eph 5:3 NASB) But immorality or any impurity or greed must not even be named among you, as is proper among saints;

(Eph 5:4 NASB) and there must be no filthiness and silly talk, or coarse jesting, which are not fitting, but rather giving of thanks.

(Eph 5:5 NASB) For this you know with certainty, that no immoral or impure person or covetous man, who is an idolater, has an inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and God.

(Eph 5:6 NASB) Let no one deceive you with empty words, for because of these things the wrath of God comes upon the sons of disobedience.

(Eph 5:7 NASB) Therefore do not be partakers with them;

(Eph 5:8 NASB) for you were formerly darkness, but now you are Light in the Lord; walk as children of Light

(Eph 5:9 NASB)  (for the fruit of the Light consists in all goodness and righteousness and truth),

(Eph 5:10 NASB) trying to learn what is pleasing to the Lord.

(Eph 5:11 NASB) Do not participate in the unfruitful deeds of darkness, but instead even expose them;

(Eph 5:12 NASB) for it is disgraceful even to speak of the things which are done by them in secret.

(Eph 5:13 NASB) But all things become visible when they are exposed by the light, for everything that becomes visible is light.

(Eph 5:14 NASB) For this reason it says, "Awake, sleeper, And arise from the dead, And Christ will shine on you."

Ephesians 5:1-14 defines the situation of a believer who is not walking in fellowship with God, who is not producing fruit, who is not producing work for the Lord and is even involved in a lifestyle of sin. The passage exhorts believers to imitate God in their daily walk. In so doing it indicates the undesirability and the consequences of a disobedient life. Verses 7-12 indicate the shamefulness of going back to the disgusting lifestyle of the world after Christ had sacrificed Himself so that the believer would not have to be a slave to sin and suffer eternal condemnation, (v. 2). The passage says to act instead like the person that a believer is: a child of light possessing eternal life, (v. 8), rather than to act like the world and suffer the consequence of losing one's inheritance in, (and not one's destiny to), the kingdom of Christ for being immoral, (v. 5): .

b) [Compare 1 Cor 6:1-20]:

[= BELIEVERS WHO LIVE UNFAITHFUL LIVES WILL NOT INHERIT THE KINGDOM OF GOD]:

(1 Cor 6:1 NASB) "Does any one of you, when he has a case against his neighbor, dare to go to law before the unrighteous and not before the saints?

(1 Cor 6:2 NASB) Or do you not know that the saints will judge the world? If the world is judged by you, are you not competent to constitute the smallest law courts?

(1 Cor 6:3 NASB) Do you not know that we will judge angels? How much more matters of this life?

(1 Cor 6:4 NASB) So if you have law courts dealing with matters of this life, do you appoint them as judges who are of no account in the church?

(1 Cor 6:5 NASB) I say this to your shame. Is it so, that there is not among you one wise man who will be able to decide between his brethren,

(1 Cor 6:6 NASB) but brother goes to law with brother, and that before unbelievers?

(1 Cor 6:7 NASB) Actually, then, it is already a defeat for you, that you have lawsuits with one another. Why not rather be wronged? Why not rather be defrauded?

(1 Cor 6:8 NASB) On the contrary, you yourselves wrong and defraud. You do this even to your brethren.

(1 Cor 6:9 NASB) Or do you not know that the unrighteous will not inherit the kingdom of God? Do not be deceived; neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor homosexuals,

(1 Cor 6:10 NASB) nor thieves, nor the covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor swindlers, will inherit the kingdom of God.

(1 Cor 6:11 NASB) Such were some of you; but you were washed, but you were sanctified, but you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and in the Spirit of our God.

(1 Cor 6:12 NASB) All things are lawful for me, but not all things are profitable. All things are lawful for me, but I will not be mastered by anything.

(1 Cor 6:13 NASB) Food is for the stomach and the stomach is for food, but God will do away with both of them. Yet the body is not for immortality, but the LORD, and the Lord is for the body.

(1 Cor 6:14 NASB) Now God has not only raised the Lord, but will also raise us up through His power.

(1 Cor 6:15 NASB) Do you not know that your bodies are members of Christ? Shall I then take away the members of Christ and make them members of a prostitute? May it never be!

(1 Cor 6:16 NASB) Or do you not know that the one who joins himself to a prostitute is one body with her? For He says, 'The two shall become one flesh.'

(1 Cor 6:17 NASB) But the one who joins himself to the Lord is one spirit with Him.

(1 Cor 6:18 NASB) Flee immorality. Every other sin that a man commits is outside the body, but the immoral man sins against his own body.

(1 Cor 6:19 NASB) Or do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit who is in you, whom you have from God, and that you are not your own?

(1 Cor 6:20 NASB) For you have been bought with a price: therefore glorify God in your body."

c) [Compare Col 1:9-12, 21-23]:

[= LIVE A WORTHY LIFE AND THE BELIEVER WILL SHARE IN THE INHERITANCE OF THE KINGDOM OF LIGHT]

(Col 1:9 NASB) "For this reason also, since the day we heard of it, we have not ceased to pray for you and to ask that you may be filled with the knowledge of His will in all spiritual wisdom and understanding,

(Col 1:10 NASB) so that you [believers, (v. 2), will walk in a manner worthy of the Lord, to please Him in all respects, bearing fruit in every good work and increasing in the knowledge of God;

(Col 1:11 NASB) strengthened with all power, according to His glorious might, for the attaining of all steadfastness and patience; joyously

(Col 1:12 NASB) giving thanks to the Father, who has qualified us to share in the inheritance of the saints in Light.

(Col 1:21 NASB) And although you were formerly alienated and hostile in mind, engaged in evil deeds,

(Col 1:22 NASB) yet He has now reconciled you in His fleshly body through death, in order to present you before Him holy and blameless and beyond reproach -

(Col 1:23 NASB) if indeed [= especially since] you [Colossion believers] continue in the faith firmly established and steadfast, and not moved away from the hope of the gospel that you have heard, which was proclaimed in all creation under heaven, and of which I, Paul, was made a minister."

