ISAIAH CHAPTER 14

OBSERVATION STAGE

The purpose of the observation stage is to maintain focus on the text at hand within the normative rules of language, context and logic . .This limits the observer to the content offered by the book of Isaiah. This will serve to avoid going on unnecessary tangents elsewhere; and more importantly, it will provide the framework for a proper and objective comparison with passages located elsewhere in Scripture.

Remember that something elsewhere may be true, but in the text at hand it may not be in view.

I) [Isa 14:1-32]:

(Isa 14:1 NKJV) "... The LORD will have mercy on Jacob [Israel] and will still [have chosen] Israel, and [He will have settled] them in their own land; The [resident-alien will have joined himself] with them, and [he will have attached himself] to the house of Jacob.

(Isa 14:2 YLT) And peoples [will] have taken them, And [will] have brought them [to] their place, And the house of Israel [will have possessed them] for men-servants and maid-servants in the land of the LORD; and they [will] have been captors [of] their captors, and [will] have ruled over their [oppressors]

(Isa 14:3 NASB) And it will [have come to pass] on a day of [the] LORD giving you [Israel] rest from your pain and turmoil and from [forced labor] in which you have been enslaved.

(Isa 14:4 NASB) [and] you [will have lifted up] this [proverb] against the king of Babylon, [and you will have said] 'How the oppressor has ceased, [how] the [attack] has ceased!

(Isa 14:5 NKJV) The LORD has broken the staff of the wicked, The scepter of the rulers;

(Isa 14:6 NASB) [the one] which [strikes] people with wrath with unceasing strokes, [the one] which subdued the nations in anger with unrestrained persecution!

(Isa 14:7 NASB) "The whole earth [will have been] at rest and ... quiet. They [(the people of all the earth) will have been glad with] shouts of joy.

(Isa 14:8 NASB) Even cypress trees [will have rejoiced] over you [singular, referring to Babylon's king - rejoicing over his death], and the cedars of Lebanon: 'Since you have lain down, no tree cutter comes up against us.'

(Isa 14:9) Sheol from beneath [has trembled] over you [the dead king of Babylon] to meet [your arrival]; It [has roused for you] the [dead spirits] of the dead leaders of the earth. It [has commanded them] to rise from their thrones, all the kings of the nations.

(Isa 14:10 NIV) They will all respond, they will say to you, 'You also have become weak, as we are; you have become like us.

(Isa 14:11 NKJV) Your pomp [has been] brought down to Sheol, the sound of your stringed instruments [harps]; [maggots are] spread under you, and worms are ... covering you.

(Isa 14:12 NASB) How you have fallen from heaven O star of the morning, son of the dawn! You have been cut down to the earth, [the one who weakens] the nations.

(Isa 14:13 NASB) But you [have said] in your heart, 'I will ascend to heaven; I will raise my throne above the stars of God, and I will sit on the mount of assembly, in the [remotest part] of the north.

(Isa 14:14 NASB) I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will make myself like the Most High.'

(Isa 14:15 CBL) Surely to Sheol you will be brought down, To the remotest parts of the pit.

(Isa 14:16 NKJV) Those who see you will gaze at you, And consider ..., 'Is this the man who made the earth tremble, Who shook kingdoms,

(Isa 14:17 NKJV) [making] the world as a wilderness And [who has] destroyed its cities. Who [has not opened] the house of his prisoners?

(Isa 14:18 NKJV) All the kings of the nations, All of them, [have lain down], everyone in his own house;

(Isa 14:19 NKJV) But you [have been thrown] [from] your [tomb] Like [an abominable] branch, Like the garment of those who are slain [by being] Thrust through with a sword, Who go down to the stones of the pit, Like a corpse trodden underfoot.

(Isa 14:20 NKJV) You will not be joined with them in burial, Because you have destroyed your land And [have] slain your people. The [descendants] of evildoers shall never be named.

(Isa 14:21 NASB) Prepare for his sons a place of slaughter because of the iniquity [guilt] of their fathers, they [will not rise nor have taken] possession of the earth And [have filled the surface] of the world with cities.

(Isa 14:22 Holman) 'But I will [have risen] against them' - [this] the declaration of the LORD of Hosts - 'and I will cut off from Babylon [her name in the sense of her reputation], and a remnant [in the sense of there will be no survivors], and offspring, and descendants' - [This is] the declaration of the LORD.

(Isa 14:23 NKJV) And I will [have made] it for a possession of [the] hedgehog [porcupine] and [pools] of water [in the sense of a muddy marshes], and I will [have swept] it away with [the] broom of destruction - the declaration of the LORD of Hosts.

