1 CORINTHIANS CHAPTER SIX

OBSERVATION STAGE

The purpose of the observation stage is to maintain focus on the text at hand within the normative rules of language, context and logic  which limits the observer to the content offered by the letter of 1 Corinthians especially the previous chapters. This will serve to avoid going on unnecessary tangents elsewhere; and more importantly, it will provide the framework for a proper and objective comparison with passages located elsewhere in Scripture utilizing the same normative rules of reading / interpretation.

Remember that something elsewhere may be true, but in the text at hand it may not be in view.

Manuscript Evidence from The New Testament And Translation Commentary, Philip W. Comfort, Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Carol Stream, Ill.

6:11 "Name of the Lord Jesus Christ" vs "Name of our Lord Jesus Christ" vs "name of the Lord Jesus" differences are nominal.

6:13 Addition by Marcion at the end of the verse, "so that the temple is for God and God is for the temple" is ruled out for want of evidence in any other more reliable manuscript

6:14 "he will raise up" vs "he raised up" vs "he raises up" =  Context indicates a future resurrection, albeit a timeless present tense works as well; but aorist tense "raised" does not work

6:17 The phrase in this verse rendered, "but the one joining himself to the Lord is one spirit" indicates a spiritural union between the believer and Jesus Christ, joining to become one in spiritual union. Some manuscripts signify a divine Spirit with the human spirit; others have a lower case spirit to take it out of the realm of the divine. The verse does not determine either way. The context simply indicates a spiritual union without deciding whether or not that union is divine.

6:20 "glorify God in your body" vs "glorify God in your body and in your spirit, which are God's." The shorter version sticks with the context which focuses on Paul urging the Corinthians to not misuse their physical bodies which belong to Christ by having sexual relations with prostitutes.
****** EXCERPT FROM 1 COR CHAPTER 5 ******

OR MOVE TO FIRST VERSE OF CHAPTER SIX 


[(1 Cor 5:9-13) Commentary On 1 Cor 5:9-13]:

(1 Cor 5:9 NKJV) "I wrote to you in my epistle not to keep company with sexually immoral people.

(1 Cor 5:10 NASB) I did not at all mean with the immoral people of this world, or with the covetous and swindlers, or with idolaters, for then you would have to go out of the world. 

(1 Cor 5:11 NKJV) But now I have written to you not to keep company with anyone named a brother, who is sexually immoral, or covetous, or an idolater, or a reviler, or a drunkard, or an extortioner - not even to eat with such a person.

(1 Cor 5:12 NASB) For what have I to do with judging outsiders? Do you not judge those who are within the church?

(1 Cor 5:13 NASB) But those who are outside, God judges. 'Remove the wicked man from among yourselves.' "

In 1 Cor 5:9, Paul continues with the subject of sexual immorality, which reads "I wrote to you in my epistle not to keep company with sexually immoral people." Evidently Paul had written to the Corinthian believers in an earlier letter - before this letter was written which is entitled 1 Corinthians by Bible translators. Paul stipulated that fellow believers in Corinth [and by implication all believers] were not to hang out with sexually immoral people. Note that this implies that there are other letters and communications which are not included in the Bible that we have for this age - even for other ages. But a careful examination of what God has provided us indicates that many communications / letters were evidently not chosen to be part of God's Word yet were evidently useful for His purposes in other ways. A careful examination of what we do have to study about God and our responsibilities to Him gives one confidence that the 66 books are sufficient for this age - no contradictions, perfect harmony Old and New Testaments, perfect fulfillment of many prophecies so far into this age with more to come . Keep in mind that the prior ages from the beginning of creation evidently only had at first word of mouth and Christ's preincarnate appearances and communications through certain people such as Adam & Eve, Noah, etc.; and mankind evidently had far greater capacities then and the availability to communicate God's revelation to fellow man; and thereafter God inspired men to write the "Old Testament" which was sufficient for Israel to follow and relate to the rest of the world - evidently for the rest of mankind through the ministry of Israel to the world, especially aided by God's appearances to mankind - those preincarnate appearances of Jesus Christ such as to Abraham  and through Israel. But now we in the church age which has for it the direct revelation of Jesus Christ and we have a lot more for which we are held responsible in this age to relate to the rest of mankind. The "New Testament" books of the Greek bible are largely confirmation and details which corroborate what the Old Testament is speaking of and so much more with the revelation of Jesus Christ. And we have a wonderful set of instructions on how to conduct the Christian life in this age like no other.

So in 1 Cor 5:9, Paul indicates by
referring to other categories of sinners besides the sexually immoral, Paul shows that in having referred to the "pornoi" rendered fornicator oor  immoral person which he referred to in a previous letter, he meant only that believers within the congregation who continue to sin, should not be a present  part of the church community while they continue in sin. Exclusion / ostracism / separation from fellow brethren was needed in the hope of their repentence from their sinful lifestyle to one which is more faithful - led by the Holy Spirit within them via a careful study of God's Word. So the purpose of their separation was so that they might repent and thereby be permitted to return to fellowship within the congregation. Paul had not meant that contact or even acquaintance with all sinners was to cease throughout the area or any human society. For then Christians could not live at all in human society. So in Paul's letter to the Corinthians which we are examining here, Paul again states that they were not to keep company with sexually immoral people within the congregation not from everyone in their society. This implied that they had not been heeding his instructions. His instructions were being misunderstood. For the believers at Corinth evidently kept themselves separate from outsiders of the church, i.e., unbelievers: all those outside of the congregation - all those in their local society and everywhere else! Ironically, those in the Corinthian church ignored the sinful actions of those within the Church! Notice the extent of Paul's authority wherein he addresses such personal things in the body of Christ / local congregations as this. Note that the society surrounding the church at Corinth was often morally / sexually promiscuous, and sinful in many other ways. So becoming a believer was an adjustment in Corinth relative to the sinful society in which they lived. Yet they were not to avoid contact with their society and thus not participate in sharing the gospel with others outside of their congregation.

Then in 1 Cor 5:10 NASB, which reads,
"I did not at all mean with the immoral people of this world, or with the covetous and swindlers, or with idolaters, for then you would have to go out of the world." [in the sense of not being in the world but somewhere where there is no sin = a heavenly destiny] This indicates that one should not conclude that Paul was writing that a believer in the congregation must not have contact with any immoral people of this world, which would be not having contact with anyone. So they should not conclude from what Paul wrote earlier and in this letter that they must become like hermits outside of their fellowhip with the congregation. For that would not be possible in their world in the first century and even as it exists today, because everyone is to a degree immoral / sinful especially unbelievers who predominate in the world. That would beg the question of how one could share the gospel and minister to others in the world if they isolated themselves from it? And how would they have contact with family members, business & social acquaintances which often are a necessary thing to do in order function properly within their society. For one could hardly consider only having contact with sinless believers because there are none, (cf. 1 Jn 1:8-10). For all believers have an active sin nature in this temporal life. Paul now proceeds to correct their misunderstanding. By referring to other categories of sinners besides the sexually immoral, he shows that in having referred to the "pornoi" in his previous letter, he meant only that those that committed "pornoi" should not be a part of the church community. If Paul had meant that contact or even acquaintance with all sinners was to cease, then Christians could not live at all in human society.

Then in 1 Cor 5:11, in order to clarify what he wrote in 1 Cor 5:10, Paul wrote, "But now I have written to you not to keep company with anyone named a brother, who is sexually immoral, or covetous, or an idolater, or a reviler, or a drunkard, or an extortioner - not even to eat with such a person," in the congregation. So Paul makes it clear by writing "with anyone named a brother," obviously those who are believers, i.e., who are a part of the body of Christ especially in the local congregation who are "sexually immoral, or covetous, or an idolater, or a reviler, or a drunkard, or an extortioner," it being implied that this list is not all inclusive. And fellow believers must distance themselves from believers like this not to punish them, but in order to encourage them to repent and then be enabled to rejoin fellowship with them. For such as these need to be restored to fellowship with fellow believers in the church / congregation should they indeed repent. Although Paul stipulates that that distancing includes eating meals with them, other kinds of social contact might also have been excluded as well. But it was unlikely, however, that the sanctioned individual was barred from all congregational meetings. For if a wayward believer is still permitted attend church in some functions albeit at a distance, the church's ministry might lead to his conviction and repentance better than if he were banished from all communication. Notice that this indeed is a personal judgment call, for all believers are sinful. All sin all the time in their mortal bodies which still has the inherent sin nature within them, 1 Jn 1:8 .

On the other hand, believers are not to try to totally distance themselves from unbelievers out in the world as they go about their daily lives in their society. For they really cannot avoid conversations with them in order to get the essentials of living such as food, shelter, clothing, exercise, going to school, work, church, etc. and especially not sharing the gospel with them. For this last thing is a mandate for all believers to do . Allowing yourself to be equally yoked with them is one thing; having essential / meaningful conversations especially about God, Jesus Christ, the gospel of eternal life is another.

In 1 Cor 5:12 which reads,
"For what have I to do with judging outsiders? Do you not judge those who are within the church?" Paul asks two questions. The first one has to do with unbelievers - those who are outside of the congregation: "For what have I to do with judging outsiders?" The word rendered "outsiders" refers to unbelievers - those not part of the congregation of believers in Corinth. So Paul is affirming that believers are not to judge unbelievers relative to their sinfulness. So believers are not to stay isolaed from them because they judge them to be too sinful to associate with. On the other hand they are not to have a close, personal fellowship with them either . We are to minister to them about Christ and Him crucified without investigating / addressing details of their flaws before God, only that they need to have God's forgiveness and salvation unto eternal life because all men are sinners through a moment of faith alone in Christ alone unto eternal life.

