EPHESIANS CHAPTER FIVE

OBSERVATIONS

The purpose of the observation stage is to maintain focus on the text at hand in accordance with the framework in which it was written: a framework which is defined by the normative rules of language, context and logic - rules which do not impose undue, unintended meanings to the text , and which largely limit the observer to the content offered by Paul's epistle to the Ephesians and his other writings. In order for any passage from elsewhere to be considered, it must have a relationship with the context at hand, such as a Scriptural quotation or a specific cross reference in the passage at hand by the author. This will serve to avoid going on unnecessary tangents elsewhere; and more importantly, it will provide the framework for a proper and objective comparison with passages located elsewhere in Scripture.

Remember that something elsewhere may be true, but in the text at hand it may not be in view.

Note that information on manuscript evidence is from "THE NEW TESTAMENT TEXT AND TRANSLATION COMMENTARY," by Philip W. Comfort, Tyndale House Publishers, Inc, Carol Stream, IL.

****** EXCERPT FROM EPHESIANS CHAPTER 4 *****

.............OR MOVE TO FIRST VERSE OF CHAPTER FIVE

INTRODUCTION

In Eph 4:22-24 Paul admonishes the believers to put off the old man, i.e., that which is concerning their former conduct as they formerly demonstrated as Gentile pagan unbelievers in the sense that their old man, their intrinsic old sin natures, which still remain in them until resurrection, daily grows corrupt according to the deceitful lusts that they are still characterized by moment to moment in their temporal lives. Instead they move away from aligning their temporal lives with their old sin natures, and they are to be renewed in the spirit of their minds which human spirits are indwelt by God the Holy Spirit since that first moment when they expressed a moment of faith alone in Christ alone, (ref. Eph 1:13-14 ), in order to enable each believer to renew themselves moment to moment unto the righteousness of Christ. And Paul further encourages the Ephesian Gentile believers and all believers that they put on the new man, the new self, described in Eph 3:14-19 as the inner man, (ref. Eph 3:14-19 ), which in the likeness of God has been created in righteousness and holiness of the truth.

Whereupon in Eph 4:25-32, Paul provides five specific exhortations to the Ephesian believers and all believers about how to conduct themselves in their temporal lives. Each of them has three parts: (1) a negative command, (2) a positive command, and (3) the reason for the positive command:

[(Eph 4:25)]:

(Eph 4:25 NASB) "Therefore, [having laid aside] falsehood, Speak truth each one of you with his neighbor [Zech 8:16] for we are members of one another."

Having laid aside falsehood - all that is deceitful, untrue, etc. - has no place in the community of Christ. Because our Lord is himself the truth, his body must reflect the truth. Because each member belongs to Jesus Christ and to the rest of the members, the fellowship of His body, the church is to be marked by honesty. Any kind of deception is a sin against the Spirit. So Paul writes for them to, "Speak the truth each one of you with his neighbor for believers are members of one another, of the body of Christ, the Church." Note that Paul has meta (with) instead of pros (to), stressing the need for mutual frankness.

[(Eph 4:26-27)]:

(Eph 4:26 NASB) "Be angry, and yet do not sin, do not let the sun go down on your anger, 

(Eph 4:27 NASB) and do not give the devil an opportunity.

Be angry, and yet do not sin - implying a righteous anger, (cf. John 2:13-16); and do not let the sun go down on your anger, and do not give the devil an opportunity in the sense of causing one to sin. The reason is that the devil would like to intensify a Christian's righteous anger against sin, causing it to become sin itself. This then gives the devil a foothold (lit., "a place"), an opportunity for leading that Christian into further sin. Then anger begins to control the believer rather than the believer controlling his anger.

[(Eph 4:28)]:

(Eph 4:28 NASB) "He who steals must steal no longer; but rather he must labor, performing with his own hands what is good, so that he will have something to share with one who has need."

He who steals must steal no longer; but rather he must labor, performing with his own hands what is good, so that he will have something to share with one who has need

[(Eph 4:29-30)]:

(Eph 4:29 NASB) Let no unwholesome [lit., rotten] word proceed from your mouth, but only such a word as is good for edification according to the need of the moment, so that it will give grace to those who hear.

(Eph 4:30 NASB) Do not grieve the Holy Spirit of God, by [lit., in] whom you were sealed for the day of redemption"

Let no unwholesome [lit., rotten] word proceed from your mouth, but only such a word as is good for edification according to the need of the moment, so that it will give grace to those who hear. Do not grieve the Holy Spirit of God, by [lit., in] whom you were sealed for the day of redemption. Note that believers have been sealed, (Eph 1:13-14), in the sense of guaranteed being redeemed unto eternal life with a perfect resurrection body - guaranteed by the indwelling within them of God the Holy Spirit,

[(Eph 4:31-32)]:

(Eph 4:31 NASB) "Let all bitterness and wrath and anger and clamor and slander be put away from you, along with all malice.

(Eph 4:32 NASB) Be kind to one another, tender-hearted, forgiving each other, just as God in Christ also has forgiven you."

Let all bitterness and wrath and anger and clamor and slander be put away from you, along with all malice. Be kind to one another, tender-hearted, forgiving each other, just as God in Christ also has forgiven you.
****** END OF EXCERPT FROM EPHESIANS CHAPTER 4 *****

I) [Eph 5:1-33]:
(Eph 5:1 NASB) "Therefore be imitators of God, as beloved children:

(Eph 5:2 NASB) and walk in love, just as Christ also loved you and gave Himself up for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God as a fragrant aroma.

(Eph 5:3 NKJV) But fornication and all uncleanness or covetousness, let it not even be named among you, as is fitting for saints;

(Eph 5:4 NASB) and there must be no filthiness and silly talk, or coarse jesting, which are not fitting, but rather giving of thanks.

(Eph 5:5 NKJV) For this you know, that no fornicator, unclean person, nor covetous man, who is an idolater, has any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and God.

(Eph 5:6 NKJV) Let no one deceive you with empty words, for because of these things the wrath of God comes upon the sons of disobedience.

(Eph 5:7 NASB) Therefore do not be partakers with them;

(Eph 5:8 NKJV) For you were once darkness, but now you are light in the Lord. Walk as children of light

(Eph 5:9 NASB) (for the fruit of the Light consists in all goodness and righteousness and truth),

(Eph 5:10 NKJV) finding out what is acceptable to the Lord.

(Eph 5:11 NKJV) And have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather expose them.

(Eph 5:12 NASB) for it is disgraceful even to speak of the things which are done by them in secret.

(Eph 5:13 NKJV) But all things that are exposed are made manifest by the light, for whatever makes manifest is light.

(Eph 5:14 NASB) For this reason it says, 'Awake, sleeper, And arise from the dead, And Christ will shine on you.' 

(Eph 5:15 NASB) Therefore be careful [lit., look carefully] how you walk, not as unwise men but as wise,

(Eph 5:16 NKJV) redeeming the time, because the days are evil.

(Eph 5:17 NASB) So then do not be foolish, but understand what the will of the Lord is

(Eph 5:18 NASB) And do not get drunk with wine, for that is dissipation, but be filled with the Spirit,

(Eph 5:19 NKJV) speaking to one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody in your heart to the Lord,

(Eph 5:20 NKJV) giving thanks always for all things to God the Father in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ,

(Eph 5:21 NKJV) submitting to one another in the fear of God.

(Eph 5:22 NKJV) Wives, submit to your own husbands, as to the Lord.

(Eph 5:23 NASB) For the husband is the head of the wife, as Christ also is the head of the church, He Himself being the Savior of the body.

(Eph 5:24 NASB) But as the church is subject to Christ, so also the wives ought to be to their husbands in everything.

(Eph 5:25 NASB) Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ also loved the church and gave Himself up for her,

(Eph 5:26 NKJV) that He might sanctify and cleanse her with the washing of water by the word,

(Eph 5:27 NASB) that He might present to Himself the church in all her glory, having no spot or wrinkle or any such thing; but that she would be holy and blameless,

(Eph 5:28 NASB) So husbands ought also to love their own wives as their own bodies. He who loves his own wife loves himself;

(Eph 5:29 NKJV) For no one ever hated his own flesh, but nourishes and cherishes it, just as the Lord does the church,

(Eph 5:30 NASB) because we are members of His body.

(Eph 5:31 NKJV) For this reason a man shall leave his father and mother and be joined to his wife, and the two shall become one flesh. [Gen 2:24]

(Eph 5:32 NKJV) This is a great mystery, but I speak concerning Christ and the church.

(Eph 5:33 NASB) Nevertheless, each individual among you also is to love his own wife even as himself, and the wife must see to it that she respects her husband."

A) [(Eph 5:1-2)]:

(Eph 5:1 NASB) "Therefore be imitators of God, as beloved children:

(Eph 5:2 NASB) and walk in love, just as Christ also loved you and gave Himself up for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God as a fragrant aroma."

1) [(Eph 5:2a) Manuscript Evidence For Eph 5:2a]:

(Eph 5:2 NASB) and walk in love, just as Christ also loved you and gave Himself up for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God as a fragrant aroma."

TR, NU, P46, P49vid, Siaiticus(2), D, F, G, Maj, syr have "Christ also loved us"

WH, Sinaiticus*, A, B, P, 0159, it, cop have "Christ also loved you"

There are too many factors involved here to make a definitive judgment between the readings. Since the pronouns look alike and sound alike in Greek, they were easily confused for one another. Furthermore, it seems that Paul himself had a habit of shifting back and forth from second person plural to first person plural. In 4:32, he could have used either pronoun, though it seems more probable that he used the second person plural... Here, he could have used either as well, but it seems likely that he used the second person plural again, because Paul was speaking in the command mode (note the imperative verbs in 5:1-3). But, as we have said, we cannot be absolutely certain about this - especially because it appears that he used the first person plural in the very next phrase.

2) [(Eph 5:2b) Manuscript Evidence For Eph 5:2b]:

(Eph 5:2 NASB) "and walk in love, just as Christ also loved you and gave Himself up for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God as a fragrant aroma."

Most Greek manuscripts (including P46, P49vid, Sinaiticus, A, D) read "He gave Himself up for us." Some witnesses (B, it(b), cop) have this in the second person plural; "for you". In accordance with what has been noted above (4:32; 5:2a), it would be tempting for scribes and translators to keep the pronouns uniform. Indeed, this is what happened in some Old Latin and Coptic versions, where all the pronoun in 4:32 and 5:2 are "you" plural. But in this instance the textual evidence is too slim to support the second person plural.

