[Dr Baugh, op cit, p.22-38]:

"It is an amazing fact that man from Adam to Noah possessed a composite of approximately fifty-six characteristics that have never, from Noah's time until the present, been possessed by a single culture of man. What this means is that original man was a superior man. Let's examine a list of the superior characteristics that mankind possessed.

1. Conceptual Analysis. 'And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found an help meet for him.' That specific names were given to all varieties of separate groups with emphasis on distinctions among them requires the ability to conceptualize objectively. In order to determine that none of the individuals under consideration would be intimately compatible with the observer further enhances the evidence that the observer had mature self-awareness and mental powers.

2) Comparative Observation. '...gave names to all cattle...and to every beast of the fiels...' Not only is there distinction made between groups, but comparison and nomenclature is assigned accordingly.

3) Observational Articulation. '...gave names to all cattle...' Cattle are observed, named, and seen as being categorically separate from undomesticable beasts of the field. Those assigned names were articulated and memorialized for ongoing generations. 'Whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof.' Such deliberate memorializing for future generations requires sequential listing, even if only by memory.

4) Synergistic Language. "And Adam said, this is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh...' Languages which use enlarged expression, enhanced by immediate preceding statements, require complicated emotional and mental functions. The nature of the recorded expression entails common genetic makeup in contradistinction to the other life forms mentioned, known at least by the writer of the manuscript and known by surface value of the text to Adam, the person making the statement. Common contradistinctive genetic makeup has only been known within recent years by our generation. Functional knowledge among the ancients surpassed the commonly held view among anthropologists.

5) Speech Anatomy. '...leave his father and mother, and shall cleave...' The complicated structure of the larynx system and the ability of the oral muscles to frame these words far surpasses commonly held views regarding developing man, such as Neanderthal or Cro-Magnon.

6.) Parallel Expression. '...bone of my bones..' 'flesh of my flesh...' '...called Woman [from man] ' 'taken out of man...' '...leave his father and mother...' '...cleave unto his wife...' '...they shall be one flesh' [repeats concept of common flesh as first mentioned ion parallelism]. This form of poetry and complicated expression reveals a highly developed ability in expression.

7.) Poetic Declamation. Not only is this a form of complicated poetic expression, but it is a progressive statement encompassing origin, state and destiny of the speaking person (Adam) and the audience (Woman) to be heard and observed by future generations (Father and Mother). Developing man is totally incapable of this speech form.

8.) Domestic Attachment. 'They shall be one flesh.' Monogamy and union are expressed and pronounced in the declamation. Filial and romantic ties are strongly suggested.

9.) Domestic Orientation. '...knew Eve his wife.' Position and physical union are both expressed in an oriented sense. Father, mother, and child are listed by name.

10) Incident Reference.

'...knew...conceived...have gotten a man...' A conscious reference is made to physical relations, conception, and birth. Detailed sensitivities are honorably expressed with a deliberate emphasis on time and events.

11.) Occupational Distinction. 'Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground.' This concept exposes more than a casual reference to occupation. In short expression we are given names, occupations, and job descriptions. 'Keeper' and 'tiller' are in correct reference to their appropriate occupations.

12.) Time Perspective. '...tiller of the process of time...brought of the fruit of the ground...' Recognition of time, cultivation, and harvest require sophistication and concept. Man is again seen as being mature, sensitive, and competent.

13.) Environmental Cultivation. '...tiller of the ground...' Anthropologists agree that mature man is the only creature which can deliberately alter his environment. Deliberate cultivation for harvesting purposes is clearly described, requiring concept and intent.

14.) Religious Preoccupation. '...brought an offering unto the Lord.' Religious exercise is [ascribed] to man alone. Conscious religious activity with a specific offering to a specific God is described.

15.) Conceptual Anarchy. 'Cain was very wroth...and the Lord said...' The related expression is that of anger to the point of vindictive action against the established authority.

16.) Emotional Response (Negative). '...and his countenance fell.' Displayed emotional response to a person relating to an event in time followed by consequences of that response can only be interpreted in the light of cultured man.

17.) Criminal Propensity (Individual). 'Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him.' Meaningful commentary is given with insight into individual moral shortfall. Anthropologists view morality and accountability to have developed very late in man's descent. Social anthropologists recognize criminal propensity as being the experience of truly modern man.

18.) Guilt Consciousness. 'My punishment is greater than I can bear.' Modern sophistication and sensitivities are in view in a very ancient context. Knowledge that this guilt complex would follow in his experience for years authenticates the test as being more than embellished writing.

19.) Moral designation. '...whosoever slayeth Cain, vengeance shall be taken on him sevenfold.' Moral responsibility to a person and consequences in the event of failure are clearly defined Protection and restriction relating the guilty person are also enforced. This describes sophisticated structure.

20.) Territorial Recognition. '...dwelt in the land of Nod, on the east of Eden.' General extent and boundaries are indicated with geographic notation. Fully-developed human characteristics are certainly in view with emphasis on recognition of those boundaries.

21.) Material Accumulation (Individual). 'And he builded a city...' Accumulation beyond food gathering is a uniquely human experience. Structured city-building indicates sophistication.

22.) Cultural Identification. 'He builded a city, and called the name of the city...' There is no mistaking the fact that cultural extension and establishment are intended in the test. Scope and extent are not indicated, but cultural implications are explicit.

23.) Engineering Development. '...builded a city...' In order to build or envision a city of any size or complexity, conceptional engineering functions are necessary. In some undeveloped communities, these functions are not written or even expressed but the functions are envisioned and employed. The ability to place one small building in relation to another is a basic concept requiring engineering perspective.

24.) Offspring Endowment. '...and called the name of the city after the name of his son, Enoch.' Filial endowments are recognized as being an 'ultimate' resource and expression of Homo sapiens. To find this characteristic listed among the ancients invited a restructuring of our views on man's history.

25.) Material Accumulation (Cultural). '...dwell in tents...have cattle...' Enlarged numbers of individuals are emphasized in the context of having possessions. Previously an individual had built a city, and now the description reaches beyond incidental practice to include the community.

26.) Futuristic Projection. 'Jabal: he was the father of such as dwell in tents, and of such that have cattle.' We here discover a principle of action and influence which intentionally passes to succeeding generations a resource of tents and cattle. Included in this influence upon future generations is the voluntary response of individuals within those future generation.