On the other hand Paul poses the second question of 1 Cor 5:12b, namely, "
Do you not judge those who are within the church?" where he points to the believers' obligation to gauge whether or not one is to maintain fellowship with one believer or another depending upon their actions. Here Paul teaches that it is commanded that believers in the church are to exercise spiritual discipline over members who are overtly sinful. On the other hand, it is not for members of the church to judge the sinfulness of those who are in the unsaved society around them.

Finally, in 1 Cor 5:13, which reads, "
But those who are outside, God judges. 'Remove the wicked man from among yourselves.' " we have the conclusion to Paul's point about believers' obligation to gauge / to judge whether or not one within their fellowship / congregation of believers letting God judge those who are outside of the fellowship of a congregation / local church relative to sin; but inside that fellowship believers are to decide or not to maintain fellowship with one believer or another depending upon their actions to the extent of joining with others to remove the wicked believer from amongst themselves for the purpose of getting them to decide to repent of their evil and rejoin the fellowship of believers in the congregation. Throughout this chapter Paul has in view a particular individual who has 'married' his stepmother - his father's wife!

[1 Cor 3:12-13) Compare Expositor's On 1 Cor 5:12-13]:


(1 Cor 5:12 NASB) "For what have I to do with judging outsiders? Do you not judge those who are within the church?
(1 Cor 5:13 NASB) But those who are outside, God judges. 'Remove the wicked man from among yourselves.'

(1 Cor 5:13 NASB) But those who are outside, God judges. 'Remove the wicked man from among yourselves.' "

"Paul now concludes (v. 13) on the basis of the preceding argument that the wicked man who had married his stepmother must be put out of the church. This he commands by quoting somewhat loosely from Deuteronomy 22:24 (a context of adultery) and from Deuteronomy 24:7 (a context of stealing).

The strengthened form of the negative (ouchi, "not") used with the indicative verb in a question expects a positive response: "Are you not to judge those inside [the church]?" "Yes" is the expected reply.

There is a variation in the MSS as to whether κρινεῖ (krinei, "judge") is present or future (it is only a matter of the accent), and since the present tense of the verb can be interpreted as a futuristic present, there is no difference in meaning. The sense is "God will judge" as in NIV. The quotation from Deut 22:24 and 24:7 is exactly like the wording of LXX in those two passages, except that Paul has changed the LXX verb form ἐξαρεῖς (exareis) to the pl. ἐξάρατε (exarate) to fit his application to the Corinthians."

Those in the world God will judge (cf. Acts 17:31). But those within the Christian community who continue in sin with an unrepentant spirit, the church should discipline by expulsion.

I) [1 Cor 6:1-20]:

(1 Cor 6:1 NKJV) "Dare any of you, having a matter against another, go to law before the unrighteous, and not before the saints?

(1 Cor 6:2 NKJV) Do you not know that the saints will judge the world? And if the world will be judged by you, are you unworthy to judge the smallest matters
("kriterion," lit. law court cases / matters)?

(1 Cor 6:3 NKJV) Do you not know that we shall judge angels? How much more, things that pertain to this life? 

(1 Cor 6:4 NASB) So if you have law courts dealing with matters of this life, do you appoint them as judges who are of no account in the church?

(1 Cor 6:5 NASB) I say this to your shame. Is it so, that there is not among you one wise man who will be able to decide between his brethren,

(1 Cor 6:6 NASB) but brother goes to law with brother, and that before unbelievers?

(1 Cor 6:7 NKJV) Now therefore, it is already an utter failure for you that you go to law against one another. Why do you not rather accept wrong? Why do you not rather let yourselves be cheated? 

(1 Cor 6:8 NKJV) No, you yourselves do wrong and cheat, and you do these things to your brethren!

(1 Cor 6:9 NASB) Or do you not know that the unrighteous will not inherit the kingdom of God? Do not be deceived; neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor homosexuals,

(1 Cor 6:10 NASB) nor thieves, nor the covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor swindlers, will inherit the kingdom of God.

(1 Cor 6:11 NASB) Such were some of you; but you were washed, but you were sanctified, but you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and in the Spirit of our God.

[Manuscript Evidence 1 Cor 6:11]:

6:11 "Name of the Lord Jesus Christ" vs "Name of our Lord Jesus Christ" vs "name of the Lord Jesus" differences are nominal.

(1 Cor 6:12 NASB) All things are lawful for me, but not all things are profitable. All things are lawful for me, but I will not be mastered by anything.

(1 Cor 6:13 NASB) Food is for the stomach and the stomach is for food, but God will do away with both of them. Yet the body is not for immorality, but for the Lord, and the Lord is for the body.

[Manuscript Evidence 1 Cor 6:13]:

6:13 Addition by Marcion at the end of the verse, "so that the temple is for God and God is for the temple" is ruled out for want of evidence in any other more reliable manuscript

(1 Cor 6:14 NASB) Now God has not only raised the Lord, but will also raise us up through His power.

[Manuscript Evidence 1 Cor 6:14]:

6:14 "he will raise up" vs "he raised up" vs "he raises up" =  Context indicates a future resurrection, albeit a timeless present tense works as well; but aorist tense "raised" does not work

(1 Cor 6:15 NASB) Do you not know that your bodies are members of Christ? Shall I then take away the members of Christ and make them members of a prostitute? May it never be!

(1 Cor 6:16 NASB) Or do you not know that the one who joins himself to a prostitute is one body with her? For He says, "The two shall become one flesh."

(1 Cor 6:17 NASB) But the one who joins himself to the Lord is one spirit with Him.

[Manuscript Evidence 1 Cor 6:17]:

6:17 The phrase in this verse rendered, "but the one joining himself to the Lord is one spirit" indicates a spiritural union between the believer and Jesus Christ, joining to become one in spiritual union. Some manuscripts signify a divine Spirit with the human spirit; others have a lower case spirit to take it out of the realm of the divine. The verse does not determine either way. The context simply indicates a spiritual union without deciding whether or not that union is divine.

(1 Cor 6:18 NASB) Flee immorality. Every other sin that a man commits is outside the body, but the immoral man sins against his own body.

(1 Cor 6:19 NASB) Or do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit Who is in you, Whom you have from God, and that you are not your own?

(1 Cor 6:20 NKJV) For you were bought at a price; therefore glorify God in your body and in your spirit, which are God's.

[Manuscript Evidence 1 Cor 6:20]:

"glorify God in your body" vs "glorify God in your body and in your spirit, which are God's." The shorter version sticks with the context which focuses on Paul urging the Corinthians to not misuse their physical bodies which belong to Christ by having sexual relations with prostitutes.

A) [(1 Cor 5:12-6:1) Commentary On 1 Cor 6:1]:

(1 Cor 5:12 NASB) "For what have I to do with judging outsiders? Do you not judge those who are within the church?

(1 Cor 5:13 NASB) But those who are outside, God judges. 'Remove the wicked man from among yourselves.'

(1 Cor 6:1 NKJV) Dare any of you, having a matter against another, go to law before the unrighteous, and not before the saints?"

ln consideration of the context at the end of chapter 5 at verses 12-13 which read,

(1 Cor 5:12 NASB) "For what have I to do with judging outsiders? Do you not judge those who are within the church? (1 Cor 5:13 NASB) But those who are outside, God judges. 'Remove the wicked man from among yourselves; which moves in the same context into chapter 6, Paul concluded that the wicked man who had married his stepmother must be put out of the church until he repents from this activity, if he ever does, so as not to contaminate fellow believers further. Note that in 1 Cor 6:15, Paul will use the strengthened form of the negative (ouchi, "not") with the indicative verb in a question which expects a positive response: "Are you not to judge those inside [the church]?" "Yes" is the expected reply. 

Then at the beginning of chapter 6, at 1 Cor 6:1, which reads, "Dare any of you, having a matter against another, go to law before the unrighteous, and not before the saints?" Paul moves to another and related problem relative to the context at the end of chapter 5 which has in view matters of dispute between believers within the congregation at Corinth which are not being properly resolved. Such matters Paul implies should be settled between believers inside the church - by "the saints" within the congregation in a godly manner; and not by taking one another to court outside of the church where unbelievers may decide the issue even resulting in an unfair advantage to believers who seek their own ungodly gain by using unbelievers' judgments in court. Such disputes amongst believers were evidently prevalent within the congregation at Corinth which were part of the divisiveness that characterized the church which issue Paul was addressing in his letter to them. Paul indicates that believers should have known these things and resolved their disputes with one another, properly: in a godly manner within the church. But they were too enamored of their own interests - their so called mature wisdom and knowledge - which was hardly mature at all, but rather immature; and they were too enamoured of their attachment to their own positions within the church which they evidently coveted instead of serving others with their status / authority. And finally they insisted on the one everyone should follow which they disputed with others: that every one should follow Paul, or Apollos, or Peter or Jesus Christ. 

Paul's chagrin about this issue was great, not only because it further divided the church, but also because it hindered the work of God among the non-Christians in Corinth. Those related by faith needed to settle their disputes like brothers, not adversaries.

B) [(1 Cor 6:2-8) Commentary On 1 Cor 6:2-8]:

(1 Cor 6:2 NKJV) Do you not know that the saints will judge the world? And if the world will be judged by you, are you unworthy to judge the smallest matters ("kriterion," lit. law court cases / matters)?

(1 Cor 6:3 NKJV) Do you not know that we shall judge angels? How much more, things that pertain to this life? 

(1 Cor 6:4 NASB) So if you have law courts dealing with matters of this life, do you appoint them as judges who are of no account in the church?

(1 Cor 6:5 NASB) I say this to your shame. Is it so, that there is not among you one wise man who will be able to decide between his brethren,

(1 Cor 6:6 NASB) but brother goes to law with brother, and that before unbelievers?