3) [(Eph 5:1-2) Commentary on Eph 5:1-2]:

(Eph 5:1 NASB) "Therefore be imitators of God, as beloved children:

(Eph 5:2 NASB) and walk in love, just as Christ also loved you and gave Himself up for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God as a fragrant aroma."

Ephesians chapter 5 continues the context of Eph 4:25-32 which has in view Paul's exhortation / command to believers to put on the new man, i.e., conduct themselves according to godly commands in their temporal lives. Eph 5:1-2 stipulates the conduct that they are to imitate; i.e. "be imitators of God, as [His] beloved children," and thereby walk in agape / self-sacrificial, godly love. And as an example of God's agape love, author Paul gives the example of Jesus Christ, implying that He is God: "Therefore be imitators of God.... just as Christ also loved you and gave Himself up for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God as a fragrant aroma." So we believers are to offer ourselves to God in service to Him in agape / self-sacrifical love for God in our temporal lives as well, which service will be well pleasing to God the Father, i.e., "as a fragrant aroma."

B) [(Eph 5:3-6)]:

(Eph 5:3 NKJV) "But fornication and all uncleanness or covetousness, let it not even be named among you, as is fitting for saints;

(Eph 5:4 NASB) and there must be no filthiness and silly talk, or coarse jesting, which are not fitting, but rather giving of thanks.

(Eph 5:5 NKJV) For this you know, that no fornicator, unclean person, nor covetous man, who is an idolater, has any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and God.

(Eph 5:6 NKJV) Let no one deceive you with empty words, for because of these things the wrath of God comes upon the sons of disobedience."

1) [(Eph 5:5a) Manuscript Evidence For Eph 5:5a]:

WH, NU, P46, P49vid, Sinaiticus, B, F, G, Psi 33, 1739 have "a covetous person - that is, an idolater"

TR, A, D, Maj have "a covetous person, who is an idolater"

The WH, NU reading has excellent documentary support. The variant displays a change from the relative pronoun to the personal; this makes the pronoun agree with the previous noun, "covetous person," and provides a subordinate clause. The difference is nominal in what is conveyed to the reader.

2) [(Eph 5:5b) Manuscript Evidence For Eph 5:5b]:

WH, NU, P49, Sinaiticus, A, B, Maj have "the kingdom of Christ and God"

P46 has "the kingdom of God"

F, G, Ambrosiaster have "the kingdom of God and Christ"

1739* has "the kingdom of the Christ of God"

The unique expression "kingdom of Christ and God" found in a vast array of witnesses, was adjusted in several ways. The scribe of P46 trimmed it to the ordinary expression, "the kingdom of God;" other Western witnesses reveal a transposition, which puts "God" before "Christ;" and still others also made "Christ" subservient to "God" by changing the Greek word "kai" to "tou." All of these changes display a discomfort with having "Christ" prior to "God" or even having "Christ" present at all. But the gramar of the WH, NU reading indicates an equality of God and Christ, Who both rule the kingdom.

3) [(Eph 5:3-6) Commentary On Eph 5:3-6]:

(Eph 5:1 NASB) "Therefore be imitators of God, as beloved children:

(Eph 5:2 NASB) and walk in love, just as Christ also loved you and gave Himself up for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God as a fragrant aroma.

(Eph 5:3 NKJV) But fornication and all uncleanness or covetousness, let it not even be named among you, as is fitting for saints;

(Eph 5:4 NASB) and there must be no filthiness and silly talk, or coarse jesting, which are not fitting, but rather giving of thanks.

(Eph 5:5 NKJV) For this you know, that no fornicator, unclean person, nor covetous man who is an idolater, has any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and God.

(Eph 5:6 NKJV) Let no one deceive you with empty words, for because of these things the wrath of God comes upon the sons of disobedience."

Eph 5:1-2 provided the proper conduct for the believer: be imitators of God, walk in agape / godly love..What follows is the antithesis and the consequences for improper conduct:

In Eph 5:3, Paul writes "But fornication and all uncleanness or covetousness, let it not even be named among you, as is fitting for saints;" [believers, (cf. Eph 5:1-3)]. In view are three self-centered vices in conduct and speech which are the opposite of the self-sacrificing agape, godly love spoken of in vv. 1-2: Fornication in the sense of sexual immorality; uncleanness in the sense of the working of all uncleaness in greediness; and being a covetous man, one who is an idolator in the sense of expressing self-centered greed because it makes a god of what one seeks to possess. Since these three vices  portray selfishness and unconcern for others, a believer should not have even a hint of these sins in his temporal life. On the other hand, this is an unreachable goal for believers but for the grace of God working in each believer in the inner man .

Whereupon in Eph 5:4 Paul wrote, 'and there must be no filthiness and silly talk, or coarse jesting, which are not fitting, but rather giving of thanks. These three terms ("filthiness," "silly talk," "coarse jeasting") Paul has already warned against in general in Eph 4:29, i.e., "unwholesome talk" because of the harm it does to those who are compelled to hear it. Now he attacks it from another angle, because it is unseemly for Christians and it usurps the place of giving of thanks. "Filthiness" (aischrotes) in this context is broadly equivalent to "filthy language" (aischrologia, Col 3:8). Next comes "silly talk" (morologia), which is stupid, inane talk; followed by "eutrapelia," which refers to "coarse joking" in the sense of filthy, unwholesome joking as with sexual inuendo, double-entendre, etc. These things must be repudiated, because they "do not come up to the mark" in the sense of the godly standard of Christian behavior. Instead, the Christian's mouth is to be continually filled with thanks to God (Eph 2:7; 5:18; Col 2:7; 3:15). Notice that Paul indicates the proper behavior for saints: moral, righteous / godly behavior - as opposed to improper / immoral / sinful behavior: "immorality", "impurity" and "greed." This strongly implies that saints can behave improperly / sinfully and still be called saints, i.e., still have eternal life.

Then in Eph 5:5, author Paul concludes, "For this you know, that no fornicator, unclean person, nor covetous man, who is an idolater, has any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and God." Eph 5:5 repeats the three self-centered vices of Eph 5:3 which repetition evidently implies all the sins that an individual might commit in his temporal life whether believer or unbeliever - for there are no sins that are acceptable to be rewarded with an inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and God. He warns that no one who commits sin in a manner that characterizes them as predominantly sinful will have any inheritance in the sense of an inherited / ownership portion of the kingdom of Christ and God; nevertheless the unfaithful believer will indeed dwell in the Eternal Kingdom of Christ and God. Note that there is no one in his mortal body that can claim to be without sin, (1 Jn 1:8)! Contrary to some who contend that a certain amount of unspecified faithfulness is required in order to enter the Kingdom of God, Eph 5:5 DOES NOT stipulate that that individual will not enter the kingdom of Christ and God because he committed a certain unspecified amount / kind of sins - that he did not persevere in the faith, as some contend. For anyone who trusts alone in Christ alone for forgiveness of sins immediately receives possession of eternal life secured by the reception of the indwelling Holy Spirit Who guarantees that eternal destiny in the Eternal Kingdom of Christ and God which includes receiving in his final redemption experience a perfectly sinless resurrection body which qualifies the believers to enter into the Eternal Kingdom of God regardless of how he led his temporal life:

a) [Compare Eph 1:13-14]:

(Eph 1:13 YLT) "in Whom [in Christ, (v. 12)] [you] also, having heard the word of the truth - the good news of your salvation - in Whom [Christ, (vv. 12-13)] also having believed, [you] were sealed with the Holy Spirit of the promise [of eternal life / redemption],

(Eph 1:14 NKJV) Who / Which is the guarantee [lit., "arrhabOn" = deposit, pledge] of our inheritance until the redemption of the purchased possession [God's possession - the believer, v. 13], to the praise of His glory,"

In Eph 1:13, the words, "in Whom [meaning in Christ, (v. 12)] ... having believed [you, (referring to Gentiles and others who later believe in Christ, after the Jews first did] were sealed with the Holy Spirit," in the sense of being placed / sealed in Christ, i.e., into His Body, the church, (cf. Eph 1:22-23). This action signifies God's absolute guarantee of the believer's inheritance of eternal life. For God is the Guarantor of the believer's final redemption experience into a perfect and eternal body - holy and blameless in God's sight, (Eph 1:4). Believers have all become God's possession forever - His adopted children through the redemptive work of His Son, Jesus Christ, (Eph 1:5).

On the other hand, in view of Eph 5:5 which reads, "Let no one deceive you with empty words, for because of these things the wrath of God comes upon the sons of disobedience;" it is the wrath of God, i.e., eternal destruction that comes upon the sons of disobedience - the eternal wrath of God - those who have never trusted alone in Jesus Christ alone for forgiveness of sins. They will certainly not be residents in the Eternal Kingdom of Christ and God, so much the less inherit anything as a possession in that kingdom.

So Eph 5:5 refers to two kinds of individuals who will not have an inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and God, those who are:

i) Disobedient in the sense of unfaithful believers / saints

A disobedient believer is in view, i.e., a believer who chooses to live a life which is under the control of the sin nature will not receive an inheritance when that child of God, (Eph 5:1), goes to to dwell in the Eternal Kingdom of Christ and God. That child has been disinherited from any rewards but remains a saved child who will go to heaven but with no rewards or inheritance, (Eph 1:12-14; 4:30; 1 Cor 3:11-15).

ii) A disobedient individual is also in view in the sense of all unbelievers who are all continuously unfaithful

All unbelievers are under the complete control of the sin nature, (Ro 6:17a; 8:6-9), and therefore live lifestyles which are characterized as continuously sinful. They are not destined for the Eternal Kingdom of Christ and God because they never trusted alone in Christ alone, (Jn 3:18; 3:36; 1 Jn 5:9-13). So since they will not even be present in the Eternal Kingdom of Christ and God, they will obviously not inherit an eternal inheritance in that kingdom either.

Detailed examination of the subject of inheriting the kingdom of God

3 cont) [(Eph 5:3-6) Commentary On Eph 5:3-6, cont]:

(Eph 5:1 NASB) "Therefore be imitators of God, as beloved children:

(Eph 5:2 NASB) and walk in love, just as Christ also loved you and gave Himself up for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God as a fragrant aroma.

(Eph 5:3 NKJV) But fornication and all uncleanness or covetousness, let it not even be named among you, as is fitting for saints;

(Eph 5:4 NASB) and there must be no filthiness and silly talk, or coarse jesting, which are not fitting, but rather giving of thanks.

(Eph 5:5 NKJV) For this you know, that no fornicator, unclean person, nor covetous man who is an idolater, has any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and God.