In Col 1:23 the verb form "epimenete" in the Greek phrase "eige epimenete te pistei" rendered "if indeed you continue in the faith" is in the indicative mood with the Greek word, "eige" rendered "if indeed," conveying together the sense of "especially since." For "eige" + the indicative mood is a first class if-then expression  meaning "since" [it is indeed especially true] .This is a deliberately emphatic expression emphatically exclaiming / declaring how faithful the Colossian believers were, (ref Col 1:4-8). Paul was stating, 'surely you - the faithful Colossian believers - will all the more be presented holy and blameless and above reproach in His sight," (v. 22) - albeit their presentation as holy and blameless will be solely by the grace of God through a single moment of faith alone in Christ alone + nothing else; because of what Christ did on the cross and not due in any way to what a beleiver might do.

d) [Compare Col 3:23-24]:

[= BELIEVERS ARE TO WORK FOR THE LORD SO THAT THEY WILL RECEIVE AN INHERITANCE AS A REWARD WHEN THEY GAIN ENTRANCE INTO HEAVEN]

(Col 3:23 NASB) "Whatever you do, do your work heartily, as for the Lord rather than for men,

(Col 3:24 NASB) knowing that from the Lord you will receive the reward of the inheritance. It is the Lord Christ Whom you serve.' "

Since eternal life in the sense of salvation from hell is only received through a moment of faith alone, not by any works, (ref. Eph 2:8-9 ), and not as a reward, but as a gift;

then the "reward of the inheritance" for performing works for the Lord in view in Col 3:23-4, is evidently something more than salvation from hell - an inheritance as a reward that the believer receives when he enters heaven for his faithfulness during his mortal life.

e) Compare 2 Timothy 2:11-13]: 

[= IF WE BELIEVERS ENDURE, I.E., LIVE FAITHFUL LIVES, WE SHALL ALSO REIGN WITH HIM. IF WE BELIEVERS DISOWN CHRIST'S OWNERSHIP OF US, I.E. BE UNFAITHFUL, HE WILL DISOWN OUR INHERITANCE OF REIGNING WITH HIM]

(2 Tim 2:11 NASB) "It is a trustworthy statement: For if we died with Him, we will also live with Him; 

(2 Tim 2:12 NASB) If we endure, we will also reign with Him; If we deny Him, He also will deny us; 

(2 Tim 2:13 NASB) If we are faithless, He remains faithful, for He cannot deny Himself."

If we, i.e., believers, who are secure in our eternal life, (Eph 1:13-14), endure the difficulties and testing and live a faithful, productive life - full of divine good production, then we believers will not only have eternal life with Jesus Christ in heaven because of our one time expression of faith in Him; but we will also reign, i.e., co-rule, with Him and receive unimaginably glorious rewards.

If we believers disown, i.e., disavow Christ's ownership of us by acting in thought, word and deed in disobedience and unfaithfulness, (cp 1 Cor 6:19-20), then Christ will disown our ownership, i.e., our inheritance of eternal rewards and co-rulership with Him, (cp Col 1:10-12; 3:23-24; Eph 5:5; Gal 5:21).

f) [Compare Jas 2:1-5 ]:

[= GOD'S SOVEREIGNTY OF CHOOSING THE POOR TO BE HEIRS OF THE KINGDOM AND BELIEVERS' FREE WILL CHOICE TO PERSEVERE UNDER TRIALS UNTO THE RIGHTEOUS LIFE THAT GOD DESIRES RESULTING IN BECOMING AN HEIR TO THE KINGDOM ARE BOTH IN VIEW]:

(Jas 2:1 NASB) "My brethren, do not hold your faith in our glorious Lord Jesus Christ with an attitude of personal favoritism.

(Jas 2:2 NASB) For if a man comes into your assembly with a gold ring and dressed in fine clothes, and there also comes in a poor man in dirty clothes,

(Jas 2:3 NASB) and you pay special attention to the one who is wearing the fine clothes, and say, 'You sit here in a good place,' and you say to the poor man, 'You stand over there, or sit down by my footstool,'

(Jas 2:4 NASB) have you not made distinctions among yourselves, and become judges with evil motives?

(Jas 2:5 NASB) Listen, my beloved brethren: did not God choose the poor of this world to be rich in faith and heirs of the kingdom which He promised to those who love Him?"

g) [Compare Mt 10:32-33, 37-39 ]:

[= TAKE UP YOUR CROSS AND BE WORTHY: CONFESS AND BE CONFESSED BEFORE THE FATHER; OR DENY AND BE DENIED YOUR ETERNAL INHERITANCE BUT NEVER YOUR GIFT OF ETERNAL LIFE]:

(Mt 10:32 NASB) "Therefore everyone who confesses Me before men, I will also confess him before My Father Who is in heaven.

(Mt 10:33 NASB) But whoever denies Me before men, I will also deny him before My Father who is in heaven.

(Mt 10:33 NASB) He who loves father or mother more than Me is not worthy of Me; and he who loves son or daughter more than Me is not worthy of Me.

(Mt 10:33 NASB) And he who does not take his cross and follow after Me is not worthy of Me.

(Mt 10:33 NASB) He who has found his life will lose it, and he who has lost his life for My sake will find it."

h) [Compare Mt 5:1-5, 9-12 ]:

[= THE BEATITUDES: THE MEEK, THOSE WHO ARE FAITHFUL, SHALL INHERIT THE EARTH]:

(Mt 5:1 NASB) "When Jesus saw the crowds, He went up on the mountain; and after He sat down, His disciples came to Him.

(Mt 5:2 NASB) He opened His mouth and began to teach them, saying,"

["He opened His mouth and began to teach them, saying ..." =

Nine beatitudes are hereafter presented by our Lord to the disciples and the crowd on the mountainside; but His message this time is specifically directed to believers, especially His disciples and especially about believers being rewarded in heaven for being faithful:

(Mt 5:3 NASB) "Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs [i.e., their inheritance] is the kingdom of heaven.