(1 Cor 6:7 NKJV) Now therefore, it is already an utter failure for you that you go to law against one another. Why do you not rather accept wrong? Why do you not rather let yourselves be cheated? 

(1 Cor 6:8 NKJV) No, you yourselves do wrong and cheat, and you do these things to your brethren!"

So Paul continues the context of the church limiting itself to settling disputes amongst themselves to within the confines of the believers instead of allowing outsiders / unbelievers to settle their matters. On the other hand there are areas of civil laws - local, state and federal which have jurisdiction over believers' lives and they must defer to that authority.

For Paul his Roman citizenship according to Roman law, appealed to the civil courts - to the Roman commander (Acts 22:25-29), to the governor (Acts 23:27; 24:10-21), and to the emperor (Acts 25:4-12) - to establish his right to a proper trial and proper treatment as a Roman citizen (Acts 16:37-39). In modern life this biblical principle allows for church cases to be brought into civil courts to determine the extent of the rights of the congregation, as for example, their right to own and retain their own church property. Note that in speaking of Christians taking other Christians to court, Paul does not specify any criminal cases because he teaches elsewhere that these must be handled by the state:

******

****** EXCERPT FROM ROMANS CHAPTER 13 ******

OR MOVE TO NEXT SECTION

LET EVERY SOUL = EVERY PERSON BE SUBJECT TO GOVERNING AUTHORITIES. SINCE ALL AUTHORITIES ARE APPOINTED OVER MEN BY GOD ALONE, THEN WHOEVER RESISTS AUTHORITY RESISTS THE ORDINANCE / THE AUTHORITY OF GOD HIMSELF AND BRINGS GOD'S JUDGMENT UPON HIMSELF

(Ro 13:1 NKJV) Let every soul be subject to the governing authorities. For there is no authority except from God, and the authorities that exist are appointed by God. (Ro 13:2 NKJV) Therefore whoever resists the authority resists the ordinance of God, and those who resist will bring judgment on themselves." =

Romans 12:1-2 command believers to "offer [their] bodies as living sacrifices, holy and pleasing to God ... [and to] not conform any longer to the pattern of this world, but [to] be transformed by the renewing of [the] mind. Then [they] will be able to test and approve what God's will is - His good, pleasing and perfect will." So the believer is to be transformed by the conforming of his conscience to the will of God through a study, acceptance and application to his life of the words of God's Word which explain His will]. Romans 12:3 through 15:13, which follow, stipulate specific things to obey in order to achieve that transformation. So the command in Ro 13:1 rendered in the NKJV, "Let every soul [= every person] be subject to the governing authorities. For there is no authority except from God, and the authorities that exist are appointed by God" implies that it is God's will that believers and every individual must be subject in deed and conscience to the governing authorities that God has placed them under. This implies compliance not only in deed but with a godly conscience from which those deeds originate. Note that Ro 13:1 gives special emphasis to the fact that all rulers are established solely by the LORD.

Since all governing authorities are established by God alone and for His holy purposes, i.e., there is no one else Who establishes ruling authority in the universe except God;

and since it is evident from history that some ruling authorities have been more disciplinary than others, even cruel and ungodly; and since individuals are treated by God in accordance with their faithfulness, (cf. Ro 10:10 );

then the manner in which individuals are treated by their ruling authorities is directly related to their faith and faithfulness to God. Exceptions noted: believers under testing and martyrdom. So whoever resists governmental authority - even if only in conscience - resists the ordinance / the authority of God Himself and brings God's judgment upon himself which judgment is often wielded by that government.

On the other hand, since God establishes all ruling authority, then all ruling authority is responsible to represent His will. When it does not, that authority will suffer the consequences. Hence the evil behavior of rulers is in no way condoned by the LORD.

INDIVIDUALS WHO DO RIGHT BY SUBMITTING TO THE AUTHORITY OF THEIR RULERS WITH A GODLY CONSCIENCE - FREE FROM A MENTAL ATTITUDE OF REBELLIOUSNESS - (1) ARE PLACED UNDER THE LORD'S PROTECTION, (2) ARE IN A POSITION TO BE FREE FROM FEARING THOSE IN AUTHORITY AND (3) WILL BE COMMENDED BY THEM

RULERS HOLD NO TERROR FOR SUBMISSIVE INDIVIDUALS BUT FOR THOSE WHO DO EVIL BY RESISTING THEIR AUTHORITY. SINCE RULERS ARE GOD'S SERVANTS WHO BEAR THE SWORD AS AVENGERS TO EXECUTE GOD'S WRATH ON THOSE WHO PRACTICE EVIL, THEN ONE MUST BE SUBJECT TO ONES RULERS NOT ONLY BECAUSE OF THE POTENTIAL OF GOD'S WRATH BUT ALSO BECAUSE OF THE CONSCIENCE GOD HAS PROVIDED WITHIN THEM

(Ro 13:1 NKJV) Let every soul be subject to the governing authorities. For there is no authority except from God, and the authorities that exist are appointed by God. (Ro 13:2 NKJV) Therefore whoever resists the authority resists the ordinance of God, and those who resist will bring judgment on themselves. (Ro 13:3 NIV) For rulers hold no terror for those who do right, but for those who do wrong. Do you want to be free from fear of the one in authority? Then do what is right and he will commend you (Ro 13:4 NKJV) For he is God's minister [lit., servant] to you for good. But if you do evil, be afraid; for he does not bear the sword in vain; for he is God's minister [lit., servant], an avenger to execute wrath on him who practices evil. (Ro 13:5 YLT) Wherefore it is necessary to be subject, not only because of the wrath, but also because of the conscience." =

(Ro 13:3a Greek) "hoi ..gar archontes ouk eisin phobos ....tOn ...agathOn

................................The ..for .rulers ......not .are .[a] terror .of the good

ergOn, alla tOn ...katOn"

works, .but of the evils."

The Greek phrase for Ro 13:3a, "Hoi gar archontes out eisin phobos tOn agathOn ertOn" noted above and rendered "For rulers hold no terror for those who do right" in the NIV, has in view those who do right, i.e., those who submit to governmental authority with a godly conscience free from a mental attitude of rebelliousness who are consequently described as those for whom rulers hold no terror, i.e., no traumatizing fear of losing their authority or forced from their position of authority. Those who exemplify such submissiveness to authority are stipulated as doing right, (lit., "good"), as opposed to those who do wrong, (lit., "evils"), the latter referring to those who resist governmental authority; even if only in their attitude or conscience. Those who do right avoid the consequent temporal judgment of God stipulated in verse 13:2. Then a question is posed in 13:3b, "Do you want to be free from fear of the one in authority?" and the answer, "Then do what is right, (lit., "good"), and he [the ruler] will commend you." This implies that if the believer submits himself to his governing authorities and does not rebel against them in conscience or deed, he will be doing right in the sight of God and should be free from fear of the ones in authority over him. Furthermore, it suggests that God will enable the believer who submits to governmental ruling authority to be protected and commended by his rulers.

BELIEVERS ARE ENDOWED BY GOD WITH A CONSCIENCE: A CONSCIOUS UNDERSTANDING AND MENTAL IMPETUS TO CHOOSE TO OBEY GOD - TO CONSCIOUSLY ACKNOWLEDGE AND SUBMIT TO THE LORD'S DESIGNATED GOVERNMENTAL AUTHORITY OVER THEM

(Ro 13:1 NKJV) Let every soul be subject to the governing authorities. For there is no authority except from God, and the authorities that exist are appointed by God. (Ro 13:2 NKJV) Therefore whoever resists the authority resists the ordinance of God, and those who resist will bring judgment on themselves. (Ro 13:3 NIV) For rulers hold no terror for those who do right, but for those who do wrong. Do you want to be free from fear of the one in authority? Then do what is right and he will commend you (Ro 13:4 NKJV) For he is God's minister [lit., servant] to you for good. But if you do evil, be afraid; for he does not bear the sword in vain; for he is God's minister [lit., servant], an avenger to execute wrath on him who practices evil. (Ro 13:5 YLT) Wherefore it is necessary to be subject, not only because of the wrath, but also because of the conscience." =

Romans 13:4 indicates that a governmental ruling authority is God's servant to do the believer good when the believer submits to it with a godly conscience free from a mental attitude of rebelliousness. Thus the believer is to trust in God to deliver him from fear and harm as he is faithful to God's command to be subject to his governing authorities in godly conscience and deed. Hence the believer is not to fear punishment from the ruler when he is submissive. On the other hand, if the believer or any subject under authority does wrong by evidencing rebellion to the ruler in conscience and/or deed, he should be afraid, for the ruler as God's servant bears the sword by God's design in the sense of having the armed capacity and authority to exact physical punishment, even death, upon a rebellious subject in order to bring God's wrathful punishment on the wrong doer.

Verse 13:5 then corroborates that it is necessary to submit to authorities not only because of possible punishment but also because of conscience.

This implies that believers are endowed by God with a conscience: a conscious understanding and mental impetus to choose to conform to God's command to consciously acknowledge and submit to the LORD's designated governmental authority over them. If they trust in and are faithful to Him then they will be protected from harm and even commended by that ruler.

So one must submit oneself to governmental authority in actions and in conformance with ones conscience, i.e., with a godly conscience = action backed up by a godly attitude of submission. Hence one must not have a mental attitude of resisting governmental authority while submitting to ones rulers, otherwise one is still resisting governmental authority and liable to receive the wrath of God. One is to maintain a godly conscience toward God relative to constantly acknowledging and submitting to ones governmental authorities with the understanding that they have been appointed over one by God as His servants to do His will.