(Eph 5:6 NKJV) Let no one deceive you with empty words, for because of these things the wrath of God comes upon the sons of disobedience."

"sons of disobedience" = those who disobey the gospel, i.e., those who do not believe in Christ as Savior, are defined as sons of disobedience, i.e., sons of Satan, unbelievers. The only requirement of the Gospel is to believe it, (Jn 3:16; Eph 2:8-9). So to disobey the gospel can only mean to disbelieve in it. The passage in 1 Pet 4:17 teaches that to obey the gospel is to believe it, to disobey the gospel is to disbelieve it. And Eph 2:1-3 indicates that unbelievers are disobedient & follow Satan. Compare 1 Pet 1:18-22, 2:6-8.

Finally, Eph 5:6 states: "Let no one deceive you with empty words, for because of these things the wrath of God comes upon the sons of disobedience." Author Paul warns believers of the seriousness of the consequences of being unfaithful. For just as disobedience / not ever believing in the gospel causes the eternal wrath of God to come upon the sons of disobedience - those who never once expressed a moment of faith alone in Christ alone for eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of Christ and God; so the disciplinary wrath of God will come upon the believer who has not been faithful in his temporal life; whereupon God will deny him an eternal inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and God; nevertheless he will gain residence without ownership in that Eternal Kingdom.

b) [Compare Jn 3:36]:

"Whoever believes in the Son has eternal life, but whoever rejects the Son will not see life, for God's wrath remains on him."

"whoever rejects" = the Greek word "apeithon" = "disbelieving one," (nominative particple) = one refusing to believe in the Son:

"Whoever believes in the Son has eternal life, but whoever rejects

[= "apeithon" = whoever refuses to believe, i.e., rejects the Son as his Savior] will not see life, for God's wrath remains on him."

c) [Compare Jn 3:18]:

(Jn 3:18 NKJV) "He who believes in Him is not condemned; but he who does not believe is condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God."

Notice that here in John 3:18 that the only condition presented for being condemned is to have not believed in the name of God's one and only Son.

d) [Compare Jn 8:42-47]:

(Jn 8:42 NASB) '''Jesus said to them, "If God were your Father, you would love Me, for I proceeded forth and have come from God, for I have not even come on My own initiative, but He sent Me.

(Jn 8:43 NASB) Why do you not understand what I am saying? It is because you cannot hear My word.

(Jn 8:44 NASB) You are of your father the devil, and you want to do the desires of your father. He was a murderer from the beginning, and does not stand in the truth because there is no truth in him. Whenever he speaks a lie, he speaks from his own nature, for he is a liar and the father of lies.

(Jn 8:45 NASB) But because I speak the truth, you do not believe Me.

(Jn 8:46 NASB) Which one of you convicts Me of sin? If I speak truth, why do you not believe Me?

(Jn 8:47 NASB) He who is of God hears the words of God; for this reason you do not hear them, because you are not of God."

Those who do not believe in Christ belong to their father the devil, i.e., are not saved. Since the sole condition on the part of the individual to receive eternal life is to trust alone in Christ alone and since the sole condition of condemnation unto the Lake of Fire, i.e., since the only thing that gets you condemned to hell is not ever having trusted alone in Christ alone as Savior; and since disobeying the gospel of salvation gets you condemned to hell then disobeying the gospel of salvation is the same thing as not ever believing in it.

****** COMPARE EXCERPT FROM COLOSSIAN CHAPTER THREE ******

(Col 3:5-9) Commentary On Col 3:5-9]:

(Col 3:5 NKJV) "Therefore put to death your members which are on the earth:  fornication, uncleanness, [lustful] passion, evil desire, and covetousness, which is idolatry.

(Col 3:6 NASB) For it is because of these things that the wrath of God will come upon the sons of disobedience,

(Col 3:7 NASB) and in them you also once walked, when you were living in them.

(Col 3:8 NKJV) But now you yourselves are to put off all these: anger, wrath, malice, blasphemy, filthy language out of your mouth.

(Col 3:9 NKJV) Do not lie to one another, since you have put off the old man with his deeds [evil is implied here because it is described by Paul in Ro 6:6 as the 'body of sin' ]

IN COL 3:5, BELIEVERS ARE EMPHATICALLY COMMANDED TO PUT TO DEATH THEIR MEMBERS WHICH ARE "ON THE EARTH" IN THE SENSE OF IMMEDIATELY DEACTIVATE THOSE MEMBERS OF THEIR BODY WHICH ARE EARTHLY AS OPPOSED TO HEAVENLY, I.E., OPERATING UNDER THE CONTROL OF THE SIN NATURE; COMMITTING SINS SUCH AS THOSE LISTED: FORNICATION, UNCLEANNESS, [LUSTFUL] PASSION, EVIL DESIRE, AND COVETOUSNESS, WHICH IS IDOLATRY. FOR PAUL EXPLAINS THAT IT IS BECAUSE OF THESE THINGS THAT THE WRATH OF GOD WILL COME UPON THE SONS OF DISOBEDIENCE - THOSE WHOSE LIVES ARE CHARACTERIZED BY DISOBEDIENCE, UNBELIEF AND EVER INCREASING UNGODLINESS / SINFULNESS. PAUL REMINDS THE BELIEVERS THAT IN SUCH UNGODLINESS THEY ONCE WALKED, WHEN THEY WERE LIVING AS UNBELIEVERS. AND SO PAUL ADDS MORE FOR THEM TO PUT OFF: ANGER, WRATH, MALICE, BLASPHEMY, FILTHY LANGUAGE OF OF THEIR MOUTHS; AND DO NOT LIE TO ONE ANOTHER, SINCE THEY HAVE PUT OFF THE OLD MAN - THE CONTROL OF THE OLD SIN NATURE WITH ITS EVIL DEEDS WHEN THEY BECAME BELIEVERS

Believers are emphatically commanded to put to death their "members which are on the earth," in the sense of to immediately deactivate those members of their body, which are described as "[of] the earth," i.e., earthly in the sense of those which pertain to the operation of the sin nature - being under its control within them which continues to commit sin all the time - sins such as listed in verse 3:5: fornication, uncleanness, [lustful] passion, evil desire, and covetousness, which is idolatry. For author Paul stated in verse 3:6, "it is because of these things" - sinful behaviors - "that the wrath of God will come upon the sons of disobedience" - upon those who refuse to believe, i.e., disobey the gospel and remain under the wrath of God. And author Paul further explains that those whom he is addressing, believers, also walked with those "sons of disobedience" when they were living in them - as unbelievers. Hence they were also once sons of disobedience. But Paul then writes in 3:8-9, "But now you yourselves are to put off all these [sins]: anger, wrath, malice, blasphemy, filthy language out of your mouth. (Col 3:9 NKJV) Do not lie to one another, since you have put off the old man [i.e., the old sin nature] with his deeds [evil / sin is implied here because it is described by Paul in Ro 6:6 as the 'body of sin' ]."

****** END OF EXCERPT FROM COLOSSIANS CHAPTER THREE ******

****** COMPARE EXCERPT FROM ROMANS CHAPTER SIX  ******

[Ro 6:6]:

(v. 5 NIV) "For if [since] we have become united with Him in the likeness of His death, certainly we shall be also in the likeness of His resurrection.

(v. 6:6) Knowing this that our old self was crucified with him so that the body of sin might be rendered powerless, that we should no longer be slaves to sin -"

(Ro 6:5-6:6a) THE BELIEVER'S UNDERSTANDING THAT HE HAS BECOME UNITED WITH JESUS CHRIST IN THE LIKENESS OF HIS DEATH AND THAT HE SHALL BE ALSO BE UNITED IN THE LIKENESS OF HIS RESURRECTION LEADS TO KNOWING THAT HIS OLD SELF WAS CRUCIFIED WITH CHRIST

"For [= Since] we have become united with Him in the likeness of His death, certainly we shall be also in the likeness of His resurrection; (v. 6:6a) knowing this, that our old self was crucified with Him" =

The believer's understanding that since he has become united with Jesus Christ in the likeness of His death and the likeness of His resurrection, is paralleled here with knowing that his old self was crucified with Christ. So at the moment of becoming united with Christ in the likeness of His death which is concurrent with being united in the likeness of His resurrection, one at the same time has ones old self crucified with Christ.

THE OLD SELF = LIT, 'THE OLD MAN' = THAT PART OF EVERY INDIVIDUAL (INCLUDING BELIEVERS) WHICH CONTROLS THE PRACTICE OF EVIL WHICH HAS BEEN CRUCIFIED = PUT TO DEATH, I.E., IT'S CONTROL IS DEACTIVATED BUT NOT ANNIHILATED AT THE MOMENT ONE BECOMES A BELIEVER

"For [= Since] we have become united with Him in the likeness of His death, certainly we shall be also in the likeness of His resurrection; knowing this, that our old self was crucified with Him" (cont.) =

Since this passage deals with encouraging believers to not go on sinning so that grace may increase but to live a new life such that theirs is an example of a reign of righteousness;

and since being crucified signifies being put to death, i.e., made inactive;

then we must conclude that the old man being crucified refers to the capacity of the individual to sin being made inactive in its absolute control over the individual.

Notice that the verse stipulates "that our old self was crucified with Him" indicating that even before one person is physically born his old man was crucified, i.e., put to death with Christ on the cross nearly 2000 years ago but waiting to be deactivated the moment one becomes a believer!

Hence we must conclude that since all individuals are born with a capacity to sin which continues even after they become believers (Ro 5:20-6:1), then neither a condition of sinlessness nor a lack of capacity to sin can be in view. Rather, we have the potential created at Calvary in history for an individual to deactivate the absolute control of his sin nature which occurs at the moment he trusts alone in Christ alone unto eternal life to become a believer.