["Blessed are.." = The term beatitude or blessed comes from the Latin 'beatus' which means blessings, and in this context temporal plus especially eternal blessings or rewards.

"Blessed are the poor in spirit" = Our Lord is not describing poverty types. The word poor means aware of one's own spiritual poverty, i.e., spiritual bankruptcy, relative to the righteousness of God. Thus through recognition of one's true poverty in spirit one can rely on the grace of God instead of one's own 'righteousness' for eternal life. One is thereby blessed by God's grace with eternal life so that one may inherit eternal life. But this verse goes further than that for those believers who are "poor in spirit" for it rewards those who continue to be poor in spirit with an inheritance of the kingdom of heaven:

"for theirs is the kingdom of heaven" = implies ownership as well as occupancy of the kingdom. Believers who recognize their own spiritual poverty and thereby rely on God's gracious working through them via the leading of the Holy Spirit in them, (v. 16) rather than doing what they perceive as righteous acts, will be following the path of a faithful lifestyle leading to the reward of their actual inheritance of the kingdom of heaven.

(Mt 5:4 NASB) Blessed are those who mourn, for they shall be comforted.

(Mt 5:5 NKJV) Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth

[i.e., they shall inherit the Kingdom of God which comprises the earth. ["meek" = gentleness, obedience, self-control - under the control of the Spirit.

Since an obedient lifestyle is excluded from what is required for an individual to be saved, (Eph 2:8-9 )

...then salvation is not in view but the reward for the obedient believer of inheriting the earth certainly is.

No believer inherits the earth unless he is faithful. When a believer is faithful he is under the control, i.e., filled with or in submission to the Spirit, (Gal 5:16; Eph 5:18-21). He is obedient to the will of God. That's what produces the true meekness and the gentleness in a believer: submission and obedience.

[Robert N. Wilkin states, (Journal of the GRACE EVANGELICAL SOCIETY, "Christians Who Lose Their Legacy: Galatians 5:21," p. 32-33)]:

"The Lord Himself is a perfect illustration of the truth of the beatitudes. He was meek and poor in spirit, and He willingly accepted persecution for righteousness' sake. As a result He Himself will inherit the earth and receive the kingdom. In Ps 2:8 God the Father says....."

i) [Compare Ps 2:6-8]:

(Ps 2:6 NASB) "But as for Me, I have installed My King Upon Zion, My holy mountain.

(Ps 2:7 NASB) I will declare the LORD’s decree: He said to Me, 'You are My Son; today I have become Your Father.

['He [God the Father] said to Me [the Son of God], 'You are My Son; today I have become your Father [in the sense of now granting His Son all the privileges of royalty: rulership and ownership of the Kingdom of God due to His Son's absolute obedience in going to the cross for the sins of the whole world]:

(Ps 2:8 NASB) 'Ask of Me, and I will surely give the nations as Your inheritance, And the very ends of the earth as Your possession.' "

ii) [Compare Heb 1:8-9 and 12:2 which reaffirm this point]:

(Heb 1:8 NASB) "But of the Son He says, "Your throne, O God, is forever and ever, and the righteous scepter is the scepter is the scepter of His Kingdom.

(Heb 1:8 NASB) 'You have loved righteousness and hated lawlessness; therefore God, Your God, has anointed you with the oil of gladness above Your companions.' "

(Heb 12:2 NASB) "Fixing our eyes on Jesus, the Author and Perfecter of faith, who for the joy set before Him endured the cross, despising the shame, and has sat down at the right hand of the throne of God."

[Wilkin, op. cit., pp. 32-33)]:

"Receiving the kingdom of heaven in this context is a rewards concept. This is easily seen by comparing vv. 10 and 12. Verse 10 says that those who are persecuted for righteousness' sake will receive the kingdom of heaven. Verse 12 says that those who are persecuted for Christ's sake should 'rejoice and be exceedingly glad, for great is your reward in heaven.' Receiving the kingdom of heaven is parallel to receiving great reward in heaven just as persevering under persecution for Christ's sake.

Of course, eternal salvation cannot be in view here since it is not a reward for holding up under persecution. It is a free gift (John 4:10ff; Rom 3:24; Eph 2:9; Rev 22:17).

Receiving the kingdom in this passage thus refers to some reward. In light of other passages, rulership and its attendant privileges and responsibilities must be in view. All believers will be in the kingdom; however, only faithful believers will rule and possess it (Luke 19:11-27; Rom 8:17; 2 Tim 2:12).

Since inheriting the earth is a synonymous expression to receiving the kingdom, it too refers here to ruling and possessing the kingdom. After all, the kingdom will take place on earth (cf. Rev 20-22). To receive the kingdom is to inherit the earth. Those who are meek [i.e., obedient] will be co-heirs with Christ and will share in kingdom rule and glory]

This eternal inheritance of the Kingdom of God is especially evident in verses 9-12 which cap off the passage and bring home this context:

h cont) [Compare Mt 5:1-5, 9-12 cont.]:

[= THE BEATITUDES: THE MEEK, THOSE WHO ARE FAITHFUL, SHALL INHERIT THE EARTH, cont.]:

 (Mt 5:9 NASB) "Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of God.

(Mt 5:10 NASB) Blessed are those who have been persecuted for the sake of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.

(Mt 5:11 NASB) Blessed are you when people insult you and persecute you, and falsely say all kinds of evil against you because of Me."

[Notice that faithful believers only are in view here, as confirmed by the next verse]:

(Mt 5:12 NASB) Rejoice and be glad, for your reward in heaven is great; for in the same way they persecuted the prophets who were before you."