27.) Manual Dexterity. '...such as handle the harp and the organ.' Handling harps and organs requires conceptional and physical expertise of uncommon accomplishment. Skillful manipulation of instruments enlarges the musician and the cultural audience, particularly if the young are exposed to the influence of music.

28.) Artistic Appreciation. '...all such as handle the harp and the organ.' A community or guild association is most definitely implicated within the statement. Responsive appreciation in harmony with skillful dexterity would warrant applause from any historian looking back on this generation.

29.) Responsibility Assumption. ' instructor of every artificer.' The text could imply that the instructor worked with every single individual who was learning to work as an artisan or that he worked with individuals in various kinds of implements. In either case, the responsibility is phenomenal.

30.) Instructional Comprehension. '...instructor of every...' Cultural anthropologists and archaeologists have occupied decades in documenting isolated cultures in an attempt to follow their growth patterns from implement fabrication to instructional repetition. When this facility is verified, the colony is identified as being industrialized. Such is the case in this text.

31.) Systematic Education. '...instructor of every artificer in brass and iron.' If the intent of the text is that each succeeding student is referred to the primary instructor or that artisans are returning to the primary instructor as they take on work with new materials, the result is the same: systematic instruction is established within a community or the entire culture.

32.) Technological Advancement. ' brass and iron.' Those who examine ancient civilizations separate brass and iron into distinct eras of development. Specific technology is required in the research (even if it is 'trial and error') and repeatable methods of fabricating implements from metallic bases. The purpose in making specific implements involved an advancement in the use of tools. Spanning both eras in the fabrication and purposeful use of the instrumentation demands a comprehension and assimilation at least equal to our own advanced civilization; and it probably deserves a designation superior to our own.

33.) Attire Awareness. 'And Lamech said unto his two wives, Adah and Zillah...' In the original Hebrew the name Adah means ;elegant ornament.' Names are given designating a characteristic held by the person being named (or renamed) or a characteristic desired by the person giving the name. Such designations are given in reference to a known commodity or characteristic within the sphere of experience. Ornamentation and attire must have been observed in order to make such a distinction within the naming of an individual.

34.) Personal Defense. 'And Lamech said unto his two wives, Adah and Zillah, Hear my voice; ye wives of Lamech, Hearken unto my speech: for I have slain a man to my sounding, and a young man to my hurt. If Cain shall be avenged sevenfold, truly Lamech seventy and sevenfold.' A marvelous explanation is here offered by a husband found slaying a young man who had wounded him and who had intended ultimate harm to him. Apparently desiring the good will and understanding of his wives, Lamech presented a full explanation of his own behalf. He was no longer in danger from the murderous young man, but he offers a self-defense explanation for his own home and perhaps in view of repercussions which might follow afterward.

35.) Comparative Justice. 'If Cain shall be avenged sevenfold, truly Lamech seventy and sevenfold.' Reference is made to Cain, who in the past had sevenfold penalty promised upon anyone executing further injury toward him, and a 'true' declaration of rightness is stated with a seventy and sevenfold vengeance.

36.) Judicial Consensus. '...said unto his wives...hearken unto my speech...' The speaker is asking both persons addressed to listen and follow with consent. Extensive detail is given with a specific request relating to those details. Reference is made by Lamech to his 'speech.' A deliberate atempt is made to gain a unified response from both persons addressed. This is strikingly similar to our own judicial system.

37.) Logistic Reasoning. ' my my hurt...avenged sevenfold ...truly seventy and sevenfold.' Explanation is given twice that the young man was performing moral damage against the speaker. There is a progression of criminal infliction from 'wounding' to ultimate 'hurt' (death) being exercised by the offending party. An appeal is made to understand that the speaker had slain the young man in order to protect his own life. Then a reference to comparative vengeance is claimed. This included both inductive and deductive reasoning powers in brilliant display.

38.) Speech Declamation. 'Hearken unto my speech...' What follows is based on reflection, is thought out in advance, is addressed to a given audience, is systematic in presenting details, and is specific in requesting a response. This we call speech form, and it represents complicated actions, reasoning powers, and delivery.

39.) Peer Relationship. 'Hearken...' Relationship both in the present and in the response rendered in the future are encompassed in the related text. Sympathetic understanding is obviously requested by Lamech.

40.) Reputation Status. '...I have slain a man...' The context clearly bears the sense of Lamech's concern for understanding among those who would learn of the event. Great pains are taken to explain that the young man was attempting to slay the speaker.

41.) Emotional Response (Positive). 'And Adam knew his wife again; and she bore a son, and called his name Seth: For God, said she, hath appointed me another seed instead of Abel, whom Cain slew.' A child is named in grateful response to a loving God Who understood the emotional void left after a previous child had been lost. Civilized awareness and conscientious response ensue.

42.) Providential Compensation. '...hath appointed me another seed instead of Abel, whom Cain slew.' Awareness of providential justice and purpose underlies a basic philosophy within a culture. Ancient ability to hold a concept of benevolent philosophy endows ancient man with extremely sophisticated thought processes. In some instances man is able to purposefully and benevolently display consideration upon another. To no less a degree his awareness of divine intervention for his benefit would reflect the existence of this major sophisticated characteristic within ancient man.

43.) Historical Perspective. 'And Adam lived an hundred and thirty years and thirty years, and begat a son in his own likeness.' A sense of having counted each year with its relationship in time to preceding and succeeding years is complicated enough, especially without ancestors to give a learning reference. In this instance, we have exposed an additional ability - that of recycling number values, i.e., counting past one hundred. Additionally, we have related the birth of a son, and the son is associated with and compared to the characteristics of his father. Passage of time and events with association are in view.

44.) Obituarial Documentation. 'And Adam lived... begat sons and daughters...and he died.' Only advanced peoples record the birth, events, offspring, and death of inhabitants. This practice memorializes the memory and record for succeeding generations.