[Ro 6:6 cont.]:

(v. 6:6) "Knowing this that our old self was crucified with him so that the body of sin might be rendered powerless, that we should no longer be slaves to sin -"

THE RESULT OF OUR OLD SELF BEING CRUCIFIED WITH CHRIST, I.E., PUT TO DEATH, IS THE BODY OF SIN BEING RENDERED POWERLESS SO THAT WE SHOULD NO LONGER BE SLAVES TO SIN

(v. 6:6) "For we know that our old self was crucified with Him so that the body of sin might be rendered powerless, that we should no longer be slaves to sin." =

touto ginOskontes hoti ho ..palaios hEmOn .anthrOpos sunestaurOthE

this ...knowing .......that the old .......our ........man ...........was crucified with

hina katargEthE ..........to ..sOma tEs ....hamartias tou mEketi ....douleuein ............hEmas

that .might be nullified the body ..of the sin ............the no longer to be subservient we

tE ......hamartia

to the sin

Since 'our old self', i.e., the believer's sin nature, has been crucified with Christ, i.e., put to death, (v. 3); then the body of sin, i.e., the sin nature is rendered "katargEthE" = useless, unproductive - but not annihilated as the verb does not carry this possibility of meaning. This is a verb in the 3rd person singular, aorist tense signifying a completed action. It is in the passive voice indicating that the believer has had the action done to him as opposed to done by him, i.e., done by God Himself. It is also in the subjunctive mood signifying objective possibility, in other words the rendering of the believer's sin nature useless, or unproductive is not absolute and may be reinstated in some manner, by the believer voluntarily doing this. This is elaborated upon later in this passage.

The situation is clear that the believer should no longer be a slave to sin because the reigning power of his body of sin, i.e., that intrinsic part of him that compelled him to sin as a matter of lifestyle = "our old self", the sin nature, has been crucified - put to death, i.e., rendered powerless in its absolute rule over him. The plug on the sin nature has been pulled and so it is rendered powerless. It lies dormant within the believer but the believer can always plug it again. Sadly, this is so often the response amongst believers. And that's a key message that Paul addresses in the negative.

SINCE HIS SIN NATURE WAS RENDERED POWERLESS, THE BELIEVER SHOULD NO LONGER BE A SLAVE TO SIN BUT HE CAN CHOOSE TO CONTINUE IN SIN. HOWEVER THE QUESTION WAS PREVIOUSLY ASKED WHY?

(v. 6:1) "What shall we say, then? Shall we go on sinning so that grace may increase? (v. 6:2) Far be the thought! Such ones as we, - who died to sin! How shall we any longer be living in it? (v. 6:6) "Knowing this that our old self was crucified with him so that the body of sin might be rendered powerless, that we should no longer be slaves to sin--" =

Notice that Paul has defined here what he meant earlier by the phrases 'we have died to sin, how can we live in it any longer?' (v. 2); and in verse 6, 'our old self was crucified with Him that our body of sin might be done away with.' He declares that the result of dying to sin and our old self being crucified with Christ is that we should no longer choose to be slaves to sin in our experience.

Taking into account Paul's initial declaration in this section of Romans chapter 6, that where believers' sin increased, grace increased all the more; and his question, 'shall we believers go on sinning so that grace may increase?'; we come to the conclusion that Paul is indicating that the result of the individual becoming a believer is that he can choose to go on sinning so that God's grace will increase to cover that sin, but since the believer is no longer a slave to this compelling nature to sin as a result of receiving the benefit of Christ's death for him, Paul asks in the negative, 'Why should he go back to that lifestyle?' Answer demanded by the context might be stated as follows: 'By no means, absolutely not.' This reiterates the message in vv. 1-2.

[Ro 6:7]:

(v. 7) "because anyone who has died has been freed from sin."

DEATH WITH CHRIST CANCELS THE BELIEVER'S ENFORCED SLAVERY TO SIN

"that we should no longer be slaves to sin because anyone who has died has been freed (justified) from sin." =

tou mEketi .....douleuein hEmas tE ......................hamartia

that no longer to serve ....us ...................................sin

(that we should no longer serve [be slaves to] ........sin)

   ho .........gar apothanOn dedikaiOtai .........apo .tEs hamartias

the one .for having died has been justified from ......sin.

(for he who has died ..... has been freed .....from ......sin) =

"has been freed" = "dedikaiOtai" = lit., 'has been justified', i.e., declared righteous, perfect tense providing a completed action with ongoing effect of a once for all time that the individual has been extricated from the control of the sin nature within himself.

The finality of death with Christ, (vv. 4-5), is presented here as once and for all settling the issue of the individual being enslaved from conception to the sin nature within himself when he trusted in Christ's death for his sins. It is thus not an ongoing issue but a settlement in an instant of time when he believed. The individual has died to sin and thus has been freed from his enslavement to it. He should not, but may volunteer to be a slave to it thereafter.

     ****** END OF EXCERPT FROM ROMANS CHAPTER SIX******                            

C) [Eph 5:7-14]:

(Eph 5:1 NASB) "Therefore be imitators of God, as beloved children:

(Eph 5:2 NASB) and walk in love, just as Christ also loved you and gave Himself up for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God as a fragrant aroma.

(Eph 5:3 NKJV) But fornication and all uncleanness or covetousness, let it not even be named among you, as is fitting for saints;

(Eph 5:4 NASB) and there must be no filthiness and silly talk, or coarse jesting, which are not fitting, but rather giving of thanks.

(Eph 5:5 NKJV) For this you know, that no fornicator, unclean person, nor covetous man who is an idolater, has any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and God.

(Eph 5:6 NKJV) Let no one deceive you with empty words, for because of these things the wrath of God comes upon the sons of disobedience.

(Eph 5:7 NASB) Therefore do not be partakers with them; ["sons of disobedience," (Eph 5:6)]

(Eph 5:8 NKJV) For you were once darkness, but now you are light in the Lord. Walk as children of light

(Eph 5:9 NASB) (for the fruit of the Light consists in all goodness and righteousness and truth),

(Eph 5:10 NKJV) finding out what is acceptable to the Lord.

(Eph 5:11 NKJV) And have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather expose them.

(Eph 5:12 NASB) for it is disgraceful even to speak of the things which are done by them in secret.

(Eph 5:13 NKJV) But all things that are exposed are made manifest by the light, for whatever makes manifest is light.

(Eph 5:14 NASB) For this reason it says, 'Awake, sleeper, And arise from the dead, And Christ will shine on you.' "

1) [(Eph 5:9) Manuscript Evidence For Eph 5:9]:

(Eph 5:9 NASB) "(for the fruit of the Light consists in all goodness and righteousness and truth),"

WH, NU, P49, Sinaiticus, A, B, D*, F, G, 33, 1739*, it, syr(p), cop have "fruit of the light"

TR, P46, D(2), Psi, Maj, syr(h)

Here is an instance in which the testimony of one papyrus manuscript P49 is a great help to offset the testimony of another, P46, which in this verse contains an emendation. The scribe of P46 was probably among the first to harmonize this verse with Gal 5:22, which has the phrase, "the fruit of the Spirit." But the emphasis in Ephesians is on how Christians should be living enlightened lives. The "fruit of the light" is the natural outcome of living in the light, for such living produces goodness, righteousness and truth.

2) [(Eph 5:10) Manuscript Evidence For Eph 5:10]:

(Eph 5:10 NKJV) "finding out what is acceptable to the Lord."

The wording rendered "well pleasing to the Lord" found in most manuscripts was changed in some Western witnesses (D*, F, G) to "well pleasing to God" probably under the influences of verses like Ro 8:8; 1 Thes 2:4; 4:1; Heb 11:6. The editio princeps of P49 incorrectly reads kuriO when the manuscript reads ChristO, see Text of Earliest MSS 360. It appears that the extant letter is a chi not a kappa The chi is shaped exactly the sae as the chi in p65 (another portion of the same manuscript; which is visible in two words in 1 Thes 1:3 and 1:6.

3) [(Eph 5:14) Manuscript Evidence For Eph 5:14]:

(Eph 5:14 NASB) "For this reason it says, 'Awake, sleeper, And arise from the dead, And Christ will shine on you.' "

TR, WH, NU, p46, Sinaiticus, A, B, D*, G, 33, 1739* it, syr(p), cop, Origen have "the Christ will shine on youi"

D*, it(b), Ambrosiaster, Victorinus, Jerome, MSS(according to Chysostom) have
"you will touch the Christ"

According to TR, WH, NU, the full saying Paul cites is: "Rise, sleeping one, and arise from the dead, and the Christ will shine on you." It is difficult to find the origin of this quotation; the best guess is that it was adapted from Isa 60:1. May commentators think it was part of a hymn which was sung at baptism ceremonies ... In the early church, baptism was considered an enlightenment (as in Heb 6:4; 10:32). The variant reading, which could not be original because of its slim support, is nonetheless quite remarkable. Jerome in his Commentary on Ephesians (PL 26, 559a) interprets the words as addressed by Christ to Adam when releasing him from Hades. This variant reading could also mean "you will have a part in the Christ;" it suggests that believers can partake of Christ and experience Him in extraordinary ways once they enter into the realm of resurrection from the dead in a resurrection body just as the Lord's. This reading may somehow reflect the story of the newly risen Jesus telling Mary that she could not touch Him (John 20:17). Had Mary also been in resurrection she could touch (i.e., experience) the risen Christ in His realm. Whatever scribe created this variant (it wasn ot an accident) may have had some such association in mind.

4) [(Eph 5:7-14) Commentary on Eph 5:7-14]:

(Eph 5:1 NASB) "Therefore be imitators of God, as beloved children:

(Eph 5:2 NASB) and walk in love, just as Christ also loved you and gave Himself up for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God as a fragrant aroma.

(Eph 5:3 NKJV) But fornication and all uncleanness or covetousness, let it not even be named among you, as is fitting for saints;

(Eph 5:4 NASB) and there must be no filthiness and silly talk, or coarse jesting, which are not fitting, but rath er giving of thanks.

(Eph 5:6 NKJV) Let no one deceive you with empty words, for because of these things the wrath of God comes upon the sons of disobedience.

(Eph 5:7 NASB) Therefore do not be partakers with them; ["sons of disobedience," (Eph 5:6)]

(Eph 5:8 NKJV) For you were once darkness, but now you are light in the Lord. Walk as children of light

(Eph 5:9 NASB) (for the fruit of the Light consists in all goodness and righteousness and truth),

(Eph 5:10 NKJV) finding out what is acceptable to the Lord.

(Eph 5:11 NKJV) And have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather expose them.

(Eph 5:12 NASB) for it is disgraceful even to speak of the things which are done by them in secret.

(Eph 5:13 NKJV) But all things that are exposed are made manifest by the light, for whatever makes manifest is light.