[Since entrance into heaven is a free gift - an inheritance of eternal life, (Eph 2:8-9 , then the reward for believers' service to the LORD must be something more to occur after the believer enters heaven; and not in order to enter heaven - which the latter is a free gift not dependant upon service / works for the LORD]

2 cont.) (Gal 5:19-21 vs Gal 6:7-8 cont.) The Phrase Rendered "Those Who Live Like This Will Not Inherit The Kingdom Of God," Is A Warning To Believers Of The Possibility Of Loss Of Their Eternal Inheritance. It Is Not A Warning To Believers That They Might Lose Their Salvation From Hell Unto Eternal Life If They Commit Such Sins As Specified In Gal 5:19-21, cont.

i) [Compare Gal. 5:19-21 with Gal 6:7-8]:

(Gal 5:19 NASB) Now the deeds of the flesh are evident, which are: immorality, [i.e., sexuality immorality], impurity, sensuality,

(Gal 5:20 NASB) idolatry, sorcery, enmities, strife, jealousy, outbursts of anger, disputes [NKJV: selfish ambitions], dissensions, factions [NKJV: heresies],

(Gal 5:21 NASB) envying, drunkenness, carousing, and things like these, of which I forewarn you, just as I have forewarned you, that those who practice such things will not inherit the Kingdom of God."

vs

(Gal 6:7 NASB) "Do not be deceived, God is not mocked; for whatever a man sows, this he will also reap.

(Gal 6:8 NASB) For the one who sows to his own flesh will from the flesh reap corruption, but the one who sows to the Spirit will from the Spirit reap eternal life."

Since Galatians 5:19-21 and 6:7-8 are passages within the same book and within the same context: believers walking in the Spirit enhancing their own eternal inheritances versus believers walking in the flesh resulting in losing their inheritance of the Kingdom of God;

and since we have in view the one [= a believer, (Gal 6:6)] who sows to please his sinful nature, who from that nature will reap corruption [phthoran = corruption, destruction]; as contrasted to the [believer, (Gal 6:6)] who sows to please the Spirit, who from the Spirit will reap eternal life; then the expression rendered "will reap corruption" in Gal 6:8 is parallel to not inheriting the kingdom in Gal 5:2. Whatever corruption means in Gal 6:7-8 must be parallel in meaning to what the phrase rendered, "will not inherit the kingdom" means in Gal 5:21. The word "phthora" rendered corruption in Gal 6:8 therefore refers to the ruin, destruction, dissolution, deterioration, or corruption of all or part of ones enhanced eternal inheritance to be received in the eternal Kingdom of God. On the other hand, according to Gal 6:8, the believer who sows to please the Spirit, from the Spirit will reap eternal life - in the sense of reaping an enhanced / enriched eternal life, i.e., an inheritance of the Kingdom of God, i.e., receiving co-ownership and a co-rulership of some kind within the Kingdom of God with Jesus Christ enhanced by ones faithful sowing to the Spirit.

These verses are dealing with something which believers reap for work done, because salvation from hell = inheriting eternal life is not a reward for work done, it is a free gift of ones eternal destiny with God. On the other hand, inheriting the eternal Kingdom of God in Gal 5:21 is equivalent to the continual / repetitive reaping toward ones eternal life in Gal 6:8 which has to do with enhancing / enriching the salvation from hell unto eternal life the individual first and forever received when he believed in Christ as a gift.

Inheriting eternal life unto residence in the Eternal Kingdom of God is not the same thing as inheriting ownership of that Kingdom:

i) [Compare Ro 3:22b-24]:

(Ro 3:21 NASB) "But now apart from the Law the righteousness of God has been manifested, being witnessed by the Law and the Prophets,

Ro 3:22 NASB) "even the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ for all those who believe; for there is no distinction;

(Ro 3:23 NASB) for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God,

(Ro 3:24 NASB) being justified as a gift by His grace through the redemption which is in Christ Jesus;"

[Note that in the context of Ro 3:21-24, the Greek word rendered "are justified," means are declared / established to be Righteous by God unto salvation from hell with an immediate and present tense possession / an inheritance of eternal life through the redemption which is in Christ Jesus] .

ii) [Compare Eph 2:8-9]:

(Eph 2:8 NASB) "For by grace you have been saved through faith [from hell unto the heavenlies, (ref Eph 2:6)]; and that [salvation because that is neuter] not of yourselves, it is the gift of God; 

(Eph 2:9 NASB) not as a result of works, so that no one may boast."

iii) [Compare Heb 1:14]:

(Heb 1:14 NASB) "Are they not all ministering spirits, sent out to render service for the sake of those who will inherit salvation?"

[Those meaning those to whom the Book of Hebrews is addressed: those who are "holy brethren, partakers of a heavenly calling, [who are to] consider Jesus, the Apostle and High Priest of our confession" [of faith in Him], [v. 3:1]

iv) [Compare Lk 18:18]:

(Lk 18:18 NASB) "A ruler questioned Him, saying, "Good Teacher, what shall I do to inherit eternal life?"

[Jesus' answer put the keeping of the Law or anything to do with good works not within the capacity of man - so the ruler went away without qualifying himself to inherit eternal life by his own doing - by faithful, godly works]

v) [Compare Mk 10:17]:

(Mk 10:17 NASB) "As He was setting out on a journey, a man ran up to Him and knelt before Him, and asked Him, "Good Teacher, what shall I do to inherit eternal life?"

[Jesus' answer in vv. 18-31 put the keeping of the Law or anything to do with good works not within the capacity of man - so the ruler went away without qualifying himself to inherit eternal life.

Then at the end of the passage in Mk 10:29-30 and the parallel passage in Mt 19:29 there is the implication in Jesus' answer that those who not only believe in the name of Jesus Christ for salvation, but who sacrifice for His name's sake, i.e., for the cause of believing in Him for eternal life will not only receive eternal life, but will be rewarded many times what they sacrificed in their temporal lives]

vi) [Compare Lk 10:25-28]:

(Lk 10:25 NASB) "And a lawyer stood up and put Him to the test, saying, "Teacher, what shall I do to inherit eternal life?

(Lk 10:26 NASB) And He [Jesus] said to him, 'What is written in the Law? How does it read to you?'