45.) Religious Influence. 'And he called his name Enos, then began men to call on the name of the Lord.' A very interesting enlightenment is here provided for anthropologists, in keeping with their observations in numerous cultures. The child is named Enos, which means 'a living moral individual' (and one who by definition is obligated to be appreciative to the One Who gave him life, and one who is dependent on his Creator for sustaining that life). His name takes the form of a declared statement. The influence of that name is that men 'begin to call upon the name of the Lord.' The meaning and person of the name influenced men in religious response to call upon the Name of the Creator Who is needed to sustain all men as mortals. This humble religious response is anthropologically elevating, because 'primitive' cultures tend to think of themselves as 'the only people' rather than responding in religious humility.

46.) Genetic Superiority. 'And Adam and Eve) were an hundred and thirty years old, and begat a sin...' The ability to conceive and birth a son at one hundred thirty, then to continue to bear sons and daughters, is indicative of superior genetics. Purpose in the genetic design is demonstrated as each reproduces after its kind.

47.) Genetic Viability. '...begat sons and daughters...dwelt in tents...instructed...handled...hearken...built...' The ability to conceive and birth a son at one hundred thirty, then to continue to bear sons and daughters, is indicative of superior genetics. Purpose in the genetic design is demonstrated as edach reproduces after its kind.

48.) Origins Inquisition. 'And he called his name Noah, saying. This same shall comfort us concerning our work and toil of our hands, because of the ground which the Lord hath cursed.' The basic philosophic inquiries are: Who am I?; Where did I come from? What is my purpose here?' and Where am I going? To find reference to these inquiries as a unit given in one succinct record among ancient peoples is most enlightening. The 'who' ('us') is emphasized in relation to the 'purpose' ('toil and work of our hands' - burdensome labor balanced with meaningful accomplishment), and the 'where am I going' 'comfort' - hope for the future) is given in the same sentence with the 'where did I come from' (from a history of 'toil' physically and a relationship of accountability to the 'Lord, my Creator' physiologically).

49.) Individual Achievement. '...mighty men which were of old, men of renown.' Numbers of legendary accomplishments are ascribed to a number of individual men. Renowned among their peers, the ancient achievers are catalogued in the record.

50.) Recording Capability. '...the same of renown.' The list included more than the accomplishments of a single man; it refers to men considered mighty and who were renowned within their own lifetimes. Whether the record of their deeds was oral or written is immaterial. To have mentally recorded names, ages, births, deaths, and accomplishments is as astonishing in accomplishment as developing a system of writing.

51.) Inventive Precognition. '...imagination of the thoughts of his heart.' Precognition is defined as the ability to think beforehand or to mentally design in advance. The emphasis within the text is that of proliferating deeds as a result of imaginative capacities. This ability can only be equated with our most advanced leaders, scientists, and researchers in today's academic institutions.

52.) Directed Concentration. '... great in the earth... every imagination... only lll continually.' Performance of deeds resulted from concerted mental activity. A unified purpose aligned with a very active motivated imagination characterized the entire culture and was practiced individually throughout the society. To find a record of this unified practice among all citizens strongly suggests that the gene pool was superior, recent, and uncontaminated.

53.) Criminal Propensity (Cultural). '... wickedness of man was great in the earth.. every imagination ...only evil continually.' The best modern illustration corresponding to this extensive social disease is that of Nazi Germany under Hitler. Negative vices require as much mental ingenuity as do positive virtues.

54.) Purposeful Motivation (Negative). 'The earth was also corrupt.. filled with violence.' Individual incessant action was applied which violated established moral values (the term 'corrupt' was used).

55.) Social Influence. 'All flesh had corrupted his way.' Anthropologists make notations for the seeningly incidental behavior of all members of a clan, tribe, or culture. It is recognized that this seemingly incidental activity is inherently bound to the total genetic potential of the group as a whole. The whole culture was impressionable to the point of responding to the synergistic influence of violent corruption.

56.) Purposeful Motivation (Positive). 'Thus did Noah; according to all that God commanded him, so did he.' Emphasis is placed on the words 'all... commanded ... did.' That one man and his family..had the physical, mental, and volitional capacity to follow purposeful instruction with conscious extended performance, and that the rest of an entire race of man was purposefully motivated to violate the same expressed instruction, emphasizes strong evidence that the race as a whole possessed the genetic capabilities of each member of the race.

[Dr Baugh, op cit, p.38]:

'In the area of Cro-Magnon man, or Magdalenian-period Stone Age man, a very high sophistication capability has been evidenced, not only in his ability to draw in the caves, but also in a documented bit of evidence which verifies the concept of the orchestral creation mode. This concept supports the notion that ancient man was a sophisticated man, and by ancient man we are not far removed in time from him, not nearly as far as the evolutionists would suppose.

Rene Noorbergen relates the following evidence in his classic work:

'In a cave near Lussac-les-Cateaux, in 1937, Leon Pericard and Stephane Lwoff uncovered a number of engraved stones dating from the Magdalenian period which drastically altered the accepted picture. The flat stones showed men and women in casual poses, wearing robes, boots, belts, coats, and hats. One engraving is a profile of a young lady who appears to be sitting and watching something. She is dressed in a pant suit with a short-sleeved jacket, a pair of small boots, and a decorated hat that flops down over her right ear and touches her shoulder. Resting on her lap is a square, flat object that folds down the front, very much like a modern purse. Other examples show men wearing well-tailored pants and coats, broad belts with clasps, and clopped beards and moustches.

'...The Lussac models are by no means the only evidence of sophisticated dress from the Stone Age. Prehistoric cave printings from the Kalahari Desert of Southwest Africa, dated within the Stone Age period, show light-skinned men with blond beards and well-styled hair, wearing boots, tight-fitting pants, multicolored shirts, and coats and gloves.'

Such accounts of the earliest history of man do not indicate that he was a brute beast. In fact, the opposite is true. Man, when he appeared on the earth, was very sophisticated....

Anthropological and historical records show that man has from time to time loved in caves. The Nabateans, an advanced and resourceful people, lived almost entirely in caves in the Petra area of southern Jordan. There are areas in the world today where environmental factors still make cave dwelling preferable...

The fact that man was able to display superior characteristics at the very beginning of his existence, an composite picture of an intelligent and compassionate human being, shows that man had to be created. He could not have evolved. Man possessed superior characteristics and arrived on the scene fully mature. This evident truth supports the concept of orchestrated creation.