(Eph 5:14 NASB) For this reason it says, 'Awake, sleeper, And arise from the dead, And Christ will shine on you.' "

Ephesians chapter 5 continues the context of chapter 4 which the latter stipulated among other things that since the believer was sealed into the body of Christ by the Holy Spirit in his temporal life for the day of his eternal redemption in order to be forever destined for eternal life with God to become part of the body of Christ - to be married to Him and serve with Him for eternity as His wife ; they were obligated out of gratitude and the promise of eternal rewards as well as liable for discipline for noncompliance to let no unwholesome [lit., rotten] word proceed from their mouths, but only such a word as is good for edification according to the need of the moment, so that it will give grace to those who hear. And they were also not to grieve the Holy Spirit of God with ungodliness, by [lit., in] Whom they were sealed for the day of their eternal redemption. Then it is stipulated in Ephesians chapter 5 as an exhortation to all believers that no fornicator, unclean person, nor covetous man who is an idolater, has any inheritance in the Eternal Kingdom of Christ and God. So they were to let all bitterness and wrath and anger and clamor and slander be put away from themselves, along with all malice. And they were to be kind to one another, tender-hearted, forgiving each other, just as God in Christ also had forgiven them. And they were to be imitators of God as beloved children of Whom they have been born and should thereby walk in agape / godly love toward others. Author Paul then repeated the exhortation to them that there must be no fornication, uncleanness or covetousness; and let it not even be named among you, as is fitting for saints; and no filthiness and silly talk, or coarse jesting, which are not fitting, but rather the giving of thanks. And to emphasize the importance of believers' exemplifying godly behavior, author Paul states, 'Let no one deceive you with empty words, for because of these things the wrath of God comes upon the sons of disobedience,' meaning those who are unbelievers who practice such sinful things continually.

Whereupon, Eph 5:7-10 continues the train of thought of not acting like they were formerly as unbelievers who practiced such sinful things continually, but to act in accordance with their new found position in Christ and their destiny of eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of Christ and God: Therefore do not be partakers with them; ["sons of disobedience," i.e., unbelievers, (Eph 5:6)]" For you were once darkness, but now you are light in the Lord. Walk as children of light, (for the fruit of the Light consists in all goodness and righteousness and truth), finding out what is acceptable to the Lord.

Then in Eph 5:11-13, which reads,

"And have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather expose them [unfruitfulworks of darkness]; for it is disgraceful even to speak of the things which are done by them in secret. But all things that are exposed are made manifest by the light, for whatever makes manifest is light;"

Paul closes this part of Ephesians chapter 5 with yet another admonition to fellow believers to have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather expose them; but not in the sense of not associating with unbelievers or unfaithful believers. But believers, nevertheless are not to support, advocate or identify themselves with such works of darkness that unbelievers or unfaithful believers do. Instead believers are to expose the evil deeds and speak against them; even perform works of light that show up / expose the works of darkness by comparison, and for what those works are. The believer is to not adopt the standard of or fall into the ways of darkness / sinful behavior. For it is disgraceful even to speak of the things which are done by unbelievers in secret. But all evil things that are exposed are made manifest by the light in the sense of made manifest as evil when compared with godly truth. Whatever manifests evil it is the light of godliness that comes from God - at times expressed through believers. This is best accomplished by the believer by letting the light of Christ shine through  himself via godly thought, word and deed as learned from Scripture. It is better not to dwell on the evil character of works of darkness, for that would bring too much attention upon evil and less upon godly good.

Whereupon, in Eph 5:14, which reads, "For this reason it says, 'Awake, sleeper, And arise from the dead, And Christ will shine on you.' " author and apostle Paul refers to several passages from the Hebrew bible or from an early hymn referring to a believer who is temporally dead in his sins and is commanded to wake up and to lead a godly life so that Christ will shine on him.

This verse contains a quotation from a combination of Old Testament passages or perhaps from an early Christian hymn. In any case the words speak of a believer who has committed "deeds of darkness" who is commanded to wake up and rise from the dead as he is involved with the deeds of evildoers. Here is a Christian who has no deeds, i.e., divine good works, (Eph 2:10; 1 Cor 3:11-15). His faith - his very life - is considered dead by Scripture and the God Who inspired that Scripture. This Christian is not physically dead nor spiritually dead. He is temporally dead, dead meaning useless in the same way that faith without deeds is dead = useless to God, (Jas 2:17, 26). He is out of fellowship with God. He walks in darkness. Having grieved God the Holy Spirit with his sin, (Eph 4:30), his soul is separated from the righteousness of God and is useless to God until that sin is dealt with, (I Jn 1:5-10). While he is in this state of temporal death, under the control of his sin nature, he produces nothing of eternal value, (Ro 8:8). Romans 8:6a says that the mind of sinful man is death. The man described in Eph 5:14 is a sinful believer - a believer who is not under the control of the Spirit but under the control of the sin nature.

a) [Compare Gal 5:13-15]:

(v. 13) "You, my brothers, were called to be free. But do not use your freedom to indulge the sinful nature; rather, serve one another in love.

(v. 14) The entire Law is summed up in a single command: 'Love your neighbor as yourself.'

(v. 15) If you keep on biting and devouring each other, watch out or you will be destroyed by each other."

b) [(Eph 5:13-14) Compare Expositor's Bible Commentary on Eph 5:13-14]:

(Eph 5:13 NKJV) "But all things that are exposed are made manifest by the light, for whatever makes manifest is light.

(Eph 5:14 NASB) For this reason it says, 'Awake, sleeper, And arise from the dead, And Christ will shine on you.' "

"13 Paul appeals to the effect of light in the natural world. It penetrates where ever it shines, so that everything is lit up by it. In the same way, whenever the light of Christ appears, it shows up sin for what it is. Evil can no longer masquerade as anything else. Paul let the light fall on the ungodliness of the pagan world and exposed it for what it really was, (Ro 1:18-32). For, he adds, it is the function of light to make visible. Whatever hidden wickedness is revealed by the light of Christ can no longer be obscured by darkness but is shown up in its real nature...

[(Eph 5:14 NASB) For this reason it says, 'Awake, sleeper, And arise from the dead, And Christ will shine on you.' "]

14 The same introductory formula as in Ephesians 4:8 (dio legei) prefaces a ... quotation. The lines form a metrical triplet in a rhythm that was specially associated with religious initiation chants. This may well supply a clue in tracing their origin. They are not a direct quotation of OT Scripture, though they contain echoes of Isaiah 60:1 and possibly other passages in the same prophecy (Isa 9:2; 26:19; 51:17; 52:1).

i) [Compare Isa 60:1]:

(Isa 60:1 NASB) "Arise, shine; for your light has come. And the glory of the LORD has risen upon you."] ...

... Nor can they be found in any apocryphal book. It is unlikely that Paul's memory was at fault, as some have surmised, and that he imagined he was citing Scripture when in fact he was using some unidentified source. It has also been suggested that the poem was Paul's own composition as he enlarged on scriptural themes, or that he was reproducing the content of prophecy in the light of its fulfillment. Others again speculate as to whether the lines are to be attributed to Jesus himself.

The most likely solution seems to be that this is an early baptismal hymn based on Isaiah 60:1...

... Paul is soon to mention hymns in the context of worship (v. 19). This may well have been a liturgical chant addressed to those about to be baptized (cf. 1Tim 3:16)...

The exhortations "wake up" (egeire) and "rise from the dead" (anasta ek ton nekron) place the hymn firmly in the context of resurrection. It might have been designed for use on [Christ's Resurrection Day celebration]. The connection between resurrection and baptism is so close that there is no need to restrict the intention. Moreover, in the primitive church baptism was described as an enlightenment (photismos), a usage that may underlie Hebrews 6:4 and 10:32. The verb translated "shine" (epiphaino) is applied to the rising of a heavenly body and to the dawn of the day (BAG, 304). Christ, as the morning star, has already risen and sheds his light on all who are raised to newness of life in him."

c) [(Eph 5:13-14) Compare Bible Knowledge Commentary on Eph 5:13-14]:

[(Eph 5:13 NKJV) "But all things that are exposed are made manifest by the light, for whatever makes manifest is light.

(Eph 5:14 NASB) For this reason it says, 'Awake, sleeper, And arise from the dead, And Christ will shine on you.' "]

"5:13. When light exposes evil deeds, they become visible, manifest for what they really are. Seeing them as evil, a believer then cleanses himself of them (1 John 1:5-7), realizing they are detrimental not only to him but also to other believers.

[(Eph 5:14 NASB) "For this reason it says, 'Awake, sleeper, And arise from the dead, And Christ will shine on you.' "]

5:14. The introductory formula, [rendered] "This is why it is said," seems to indicate a quotation from the Old Testament, but it is difficult to identify unless it is a combination of passages (e.g., Isa. 26:19; 51:17; 52:1; 60:1). Possibly it is a quotation from an early Christian hymn. A believer who has committed "deeds of darkness," is to wake up and rise from the dead since he was involved with the deeds of evildoers. Christ's shining on him speaks of His approval, an indication that he is discerning and following what is pleasing to the Lord (Eph. 5:10).

Therefore verses 7-14 deal with church discipline. Believers are to walk in the light, and in so doing to expose other believers of any works that are unfruitful so that they too may walk in the light and please their Lord."

D) [Eph 5:15-21]:

(Eph 5:15 NASB) "Therefore be careful [lit., look carefully] how you walk, not as unwise men but as wise,

(Eph 5:16 NKJV) redeeming the time, because the days are evil.

(Eph 5:17 NASB) So then do not be foolish, but understand what the will of the Lord is

(Eph 5:18 NASB) And do not get drunk with wine, for that is dissipation, but be filled with the Spirit,

(Eph 5:19 NKJV) speaking to one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody in your heart to the Lord,

(Eph 5:20 NKJV) giving thanks always for all things to God the Father in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ,

(Eph 5:21 NKJV) submitting to one another in the fear of God."

1) [(Eph 5:19) Manuscript Evidence For Eph 5:19]:

TR, WH, NU, Sinaiticus, D, F, G, Psi, Maj, syr, cop have "spiritual songs"

P46, B, it(bd) have "songs"

A has "spiritual songs with grace"

Paul was encouraging the believers to engage in singing three kinds of songs: psalms, hymns and [spiritual] songs. The issue is whether or not he used the word rendered "spiritual" to describe the "songs." It is quite likely that the TR, WH, NU and A readings are the result of scribal conformity to Col 3:16, a parallel verse. The two earliest Greek manuscripts (P46 & B) and Old Latin manuscripts (it(bd)) do not include either the adjective "spiritual" or the prepositional phrase "with grace."

Had the word rendered "spiritual" originally been in the text, the only reason to account for its omission is homoeoteleuton because the Greek words rendered "spiritual" and "songs" both end in the same three letters. Although P46 is the earliest witness, it is not conclusive enough in view of the other witnesses.

2) [(Eph 5:20) Manuscript Evidence For Eph 5:20]:

All the Greek editions (TR, WH, NU) supported by Sinaiticus, A, B, D(1), Psi, 33, 1739, Maj read "the God and Father."