[And the lawyer's answer which Jesus affirmed afterward was as follows]:

(Lk 10:27 NASB) And he [the lawyer] answered, 'You shall love the LORD your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your strength, and with all your mind; and your neighbor as yourself.

[Whereupon the lawyer's answer implied his limiting his obligation to express godly / agape love to only his 'kind' and not to a non-Jew; which Jesus responded to with]:

(Lk 10:28 NASB) And He [Jesus] said to him, 'You have answered correctly; 'Do this and you will live.'  [quoting Lev 18:5 and Ezek 20:11]

[Whereupon Jesus followed immediately with an illustrative parable of a good Samaritan - a people whom the Jews despised, which indicated that all men were the lawyer's neighbor, not just priests, Levites and fellow Jews - the implication being that perfectly keeping the Law was just not going to be possible with man in order to have eternal life because of the nature of man, (vv. 30-37]

vii) [Compare Mt 19:29]:

(Mt 19:29 NASB) "And everyone who has left houses or brothers or sisters or father or mother or children or farms for My name's sake, will receive many times as much, and will inherit eternal life."

[In Mt 19:29 and in Mk 10:29-30 there is the implication in Jesus' answer that those who not only believe in the name of Jesus Christ for salvation, but who sacrifice for His name's sake, i.e., for the cause of believing in Him for eternal life will not only receive eternal life, but will be rewarded many times what they sacrificed in their temporal lives]

viii) [Compare Rev 2:26]:

(Rev 2:26 NASB) "He who overcomes, and he who keeps My deeds until the end, 'To him I will give authority over the nations;' " [Ps 2:8; Rev 3:21; 20:4]

[Since verse 26 has already saved unto eternal life from hell: believers who overcome in view - who keep Christ's deeds until the end, (vv. 18-19); then the context is eternal rewards based on works, not salvation from hell based on a moment of faith alone in Christ alone. See study on overcomers - those who are believers first who follow up with overcoming faithfulness ]

So the phrase rendered "reap corruption" in Gal 6:8 refers to the loss of eternal treasure and to the loss of present joy, even premature death in the temporal life as well, (1 Jn 5:16-17); and the parallel expression in Gal 5:21 of "will not inherit the kingdom" conveys the same sense of losing out of the co-possession, co-rulership of the Kingdom of God with Jesus Christ, both in the temporal and eternal life.

G) (Gal 6:9) Let Us Not Lose Heart In Doing Good, For In Due Time We Will Reap If We Do Not Grow Weary

(Gal 6:9 NASB) "Let us not lose heart in doing good, for in due time we will reap if we do not grow weary."

1) [Manuscript Evidence for Gal 6:9]:

WH, NU, Sinaiticus, A, B, D*, 33, cop support the reading rendered "let us not get weary."

C, D2, F, G, psi, 1739*, 1881, Maj, TR have "let us not lose heart."

It is possible that either word could have been confounded for the other because there is only a one-letter difference (g / k) and because the two words are synonymous (cf. similar textual alterations in Lk 18:1; 2 Cor 4:1, 16). Nonetheless, the best documentation affirms the WH, NU reading.

2) (Gal 6:9) Let Us Not Lose Heart In Doing Good, For In Due Time We Will Reap If We Do Not Grow Weary

(Gal 6:9 NASB) "Let us not lose heart in doing good, for in due time we will reap if we do not grow weary." =

Believers may become discouraged with spiritual sowing because the harvest is often long in coming - even in the next life. In the face of this reality the apostle encouraged the Galatian believers not to become weary or give up because the harvest is sure. (Paul included himself as he no doubt contemplated his sometimes frustrating labors on behalf of the Galatian Christians.) The reaping will come at God's proper time, which may be only in part in this life and in full in the life to come at the judgment seat of Christ.

H) (Gal 6:10) So Then, While We Have Opportunity, Let Us Do Good To All People, And Especially To Those Who Are Of The Household Of The Faith

(Gal 6:10 NASB) So then, while we have opportunity, let us do good to all people, [Prov 3:27], and especially to those who are of the household of the faith"

1) [Manuscript Evidence for Gal 6:10]:

p46, A, C, D, F, G, Psi, byz have "hOs kairon echomen" rendered "while we have opportunity."

Sinaiticus, B-org, 6, 33, 104, 326, 614 have "hOs kairon  echOmen" rendered "while we may have opportunity" - subjunctive mood, i.e., an objective possibility - rendered "we may have opportunity."

Either rendering arrives at the same meaning as the subjunctive mood is implied in "echomen" as a result of the context corroborated by the subjunctive mood that follows in the rest of the verse.

2) (Gal 6:10) So Then, While We Have Opportunity, Let Us Do Good To All People, And Especially To Those Who Are Of The Household Of The Faith

(Gal 6:10 NASB) "So then, while we have opportunity, let us do good to all people, [Prov 3:27; Jn 12:35], and especially to those who are of the household of the faith" =

Believers have a measure of responsibility to all people to do good, when the occasions arise. When Jesus fed the 5,000, both saved and unsaved participated. So the benevolence of believers should not be restricted, except that believers are to have the priority. As in a home, family needs are met first, then those of the neighbors.

This passage then speaks clearly about Christian social responsibility, but it should be noted that it is addressed to individual believers. The church is not an agency for social work, though individual Christians are charged to minister in this way as they are able and have opportunity.

I) (Gal 6:11) Paul Handwrites The Conclusion To His Letter To The Galatian Believers, Writing In Large Letters To Make His Message More Emphatic

(Gal 6:11 NKJV) "See with what large letters I [wrote] to you with my own hand!"

1) [Manuscript Evidence for Gal 6:11]:

Most manuscripts read "see what large letters I wrote to you."

But a few important manuscripts - p46, B*, 33 - have the adjective "elikols" which has the same meaning rendered "large" as well.

0278 and 642 have the adjective "poikilos," which means "variegated" or simply "different."