Man first was created with vastly superior genetic characteristics but after the Fall, his genetic make-up was thereby altered such that it was tremendously limited and it deteriorated from generation to generation.



[Gen 1:26-27]:

(v. 26) "Then God said, 'Let us make man in our image, in our likeness, and let them rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air, over the livestock, over all the earth, and over all the creatures that move along the ground." (v. 27) So God created man in his own image, in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them."

"Then God said, 'Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our Likeness...' " ="God" = "Elohim" =PLURAL

"said" = singular verb in the Hebrew


"make" = singular verb in the Hebrew

"our" = PLURAL

"in our image according to our likeness" =

"our image" = The construction here of plural subject followed by a singular verb indicates one God with more than one Personality, i.e., the Trinity.

In order to avoid attributing God with more than one Personality, objectors to the Trinity state that "our image" refers to God and the angels who are deciding together to create man in their image. This would then infer that angels have the image of God on a equal basis with the Almighty eternal God and thus contributed in creation with Him as Creators. However, the image that the passage is referring to is a unique one to God and God alone as implied by the word "our". If "us" is to include angels then a plural verb form of "make" instead of singular would have been inspired by God to be used. God's image is an eternal image which angels and man are made into only in a finite way. If equality were meant instead of similarity, then the verse should have been worded 'Let us make man equal with us' and not "Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our Likeness...' "

"in our image" = "image" = "selem" = image is used in a special sense here since God, being infinite and Spirit, is not limited to a finite human form. Therefore, a human being created in the image of God means that each individual human being possesses in a finite way certain qualities which God possesses such as the ability to love, worship, think and perform creatively like no other living creature on the earth.

"make" = "asa"

TWOT vol. 2, op. cit., p. 701, states:

"The significant interchange between the words bara = 'create' [Gen 1:1] and "asa" = [Gen 1:26] is of great interest. The word b ar a' carries the thought of the initiation of the object involved. It always connotes what only God can do and frequently emphasizes the absolute newness of the object created. The word "asa" is much broader in scope, connoting primarily the fashioning of the object with little concern for special nuances.

The use of "bara" in the opening statement of the account of creation seems to carry the implication that the physical phenomena came into existence at that time and had no previous existence in the form in which they were created by divine fiat. The use of "asa" may simply connote the act of fashioning the objects involved in the whole creative process."

TWOT vol. 2, op. cit., p. 768, states:

"Man was made in God's image ("selem") and likeness ("demut") which is then explained as his having dominion over God's creation as vice-regent...

[Compare Ps 8:5-8 NIV]:

(v. 5) "You [God] made him [man] a little lower than the heavenly beings and crowned him with glory and honor.

(v. 6) You made him ruler over the works of your hands; you put everything under his feet:

(v. 7) all flocks and herds, and the beasts of the field,

(v. 8) the birds of the air, and the fish of the sea, all that swim the paths of the seas."

TWOT, cont:

"Psalm 8:5-8...[quoted above] similar citing man's God-given glory, honor and rule. God's image obviously does not consist in man's body which was formed from earthly matter, but in his spiritual, intellectual, moral likeness to God from whom his animating breath came."

[TWOT, cont., op. cit., p. 191-192]:

"demut. v. 27 [of Gen 1], the actual act of creation, only selem is used, not demut. The two words are so intertwined that nothing is lost in the meaning by the omission of demut...

...The word 'likeness' rather than diminishing the word 'image' actually amplifies it and specifies its meaning. Man is not just an image but a likeness-image. He is not simply representative but representational. Man is the visible, corporeal representative of the invisible, bodiless God. demut guarantees that man is an adequate and faithful representative of God on earth (Clines).

[Henry Morris states, (The Genesis Record, Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1976, pp.73-75)]:

"On this sixth day, [a divine] council took place, and the...[eternal]...plan took place...

...The highest, most complex of all creatures was to be made by God and then was to be given dominion over all the rest - all the animals of the sea, air, and land. Man's body would be formed in the same way as the bodies of the animals had been formed (Genesis 1:24; 2:7). Similarly, man would have the 'breath of life' like animals (Genesis 2:7; 7:22), and even have the 'living soul' like animals (Genesis 1:24; 2:7). Thus, though man's structure, both physical and mental, would be far more complex than that of the animals, it would be of the same basic essence; therefore God proposed to 'make [Hebrew 'asah'] man in Our image.'

And yet man was to be more than simply a very complex and highly organized animal. There was to be something in man which was not only quantitatively greater, but qualitatively distinctive, something not possessed in any degree by the animals.

Man was to be in the image and likeness of God Himself! Therefore, he was also 'created' ('bara') in God's image. He was both made and created in the image of God..

...There can be little doubt that the 'image of God' in which man was created must entail those aspects of human nature which are not shared by animals - attributes such as a moral consciousness, the ability to think abstractly, an understanding of beauty and emotion, and, above all, the capacity for worshiping and loving God. This eternal and divine dimension of man's being must be the essence of what is involved in the likeness of God. And since none of this was a part of the animal 'nephesh,' the 'soul,' it required a new creation.

[Dr Robert A Morey states, (Death and the Afterlife, Bethany House Publishers, Minneapolis, Minn. 1984, p. 46)]:

"'nephesh' is used to describe the part of man which transcends the life principle, separates him from animals and likens him unto God.

Man, as God's image-bearer, is a cognitive ego who can say, 'I am,' Thus 'nephesh' was translated to indicate that man possesses mind, emotions, will, heart, ego, self, etc.

It is this transcendent self that is traditionally called 'the soul.'

God is a self-conscious being [Who] as a cognitive ego can say, 'I Am.' Thus God swears by His 'nephesh,' i.e., His soul, or ['self'] in Jer. 51:14 and Amos 6:8. In this sense, God is said to possess a 'mind,' 'will,' 'heart,' 'emotions,' 'self,' etc. (Job 23:13). The 'nephesh,' or soul, of God is His transcendent self which hates sin (Ps 11:5). In no way can God's 'nephesh' be reduced to the principle of physical life, because God does not have a physical body.

When 'nephesh' is used of God, it obviously transcends the mere life principle of animals who do not have self-awareness. In the same way, 'nephesh' is used to describe that part of man which transcends the life principle."