P46, D*, F, G, it read "the Father and God."

Of the two readings, the variant has the more unusual formation - inasmcu as when God the Father is addressed, the name "God" usually precedes "the Father." For this reason alone, one could consider the variant to be more likely original. Either reading, however, connotes the same person: "God Who is the Father" or "the Father Who is God." The former gives emphasis to His Fatherhood; the latter, to His Deity.

3) [(Eph 5:21) Manuscript Evidence For Eph 5:21]:

WH, NU, P46, Sinaiticus, A, B, C, Maj have "fear of Christ"

6, 81, 1881, Clement, MSS (according to Ambrosiaster) have "fear of God"

D, F, G have "fear of Jesus Christ"

K has "fear of the Lord"

The documentary evidence strongly supports the WH, NU reading. As typically happened in the transmission of the NT  text, the divine name was expanded or altered. The expansion, "Jesus Christ," needs no explanation. The alterations are easily explainable as scribal conformity to a more usual expression - whether "fear of God" or "fear of the Lord." Indeed, the phrase "fear of Christ" occurs only here in the NT. TR has a very minimal and later support for its reading.

4) [(Eph 5:15-21) Commentary On Eph 5:15-21]:

(Eph 5:15 NASB) "Therefore be careful [lit., look carefully] how you walk, not as unwise men but as wise,

(Eph 5:16 NKJV) redeeming the time, because the days are evil.

(Eph 5:17 NASB) So then do not be foolish, but understand what the will of the Lord is.

(Eph 5:18 NASB) And do not get drunk with wine, for that is dissipation, but be filled with the Spirit,

(Eph 5:19 NKJV) speaking to one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody in your heart to the Lord,

(Eph 5:20 NKJV) giving thanks always for all things to God the Father in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ,

(Eph 5:21 NKJV) submitting to one another in the fear of God."

Eph 5:15-16 begins with "Therefore" referring back to Eph 5:13-14 which the latter reads as follows, "But all things that are exposed are made manifest by the Light - the Righteousness of Christ / God - for whatever makes manifest is Light; and for this reason it says, 'Awake, sleeper, And arise from the dead, And Christ will shine on you.' " So the word rendered, "Therefore" in Eph 5:15 is meant to refer back to the previous context and say, 'in view of the fact that all things sinful / evil are made manifest as evil / sinful by their comparison with the Light of God's / Christ's Righteousness; for whatever makes evil / sinfulness manifest is God's / Christ's Righteousness. For this reason the word rendered "it" refers to a hymn which author and apostle Paul evidently refers to in Eph 5:16. The hymn exhorts believers who are unfaithful - continudoing evil - to awaken from their being asleep / dead in the sense of being dead to the exemplifying / reflecting of the Righteousness of Christ / God in their temporal lives. Whereupon Eph 5:15-16 says, "Therefore be careful [lit., look carefully] how you walk, not as unwise men but as men who are wise, redeeming the time in the sense of making their temporal lives of godly value to them and to God; because the days are evil," i.e., the days of the temporal life in this world are characterized as evil through and through as a result of the sin nature within man, the devil and the world - all of which are characterized as evil. So the believer is to endeavor to seek the wisdom of the Righteousness of Christ / of God in order for such wisdom to be the influence in their temporal lives, as opposed to the 'unwisdom' of seeking the ways which popularly characterize the days of this temporal life - which are the ways of evil and unrighteousness.

Whereupon in Eph 15:17-21, which reads as follows, "So then do not be foolish, but understand what the will of the Lord is. And do not get drunk with wine, for that is dissipation, but be filled with the Spirit, speaking to one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody in your heart to the Lord, giving thanks always for all things to God the Father in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, submitting to one another in the fear of God," provides instructive examples on how to "walk ... as wise [men] ... redeeming the time" for the cause of the Righteousness of Christ / God. The key is stipulated first in these five verses: understand what the will of the Lord is in the sense of carefully and diligently studying the will of the Lord in Scripture and putting it to work in ones temporal life with the key factor of the work of the grace of God overcoming the incapacity of the believer no matter how "faithful" he attempts to be. For no believer can declare to have moments of sinless perfection in order to successfully overcome evil in his life and around him. On the other hand, God is ever present in the believer's life ready to forgive and purify upon ready confession of sins, (cf. 1 Jn 1:8-10 ).

Then in the next four verses, Eph 5:18-21, author Paul admonishes believers of what not to do; followed by what to do instead; such as "And do not get drunk with wine, for that is dissipation, but be filled, in the sense of controlled by the Spirit - His direction given to the believer from within that believer. In other words they were to allow themselves to be directed by the indwelling God the Holy Spirit within the human spirit toward godly / Righteous behavior such as: "speaking to one another is psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody in your heart to the Lord, giving thanks always for all things to God the Father in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, submitting to one another in the fear - the awesome respect - of God.

a) [(Eph 5:15-21) Compare Commentary By BKC On Eph 5:15-21]:

(Eph 5:15 NASB) "Therefore be careful [lit., look carefully] how you walk, not as unwise men but as wise,

(Eph 5:16 NKJV) redeeming the time, because the days are evil.

(Eph 5:17 NASB) So then do not be foolish, but understand what the will of the Lord is.

(Eph 5:18 NASB) And do not get drunk with wine, for that is dissipation, but be filled with the Spirit,

(Eph 5:19 NKJV) speaking to one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody in your heart to the Lord,

(Eph 5:20 NKJV) giving thanks always for all things to God the Father in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ,

(Eph 5:21 NKJV) submitting to one another in the fear of God."

"5:15 Further exhortations follow, after the interjection in vv. 12-14 backing up v. 11. Because of his illumination, the believer will pay the most scrupulous attention to his personal behavior (v. 8b). 'Blepete' is a common Pauline expression for "see to it." Here it is combined with 'akribos' ("accurately," "carefully") to underline the need for the utmost concentration on leading an irreproachable life. The verb translated "to live" is peripateo and has been used four times previously in Ephesians 4 and 5. The metaphorical contrast between light and darkness is now replaced by that between wisdom and folly. Christians must no longer act like simpletons (NEB), since God's own wisdom is always available to them (1:8, 9; 3:10)

5:16 They are to make "the most of every opportunity" (exagorazomenoi ton kairon). The verb "to buy back" or "take off the market" is used in Galatians 3:13 and 4:5 in connection with redemption from the law. Here and in Colossians 4:5 it is of less certain interpretation. It has nothing to do with gaining time, as in Daniel 2:8, LXX (BAG, p. 271). It is not to be treated allegorically, as if time were being snatched from the devil or from evil men. What is meant is simply to make the best possible use of all circumstances like prudent merchants. Kairos ("opportunity," NIV) is the right moment, which Paul urges his readers to grasp lest it be wasted. The days are evil (ponerai, "wicked") in a moral sense, not necessarily by reason of hardship and distress, though this may be an accompaniment.

5:17. Rather than being foolish (aphrones, "senseless") or "unwise" (asophoi, v. 15), Christians are to understand (syniete, "comprehend intellectually") what the Lord's will is. Only after one understands what pleases God (v. 1) can he carry it out in his life.

5:18. Going from the general to the specific, Paul explained how wisdom, as an intellectual and spiritual capacity, works out in one's conduct. Verse 18 includes a negative command and a positive one. The negative is to abstain from getting drunk on wine with which there is incorrigibility. The word asōtia is translated debauchery (niv, rsv), "excess" (kjv), "riot" (asv), and "dissipation" (nasb). All these give the idea of profligate or licentious living that is wasteful. In this verse the literal sense of incorrigibility seems best, for a drunken man acts abnormally. Rather than controlling himself, the wine controls him. Conversely, the positive command is, Be filled with the Spirit. Thus a believer, rather than controlling himself, is controlled by the Holy Spirit. It may be more accurate to say that the Holy Spirit is the "Agent" of the filling (cf. Gal. 5:16) and Christ is the Content of the filling (Col. 3:15). Thus in this relationship, as a believer is yielded to the Lord and controlled by Him, he increasingly manifests the fruit of the Spirit (Gal. 5:22-23). The Spirit's indwelling (John 7:37-39; 14:17; Rom. 5:5; 8:9; 1 Cor. 2:12; 6:19-20; 1 John 3:24; 4:13), sealing (2 Cor. 1:22; Eph. 1:13; 4:30), and baptism (1 Cor. 12:13; Gal. 3:27) occur at the time of regeneration and thus are not commanded. However, believers are commanded to be filled constantly with the Holy Spirit. Each Christian has all the Spirit, but the command here is that the Spirit have all of him. The wise walk, then, is one that is characterized by the Holy Spirit's control.

5:19-21. Paul then gave four results of being filled with the Spirit. First is communication with one another with psalms (psalmois, OT psalms sung with stringed instruments such as harps), hymns (hymnois, praises composed by Christians), and spiritual songs (a general term). Second is communication with the Lord by singing and making melody (psallontes, singing with a stringed instrument) in the heart. Church music, then, should be a means of believers' ministering to each other, and singing should be a means of worshiping the Lord. Third is thanking God the Father (cf. 1:2-3, 17; 3:14) continually for all things (cf. Col. 3:17; 1 Thes. 5:18). Fourth, Spirit-controlled believers are to submit to one another, willingly serving others and being under them rather than dominating them and exalting themselves. But basic to Christians' attitudes toward others is their reverence for Christ. Paul next elaborated on this subject of submission (Eph. 5:22-6:9)."

b) [(Eph 5:15-21) Compare Commentary By Expositor's On Eph 5:15-21]:

(Eph 5:15 NASB) "Therefore be careful [lit., look carefully] how you walk, not as unwise men but as wise,

(Eph 5:16 NKJV) redeeming the time, because the days are evil.

(Eph 5:17 NASB) So then do not be foolish, but understand what the will of the Lord is.

(Eph 5:18 NASB) And do not get drunk with wine, for that is dissipation, but be filled with the Spirit,

(Eph 5:19 NKJV) speaking to one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody in your heart to the Lord,

(Eph 5:20 NKJV) giving thanks always for all things to God the Father in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ,

(Eph 5:21 NKJV) submitting to one another in the fear of God."