Which ever adjective Paul originally used, the point is that there was an extraordinary difference between Paul's handwriting and that of the amanuensis [secretary]. As was typical in ancient times, the author of a document usually dictated the body of the epistle to an amanuensis and then took stylus in hand to personally write out the concluding remarks. We know that Paul used an amanuensis for the epistle to the Romans, namely Tertius (see Ro 16:22), and it can be assumed that he did so for at least four other epistles, because he specifically mentions that he provided the concluding salutation in his own handwriting: 1 Cor 16:21; here (Gal 6:11); Col 4:18; and 2 Thes 3:17.

2) (Gal 6:11) Paul Handwrites The Conclusion To His Letter To The Galatian Believers, Writing In Large Letters To Make His Message More Emphatic

(Gal 6:11 NKJV) "See with what large letters I [wrote] to you with my own hand!" =

Paul takes a stylus and personally writes down the conclusion to his letter to the Galatian believers, "See with what large letters I wrote to you with my own hand," evidently referring to the large size of the letters he penned evidently to make the conclusion to his letter more emphatic. Although Paul had some kind of thorn in the flesh, if it were his eyesight or hands, it is unlikely that he would have written anything by hand, but simply let his amanuensis [secretary] write it for him.

J) (Gal 6:12-13) In His Hand Written Conclusion Paul Emphasizes That The Judaizers Were Trying To Make A Good Showing Before Other Jews By Compelling The Galatian Believers To Be Circumcized So That They [The Judaizers] Would Not Be Persecuted By Fellow Jews For Upholding The Cross Of Christ. Although The Judaizers Did Not Faithfully Keep The Law Themselves, They Desired To Have The Galatian Believers Circumcized So That They Might Boast Before Fellow Jews Of Causing The Galatian Believers To Convert To Judaism

(Gal 6:12 NASB) "Those who desire to make a good showing in the flesh try to compel you to be circumcised, simply so that they will not be persecuted for the cross of Christ. (Gal 5:13 NASB) For those who are circumcised do not even keep the Law themselves, but they desire to have you circumcised so that they may boast in your flesh."

1) [Manuscript Evidence for Gal 6:12]:

Most manuscripts (Sinaiticus, A, C, D, F, G, Psi, 33, Maj, TR, NU) read "the cross of Christ"

A few important manuscripts (p46, B, 1175, WH) read "the cross of Jesus Christ."

This variant could display the influence of 6:14 (which has the expression "the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ"). On the other hand, it could be argued that scribes omitted "Jesus" from the title to make it conform with other Pauline passages (1 Cor 1:17; Phil 3:18 - both of which have the wording "the cross of Christ").

Sinaiticus, B, D, K, Psi, 33, 365, 614, 630, 1739, 2495 have "They may be persecuted"

p46, A, C, F, G, L, P, 6, 81, 104, 326, 629, 1175 have "They are being persecuted"

Manuscript evidence is substantial for both phrases. The subjunctive mood is part of the first phrase, "they may be persecuted," nevertheless the context conveys the subjunctive mood of possibility in the second phrase as well since the first phrase indicates the possibility of those who want to make a good impression [with the Judaizers] by compelling believers to be circumcised in order to avoid themselves from being persecuted for the cross of Christ. So there is no difference conveyed in the meaning of  the two phrases.

2) [Manuscript Evidence for Gal 6:13]:

TR, WH, NU, Sinaiticus, A, C, D, 33, 1739, cop(bo) have "those who are circumcised"

p46, B, F, G, L, Psi have "those who have been circumcised"

The TR, WH, NU reading has the most diverse support and therefore was followed by all the translations. But in deference to B, ASV added the variant in a marginal note, and NASB also added a note - probably following following ASV and influenced by p46 and B.

3) (Gal 6:12-13) In His Hand Written Conclusion Paul Emphasizes That The Judaizers Were Trying To Make A Good Showing Before Other Jews By Compelling The Galatian Believers To Be Circumcized So That They [The Judaizers] Would Not Be Persecuted By Fellow Jews For Upholding The Cross Of Christ. Although The Judaizers Did Not Faithfully Keep The Law Themselves, They Desired To Have The Galatian Believers Circumcized So That They Might Boast Before Fellow Jews Of Causing The Galatian Believers To Convert To Judaism

(Gal 6:12 NASB) "Those who desire to make a good showing in the flesh try to compel you to be circumcised, simply so that they will not be persecuted for the cross of Christ. (Gal 5:13 NASB) For those who are circumcised do not even keep the Law themselves, but they desire to have you circumcised so that they may boast in your flesh." =

In his hand written conclusion to his letter to the Galatian believers, author and apostle Paul makes yet another emphatic point about the Judaizers in verse 12: He writes that those who have incessantly been pushing circumcision upon believers to make a good showing in the flesh before fellow Judaizers and God were doing this in part so that they would not be persecuted by fellow Jews for promoting the cross of Christ - as if that would succeed in authenticating their own cause for legalism before fellow Jews and God. This was so hypocritical considering their own failure to keep the Law.

Then in Gal 6:13, Paul writes, "For those who are circumcized do not even keep the Law themselves so that they may boast in your flesh." The Judaizers were arrogant hypocrites who although they were unfaithful to the Law, they nevertheless demanded that the Galatian believers be faithful in the flesh to their cause for legalism "so that they may boast in your [the Galatian believers' efforts in the] flesh  - thus legitimizing their own cause before man and God - if that were possible, and it is not; as well as being able to boast about their own success if they were able to convert any of the Galatian believers to Judaism - a prideful effort in the flesh which totally contradicts the grace of God inherit in the gospel by faith alone in His Son alone. Their endeavor to boast takes away the credit due God for the salvation of an individual.

K) (Gal 6:14-15) Paul Personally Hand Writes, "But May It Never Be That I Would Boast, Except In The Cross Of Our Lord Jesus Christ, Through Which The World Had Been Crucified To Me, And I To The World. For Neither Is Circumcision Anything, Nor Uncircumcision, But A New Creation"

(Gal 6:14 NASB) "But may it never be that I would boast, except in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, through which the world has been crucified to me, and I to the world. (Gal 6:15 NASB) For neither is circumcision anything, nor uncircumcision, but a new creation."