PEOPLE RECEIVE FROM GOD THE KIND OF GOVERNMENT THAT THEY DESERVE - THAT REFLECTS THEIR CHARACTER - THAT MIRRORS THEIR RESPONSE TO THEIR GOD GIVEN CONSCIENCE. IN ORDER TO BE BLESSED BY GOD WITH A GODLY RULING AUTHORITY, THE PEOPLES' ACTIONS AND RESPONSES TO THEIR CONSCIENCES MUST LARGELY BE GODLY AND FREE FROM REFLECTING AN UNWILLINGNESS TO SUBMIT TO GOVERNMENTAL RULERS EVEN WHEN THE RULERS ARE EVIL, INEPT OR CORRUPT

(Ro 13:1 NKJV) Let every soul be subject to the governing authorities. For there is no authority except from God, and the authorities that exist are appointed by God. (Ro 13:2 NKJV) Therefore whoever resists the authority resists the ordinance of God, and those who resist will bring judgment on themselves. (Ro 13:3 NIV) For rulers hold no terror for those who do right, but for those who do wrong. Do you want to be free from fear of the one in authority? Then do what is right and he will commend you (Ro 13:4 NKJV) For he is God's minister [lit., servant] to you for good. But if you do evil, be afraid; for he does not bear the sword in vain; for he is God's minister [lit., servant], an avenger to execute wrath on him who practices evil. (Ro 13:5 YLT) Wherefore it is necessary to be subject, not only because of the wrath, but also because of the conscience." =

Since ruling authorities are appointed by God, (cf Ro 13:2); and since the character of ruling authorities varies from godly to ungodly, mostly the latter, largely reflecting the people they rule; then groups of people forming rulerships, (villages, cities, states, nations, etc.), receive from God the kind of government that they deserve - that mirrors their character - that reflects their response to their God given consciences. Hence a people who exemplify a pattern of ungodliness will eventually receive an ungodly ruler, sending them in the direction of self-destruction. This implies that the character of ruling authorities, being under God's sovereign control, will be changed to reflect the character of its people.

So in order to be blessed by God with a godly ruling authority, the peoples' actions and responses to their God given consciences must largely be godly and free from reflecting an unwillingness to submit to governmental rulers even when the rulers are evil, inept or corrupt - which is most often the case. So even personal accusations from rulers cannot be answered in a manner which even if true - undermine the authority of ones rulers. An accusation of a government ruler of corruption, ineptitude, greed, evil, etc., in a manner which in the ruler's mind encourages rebellion against his authority or undermines his authority is not justified before God, even if the accusation is true. God put that ruler in place and will take him out by godly means and not through ungodly tactics.

When rulers can be changed by some kind of election, godly tactics must be used by the candidates or suffer the consequences. So smear campaigns, evil debating tactics, innuendo wars, etc., are not permitted. False accusations by incumbent rulers toward others, no matter how evil and untrue, can only be answered in such a fashion that does not undermine the authority of that incumbent ruler. This leaves the result in God's hands - an example of walking by faith. The campaign of the godly man is to be the same as his godly lifestyle - one of walking by faith as an example to others. If the nation seeks a godly ruler who is supported by God Himself then he will be placed in position as ruler by God through election or other means.

GOD IS A HOLY AND RIGHTEOUS GOD WHO DOES NOT CONTRADICT HIMSELF BY COMMANDING RULERS OR BELIEVERS TO ISSUE OR OBEY UNRIGHTEOUS COMMANDS RESPECTIVELY. SO THE BELIEVER IS TO REFUSE TO OBEY COMMANDS THAT VIOLATE THE HOLINESS OF GOD IN A MANNER WHICH STILL RESPECTS GOVERNMENTAL AUTHORITY

(Ro 13:1 NKJV) Let every soul be subject to the governing authorities. For there is no authority except from God, and the authorities that exist are appointed by God. (Ro 13:2 NKJV) Therefore whoever resists the authority resists the ordinance of God, and those who resist will bring judgment on themselves. (Ro 13:3 NIV) For rulers hold no terror for those who do right, but for those who do wrong. Do you want to be free from fear of the one in authority? Then do what is right and he will commend you (Ro 13:4 NKJV) For he is God's minister [lit., servant] to you for good. But if you do evil, be afraid; for he does not bear the sword in vain; for he is God's minister [lit., servant], an avenger to execute wrath on him who practices evil. (Ro 13:5 YLT) Wherefore it is necessary to be subject, not only because of the wrath, but also because of the conscience." =

Although Romans 13:1-5 make it clear that believers are commanded by God to be subject to their governing authorities, this is not to say that the believer must obey commands from govern mental authority which violate God's righteousness. For it is God, the Righteous One Who commands righteousness, not evil, Who has placed all rulers in positions of authority. God is a Holy and Righteous God Who does not contradict Himself by commanding rulers or believers to issue or obey unrighteous commands respectively:

[Compare Ro 6:13 ]:

(Ro 6:13 NIV) "Do not offer the parts of your body to sin, as instruments of wickedness, but rather offer yourselves to God, as those who have been brought from death to life; and offer the parts of your body to Him as instruments of righteousness."

So the believer must refuse to obey commands that violate the holiness of God in a manner which still respects governmental authority. The believer must depart the rulership or freely submit to the decision of his rulers when he decides to stand firm in the holiness of God by refusing to obey an ungodly command. This might lead to persecution and martyrdom - possibilities in the Christian life; or God may work the situation out favorably for the faithful believer. By reacting in a submissive manner to ones rulers yet refusing to obey commands that violate the holiness of God which the former includes a godly conscience - free from a mental attitude of rebelliousness, the believer remains faithful to God's holiness as well as God's command to submit to governmental authorities. The implication is one of faith in God to work each situation out in accordance with His sovereignty, (Ro 8:28);

[Compare Ro 8:28]:

(Ro 8:28 YLT) "And we have known that to those loving God all things do work together for [godly] good, to those who are called according to [His] purpose"

Notice that believers - those who are called according to [His] purpose - who are demonstrating obedience to God's commands, will have all things work together for [godly] good."

****** END OF EXCERPT FROM ROMANS CHAPTER 13 ******

(B cont.) [(1 Cor 6:2-8) Commentary On 1 Cor 6:2-8, (cont.)]:

(1 Cor 6:2 NKJV) Do you not know that the saints will judge the world? And if the world will be judged by you, are you unworthy to judge the smallest matters (kriterion, lit. law court cases / matters)?

(1 Cor 6:3 NKJV) Do you not know that we shall judge angels? How much more, things that pertain to this life? 

(1 Cor 6:4 NASB) So if you have law courts dealing with matters of this life, do you appoint them as judges who are of no account in the church [i.e., have no function in the congregation on such matters]?

(1 Cor 6:5 NASB) I say this to your shame. Is it so, that there is not among you one wise man who will be able to decide between his brethren,

(1 Cor 6:6 NASB) but brother goes to law with brother, and that before unbelievers?

(1 Cor 6:7 NKJV) Now therefore, it is already an utter failure for you that you go to law against one another. Why do you not rather accept wrong? Why do you not rather let yourselves be cheated? 

(1 Cor 6:8 NKJV) No, you yourselves do wrong and cheat, and you do these things to your brethren!"

So Paul continued asking the six rhetorical questions which began at 1 Cor 6:1, which reads, "Does any one of you, when he has a case against his neighbor, dare to go to [civil] law before the unrighteous and not before the saints?"

Whereupon in 1 Cor 6:2-3 Paul admonishes the believers at Corinth about their conduct in view of the fact that their glorious eternal destiny was one in which they will judge the world and the angels:

(1 Cor 6:2a NKJV) "Do you not know that the saints will judge the world?" whereupon author Paul asked them in 1 Cor 6:2b, "And if the world will be judged by you, are you unworthy to judge the smallest matters?" Here in 1 Cor 6:2, Paul was bringing attention to the Corinthian believers of their responsibility to judge all things even the smallest of matters - and not to ignore such things as were brought to their attention by Paul in this letter and previous communications to them. They were to judge all things even the smallest of matters in the sense of discerning / determining what is godly and what is not; and then they were to follow through with their Christian responsibility whether it be to repent of what one finds within oneself which is sinful; or removal of oneself or others from their fellowship or whatever responsibility / authority one has been given in their temporal lives relative to their own personal walk with God or as part of the congregation they are fellowshipping with. Note that in 1 Cor 6:2 the Greek word "Κριτηρίων," transliterated, "kriterion," rendered "matters" = lit., matters of civil law court cases, referring to civil law matters whose jurisdiction is of the society they resided in - both in and out of Christian fellowship. It is thus to be taken here as "the cases" that are to be tried in civilian courts under which jurisdiction believers are to hold themselves to as Scripture commands, (cf. Ro 13:1-5 ). 

Then Paul wrote in 1 Cor 6:3 NKJV, which reads, "Do you not know that we shall judge angels?" By using the Greek word transliterated "angelous" without the article, Paul is not necessarily including all the angels. He must mean that Christians, when ruling in the future with Christ, will have a part in judging the devil and the fallen angels at the Second Coming (cf. Rev 19:19, 20; 20:10). Or, the statement could include Christians presiding with Christ over the angelic host.