[Henry Morris, cont., op. cit., p.85]:

However, this does not exhaust the meaning [of man being in the likeness of God]. We must also deal with the fact that man was 'made' in God's image as well. That component of man which was 'made' was his body and soul. In some sense, therefore, even man's body is in God's image in a way not true of animals.

God in His omnipresence is not corporeal, however, but is Spirit (John 4:24); so how could man's body be made in God's image?

We can only say that, although God Himself may have no physical body, He designed and formed man's body to enable it to function physically in ways in which He Himself could function even without a body. God can see (Genesis 16:13), hear (Psalm 94:9), smell (Genesis 8:21), touch (Genesis 32:32), and speak (II Peter 1:18), whether or not He has actual physical eyes, ears, nose, hands, and mouth. Furthermore, whenever He has designed to appear visibly to men, He has done so in the form of a human body (Genesis 18:1,2); and the same is true of angels (Acts 1:10). There is something about the human body, therefore, which is uniquely appropriate to God's manifestation of Himself, and (since God knows all His works from the beginning of the world - Acts 15:18), He must have designed man's body with this in mind. Accordingly, He designed it, not like the animals, but with an erect posture, with an upward gazing countenance, capable of articulate, symbolic speech...

...The word 'man' is actually 'adam', and is related to 'earth' (Hebrew 'adamah'), since man's body was formed from the elements of the earth (Genesis 2:7). ["adam" = from out of the earth]. It may be noted that man was to have dominion not only over all animals but also over the earth (verse 26) from which he had been formed.

Finally, it is made clear that 'man' is also a generic term, including both male and female. Both man and woman were 'created' (the details of their physical formation being given in Genesis 2) in God's image, and thus both possess equally an eternal spirit capable of personal fellowship with their Creator."

[Cp Gen 5:2]:

"He [God] created them male and female, and He blessed them and named them Man [lit., "Adam"] in the day when they were created."

[Cp Gen 2:23]:

"And the man said,

This [the woman] is now bone of my bones,

And flesh of my flesh'

She shall be called Woman, [lie., "isshah" ? out of man]

Because she [lit., "this one"] was taken out of Man."

[Gen 1:26-27 cont.]:

(v. 26) "Then God said, 'Let us make man in our image, in our likeness, and let them rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air, over the livestock, over all the earth, and over all the creatures that move along the ground."

(v. 27) So God created man in his own image, in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them.

[Compare Gen 2:7 NAS]:

"Then the Lord God formed man of dust from the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath [lit., 'breaths", plural] of life; and man became a living being. ["nephesh"]"

Henry Morris states, op. cit., p.85:

"The narrative... [of chapter 2] ...skips the work of the fourth and fifth days of creation [as already delineated in chapter 1] and proceeds immediately [to the sixth day] to man himself. This verse tells not of the creation of man (as in Genesis 1:27), but of the formation and energizing of his body.

"formed man of dust from the ground..." = Gen 1:27 states that God "created" ="bara" = created out of nothing. Gen 2:7 here states that God "formed" ="yatsar" man of the dust of the ground. So man's essence, his soul and spirit were created out of nothing and then God added to that a body which He formed from the elements and compounds already made - described as "dust of the ground"

"and breathed into His nostrils the breath of life..." = "breath" is literally translated from the Hebrew, "breaths" plural.

[Dr John Danish states, (Jan 29, 1995 sermon at Berean Memorial Church, Irving, Texas)]:

"Genesis 2:7 says, 'Then the LORD God formed man of dust from the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breaths of life and man became a living being.'

Originally, this verse tells us that God formed man's physical body from the ground like a potter shaping a vessel from clay. This produced a lifeless shell without capacity for anything. There are several names in the Bible for this shell: Second Corinthinians chapter 5 verses 1 and 4 refer to it as a tent. Second Corinthians 5:6 refers to this shell as a home. First Thessalonians 4:4...[refers] the human body as a vessel. Then this verse tells us that God Himself breathed into this earth body that He had formed - into this shell - and He breathed into it the breath of lives... ...notice that the Hebrew is plural... ...because there were two kinds of lives that were breathed into man. First of all there was soul life... ...which constitutes his mentality, his emotions and his will for relating to people. There was also breathed into man a spirit life which gave him a human spirit and capacity for fellowship with God. The earth shell at that moment became a living being... had full capacity for fellowship with God. Now since the sin of Adam in Eden, all are born spiritually dead and they must be made alive spiritually to God by the the inbreathing of the Holy Spirit at the point of salvation when faith is placed in Christ as Savior.

[Eph 1:13-14 + Ro 8:10] So again, for our spiritual contact with God, as for Adam, there had to be an inbreathing of God, for us there has to be an inbreathing of the Holy Spirit for us to come alive spiritually.

...Does God create then a new life with each baby. The answer is yes...

[Compare Job 33:4]:

(v. 4) "The Spirit ["ruach"] of God has made me,

And the breath ["nishma"] of the Almighty gives me life."

[So the Spirit of God created Job, (cp Gen 1:27), and the breath of God quickens him to life, (cp Gen 2:7)]

...Job said, 'I came into life - I came into being a living being as a result of an act of God which gave me that life.'

[Eccl 12:7]:

"then the dust [i.e., the physical body] will return to the earth as it was, and the spirit ["'ruach'] will return to God Who gave it."

The child is given the breath of lives - the spirit and the soul at the point of conception. Albeit, after the Fall, all men are physically born with a dead (inactive) spirit, (i.e., one which is separated form communion with God). Ref. Eph 2:1; Ro 8:5-11.

[cp Isa 42:5]:

"Thus says God the LORD,

Who created the heavens and stretched them out,

Who spread out the earth and its offspring

[i.e., plant life]

Who gives breath ["nishma"] to the people on it,

And spirit ["ruach"] to those who walk in it,"

[Zech 12:1]:

"The burden of the word of the LORD concerning Israel. Thus declares the LORD Who stretches out the heavens, lays the foundation of the earth, and forms the spirit ["ruach"] of man within him:"

[Heb 12:9]:

"Furthermore, we had earthly fathers to discipline us, and we respected them; shall we not much rather be subject to the Father of our spirits ["pneuma"], and live?"