(Isa 14:24 NKJV) The LORD of Hosts has sworn, saying, 'Surely as I have thought [planned], so it shall [have] come to pass. And as I have purposed [lit., planned], so it shall stand:

(Isa 14:25 NASB) To break Assyria in My land, And I will trample him on My mountains. Then his yoke will be removed from them [in the sense of from His people who occupy His land and mountains] and his burden removed from their shoulder.

(Isa 14:26 NKJV) This is the purpose that is purposed against the whole earth, And this is the hand that is stretched out over all the nations.

(Isa 14:27 NKJV) For the LORD of Hosts has purposed, And who will annul it? His hand is stretched out, And who will turn it back?

(Isa 14:28 NASB) In the year that King Ahaz died this oracle [has come]:

(Isa 14:29 Holman) Don't rejoice, all of you [in] Philistia, because the rod of the one who struck you is broken. For a viper will come out of the root of a snake, and from its [offspring] comes a flying serpent.

(Isa 14:30 NKJV) The firstborn of the poor will feed, And the needy will lie down in safety; I will kill your roots with famine, And it will slay your remnant.

(Isa 14:31 NASB) Wail, O gate! cry, O city! [All of you will have been melted] away, O Philistia, for smoke [will have] come from the North, And there is no straggler in [the] ranks [of the approaching invader's army from the North]

(Isa 14:32 NASB) How then will one answer the messengers of the nation [referring to Philistia's entreaty to Judah to join them against Assyria]? That the LORD has founded Zion, And the afflicted of His people will seek refuge in it."

A) (1-8) THE LORD WILL STILL HAVE MERCY ON HIS PEOPLE ISRAEL. HE WILL SETTLE THEM IN THEIR OWN LAND. THOSE THAT HELD THEM CAPTIVE WILL NOW BE THEIR SERVANTS. A DAY OF THE LORD WILL COME GIVING ISRAEL REST FROM PAIN AND TURMOIL AND FROM ENSLAVEMENT. IN THAT DAY, THERE WILL BE LIFTED UP A PROVERB AGAINST THE OPPRESSOR THE KING OF BABYLON - THE EPITOME OF ALL OPPRESSORS. FOR HE WILL HAVE CEASED, AND HIS ATTACK WILL HAVE CEASED. THE LORD WILL HAVE BROKEN THE STAFF OF THE WICKED, THE SCEPTER OF THE RULERS AND THE ONE WHO SUBDUED THE NATIONS IN ANGER WITH UNRESTRAINED PERSECUTION! THE WHOLE EARTH WILL HAVE BEEN AT REST AND QUIET. THE PEOPLE OF THE EARTH - EVEN THE TREES WILL HAVE REJOICED OVER THE KING'S DEATH

(Isa 14:1 NKJV) "... The LORD will have mercy on Jacob [Israel] and will still [have chosen] Israel, and [He will have settled] them in their own land; The [resident-alien will have joined himself] with them, and [he will have attached himself] to the house of Jacob. (Isa 14:2 YLT) And peoples [will] have taken them, And [will] have brought them [to] their place, And the house of Israel [will have possessed them] for men-servants and maid-servants in the land of the LORD; and they [will] have been captors [of] their captors, and [will] have ruled over their [oppressors] (Isa 14:3 NASB) And it will [have come to pass] on a day of [the] LORD giving you [Israel] rest from your pain and turmoil and from [forced labor] in which you have been enslaved. (Isa 14:4 NASB) [and] you [will have lifted up] this [proverb] against the king of Babylon, [and you will have said] 'How the oppressor has ceased, [how] the [attack] has ceased! (Isa 14:5 NKJV) The LORD has broken the staff of the wicked, The scepter of the rulers; (Isa 14:6 NASB) [the one] which [strikes] people with wrath with unceasing strokes, [the one] which subdued the nations in anger with unrestrained persecution! (Isa 14:7 NASB) The whole earth [will have been] at rest and ... quiet. They [(the people of all the earth) will have been glad with] shouts of joy. (Isa 14:8 NASB) Even cypress trees [will have rejoiced] over you [singular, referring to Babylon's king - rejoicing over his death], and the cedars of Lebanon: 'Since you have lain down, no tree cutter comes up against us.' " =

Chapter 14 begins with a statement that the LORD will still have mercy on Jacob, a term which refers to all twelve tribes of Israel. The Hebrew word transliterated "kî," which has no English equivalent, appears as the first Hebrew word in verse one in order to make the message emphatic. And the Hebrew word "ôdh" rendered "still" in the NKJV implies a continuing action of the LORD in having mercy upon Israel and choosing to settle her in her own land despite her unfaithfulness. This adds to the emphatic message which has been so often repeated by Isaiah as an encouragement to those of Judah who would listen in earnest - the remnant of believers. So the LORD will still settle His people in their own land - in the land of the LORD, implying security, peace and rest. Note that Isaiah's foretelling of the fall of Babylon (and of other nations which have and will oppress Israel, 14:24-21:17, 23) would assure God's people that He would work on their behalf. In verse one, the Hebrew word transliterated "haggEr," rendered "resident-alien" refers to a person without land or clan ties; consequently without traditional tribal legal support or protection. Hence he is vulnerable to abuse and enslavement, being neither native citizen nor foreigner. They were once Israel's oppressors, but in this future time they will choose to join themselves with the Israelites as their servants. Hence Israel will now rule over her oppressors in the land of the LORD, (Isa 14:1-2).