5:15-16. The NIV's 'Be very careful, then, how you live,' is literally, "Look therefore carefully how you walk." Does the adverb "carefully" (akribōs, lit. "accurately") modify "look"? If so the first clause in verse 15 could be translated, "Therefore look carefully how you walk." (This is behind the rendering in the ASV, NASB, NIV). Or does "careful" modify "walk"? If so, the idea is, "Therefore look that you walk carefully" (cf. KJV). This second alternative is preferred because better Greek manuscripts place 'akribō's closer to the Greek word "walk" and because in the New Testament the Greek imperative "look" ('blepete') is never modified by an adverb. Believers then, are to walk (live) carefully, so as to be wise or skillful and thus please the Lord. The manner for this careful, precise walk is making the right use of every opportunity (cf. Col. 4:5), and the reason for this careful walk is that the days are evil. Many are walking in sin, and since the time is short believers must make full use of their time to help turn them from darkness to light. This necessitates wise conduct.

17 "Therefore" ('dia touto') resumes the thought of v. 15 with its exhortation to be wise. "Foolish" ('aphron') is a stronger word than 'asophoi' in v. 15, alluding to stupid imprudence or senseless folly in action. To "understand" ('syniemi') is to give the mind to something so as to get hold of it. It implies that an effort has to be made: so it has the sense of "try to grasp." The object of this determined attempt at apprehension is the Lord's will (v. 10). Paul recognizes the divine will as the regulative principle of the Christian life (Eph 1:1, 5, 9). Here he refers to the will of the Lord (i.e., Jesus Christ) ...  because Christ left us an example.

18 A specific instance of the foregoing generalization follows. Quoting Proverbs 23:30, Paul warns against the folly of overindulgence in strong drink. Drunkenness was all too common in the pagan world and cautions in the NT show that it presented a serious temptation to Christians. The danger of drunkenness (Gal 5:21) lies not only in itself but in what it may induce. Debauchery (asotia) in the NT means dissoluteness or dissipation. It is the "wild living" of the prodigal son (Luke 15:13, adverb). In classical Greek it signified extravagant squandering both of money and of the physical appetites. If they are wise, Christians will avoid all such excess.

Instead of continuing in drunkenness, they are to go on being filled with the Spirit. That is a surprising alternative. We might have expected the apostle to plead for abstinence as over against intemperance. But he takes a more startling and positive line. He urges his readers to draw on the reinvigorating resources of the Holy Spirit. On the day of Pentecost the effect of such an experience was mistaken for drunkenness. ... Paul is not for a moment implying that the Spirit is a substance a man's personality can be filled with as his body may be filled with wine. Yet the Spirit does produce a genuine exhilaration others vainly seek from alcohol.

"With the Spirit" is actually "in spirit" ('en pneumati'). The Greek text does not indicate whether the Holy Spirit is intended. The word pneuma can equally well mean the human spirit as affected by the Holy Spirit (RV mg.). We have noted a similar ambiguity in Ephesians 2:22 and 3:5 and will meet it again in 6:18. Paul would not have attempted the daring comparison between wine and the Holy Spirit, and that we are not told explicitly with what the believer is to be filled but only where he is to be filled, i.e., in spirit. However, it seems much more probable that the Holy Spirit is intended here, in view of the many scriptural references to being filled with the Spirit.

The theological implications of "be filled" ('plerousthe') are crucial for a biblical doctrine of the Holy Spirit. The imperative makes it clear that this is a command for all Christians. The present tense rules out any once-for-all reception of the Spirit but points to a continuous replenishment (literally, "go on being filled"). Nor does it appear that Paul is urging his readers to enter into a new experience ("up to now you have not been filled with the Spirit, but you must start to be so"). Rather, he is inviting them to go on as they began ("you have, of course, been filled with the Spirit; keep on like that"). Finally, the verb is passive: "Let yourselves be filled with the Spirit." This is not a manufactured experience, though it can be rejected (cf. Gal 3:2, 5). There may, therefore, be successive fillings of the Spirit; indeed, the Christian life should be an uninterrupted filling. What this verse will not substantiate is the claim that after becoming a Christian, a single, additional, definitive filling is essential for completion.

19 The outcome of being filled with the Spirit is described in vv. 19, 20 in a series of four participles that virtually amount to imperatives. It is noticeable that each of these expressions of the Spirit's fullness has to do with praise. The verb "to speak" ('laleo') is not confined to normal conversation but covers utterance of any kind and so is perfectly applicable to the medium of psalms, hymns, and songs. Such communication is with one another ('heautois') not "to yourselves" (KJV). "Psalms" seems to refer to the OT Psalter, which was integrated with Christian worship from the first. "Hymns" in pagan circles were sung to eulogize some god or cultic hero. Christian hymns exalted the name of Christ (v. 19) or God (v. 20). Such canticles appear in the NT itself (as at v. 14). "Spiritual songs" ('odai ptleumatikai') may be so designated either to differentiate them from secular compositions or because they represent spontaneous singing in the Spirit.

The verb "to make music" is 'psallo,' from which "psalm" is derived. It can mean playing a stringed instrument (literally, "to pluck") or singing praise to the accompaniment of a harp. Here it describes the heart's inner melody that keeps in tune with audible praise or may be independent of any outward expression. If it is offered "to the Lord," it does not need to be heard by men.

20 The perpetual accompaniment of all these outlets of the Spirit in the Christian life is thanksgiving. The context is not restricted to that of the church's liturgy as is indicated by "always" ('pantote'). Such gratitude to God is to cover every circumstance, "even if it be disease or poverty," and is to be addressed to God the Father - the Father of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ (Eph 1:3, 17), who is also "our God and Father" (Gal 1:4) - in the name of the Son as the one who fully reveals him."

E) [Eph 5:22-33]:

(Eph 5:22 NKJV) "Wives, submit to your own husbands, as to the Lord.

(Eph 5:23 NASB) For the husband is the head of the wife, as Christ also is the head of the church, He Himself being the Savior of the body.

(Eph 5:24 NASB) But as the church is subject to Christ, so also the wives ought to be to their husbands in everything.

(Eph 5:25 NASB) Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ also loved the church and gave Himself up for her,

(Eph 5:26 NKJV) that He might sanctify and cleanse her with the washing of water by the word,

(Eph 5:27 NASB) that He might present to Himself the church in all her glory, having no spot or wrinkle or any such thing; but that she would be holy and blameless,

(Eph 5:28 NASB) So husbands ought also to love their own wives as their own bodies. He who loves his own wife loves himself;

(Eph 5:29 NKJV) For no one ever hated his own flesh, but nourishes and cherishes it, just as the Lord does the church,

(Eph 5:30 NASB) because we are members of His body.

(Eph 5:31 NKJV) For this reason a man shall leave his father and mother and be joined to his wife, and the two shall become one flesh. [Gen 2:24]

(Eph 5:32 NKJV) This is a great mystery, but I speak concerning Christ and the church.

(Eph 5:33 NASB) Nevertheless, each individual among you also is to love his own wife even as himself, and the wife must see to it that she respects her husband."

1) [(Eph 5:22) Manuscript Evidence For Eph 5:22]:

(Eph 5:22 NKJV) "Wives, submit to your own husbands, as to the Lord.

WH, NU, P46, B, Clement, MSS(according to Jerome) have "wives to their own husbands"

Sinaiticus, A, I, P, Psi, 1739, it, cop have "wives submitting to their own husbands"

TR, D, F, G, Maj, syr have "wives, submit to their own husbands"

The text, according to the earliest manuscripts, relies upon the participle rendered "being submissive" of the previous verse to complete the sense of this verse.  But later scribes supplied the verbal, either as a participle (variant 1) or an imperative verb (variant2). Translators, wanting to make things easy for their readers, follow suit - usually with the imperative verb.

2) [(Eph 5:29) Manuscript Evidence For Eph 5:29]:

(Eph 5:29 NKJV) "For no one ever hated his own flesh, but nourishes and cherishes it, just as the Lord does the church,"

WH, NU, P46, Sinaiticus, A, B, D*, F, G, Psi, 048, 0285, 33, 1739, 1881, syr, cop have "Christ to the church"

TR, D(2) Maj have "the Lord to the church"

According to the WH NU text, which has a powerful array of witnesses, Paul was speaking of how Christ  nourishes and cherishes the church. The change from "Christ" to "Lord" in the majority of later witnesses was probably influenced by 5:22. The change has been perpetuated by TR, followed by KJV and NKJV.

3) [(Eph 5:30) Manuscript Evidence For Eph 5:30]:

(Eph 5:30 NASB) "because we are members of His body."

WH, NU, P46, Sinaiticus*, A, B, 048, 33, 1739*, cop, Jerome have "we are members of His body"

TR, Sinaiticus(2), D, F, G, Psi, 0285(vid), 1739(mg), Maj, it, syr, Irenaeus have "we are members of His body, of His flesh and of His bones"

It could be argued that the second phrase was accidentally omitted due to homoeotelueuton causing a scribal leap (autou ... autou). However, it is far more likely that the variant reading is a scribal expansion created to make 5:30 reflect the OT quotation, Gen 2:23. Since Gen 2:24 is cited in the very next verse (5:31), scribes wanted 5:30-31 to be a citation of Gen 2:23-24. But the expansion creates an exegetical problem: How can Christians be Christ's "flesh and bones"? The believers, as members of the church, are united to Christ's spiritual existence (see 1 Cor 6:17), but they are not part of His physical body. A husband and wife can be united physically, but not Christ and the church. Not recognizing this exegetical problem, scribes added the words anyway - perhaps taking the opportunity to affirm Christ's physical existence as an antidote to Docetism. Indeed, Irenaeus (Haer. 5.2.3) quotes this fuller text in confronting Gnostics who denied Jesus Christ's real physical existence and bodily resurrection. Modern versions, having the shorter text, stand in sharp contrast to KJV and NKJV, which have the expansion.

4) [(Eph 5:31) Manuscript Evidence For Eph 5:31]:

(Eph 5:31 NKJV) "For this reason a man shall leave his father and mother and be joined to his wife, and the two shall become one flesh." [Gen 2:24]

All the Greek texts (TR, WH, NU), supported by Sinaiticus(2), D(2), Psi, 1739(mg), Maj, Origen, have the reading "and will be joined to his wife." A few witnesses (6, 1739*, Jerome) omit this clause, and several manuscripts (P46, Sinaiticus(1), A, P, 0285, 33) include the clause without the preposition. TR, WH, NU accords with the rendering of Gen 2:24 as it appears in most manuscripts of the Septuagint. The omission in the first variant could have happened accidentally, due to homoeoarchton causing a scribal leap, (kai .... kai), or it could have been an intentional excision to conform this citation to the one in Mark 10:7, where the best-attested reading (Sinaiticus, B) also omits the clause. The second variant could be the result of conformity to Matt 19:5, where the citation of Gen 2:24 does not include a preposition. Nonetheless, because of its documentary support, it is just as likely to have been the original wording.