All of these verses say that God creates human life. And He does this not by some automatic life implanting mechanism evolving one human life into another. He breathes in a soul and spirit into each individual human being such that each is in His image in his unique way.

[Henry Morris, cont., op. cit., p. 85]:

"God used the 'dust of the ground' to make man's body, a remarkable phrase conveying the thought that the smallest particles of which the earth was composed (in modern terminology, the basic chemical elements: nitrogen, oxygen, calcium, etc.) were also to be the basic physical elements of the human body. 'The first man is of the earth, earthy' (I Corinthians 15:47). This fact is not at all obvious to superficial examination (rocks seem to all appearances to be composed of totally different substances than human flesh), but it has nevertheless been verified by modern science.

Then God 'breathed into his nostrils the breath [plural] of life.' This statement may seem at first to be 'anthropomorphic,' picturing God as puffing up His cheeks and blowing air into the inert figure He had just molded. Such a notion is quite inadequate, however. Man's body had been completely formed, equipped with nostrils, lungs, and the entire breathing apparatus, as well as bones and organs and other appurtenances, but was lifeless. It must be energized. The breathing mechanism must be activated, the heart must start to pump and circulate the blood, and all the metabolic functions must begin their operations.

But life can come only from life, and the living God is the only self-existent Being, so it must ultimately come from Him. Especially to stress the unique relationship of human life to the divine life, this Scripture verse tells us that God directly imparted life and breath to man...

There is an incidental refutation of the assumption of human evolution in this verse, which tells us that man became a living soul when God gave him the breath of life. However, if he had arrived at this stage by a long process of animal evolution, he already was a living soul! As I Corinthians 15:45 says;: 'The first man Adam was made a living soul..." Not only did man receive his soul directly from God rather than from an animal ancestry, but Adam was the first man. There was no 'pre-Adamite man,' as some have suggested."

[Gen 1:26-27 cont.]:

(v. 26) "Then God said, 'Let us make man in our image, in our likeness, and let them rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air, over the livestock, over all the earth, and over all the creatures that move along the ground."

(v. 27) So God created man in his own image, in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them."

[Compare Gen 2:18-23]:

(v. 18) "Then the LORD God said, 'It is not good for the man to be alone; I will make him a helper suitable for[lit., corresponding to] him.

[Henry Morris, (op. cit., p. 95)]:

"At the end of the six days of creation, God saw that everything He had made was 'very good' (Genesis 1:31). The last act of creation, however, was that of woman; hence, prior to this final work, the creation was yet incomplete. an, especially, was incomplete without woman; and this was not good (this does not mean it was evil, but only that it was unfinished and therefore imperfect). God Himself, therefore, said: 'It is not good that the man should be alone.'

All the animals had been made both male and female (Genesis 6:19) and had been instructed to bring forth after their kinds and to multiply on the earth (Genesis 1:22, 24). Man alone, of all God's creatures, had no such companion.

Therefore, God set about to make 'an help meet for man' (literally, 'a helper like man'). As He had personally formed man's body, so He would set about personally to form woman's body. Furthermore, He would do this by a remarkable method rich in symbolic meaning which neither the man nor the woman would ever forget."

(v. 19) And out of the ground the LORD God [had] formed every beast of the field and every bird of the sky [lit., "heavens"**], and brought them to the man to see what he would call them; and whatever the man called a living creature, that was its name. (v. 20) And the man gave names to all the cattle, and to the birds of the sky[**], and to every beast of the field, but for Adam there was not found a helper suitable for him."

[Henry Morris states, (op. cit., pp. 96-98)]:

"First, however, God arranged for Adam to become familiar with many of the animals by personal inspection. This was apparently for the two fold purpose of acquainting him with his responsibilities relative to the animal kingdom (Genesis 1:28) and also of emphasizing to him that, though he could exercise rulership over them, he could not have fellowship with them. There was not one among them qualified to be a helper suitable for his own needs. He was yet incomplete without such a helper, but this would require another act of creation on God's part.

Many people quibble at verse 19, professing to find a contradiction between this account of the formation of the animals and the account in the first chapter of Genesis. According to the latter, the birds were made on the fifth day and the land animals on the sixth day, all prior to Adam's creation. The second chapter, however, seems to say in this verse that these animals were only created at this time, after Adam's creation.

Such an interpretation, however, is alien to the context. It would in effect, charge God with first trying to find a helper for Adam by making a lot of animals and then, when this failed, finally deciding to make woman. God had just expressed His purpose to make a 'help meet for man,' and it is absurd to think He would set about to carry out this purpose by first making animals.

Actually, all these animals were already in existence, exactly as the first chapter of Genesis says. All this had already been recorded in chapter 1; so there was no need to go through the entire chronological record again in chapter 2. There was no need even to mention the animals, since the account was concentrating on giving details of the later part of the sixth day, until the point at which the animals were actually to encounter man.

...verse 19... calls attention to the fact that God was the one who formed the animals and that their bodies had been formed out of the 'ground,' even as Adam's body had been formed from the dust of the ground. However, though the physical elements were the same in the bodies of both man and beast, there was still no real fellowship possible between them, as Adam would soon learn when he examined them. He had been created 'in the image of God' and would require a being of like nature to himself.

As a matter of fact, it would be quite legitimate to translate verse 19 as follows: 'Also out of the ground the LORD God had formed every beast of the field and every fowl of the air; and had brought them unto Adam to see what he would call them.' The Hebrew conjunction 'waw' can just as well be translated 'also' as 'and.' Furthermore, the word 'formed' as in the King James (Hebrew 'yatsar') can, in the context, legitimately be translated 'had formed.' In any case, the obvious intent of the passage is to tell us that certain of the animals, already in existence, were now brought at this time to be inspected by Adam. There is no contradiction, either real or apparent, with the 'official' order of creation in Genesis 1.

It was only those animals in closest proximity and most likely as theoretical candidates for companionship to man that were actually brought to him. These included the birds of the air, the cattle (verse 20 - probably the domesticable animals), and the beasts of the field, which were evidently the smaller wild animals that would live near human habitations. Those not included were the fish of the sea, the creeping things, and the beasts of the earth (Genesis 1:24), which presumably were those wild animals living at considerable distance from man and his cultivated fields.