1) [Manuscript Evidence for Gal 6:15]:

WH, NU, p46, B, 33, 1739*, Psi have "for neither is circumcision anything"

TR, Sinaiticus*, A, C, D*, F, G, 1881, Maj have "for in Christ Jesus neither is circumcision of any force"

Sinaiticus*, A, C, D*, F, G have "have force" instead of "is."

The WH, NU reading has sufficient documentary support. The variant reading is a scribal expansion borrowed from Gal 5:6. As such, the insertion is fully Pauline, though not written by him in this verse. In both the shorter and longer reading, several later scribes substituted "have force" for "is."

2) (Gal 6:14-15) Paul Personally Hand Writes, "But May It Never Be That I Would Boast, Except In The Cross Of Our Lord Jesus Christ, Through Which The World Had Been Crucified To Me, And I To The World. For Neither Is Circumcision Anything, Nor Uncircumcision, But A New Creation"

(Gal 6:14 NASB) "But may it never be that I would boast, except in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, through which the world has been crucified to me, and I to the world. (Gal 6:15 NASB) For neither is circumcision anything, nor uncircumcision, but a new creation." =

Paul responds to the legalizers in Gal 6:14, "But may it never be that I would boast, except in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, through which the world has been crucified to me, and I to the world." Here Paul abrogates his personal efforts relative to what matters in order to receive eternal life. What matters is the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, not performing or boasting in any kind of deeds one may offer. And it is the cross of Christ through which the world has been crucified to Paul and Paul to the world. Nothing else in the world is as significant in Paul's existence save the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ - as it should be with all believers. There is nothing for one to boast about relative to ones personal endeavors or experiences on the matter of receiving eternal life. This is the key difference between the believer in Christ for salvation unto eternal life and the legalizers / Judaizers who endeavor to keep law, even the Law of Moses, in order to be justified unto eternal life, beginning with circumcision: Paul concludes in Gal 6:15, "For neither is circumcision anything, nor uncircumcision, but a new creation" - a new creation brought about solely by the grace of God through an individual's moment of faith alone in His Son, Jesus Christ alone for eternal life, apart from human doing.

a) [Compare Gal 3:26-28]:

(Gal 3:26 NASB) "For you are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus.

(Gal 3:27 NKJV) For as many of you as were baptized into Christ have put on Christ.

(Gal 3:28 NASB) There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither male nor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus."

Gal 3:26 reads, "For [we believers] are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus," i.e., we have all become children of God, (cf. Jn 1:12-13 ) - part of the eternal family of God.

And this is further clarified by Gal 3:27, "For as many of you [who have become believers] as were baptized into Christ have put on Christ," indicating that faith in Christ in order to receive the promise of God of eternal life results in all believers being baptized / positioned / immersed into Christ," in the sense that the believer is a new creation who is identified with and actually immersed / placed / put into Christ as part of His body - spiritually, . And upon a moment of faith alone in Christ alone, the believer receives the benefits brought about by Christ's substitutionary atonement - His death on the cross, (cf. Romans chapter 6: ).

Whereupon in Gal 3:28, author Paul provides further results when an individual believes in Christ Jesus relative to his new position in Christ: For those who are believers in Christ Jesus, there is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither male nor female. The believers' union with Christ surpasses temporal things such as ones nationality, ones religious affiliations, ones social status in life, ones sex, etc. Believers are spiritually and eternally all one in Christ Jesus - each one a part of His body without regard for temporal matters or actions such as stipulated. Each one who has expressed a moment of faith alone in Christ Jesus alone for eternal life - Jew or Gentile - will receive the gift of the Righteousness of God and eternal life as God promised to Abraham and all mankind. And those of the faith in Christ Jesus in this age, (ref. Gal 3:25), will become sons of God in the sense of becoming children of God   as part of the eternal family of God. And they will be baptized into Christ in the sense of (1) receiving the Spirit of God, (ref. Gal 3:1-2); (2) becoming clothed with Christ; (3) belonging to Him; (4) being one in Christ Jesus in the sense of without temporal distinctions such as religion, race, sex, social status, (ref. Gal 3:29), and much .

Albeit there will be different functions for each individual as sovereignly appointed by God alone, such as in the reception of spiritual gifts , and God equipping a believer with his function depending upon the particular dispensation / economy of God .

b) [Compare 2 Cor 5:17 ]:

(2 Cor 5:17 NASB) "Therefore if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creature; the old things passed away; behold, new things have come."

The Greek word "kaine" rendered "new" in "phrase rendered "Therefore if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creature," in accordance with the Theological Dictionary of the NT, 1 Vol., Kittel & Friedrich, Eds, by Geoffrey W. Bromiley, Eerdmans Publishing, 1985, p. 388 defines "kaine" as follows:

"As distinct from néos, 'new in time,' ['kaine', str 2537] means 'new in nature' (with an implication of 'better')," i.e., unique as opposed to renewed or improved over time."

c) [Compare Eph 2:8-10]:

(Eph 2:8 NASB) "For by grace you [are] having been saved, through faith, and this not of yourselves - [it is] the gift of God,

(Eph 2:9 YLT) not of works, that no one may boast.

(Eph 2:10 NASB) For we are His workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared beforehand that we should walk in them."

Note that believers are in view, (Eph 2:8-9), who by definition in verse 10 have been given the destiny of having become God's unique workmanship as a new creation in Christ Jesus - having been placed into the body of Christ Jesus. Thus believers in Christ Jesus have become a third kind of human being, unique in the sense of being a part of the body of Christ, enabled and destined to do godly good works, whom God prepared in advance before the creation of the universe for us to do.