Whereupon Paul asks them, "How much more, [we shall judge] things that pertain to this life?" - bringing their attention to all things in this temporal life. Hence there is nothing that should escape the believer's attention in this mortal life no matter how insignificant the issue. For all matters should be judged / discerned as to their godliness or not - not relative to doing God's work of judging, but man's work of discernment of what is godly and what is not and the believer's responsibility of how to deal with it. These statements are the first three of six "Do you not know" rhetorical questions which foretell of the eternal destiny of believers in the church and their godly position in eternity which position [not entrance] depends upon their faithfulness and effects the blessings / disciplines which God metes out to His born again children while in their temporal bodies and for all eternity as determined for them at the Judgment seat of Christ, (ref. 1 Cor 3:10-15 ). Paul poses this rhetorical question, "Do you not know" six times to the believers at Corinth - and all believers - in order to get them to focus upon their responsabilities to God in order that they should conduct themselves in a godly manner in their temporal lives in view of their eternal destiny that the grace of God will provide for them as they endeavor to be faithful in their temporal lives via the leading of the Holy Spirit within them and via an attentive study of and obedience to God's Word. Especially in view is their future judging of the world and of the fallen angels which prompted Paul's question in verse 2 which reads, "How much more, things that pertain to this life [should you judge properly in a godly manner], Paul asks? Three other "Do you not know" type questions follow which also have in view the future eternal state of those who are believers in order to focus them upon their temporal responsibilities, i.e., in order to attempt to get them to live up to what their future lives in eternity are going to be like, and not overlook the egregious sinfulness going on in the congregation, (cf. vv. 9, 15-16, 19). The first two "Do you not know" questions concerned the role of saints in judging / discerning godliness vs ungodliness. How absurd it was to have the sinfulness going on all around them while they foolishly argued amongst themselves about who they were to follow and who were the best leaders: Paul, Apollos, Peter or Jesus! And all this while they considered themselves more mature in the faith than Paul or Apollos - all of this while they were destined by God to judge the world and angelic beings in eternity! Since they were going to judge supernatural beings (the fallen angels, 2 Peter 2:4; Jude 6), surely they should be handling mundane matters in a godly manner no matter how small - especially amongst themselves; albeit they were not to bypass applicable civil laws within their society that they might be bound to obey:

1) [Compare Ro 13:1 ]:

(Ro 13:1 NKJV) "Let every soul be subject to the governing authorities. For there is no authority except from God, and the authorities that exist are appointed by God."

So what concerned Paul was that the Corinthians were failing to exercise their godly responsibilities in many ways such as properly settling cases of dispute amongst themselves instead of using unauthorized or unsuitable civil authority as a means to gain advantage, profit by or punish one another - all of this in the light of their grand eternal destiny of co-ruling with Christ as the wife of Christ when they will judge the world and the fallen angels and all that that entails. 

Then in 1 Cor 6:4 which reads, "So if you have [civil] law courts dealing with matters of this life, would you appoint them as judges who are of no account in the church?" to officiate over judicial matters / matters of dispute within the church even on matters of faith??? 

2) [(1 Cor 6:4) Compare Bible Knowledge Commentary On 1 Cor 6:4]:

(1 Cor 6:4 NASB) "So if you have law courts dealing with matters of this life, do you appoint them as judges who are of no account in the church [i.e., have no function in the congregation on such matters]?" 

'''Because their greed dishonored God, Paul concluded that the important issue was lost before the case had begun. He therefore said that mundane loss was preferable to the spiritual loss which the lawsuits produced. As it was, the Corinthian lawsuits seemed not to have been so much a matter of redressing wrong or seeing justice served as a means for personal gratification at the expense of fellow believers. This was "body life" at its worst!'''

3) [Compare Expositor's Bible Commentary On 1 Cor 6:4]:

(1 Cor 6:4 NASB) "So if you have law courts dealing with matters of this life, do you appoint them as judges who are of no account in the church [i.e., do you appoint judges who would have no function in the congregation on such matters [because they are not believers]?" 

"It is uncertain whether the main verb kathizete ("appoint") should be taken as imperative with a sarcastic tone or as an indicative in a rhetorical question. In the first instance, the thought is this: "If you must have disputes about these mundane matters when you are destined to judge men and angels, well then go ahead and set the least esteemed members of the congregation to take care of these little matters!"

[But this sarcastic / ironic tone seems to fit well into the context]

On the second interpretation, the emphasis is on the apostle's surprise: "If you have such a case, do you set the least esteemed in the church in charge of it?" The answer then [which Paul gives] is "No," [of course not] with the assumed concluding question as to why then would they turn these affairs over to the unsaved who know [even] less about Christian affairs. The first option (cf. NIV) seems better, since it fits in with Paul's other ironic remarks to the Corinthians, such as in 4:8. For the second interpretation, the material is too elliptical and demands too much to be supplied. Some have tried to take the phrase "men of little account" as referring to the unsaved judges, but there is no evidence in the context that the Corinthians despised these judges. Note that the form of the Greek word kāthizete rendered "appoint" 1 Cor 6:4 quoted above may be a statement of fact (indicative mood) or a command (imperative mood); and note that the NIV has taken kāthizete rendered "appoint" as a command, making the difficult phrase men of little account refer to those in the church not too highly esteemed for their "wisdom;" on the other hand, considering the ongoing criticism Paul is laying upon the Corinthian believers, Paul considered them more than adequate for the task of handling their own business within the confines of the congregation in a godly manner. So the sad refrain of verse 1 to which Paul would refer yet a third time in verse 6 was thus heard again, (1 Cor 6:1 NKJV) "Dare any of you, having a matter against another, go to law before the unrighteous [unbelievers], and not before the saints?"

So the word rendered "appoint" in 1 Cor 6:4 is most likely in the indicative mood - a statement of fact - in view of verse 5 which follows:

(1 Cor 6:5 NASB) "I say this to your shame. Is it so, that there is not among you one wise man who will be able to decide between his brethren," without involving unbelievers? So the participle translated "men of no account in the church relative to matters of dispute" in 1 Cor 6:4 is best rendered "men who have no standing" in the church, that is, non-Christians or unqualified / unappointed unbelievers to judge matters within the body of Christ which would be beyond their capacity being without the Holy Spirit. So in the expression rendered "So if you have [civil] law courts dealing with matters of this life" in 1 Cor 6:4, Paul means to include different kinds of property cases that are part of civil law (v. 7). He strongly admonishes rather than commands Christians to take their legal grievances for settlement before qualified Christians - believers, not unbelievers, albeit they often do have the option to take it to civil court where unbelievers might rule - but they should not do so in order to gain an undue / ungodly advantage or to punish / get even with a fellow believer. The key is to do the godly thing and not take undue recompense / nor attempt to punish / nor attempt to get even / nor to take advantage of other / fellow believers, just because they might gain a favorable advantage / a favorable result which is neither fair nor godly nor an expression of godly / agape self-sacrificial love toward one another. So Paul allows for the possibility that under some circumstances Christians may take cases to the secular civil court as well. But the same end must be attempted: to do the godly agape thing. Compare Ro 13:1 .

Whereupon in the next four verses Paul explains about what he has written about in 1 Cor 6:1-4 which reads as follows:

[(1 Cor 6:1 NKJV) "Dare any of you, having a matter against another, go to law before the unrighteous, and not before the saints? 

(1 Cor 6:2 NKJV) Do you not know that the saints will judge the world? And if the world will be judged by you, are you unworthy to judge the smallest matters (kriterion, lit. civil law court cases / matters)?

(1 Cor 6:3 NKJV) Do you not know that we shall judge angels? How much more, things that pertain to this life? 

(1 Cor 6:4 NASB) So if you have law courts dealing with matters of this life, do you appoint them as judges who are of no account in the church [i.e., have no function in the congregation on such matters because they are not believers]?" 

For this is to their shame, which author and apostle Paul points out in the next four verses as follows:

(1 Cor 6:5 NASB) "I say this to your shame. Is it so, that there is not among you one wise man who will be able to decide between his brethren, 

[So the believers at Corinth were shameful in how they conducted themselves. Paul asks them, "Was there one wise man among them who as able decide the issues that the brethren had with one another in a godly way, instead of going to civil court on these issues - and those issues were more often than not for undue gain at the expense of a fellow brother]

(1 Cor 6:6 NASB) but brother goes to law with brother, and that before unbelievers?

[So instead of godly wisdom being exercised within the congregation by qualified, mature believers in order to resolve legitimate (and not greedy for gain) issues in a godly manner between believers; brother goes to law / court against brother, and even let an unbeliever decide the issues - in order evidently to gain undue / ungodly advantage or to punish / get even with a fellow believer without any sense of agape / self-sacrificial godly love. Paul argues that if it is really necessary for such disputes to be handled, they should find a Christian wise enough to take care of them, rather than have Christian brothers opposed to each other in secular litigation. The apostle says they should be ashamed of themselves.]

(1 Cor 6:7 NKJV) Now therefore, it is already an utter failure for you that you go to law against one another. Why do you not rather accept wrong? Why do you not rather let yourselves be cheated?

(1 Cor 6:8 NKJV) No, you yourselves do wrong and cheat, and you do these things to your brethren!"

[And so in 1 Cor 6:7-8, Paul provides a definitive answer to verses 1-6. He declares that the believers who are going to law - civil law / civil court against one another, evidently are doing it for ungodly / unchristianlike reasons such as personal gain / greed, etc. And he states that this is going to guarantee them an utter failure in their Christian temporal lives. For their temporal gain if any will be offset by far by eternal spiritual loss. For Paul asks in 1 Cor 6:7b, "Why do you not rather accept wrong?" and "Why do you not rather let yourselves be cheated?" in order not to bring such issues to ungodly resolution via unbelievers in a civil court in front of witnesses that might give a bad impression of Christians. For such temporal losses which a believer might suffer by being faithful albeit and undeserved resolution would be far less than the spiritual / eternal / eternal rewards they would lose out on by pursuing resolution of ungodly / unchristianlike matters such as personal gain / greed, etc. in a civil court of law in front of unbelievers which in the temporal life might be more desirable in the flesh. For Paul makes it clear that they actually were going to court for unchristian like reasons when he states, "No!, you yourselves do wrong and cheat, and you do these things to your brethren!" In other words they were taking fellow believers to court on temporal matters for personal and undue gain. They were not redressing wrong or seeing justice served, but for personal gratification at the expense of fellow believers and even via the judgment of unbelievers! - and all this in public to bring further bad opinion about Christians being hypocrites - and they indeed are - to their shame! In climaxing his argument that though legal cases may have to be handled, Paul feels that their very existence among the Corinthians shows a malicious attitude and spiritual failure. Instead of being involved in all these disputes, they should be willing to suffer wrong rather than harm and cheat their fellow Christians.]