It is not likely that all these animals actually lived in the garden of Eden, though they may have had access to it. Therefore, God must have directed them to come to Adam in some unknown fashion, so that both master and animal might learn to know each other. We have no way of knowing exactly how many kinds' of animals appeared before Adam, but it was clearly not such a large number as to be incapable of examination within a few hours at most. It is not unreasonable to suggest that Adam could note and name about ten kinds each minute, so that in, say five hours, about three thousand kinds could be identified. Clearly, this number seems more than adequate to meet the needs of the case.

As the animals passed in review, Adam gave each a quick appraisal and an appropriate name. What language he used, and on what basis he selected names for them, there seems no way of knowing. The fact that he named them, however, indicates (as we would expect, in view of his recent creation in human perfection by the omniscient God) that he was a man of high intelligence and quick discernment. There seems to have been no need for second thoughts and later changes in those names. 'Whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof.'

As one after another of the animals passed before him (no doubt in pairs, male and female) Adam could not help but be impressed with his own uniqueness - not only in intelligence and spirituality, but also in 'aloneness.' Each animal had its mate, 'but for Adam there was not found an help meet for him.'

There was clearly no kinship in any manner between man and the animals. None was like him; none could provide fellowship or companionship for him. It is abundantly clear and certain that he had not recently evolved from them! If the latter were true, and his body were still essentially an ape's body (or the body of whatever 'hominid' form may have been his immediate progenitor), it seems strange that he could have found nothing in common with either parents or siblings. On this point, as on many others, the notion of human evolution confronts and contradicts the plain statements of Scripture.

In all the animal kingdom, there could not be found a 'helper like him.' He alone, of all creatures, was really alone. And that was not good! Before God could declare His creation 'finished' and 'very good,' this all-important deficiency must be eliminated. God would provide such a helper and companion for Adam, one 'like' him, and yet different, perfectly complementing him and completing God's work."

[Gen 2:18-23 cont.]:

(v. 18) "Then the LORD God said, 'It is not good for the man to be alone; I will make him a helper suitable for[lit., corresponding to] him.

(v. 19) And out of the ground the LORD God [had] formed every beast of the field and every bird of the sky [lit., "heavens"**], and brought them to the man to see what he would call them; and whatever the man called a living creature, that was its name.

(v. 20) And the man gave names to all the cattle, and to the birds of the sky[**], and to every beast of the field, but for Adam there was not found a helper suitable for him."

[Henry Morris states, op. cit., pp. 98-99]:

"The account of the creation and formation of Eve is the despair of theistic evolutionists. Even if one can bring himself to believe that man evolved from and apelike ancestor and that this is what Scripture means when it says Adam was formed from the dust of the ground, there seems to be no way at all in which the account of Eve's unique mode of origin can be interpreted in an evolutionary context.

To make matters worse for the evolutionist, the New Testament explicitly confirms the historicity of this record. 'For Adam was first formed, then Eve' (I Timothy 2:13). 'For the man is not of the woman, but the woman of the man' (I Corinthians 11:8). All other men have been born of woman, but the first woman was made from man.

It is significant that the first human institution established by God was that of marriage. The long period of human infancy and helplessness requires careful protection and training of the children by their parents. In His wisdom, God ordained that the home, built on the mutual love and respect of husband and wife, should be the basic human unit of authority and instruction.

From the authority of the father in the home there would develop, as populations grew, the patriarchal and tribal systems, and, later, still more elaborate governmental structures. Similarly, from the fundamental activity of the parents in teaching and training their children, schools and other educational institutions would eventually be established. The church also, which has the function of teaching and authority in the spiritual realm, is likewise patterned in many respects after the home.

The way in which God made the first woman is certainly not what one would naturally expect. It would seem rather that He would form her body in the same way He did Adam's - directly out of the earth itself. But instead He 'built' her out of the body of Adam! Adam's life would become her life.

God must have had a good reason for 'building up' Eve in this peculiar way. From the New Testament we infer that there were certain great spiritual truths which were being pictured in this symbolic action, as well as the more immediately meaningful truth that Adam and Eve were truly 'one flesh' and should thus serve their Creator together in unity and singleness of heart."

[Gen 2:18-23 cont.]:

(v. 18) "Then the LORD God said, 'It is not good for the man to be alone; I will make him a helper suitable for[lit., corresponding to] him.

(v. 19) And out of the ground the LORD God [had] formed every beast of the field and every bird of the sky [lit., "heavens"**], and brought them to the man to see what he would call them; and whatever the man called a living creature, that was its name. (v. 20) And the man gave names to all the cattle, and to the birds of the sky[**], and to every beast of the field, but for Adam there was not found a helper suitable for him.

(v. 21) So the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and he slept; then He took one of his ribs, [lit., "tsela" ? "side" i.e., "a part of his side"] and closed up the flesh at that place.

(v. 22) And the LORD God fashioned [lit., "built"] into a woman the rib [lit., a part of Adam's side] which He had taken from the man, and brought her to the man.

[Henry Morris states, op. cit., pp. 99-101]:

"Having completed His presentation of the animals to Adam, God quite probably explained to Adam what He was about to do (Adam seemed later to have understood clearly how God had formed Eve)

[Cp Gen 2:23]:

(v. 23) "And the man said,

'This is now bone of my bones,

And flesh of my flesh;

She shall be called Woman, [lit., "isshah" = out of man]

Because she [lit., "this one"] was taken out of Man."

[Compare Genesis 5:2 which indicates that God calls both Adam and Eve by the name "Adam" indicating that they are both of the same kind]:

[Gen 5:2]:

"He [God] created them male and female, and He blessed them and named them Man ["Man" = "Adam"] in the day when they were created."

[Henry Morris, op. cit., p.101]:

"When God brought Eve to Adam, the man exclaimed: "This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman [Hebrew ish]." Earlier the Hebrew word "adham" had been used exclusively for "man."

In any case, God put Adam into a 'deep sleep' and, while Adam slept, performed a marvelous surgical operation. Since this sleep was not necessary to prevent pain (as yet, there was no knowledge of pain or suffering in the world), there must have been some profound spiritual picture in the action...