L) (Gal 6:16-18) And Those Who Will Walk By This Rule - The Rule Of Boasting In The Cross Of Our Lord Jesus Christ As New Creations In Christ, Peace And Mercy Be Upon Them, And Upon The Israel Of God. Paul Wrote, 'From Now On Let No One Cause Trouble For Me, For I Bear On My Body The Brandmarks Of Jesus. The Grace Of Our Lord Jesus Christ Be With Your Spirit, Brethren. Amen."

(Gal 6:14 NASB) But may it never be that I would boast, except in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, through which the world has been crucified to me, and I to the world.

(Gal 6:15 NASB) For neither is circumcision anything, nor uncircumcision, but a new creation.

(Gal 6:16 NASB) And those who will walk by this rule, peace and mercy be upon them, and upon the Israel of God.

(Gal 6:17 NASB) From now on let no one cause trouble for me, for I bear on my body the brand-marks of Jesus.

(Gal 6:18 NASB) The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit, brethren. Amen."

1) [Manuscript Evidence for Gal 6:17]:

(Gal 6:17 NASB) "From now on let no one cause trouble for me, for I bear on my body the brand-marks of Jesus." =

WH, NU, p46, A, B, C*, 33, IT(ft), have "the stigmata [marks] of Jesus

P, Psi, 0278, cop(bo) have "the stigmata [marks] of the Christ.

C3, D2, 1739, 1881, Maj have "the stigmata [marks] of the Lord Jesus"

Sinaiticus, D*, F, G, it have "the stigmata [marks] of our Lord Jesus Christ"

The WH, NU reading has solid documentary support and is superior on internal grounds inasmuch as Paul is here identifyinig with the human sufferings of Jesus and therefore uses only Jesus' human name. The first variant is poorly supported; the next two variants, though having better support, are scribal expansions, probably influenced by Gal 6:18.

2) (Gal 6:16-18) And Those Who Will Walk By This Rule - The Rule Of Boasting In The Cross Of Our Lord Jesus Christ As New Creations In Christ, Peace And Mercy Be Upon Them, And Upon The Israel Of God. Paul Wrote, 'From Now On Let No One Cause Trouble For Me, For I Bear On My Body The Brandmarks Of Jesus. The Grace Of Our Lord Jesus Christ Be With Your Spirit, Brethren. Amen."

(Gal 6:14 NASB) "But may it never be that I would boast, except in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, through which the world has been crucified to me, and I to the world. (Gal 6:15 NASB) For neither is circumcision anything, nor uncircumcision, but a new creation. (Gal 6:16 NASB) And those who will walk by this rule, peace and mercy be upon them, and upon the Israel of God. (Gal 6:17 NASB) From now on let no one cause trouble for me, for I bear on my body the brand-marks of Jesus. (Gal 6:18 NASB) The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit, brethren. Amen." =

Finally, author Paul writes the conclusion to his letter to the Galatian believers, beginning with, "And those [of you] who will walk by this rule, peace and mercy be upon them, and upon the Israel of God." This rule he implies is in view in vv. 14-15: walking according to the message of the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ - boasting in Him alone for salvation unto eternal life by grace through a moment of faith alone in Him alone. This Paul states is a message for the Gentile believers whom he is addressing in his letter and to the Israel of God, i.e., to believing Jews.

Note that the NIV errs logically, grammatically and contextually in translating the Greek phrase "kai epi ton Israel" in verse 16, "even to the Israel of God" rather than "and upon the Israel of God" as in the NASB. While some believe that "Israel of God" is the church, the evidence does not support such a conclusion :

1) the repetition of the preposition ("upon" or "to") indicates two groups are in view.

2) all the 65 other occurrences of the term "Israel" in the New Testament refer to Jews - physical descendants of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. It would thus be strange for Paul to use "Israel" here to mean Gentile Christians who are not so descendant.

3) Paul elsewhere referred to two kinds of Israelites - believing Jews and unbelieving Jews (cf. Ro 9:6). Lest it be thought that Paul is anti-Semitic, he demonstrated by means of this benediction his deep love and concern for true Israel, that is, Jews who had come to faith in Christ.

Upon these who have believed and continue in the faith - both Gentile and Jew, Paul proclaims peace and mercy - God's peace and mercy - to them. Note that those who are in Christ, those who have expressed a moment of faith alone in Christ alone and thus have become new creations in Christ forever have peace with and the mercy of God relative to their eternal destiny and relationship with Him, (cf Ro 5:1ff . On the other hand, walking by this rule provides His temporal peace and mercy as well.

Whereupon in Gal 6:17, Paul declares, "From now on let no one cause trouble for me, for I bear on my gody the brand-marks of Jesus."

The request is that henceforth he be not troubled with the kind of problem that had erupted in the Galatian churches because of the legalizers. This can hardly mean that Paul did not want to hear about such problems if they occurred. If they did occur he would want to combat them. Nor can it mean that he did not want further trouble from the legalizers; for they would certainly cause trouble, regardless of his wishes, and he could hardly direct an appeal to them anyway. Instead, the appeal is to the churches themselves and is that they might no longer trouble him by giving way to the legalistic heresies which would be ever present. The reason, Paul says, is that he has suffered enough already. It would be far better if the churches he founded at such cost would assume their own share of suffering, above all by resisting the kind of teaching that the legalizers upheld and therefore, if necessary, by enduring whatever persecution might follow.

The "marks of Jesus" refer to the scars Paul bore on his body as the result of the persecutions he had endured for the sake of his Lord. These marks revealed his relationship to Christ, just as the "marks" (stigmata) of a slave revealed his ownership. A list of the experiences that might have caused such scars occurs in 1 Cor 4:11; 2 Corinthians 4:10-11; 6:4-6, 9 and 11:23-30. These genuine and honorable marks in the body contrast strikingly with the ritualistic and now meaningless mark (circumcision) the legalizers wished to impose on the Galatians.

Finally, Paul wrote, "The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit, brethren. Amen.

Paul's closing remarks on his letter are very similar to the closings on his other letters, especially, Phil 4:23 and Philemon 25. In essence a prayer that our Lord Jesus Christ would provide grace / unmerited favor to the believers through their human spirits. Amen.