C) [(1 Cor 6:9-11) Commentary On 1 Cor 6:9-11]:

(1 Cor 6:9 NASB) "Or do you not know that the unrighteous will not inherit the kingdom of God? Do not be deceived; neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor homosexuals,

(1 Cor 6:10 NASB) nor thieves, nor the covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor swindlers, will inherit the kingdom of God.

(1 Cor 6:11 NASB) Such were some of you; but you were washed, but you were sanctified, but you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and in the Spirit of our God."

So, having considered 1 Cor 6:1-8, which has in view the temporal lifestyle of believers and it's eternal value which will be dependent upon the amount of faithfulness the believer exemplifies in his temporal life we move to 1 Cor 6:9-11, which reads, 

(1 Cor 6:9 NASB) "Or do you not know that the unrighteous will not inherit the kingdom of God? Do not be deceived; neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor homosexuals,

(1 Cor 6:10 NASB) nor thieves, nor the covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor swindlers, will inherit the kingdom of God.

(1 Cor 6:11 NASB) Such were some of you; but you were washed, but you were sanctified, but you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and in the Spirit of our God."

In 1 Cor 6:9-10, Paul writes a rhetorical question which must be answered in the affirmative: "Or do you not know that the unrighteous will not inherit the kingdom of God? Do not be deceived; neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor homosexuals, nor thieves, nor the covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor swindlers, will inherit the kingdom of God." The answer which has in view in this context is YES!!. For not only unbelievers but believers who act in the manner stipulated in 1 Cor 6:9-10 as well are in view - neither group will inherit the Kingdom of God. For there is no guarantee that believers who according to 1 Cor 6:11 "were washed, sanctified, justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and in the Spirit of our God" will not act in such sinful manners, perhaps continuing their former way of life. Recall that Paul was harping on the sinful behavior of the believers in the congregation including the one who was sleeping with his father's wife and others who did not seem to take notice; and still others who were suing one another in civil court for ungodly gain. For Paul has been addressing the sinful behavior of believers in the congregation at Corinth. So the answer is YES!!!! if believers who "were washed, sanctified, justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and in the Spirit of our God" act in such a sinful manner, they indeed will not inherit the Eternal Kingdom of God. Nevertheless, they will gain entrance and dwell there without inheriting ownership of anything in that Kingdom.

But notice that the verb is rendered "inherit" not "enter." So the issue of consequences for egregious sinful behavior of the believer is the loss of ones ownership - co-ownership of the kingdom of heaven, not a denial of entrance into the kingdom of heaven. On the other hand, unbelievers will also be denied ownership of the Kingdom of Heaven and residence as well. So believers whose lives as believers are characterized by one or more of these sins will not be rewarded when they enter the kingdom of God with an inheritance of that kingdom of God. They will be residents but not inheritors / not owners of the kingdom of God.

Whereupon in 1 Cor 6:11 which reads in the NASB, "Such were some of you; but you were washed, but you were sanctified, but you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and in the Spirit of our God;" author Paul wrote the Greek word "apelousasthe" rendered "washed" in 1 Cor 6:11. This same verb is used in Titus 3:5 in the noun form "loutrou" rendered "washing" quoted below - a passage of similar context wherein both words refer to a spiritual cleansing / forgiveness of sins unto regeneration / rebirth - this time a spiritual birth unto eternal life:66667777

1) [Compare Titus 3:5 on the meaning of washing]:

(Titus 3:5 NASB) "He saved us, not on the basis of deeds which we have done in righteousness, but according to His mercy, by the washing of regeneration and renewing by the Holy Spirit,"

Then Paul wrote in 1 Cor 6:11 as rendered in the NASB, "Such were some of you; but you were washed, but you were sanctified, but you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and in the Spirit of our God." This word rendered "sanctified" is clearly conveyed in the same context in 1 Cor 1:1-2 as follows:

2) [Compare 1 Cor 1:2 On The Meaning Of Sanctified]:

(1 Cor 1:2 NASB) "To the church of God which is at Corinth, to those who have been sanctified in Christ Jesus, saints by calling [lit., called saints], with all who in every place call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, [both] their Lord and ours:"

The Church of God in Corinth is defined as those having been permanently sanctified in Christ Jesus."

"having been sanctified in Christ Jesus" = having been set apart by God in Christ Jesus. The perfect passive participle, "having been sanctified" points to a completed action in the past with ongoing results in the present - an eternally secure salvation set apart / sanctified in Christ Jesus, i.e., having become an eternal part of the body of Christ, the church. The passive voice signifies that the believer did not participate in this result, (otherwise it would have been in the active voice); rather it was done to him by God and God alone - permanently, no matter how that believer conducts his life thereafter.

This phrase also stipulates and thus defines that those who are of the Church of God in Corinth are those who have actually been permanently [perfect, passive, participle] sanctified, i.e., forever set apart "in Christ Jesus," implying an actual setting apart and placement into Christ Jesus, His body by God through no merit of the believer. Other passages in Scripture stipulate that this is an actual position, not just a symbolic one. The believer, i.e., the one who believes in the gospel of salvation, is actually set apart, i.e., placed into Christ Jesus, His body:

a) [Compare Eph 1:13-14]:

(v. 13) "And you also were included in Christ when you heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation. Having believed you were marked in Him with a seal, the promised Holy Spirit

(v. 14) Who is a deposit guaranteeing our [eternal] inheritance until the redemption of those who are God's possession to the praise of His glory."

Then Paul wrote in 1 Cor 6:11 as rendered in the NASB, "Such were some of you; but you were washed, but you were sanctified, but you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and in the Spirit of our God." 

To be "justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and in the Spirit of our God" means to be declared righteous by God because He views you as perfectly Righteous as He is Perfect Righteousness; i.e., God declared you, a sinner, righteous because you trusted in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ - His capacity and willingness to give you His Righteousness, by virtue of what He did on the cross for all mankind - He paid for all of mankind's UNrighteousness, hence He did it / provided it for you to have possession of despite your past and ongoing sinfulness which will continue throughout your mortal life. So God's Perfect Righteousness is credited to your account, (Rom 3:21-26 ; 5:1 ), to be finally actualized in you in your experience when you receive your resurrection body in the final step of your eternal redemption which has been guaranteed and fulfilled by the indwelling Holy Spirit which will be completed when you receive your perfectly righteous resurrection body by the work of the "Spirit of our God." This expression gives the legal basis for the washing / cleansing of all sins - your justification / declaration of having possession of God's Perfect Righteousness:

b) [Compare Eph 1:13-14]:

(v. 13) "And you also were included in Christ when you heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation. Having believed you were marked in Him with a seal, the promised Holy Spirit

(v. 14) Who is a deposit guaranteeing our [eternal] inheritance until the redemption of those who are God's possession to the praise of His glory."     

3) [(1 Cor 6:11) Compare Expositor's Bible Commentary On 1 Cor 6:11]:

(1 Cor 6:11 NASB) Such were some of you; but you were washed, but you were sanctified, but you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and in the Spirit of our God."

"11 In describing their conversion, the apostle lists three transactions that occurred at the time when the Lord saved them: they were washed (apolousasthe), that is, they were spiritually cleansed by God, an act symbolized by baptism (cf. Matt 28:19); they were sanctified (hegiasthete), an expression either to be interpreted as an amplification of the concept "washed" (cf. Titus 3:5, 6) or meaning that they had been set apart as God's people (cf. 1 Pet 2:9); and they were justified (edikaiothete), showing God's act as judge in declaring the sinner righteous because of Christ (Rom 3:23-26; 5:1). This expression gives the legal basis for the cleansing mentioned above."

All this, Paul says, was done by God for them on the authority (in the name) of the Lord Jesus Christ and by the Spirit of our God - the regenerating power of the Holy Spirit. 

D) [(1 Cor 6:12-14) Commentary On 1 Cor 6:12-14]:

(1 Cor 6:12 NASB) "All things are lawful for me, but not all things are profitable. All things are lawful for me, but I will not be mastered by anything.

(1 Cor 6:13 NASB) Food is for the stomach and the stomach is for food, but God will do away with both of them. Yet the body is not for immorality, but for the Lord, and the Lord is for the body.

(1 Cor 6:14 NASB) Now God has not only raised the Lord, but will also raise us up through His power."

In 1 Cor 6:12, Paul states, "All things are lawful for me," in the sense that all things in the natural / material / temporal world are available for man to avail himself of without having to violate the Righteousness of God. This implies that there are certain specific means by which man may choose to utilize all things within the Law of God to maintain what they do to be lawful before God. 

Paul then qualifies this statement by what he writes right after it, in 1 Cor 6:12b as follows: "but not all things are profitable," in the sense that there are some things in the natural / material / temporal world which ones utilization of them does not provide a profitable / beneficial outcome be it physical or spiritual for one depending upon circumstances even if their utilization of those things was indeed lawful before God.

Further qualification is offered by author Paul in the next phrase 1 Cor 6:12c & d, when Paul writes, "All things are lawful for me, but I will not be mastered by anything." This is an implication that the things of this world are not to be allowed to master oneself, presumably because the believer's master is to be Christ, not anything temporal; albeit there is that possibility which believers struggle with all the time - that certain temporal things will impose themselves on the believer blocking a faithful walk with Christ.