5) [(Eph 5:22-33) Commentary on Eph 5:22-33]:

(Eph 5:22 NKJV) "Wives, submit to your own husbands, as to the Lord.

(Eph 5:23 NASB) For the husband is the head of the wife, as Christ also is the head of the church, He Himself being the Savior of the body.

(Eph 5:24 NASB) But as the church is subject to Christ, so also the wives ought to be to their husbands in everything.

(Eph 5:25 NASB) Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ also loved the church and gave Himself up for her,

(Eph 5:26 NKJV) that He might sanctify and cleanse her with the washing of water by the word,

(Eph 5:27 NASB) that He might present to Himself the church in all her glory, having no spot or wrinkle or any such thing; but that she would be holy and blameless,

(Eph 5:28 NASB) So husbands ought also to love their own wives as their own bodies. He who loves his own wife loves himself;

(Eph 5:29 NKJV) For no one ever hated his own flesh, but nourishes and cherishes it, just as the Lord does the church,

(Eph 5:30 NASB) because we are members of His body.

(Eph 5:31 NKJV) For this reason a man shall leave his father and mother and be joined to his wife, and the two shall become one flesh. [Gen 2:24]

(Eph 5:32 NKJV) This is a great mystery, but I speak concerning Christ and the church.

(Eph 5:33 NASB) Nevertheless, each individual among you also is to love his own wife even as himself, and the wife must see to it that she respects her husband."

Author and apostle Paul provided instructions to believers beginning with Eph 5:18a which stipulates "And do not get drunk with wine, for that is dissipation" - speaking for the subject of what not to do; and instead, according to Eph 5:18b "be filled [in the sense of allowing oneself to be controlled by the promptings of] the Spirit" [the indwelling Holy Spirit of God within the human spirit]; which examples author Paul provided such as in Eph 5:19, "speaking to one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody in your heart to the Lord; and in Eph 5:20, "giving thanks always for all things to God the Father in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ;" and in Eph 5:21, "submitting to one another in the fear of God."

The phrase in Eph 5:21 rendered, "submitting to one another in the fear of God," is followed by Eph 5:22 which the latter reads, "Wives, submit to your own husbands, as to the Lord," which indicates that just as believers are to be submitting to one another in the fear of God;" it follows that wives are to submit to their own husbands in the same way and for a comparable reason as they are to submit to one another in the fear of God.

Whereupon Eph 5:23 offers the explanation for the previous verse which the former reads, "For the husband is the head of the wife, as Christ also is the head of the church, He Himself being the Savior of the body," in the sense that the position of the husband being head of the wife is representative of Christ being the Head of the church to Whom the wife is to submit, He [Christ] Himself being the Savior of that body - the husband representing Christ in the family household.

This is further explained by Eph 5:24, which reads, "But as the church is subject to Christ, so also the wives ought to be [subject, cf Eph 5:21] to their husbands in everything.

On the other hand, Eph 5:25 moves to the obligation of the husband: "Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ also loved the church and gave Himself up for her," in the sense of a self-sacrificial / agape love of husbands for their wives which is referred to in Eph 5:25b-26, "just as Christ also loved the church and gave Himself up for her - gave up His life as a propitiation / sacrifice for her [the church's] sins, and not only for her sins but for the sins of the whole word, (ref 1 Jn 2:2), "that He might sanctify / set apart her and cleanse her with the washing of water [the Holy Spirit, (cf Ez 36:24-27) ] by the word [the Word of God - which by virtue of a moment of faith alone in Christ alone, i.e., in the gospel, therein contained comes forgiveness / the washing away of sins unto the reception of eternal life].

a) [Compare Titus 3:5]:

(Titus 3:5 NASB) "He saved us, not on the basis of deeds which we have done in righteousness, but according to His mercy, by the washing of regeneration and renewing by the Holy Spirit."

And Eph 5:26 leads right into Eph 5:27 which the latter states, "that He [Christ] might present to Himself the church in all her glory, having no spot or wrinkle or any such thing; but that she would be holy and blameless," as a result of what is stipulated in Eph 5:25b-26.

b) [Compare Eph 1:4]:

****** EXCERPT FROM EPHESIANS CHAPTER ONE ******

(Eph 1:4) AUTHOR AND APOSTLE PAUL PRAISES / BLESSES THE GOD AND FATHER OF OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST ON BEHALF OF ALL THE SAINTS FOR HAVING BESTOWED EVERY SPIRITUAL BLESSING IN THE HEAVENLY PLACES UPON THE SAINTS - THE ONES BELIEVING IN CHRIST JESUS, FOR HE CHOSE US IN HIM BEFORE THE FOUNDATION OF THE WORLD, TO BE HOLY AND BLAMELESS IN HIS SIGHT IN LOVE

(Eph 1:3 NASB) "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who [did bless] us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ, (Eph 1:4 HCSB) for He chose us in Him, before the foundation of the world, to be holy and blameless in His sight [in love]," =

(Eph 1:4) Author And Apostle Paul Praises / Blesses The God And Father Of Our Lord Jesus Christ On Behalf Of All The Saints For Having Bestowed Every Spiritual Blessing In The Heavenly Places Upon The Saints - The Ones Believing In Christ Jesus, For He Chose Us In Him Before The Foundation Of The World, To Be Holy And Blameless In His Sight In Love

(Eph 1:3 NASB) "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, Who [did bless] us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ, (Eph 1:4 HCSB) for He chose us in Him, before the foundation of the world, to be holy and blameless in His sight [in love] =

Paul continues the long sentence of Eph 1:3-14:

Verse 3 reads

"Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, Who [did bless] us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ,

[then verse 4 provides the first blessing]:

for He [God] chose us in Him, before the foundation of the world, to be holy and blameless in His sight [in love].

God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, Who did bless "us" = saints, believing ones in Christ Jesus, (v. 1), with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ, (v. 3). For He chose "us" before the foundation / before the creation of the world to be in Him with a view to "our" eternal destiny of being holy - set apart to be His possession and to be in "our" experience of being holy and without blame, i.e., to be without sin in His sight. And all of this was decreed to be done out of God's agapE / godly love for us. The phrase rendered "in Him" as well as the words "in Christ" in verse 3: "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who [did bless] us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ," indicate that all of God's blessings are decreed before the creation of the world to come to those whom He chose to be "in Christ," literally "in the sphere of Christ," i.e., to belong to Him.

Every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ in view in Eph 1:3 will be bestowed because of the election of God: through the work of God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ which He decreed will come to pass.

[Compare Eph 1:11]:

(Eph 1:11 NKJV) "In Him also we have obtained an [eternal] inheritance, [having been] predestined according to the purpose of Him Who [is working] all things according to the counsel of His will."

These blessings will not occur because of anything believers do, might become or might persevere in. For God Himself has taken the initiative to provide salvation to them - before the creation of the world. It is His choosing - His election - based upon His grace, not upon man's merit, (cf. Eph 2:8-9). And the purpose of God's election is so that those whom He has chosen should be "holy and blameless in His sight" evidently to be transformed by God into holy and blameless creatures when they receive their promised eternal inheritance, (Eph 1:7-14). This is the God side of our salvation - God's choosing individuals, before the creation of the world, to be in Christ: "to be holy and blameless in His sight in love" - out of His agapE love for them. On the human side which is not immediately in view in this passage, (but will be in view in chapter 2), all individuals may and must exercise a moment of faith alone in Christ alone of their own free will to be saved unto eternal life and that alone, which will evidently corroborate in perfect agreement with God's election before the creation of the world: those whom God has chosen will all choose to believe in His Son; and those whom God has not chosen will all not choose to believe in His Son, albeit they will be given every opportunity to do so because God's Son has provided atonement for the sins of the whole world, (1 Jn 2:2), not just those whom He chose.

Furthermore, Eph 1:4 stipulates that God chose people so that they would "be holy and blameless in His sight in love," - out of His agapE love for them. And it will evidently be through His work, not the saint's when they will experience the final stage of their redemption, (Eph 1:7-14). The words rendered "in love" at the end of verse 4 are taken to modify what came before in verse 4 as opposed to characterizing what comes later in the next verse.

****** END OF EXCERPT FROM EPHESIANS CHAPTER ONE ******

5 cont.) [(Eph 5:22-33) Commentary on Eph 5:22-33, (cont.)]:

(Eph 5:22 NKJV) "Wives, submit to your own husbands, as to the Lord.

(Eph 5:23 NASB) For the husband is the head of the wife, as Christ also is the head of the church, He Himself being the Savior of the body.

(Eph 5:24 NASB) But as the church is subject to Christ, so also the wives ought to be to their husbands in everything.

(Eph 5:25 NASB) Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ also loved the church and gave Himself up for her,

(Eph 5:26 NKJV) that He might sanctify and cleanse her with the washing of water by the word,

(Eph 5:27 NASB) that He might present to Himself the church in all her glory, having no spot or wrinkle or any such thing; but that she would be holy and blameless,

(Eph 5:28 NASB) So husbands ought also to love their own wives as their own bodies. He who loves his own wife loves himself;

(Eph 5:29 NKJV) For no one ever hated his own flesh, but nourishes and cherishes it, just as the Lord does the church,

(Eph 5:30 NASB) because we are members of His body.

(Eph 5:31 NKJV) For this reason a man shall leave his father and mother and be joined to his wife, and the two shall become one flesh. [Gen 2:24]

(Eph 5:32 NKJV) This is a great mystery, but I speak concerning Christ and the church.

(Eph 5:33 NASB) Nevertheless, each individual among you also is to love his own wife even as himself, and the wife must see to it that she respects her husband."

Then Eph 5:28-33 summarizes the relationship between husbands and wives as God intended for this relationship is to emulate the agape self-sacrificial love relationship that the Lord has with His body, the church. Just as the church is the extension of Jesus Christ, so the wife is an extension of her husband. Furthermore, Scripture states, "So husbands ought also to agape love their own wives as their own bodies. He who loves his own wife loves himself; For no one ever hated his own flesh, but nourishes and cherishes it, just as the Lord nourishes and cherishes the church. For we believers, whether faithful or not, are members of His body. For this reason a man shall leave his father and mother and be joined to his wife, and the two shall become one flesh. [Gen 2:24]. This is a great mystery, but I [author and apostle Paul] speak concerning Christ and the church. Nevertheless, each individual among you also is to agape love his own wife even as himself, and the wife must see to it that she respects her husband."

Continue to chapter six