...It is likely that the word 'rib' is a poor translation. The Hebrew word 'tsela' appears thirty-five times in the Old Testament and this is the only time it has been rendered 'rib.' Most of the time (in at least twenty of its occurrences) it means simply 'side.' The thought evidently is to stress that woman was made neither from Adam's head (suggesting superiority to him) nor from his feet (suggesting inferiority), but from his side, indicating equality and companionship. Probably the verse should be translated somewhat as follows: 'And He took one of his sides, and closed up the [remaining] flesh in the stead of [that which he had taken]; And the side, which the LORD God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man."

Instead of what some have regarded as a childish and unscientific myth (pointing out that man does not have one less rib than woman, and ignoring the fact that, even if this were an actual rib, such 'acquired characteristics' are never inherited!), this narrative is beautifully realistic and meaningful.

In what sense did the LORD God take one of Adam's sides? A 'side' would include both flesh and bone, as well as blood, released from the opened side. Adam could later say, 'This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh."

Physiologically, it is significant that both bone and flesh, in the human body, are sustained by blood and the marvelous blood-pumping and circulatory network designed by God. The blood carries the necessary oxygen and other chemicals from the air and the food taken in by man to maintain all the substance and functions of the body. In fact, the very 'life of the flesh [literally 'soul' of the flesh] is in the blood' (Genesis 9:4; Leviticus 17:11)...

...From the 'life' of Adam (the blood sustaining his bones and his flesh) God made Eve, his bride. In like manner, we who constitute the 'bride of Christ' (II Corinthians 11:2) have received life by His blood (John 6:54-56). Thereby we become 'members of his body, of his flesh, and of his bones' (Ephesians 5:30).

Eve was thus made from Adam's side, to work alongside him in carrying out the divine commission to 'fill the earth' and to 'subdue' it. She not only had the same 'flesh' (that is, body) and 'life' (that is, soul) as did Adam, but she also had an eternal spirit, as he did; but the spirit (or, better, the 'image of God') was directly from God, not mediated through Adam as was her physical life. This we know form Genesis 1:27: 'So God created man in His own image...male and female created He hum.' The 'image of "God,' directly created by God, was given to both man and woman. As 'joined unto the LORD,' however, even in this dimension of life, they would become 'one spirit' (I Corinthians 6:17).

Similarly, although all the descendants of Adam and Eve have inherited their physical and mental characteristics by genetic transmission, yet each individual has an eternal spirit directly from God, and thus himself is capable of personal fellowship with God. It is God Who 'formeth the spirit of man within him' (Zechariah 12:1) and to whose disposal each man's spirit 'returns' (Ecclesiastes 12:7) when his body returns to dust.

When Adam awoke from his deep sleep, and when God had finished froming Eve, He 'brought her unto the man,' to be with him from that time forth. In like manner, God is now forming a bride for Christ (Acts 15:14), as it were 'building up the body' (Ephesians 4:11-16). When this work is finished, God will bring His bride to the Lord Jesus and He will go to meet her, and she will be evermore joined to the Lord (John 14:2, 3; I Thessalonians 4:16, 17; Revelation 19:7-9; 21: 1-4)."



[A. E. Wilder-Smith states, (IMPACT brochure, February 1993, published by the Institute For Creation Research, El Cajon, Ca, in artticle titled, 'THE ORIGIN OF CONCEPTUAL THOUGHT IN LIVING SYSTEMS')]:

"...right and left-handed forms of certain molecules (dextro and levooptical isomers) possess an identical state of order, and so cannot possibly be separated by any unaided chemical means.

Left-handed amino acids and right-handed sugars are both necessary for living systems, but ordinary chemical reactions cannot supply them. Only the information in molecules that can recognize patterns can sort out the left from the right forms.

For the synthesis of optically purt-handed forms, information leading to pattern recognition must be available, and is found on the DNA molecule or its products.... ...the DNA molecule stores its three dimensions rather than in just two.

It only recently has been shown that, if the information on the DNA molecule were stored in just two dimensional linear sequences such as would be necessary if the mixture of forms were used in biology, the molecule would have to be thousands of miles long to accommodate all the information which life needs. However, with the addition of the third dimension to the chemistry of life... ...information can be stored within tiny cells in three dimensions rather than in two....

..Since virtually all forms of life show specific orientation - either left or right - and all forms of life have their equivalent of the DNA molecule as a reservoir of information, conceptual information must have played its role in origins so as to supply the third dimension required for the superminiaturization of information storage and retrieval, in addition to standard organic chemistry, time, and energy. Life's origin must then have occurred under the influence of conceptual information somewhere down the line, thus enabling the separation of right from left-handed molecules of identical state of order. If this conceptual information could not arise directly from the material properties of matter, then surely it is a perfectly justified scientific question to ask just where this conceptual information might have originated....

...mere surprise effects without any necessity of conceptual content.... would be useless as a source of the purposeful language conventions and meaning of the DNA molecule, which are vital for the construction of concept-laden organs such as kidneys or livers, not to mention four-chambered hearts....

It must be kept firmly in mind that inorganic matter contains none of the code and language concepts on the basis of which the DNA molecule functions. Inorganic matter certainly contains no purposeful concepts such as those necessary for, say, the synthesis of counter-current flow systems in kidneys or three-dimensional structures such as allow the hemoglobin molecule to supply the body with oxygen...

This then leaves us with one last vital question on the origin of life: How does one produce the purposeful type of information required to construct any machine - biological or mechanical? We know of only one answer to this question to date. That answer says that the conceptual type of... information necessary for the production of the handedness of life arises to date exclusively in organs which function according to the principles extant in the brain of higher biological organisms, and which generate conceptual thought... [which is unobtainable through inorganic matter]

Life as we know it could not have started as a mixture of forms, which then, by natural selection, performed the separation of forms...

...there must have been in the beginning - at the act of creation - an organ of the kind that makes the human brain tick (infinitely more powerful, of course) to generate the concepts of biology on a much larger scale than the human brain can ever develop.

Now that it is known that the DNA molecule stores its information not linearly but in three dimensions, we understand that life could not, on theoretical grounds, ever have originated from inorganic matter alone. Equal amounts of different forms of DNA could never have functioned as an information storage and retrieval system. Therefore, matter alone, with only chemistry to aid it, could never have produced any form of life as we know it."