Then in 1 Cor 6:13, Paul moves to the more specific issue of immorality, "Food is for the stomach and the stomach is for food, but God will do away with both of them. Yet the body is not for immorality, but for the Lord, and the Lord is for the body." These words provide a grand perspective to the believer in his temporal life vs his life in eternity in his resurrection body. Paul writes first with the perspective of while one is in ones temporal life, "Food is indeed for the stomach and the stomach is for food in the sense that they are purposed / designed by God in creation for one another. Then Paul writes with a perspective of eternity when ones physical body will be done away with, to be replaced with ones resurrection body: "but God will do away with both of them," with the implication that what is to come is infinitesmally, unimaginably greater. 

But then in 1 Cor 6:13, Paul also writes, "Yet the body is not for immorality, but for the Lord [Who is Righteous], and the Lord is for the body." So Paul indicates that we are to use our physical bodies not in a manner which is immoral, i.e., ungody; but our bodies are meant to serve the Lord Who is Perfect Righteousness. Therefore, Paul concludes that the Lord is for the physical body in the sense that His character is to be reflected by what we do with our physical bodies, especially since the Lord is Creator and will do away with our physical bodies and because the Righteous Lord is for the body and thus we have a responsibility to take godly care of our bodies in a godly manner.

With verse 13 in view, which reads as follows, "Food is for the stomach and the stomach is for food, but God will do away with both of them. Yet the body is not for immorality, but for the Lord, [i.e., for Righteousness] and the Lord is for the body." 

Then Paul writes in 1 Cor 6:14, "Now God has not only raised the Lord, but will also raise us up through His power," in the sense that our resurrection body will be just like the Lord's, i.e., Holy and blameless - without a hint of sin. The connection which might very well be hard to accept by one who is really enamoured with his temporal existence is that the temporal body in the temporal life will be left behind. For it will be replaced with something far superior if one is a believer - a resurrection body just like the Lord's.

1) [(1 Cor 6:12-14) Expositor's Commentary On 1 Cor 6:12-14]:

(1 Cor 6:12 NASB) "All things are lawful for me, but not all things are profitable. All things are lawful for me, but I will not be mastered by anything.

(1 Cor 6:13 NASB) Food is for the stomach and the stomach is for food, but God will do away with both of them. Yet the body is not for immorality, but for the Lord, and the Lord is for the body."

"12, 13 Undoubtedly there were some professing Christians in Corinth who, without examining the Scriptures and its implications, claimed that it was permissible for them to do anything they desired. In making such claims to unrestricted freedom, some evidently used the argument that since the physical activity of eating and digesting food ("food for the stomach and the stomach for food") did not have any bearing on Christian morals and one's inner spiritual life, so other physical activities such as promiscuous sex did not touch either on morals or spiritual life.

Notes
12 There is a contrast between πάντα (panta, "all things") and τινός (tinos, "any one thing"). The emphasis is not on the "all things" that are permissible but on the "one thing" that may overpower.

13 Καταργέω (katargeo) is vivid. Literally, it means "make ineffective or powerless"; so here it indicates that God will do away with food and the need for the digestive processes of the stomach, evidently referring to the changed status of the resurrection body after the second coming of Christ.

Paul grants that food and the stomach are temporal and transitory and, in God's providence, will disappear  - but he denies that what affects the body is unimportant and this denial especially includes the undisciplined and unscriptural use of the body in sexual practices (v. 13b). So he denies the argument of a parallel between eating and digesting food as a natural process and practicing sexual immorality as a natural process. Of course, he is not denying that sex in wedlock is natural and wholesome (7:3-5; cf. also Heb 13:4).

The apostle sets the stage for his discussion of the horrors of sexual immorality and in contrast the holy use of the Christian's body by stating that as the Christian evaluates his right to do "all things," he should face four questions: (1) Is the thing contemplated beneficial (sumpherei)? (2) Will the practice in question overpower and dominate (exousiasthesomai) him and will the result affect others? (3) Will the practice support the truth that the body is "for the Lord" who created it and intended it to be used for his glory? Also, (4) will it support the truth that "the Lord is for the body" - that is, the Lord has redeemed the body (vv. 19, 20)? So the Christian must have no part with sexual immorality, because the body is not meant for sexual license (v. 13b, cf. Gen 2:24) but for the Lord.

14 Now Paul states God's interest in the Christian's body. As God raised the body of Jesus from the tomb, so he will raise the bodies of his people from the grave through his power. Of interest is the difference in the verbs used: egeiren, "he raised" (the Lord); and exegerei, "he will raise [us] out of" (the grave) - the implication being that we, in contrast to the Lord, will be raised from corruption and from the group of corrupt sinners. The phrase "through the power of God" is probably to be taken with both parts of the sentence: the power of God that was used to raise the Lord is the same that will be used to raise his people."

2) [(1 Cor 6:12-14) Bible Knowledge Commentary (1 Cor 6:12-14)]:

(1 Cor 6:12 NASB) "All things are lawful for me, but not all things are profitable. All things are lawful for me, but I will not be mastered by anything.

(1 Cor 6:13 NASB) Food is for the stomach and the stomach is for food, but God will do away with both of them. Yet the body is not for immorality, but for the Lord, and the Lord is for the body.

(1 Cor 6:14 NASB) Now God has not only raised the Lord, but will also raise us up through His power."

"The theme of legality continued as Paul turned to another problem troubling the Corinthian assembly. This problem was the issue of freedom from the Old Testament Law in the area of sexual relationships. Paul addressed this issue in the manner of a dialogue, the diatribe style, familiar to his readers. This also enabled him to prepare them for both his subject matter and his approach in the rest of the letter, which concerned answers to questions and objections they had raised. The theme of legality continued as Paul turned to another problem troubling the Corinthian assembly. This problem was the issue of freedom from the Old Testament Law in the area of sexual relationships. Paul addressed this issue in the manner of a dialogue, the diatribe style, familiar to his readers. This also enabled him to prepare them for both his subject matter and his approach in the rest of the letter, which concerned answers to questions and objections they had raised.

The issue of the limits of liberty (v. 12) was developed later by Paul in chapters 8-10. To a degree this subject also colored the discussion on public worship in chapters 11-14. The question of a Christian's relationship to food (6:13) was taken up in chapter 8. The resurrection of Christ (6:14) was expounded in chapter 15. The church as the body of Christ (6:15) was enlarged on in chapter 12. The sanctity of sex (6:16), about which Paul quoted Genesis 2:24 on the divine establishment of marriage, occupied his attention in chapter 7.

6:12. The words, Everything is permissible for me, had apparently become a slogan to cloak the immorality of some in Corinth. The statement was true but it required qualification. Paul qualified liberty with the principle of love applied to both neighbor and self (cf. Mark 12:31). Liberty which was not beneficial but detrimental to someone else was not loving (1 Cor. 8:1; 10:23) and was to be avoided. So too, liberty which became slavery (I will not be mastered by anything) was not love but hatred of self.

6:13-14. Food for the stomach and the stomach for food was another slogan by which some Corinthians sought to justify their immorality. They reasoned that "food" was both pleasurable and necessary. When their stomachs signaled hunger, food was taken to satisfy them. So too, they argued, sex was pleasurable and necessary. When their bodies signaled sexual desire, they needed to be satisfied. But Paul drew a sharp line between the stomach and the body. The body ( sōma) in this context (cf. 2 Cor. 12:3) meant more than the physical frame; it referred to the whole person, composed of flesh (the material) and spirit (the immaterial; cf. 2 Cor. 2:13 with 7:5). The "body," therefore, was not perishable but eternal (1 Cor. 6:14), and it was not meant for sexual immorality (porneia) but for union with the Lord (vv. 15-17), which is reciprocal (cf. Eph. 1:23). The eternality of the body, the future destiny of the individual, was made certain by Christ's resurrection (1 Cor. 6:14; cf. 15:20)."

E) [(1 Cor 6:12-20) Commentary On 1 Cor 6:15-20]:

(1 Cor 6:12 NASB) '''All things are lawful for me, but not all things are profitable. All things are lawful for me, but I will not be mastered by anything.

(1 Cor 6:13 NASB) Food is for the stomach and the stomach is for food, but God will do away with both of them. Yet the body is not for immorality, but for the Lord, and the Lord is for the body.

(1 Cor 6:14 NASB) Now God has not only raised the Lord, but will also raise us up through His power,

(1 Cor 6:15 NASB) Do you not know that your bodies are members of Christ? Shall I then take away the members of Christ and make them members of a prostitute? May it never be!

(1 Cor 6:16 NASB) Or do you not know that the one who joins himself to a prostitute is one body with her? For He says, "The two shall become one flesh."

(1 Cor 6:17 NASB) But the one who joins himself to the Lord is one spirit with Him.

(1 Cor 6:18 NASB) Flee immorality. Every other sin that a man commits is outside the body, but the immoral man sins against his own body.

(1 Cor 6:19 NASB) Or do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit Who is in you, Whom you have from God, and that you are not your own?

(1 Cor 6:20 NKJV) For you were bought at a price; therefore glorify God in your body and in your spirit, which are God's.'''

In 1 Cor 6:15, Paul paints an horrific picture: "Do you not know that your bodies are members of Christ? Shall I then take away the members of Christ and make them members of a prostitute? [His emphatic answer is] 'May it never be!' [For the temporal world as it is since the Fall will all be done away with]. So author and apostle Paul continues to write of what believers are responsible for relative to their temporal bodies - mind, body and soul.

So in 1 Cor 6:16, Paul wrote '''Or do you not know that the one who joins himself to a prostitute is one body with her? For He says, "The two shall become one flesh." ''' This implies that there is an effect - in this case a deleterious effect which both individuals have upon one another when they have intercourse when it is outside the bounds of marriage, i.e., immoral. Perhaps the most evident effect of immoral behavior is the one that is upon the mind / ones thinking which thinking is in opposition to the mindset of God and His Righteousness, even self-destructive emotionally and spiritually. For example, while committing immoral acts, ones emotions will distract one from maintaining a productive temporal / spiritual life misdirecting it toward the immorality one is committing instead of focusing upon and walking in, (not according to), the Light of Jesus Christ . At the very least, time spent in immoral behavior could have been best spent in enhancing ones spiritual life and one's value toward earning rewards in heaven at the Judgment Seat of Christ .

Whereupon in 1 Cor 6:17 Paul wrote, "But the one who joins himself to the Lord is one spirit with Him," in the sense of the believer who directs his mortal life toward faithfulness / responding positively toward studying and obeying the directions of God's Word, especially the epistles of the Greek [New Testament] bible leading to a oneness in spirit, i.e., a spiritual harmony One [God the Father] with another [His child, the believer - the absolutely Righteous and infinite God with His flawed, finite child, insofar that it is limited by the finite capacity of the believer in limited harmony with the infinite capacity of God his Father which provides the most beneficial position for one's eternal existence, allowing for the grace of God to eternally bless his child all the more.

Then in 1 Cor 6:18 which reads, "Flee immorality. Every other sin that a man commits is outside the body, but the immoral man sins against his own body," addresses the depreciating spiritual / eternal value to the believer while he is committing immorality - especially immorality which involves ones physical body.

Finally, in 1 Cor 6:19-20, Paul writes as follows:

(1 Cor 6:19 NASB) "Or do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit Who is in you, Whom you have from God, and that you are not your own?

(1 Cor 6:20 NKJV) For you were bought at a price; therefore glorify God in your body and in your spirit, which are God's;''' 

In 1 Cor 6:19 Paul writes to the believer that he should know that his body is a temple of the Holy Spirit Who resides in him, Whom he has as a gift from God Who gave the Spirit to the believer to be forever in him; and thereby the believer is no longer his own self but he is not the possession - the eternal possession - of God. These two verses address the future experience we will have in eternity, i.e., our eternal destiny for which all believers are to mainly focus upon: their eternal destiny; and not have their chief focus upon the temporal past or present or even future. That said, temporal matters are to be attended to in order to enhance one's eternal destiny; not the least of which is to maximize the potential of their bodies in order to best serve the Lord out of gratitude and for eternal rewards - as Scripture commands. That means healthy diet, exercise, rest, leading a moral lifestyle, proper study of Scripture to learn and share with others - even to regularly place oneself in position to share that learning with others. For Paul reminds us that we should know that the body is a temple of the Holy Spirit referring to the Spirit's occupying of the believer's human spirit in order to enhance the believer's eternity all the more as the believer responds positively to the Spirit's leading .

And as it states in 1 Cor 6:20, we believers are to act in accordance with our eternal position in Christ as given to us via the indwelling Holy Spirit out of gratitude for the price which we were bought with by Jesus Christ on the cross in payment for our sins of the whole world.

1) [(1 Cor 6:15-20) Bible Knowledge Commentary On 1 Cor 6:15-20]:

"6:15-17. So too the work of the Spirit (cf. 12:13) has affected Christians' present destiny and joined them to Christ (6:15). Could a Christian practice immorality without grieving Christ? (cf. 12:26) Never!

The union of two people involves more than physical contact. It is also a union of personalities which, however transient, alters both of them (6:16). Paul quoted Genesis 2:24 (The two will become one flesh) not to affirm that a man and a prostitute are married but to indicate the gravity of the sin (cf. Eph. 5:31-32).

A Christian's union with Christ likewise affects both him and the Savior, and one cannot act without affecting the other.

6:18. Corinthian Christians, when faced with immorality, should respond as did Joseph (Gen. 39:12) - they should run. Flee from sexual immorality. Immorality was a unique sin but not the most serious (cf. Matt. 12:32). It was, however, an offense against the sinner and those with whom he was related.

It is possible that the statement All other sins a man commits are outside his body (the word "other" is a translator's addition and is not represented by any word in the Gr. text) should be taken as a third slogan (cf. 1 Cor. 6:12-13) bandied about by some in Corinth. If so, then Paul's rejoinder (he who sins sexually sins against his own body) is a straight-forward denial. The Greek construction is similar to that in verse 13.

6:19-20. Among those grieved was the Holy Spirit Who indwells every Christian (Who is in you; cf. 12:13; 1 John 3:24). Also God the Father is grieved, for He seeks honor (Matt. 5:16), not shame, from those who are bought at a price (cf. 1 Cor. 7:23), that price being "the precious blood of Christ" (1 Peter 1:19)."

2) [(1 Cor 6:15-20) Expositor's Commentary On 1 Cor 6:15-20]:

'''Every action we contemplate should be tested by two questions: "Is it beneficial?" and "Will it overpower and enslave me and so have a detrimental effect on the church and my testimony for Christ?" Hodge (in loc.) entitles this section "Abuses of the Principle of Christian Liberty" but the passage includes far more than that. The main thrust of these verses argues against sexual immorality and for the glorifying of God in the Christian's body.

15-17 A further argument that the Christian's body is for the Lord is that God's people are members of his mystical body (cf. 1Cor 12:27). So Christians may not unite their bodies with that of a prostitute. For they should understand that sexual relations involve more than a physical act - they join the two persons together (v. 16; quoting from Gen 2:24; cf. Matt 19:5). Since Christians have been joined in union to the Lord, they dare not form another union with a prostitute. Verse 17 states the case even more strongly: the one who cleaves (kollomenos) to a prostitute is one body with her, but the one who cleaves (kollomenos) to the Lord is united to him spiritually. In saying this, Paul is not making the union of normal marriage mutually exclusive of the union of God with his people. In Ephesians 5:21-32 Paul teaches that the human marriage union is valid and is to be viewed in the light of the Christian's higher union with the Lord - the wife to be subject to her husband "as to the Lord" and the husband to love his wife "as Christ loved the church" What Paul argues against in 1 Corinthians 6:15-17 is that the unholy union with a prostitute is a wicked perversion of the divinely established marriage union.

Notes on v. 15

15 The negative optative μὴ γένοιτο (me genoito) indicates a strong wish - literally tr. "may it not be," more freely rendered, "Never!" "By no means!" "Perish the thought!" Robertson calls this use of the optative the volitive, which stresses the wish, the will (A.T. Robertson, A Grammar of the Greek New Testament in the Light of Historical Research, 5th ed. [New York: Harper and Brothers, 1923], pp. 936, 937)."

18 Paul goes on to say that the one who commits sexual immorality sins against his own body - that is, by weakening and perverting the very life process, as well as human character. In contrast, other sins are "outside the body."

19, 20 Now Paul talks positively about how the Christian should view his body. First, he should consider that his body, including his whole personality, is the temple - the sacred dwelling place - of God, the Holy Spirit (cf. the Shekinah glory in the tabernacle, Exod 40:34). Second, the Christian has received the Spirit from God to help him against sin. Third, the Christian has no right to pervert and misuse his body, for he is not his own master but has been purchased by God for a price (v. 20). That price, though not mentioned here, is the blood of Jesus Christ (Eph 1:7; 1Pet 1:18, 19 et al.). The picture is of a slave of sin (Rom 6:17; cf. 1Cor 7:23) being purchased from the horrible system of slavery.

The conclusion of the matter is that the Christian is to glorify God in his body. Because "body" and "temple" are both singular, some understand the teaching to be that not only each believer's body is a temple, but the whole body of believers is a temple (Grosheide, in loc.). However, since in the context Paul is writing about individuals and since the individual Christian is indwelt by the Holy Spirit, it is best to understand v. 19 to mean that each individual Christian's body is a temple of the Holy Spirit. (Naos is the temple itself [cf. John 2:20, 21] in distinction from hieron, the entire temple area.)

"You were bought" is in the aorist tense, pointing back to Christ's redemptive work on the cross (Matt 20:28). There may be implications of the Christian's having been freed from becoming overpowered by sin (Rom 6:17, 18) and Satan (Col 1:13) and being benevolently enslaved to Christ (Rom 1:1) and to righteousness (Rom 6:18) in reflection of the Corinthian situation in which the "slave was from the time of his manumission the slave of the god" (Craig, in loc.)'''

Notes

16 The ὀἴδατε (oidate, "know") in vv. 16, 19 goes beyond just knowing a fact. It implies recognition and understanding. The negative οὐκ (ouk) with a question implies in the argument a positive reply. The verb κολλάω (kollao, "cleave") in this participial form, which can be taken as a middle as the context suggests, stresses the sexual offender's personal initiative and responsibility "he joins himself to" the prostitute.

Whereas the Gen 2:24 quotation uses σαρξ (sa/rx, "flesh") in LXX, Paul uses the word σῶμα (soma, "body"), but the same idea is in mind: the physico-spiritual life of the individuals is involved.

18 The present tense (durative action) of φεύγετε (pheugete), meaning "be fleeing from," suggests that constant vigilance against sexual immorality is called for.

20 The words "and in your spirit, which are God's," found in KJV, are not supported by many of the best ancient MSS and are not necessary nor central to Paul's argument regarding the Christian's use of his body. The words may have been added by scribes in later MSS, first in the margin and then in the text, to complete the thought on the nature of man as body and spirit and "to soften Paul's abruptness" (B.M. Metzger, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament [New York: United Bible Societies, 1971], p. 553).

Continue to 1 Cor chapter 7