Verses 1-3 portray the people of Israel settled in their own land, the land of the LORD in a future day characterized with lasting rest from the pain and turmoil and the forced labor to which she has been enslaved throughout much of her history. So far this has not occurred; and it evidently will not occur until the LORD Himself puts down all oppression throughout the world and then establishes His Eternal Kingdom rule - the continuing theme of chapters 1-13 and beyond. So the prophecy in chapter 13 did not occur in the time of Nebuchadnezzar as some contend. Although Nebuchadnezzar would settle the Jews in Babylonia and did not put them through such pain and hard labor as other oppressors did, the Israelites did not settle in the land of the LORD to finally live in lasting peace, security and rest with their oppressors as their servants, (Isa 14:3).

The timeframe of the events portrayed in the taunting proverb in chapter 14 is the future Israel who will taunt the king of Babylon of the future who will have been the epitome of the evil rulers of history. He will have oppressed and persecuted the nations of the world and the people of God to a greater extent than any other ruler of the past. He would cause world-wide destruction. In that future time, that king will meet his demise, signaling the commencement of lasting rest and peace for Israel in the land of the LORD: "How the oppressor has ceased, how the [*attack] has ceased!" Since the staff and the scepter are symbols of the authority and power of the rulers of the world, then the declaration in verses 5 and 6, "The LORD has broken the staff of the wicked, The scepter of the rulers, [the one] which [strikes] people with wrath with unceasing strokes, [the one] which subdues the nations in anger with unrestrained persecution!" signifies that the LORD will bring an end to oppression and evil - pointing to the time of the end when the LORD would come to establish His Kingdom, (cf. Isa 2:1-22; 13:6-13). So the whole earth [will have been] at rest and ... quiet. They [(the people of all the earth) will have been glad with] shouts of joy. Even cypress trees [will have rejoiced] over you [singular, referring to Babylon's king - rejoicing over his death], and the cedars of Lebanon: 'Since you have lain down, no tree cutter comes up against us.' " Note that the rulers of the world would strip the forests of wood for their own purposes - such as to build monuments to glorify themselves.

*The word should be "marhevah," deriving from the Hebrew verb "rahav" (Str # H7292), "to act insolently," "to act arrogantly," "to attack." This feminine noun then means "attack." The Dead Sea Scrolls corroborate this.

Note that the entire earth is in view, not just an empire in one part of the world, but all the peoples of the world - all mankind: "The whole earth [will have been] at rest and ... quiet." In view of the complete absence of fulfillment of worldwide and permanent peace, and with such a king of Babylon, who it is implied will be the epitome of all oppressors: "[the one] which [strikes] people with wrath with unceasing strokes, [the one] which subdued the nations in anger with unrestrained persecution!" it must be concluded that this king is from the future generation which leads up to the time when the LORD will settle His people in their own land, and put down oppression throughout the world. It cannot refer to one of the kings from ancient days, millennia ago - whose domains were not worldwide - with unconquered and/or tribute paying peoples on their borders, (Isa 14:4-8).

B) (9-11) ISAIAH'S TAUNTING PROVERB PORTRAYS A FIGURATIVE SCENE IN SHEOL - A SONG OF CONTEMPT ABOUT THE KING OF BABYLON OF THE FUTURE WHEN HE WILL HAVE MET DEATH AND HIS SPIRIT WILL ENTER SHEOL. HE IS THE ONE WHO WILL HAVE OPPRESSED THE WHOLE WORLD WITH UNRESTRAINED PERSECUTION WITHOUT EQUAL. THE DEAD SPIRITS OF THE LEADERS OF THE EARTH WILL RISE FROM THEIR THRONES TO MEET HIM. THEY WILL SAY TO HIM, 'YOU HAVE BECOME WEAK, AS WE ARE. YOUR POMP HAS BEEN BROUGHT DOWN TO SHEOL, MAGGOTS AND WORMS COVER YOU BODY IN AN OPEN GRAVE

(Isa 14:9) "Sheol from beneath [has trembled] over you [the dead king of Babylon] to meet [your arrival]; It [has roused for you] the [dead spirits] of the dead leaders of the earth. It [has commanded them] to rise from their thrones, all the kings of the nations. (Isa 14:10 NIV) They will all respond, they will say to you, 'You also have become weak, as we are; you have become like us. (Isa 14:11 NKJV) Your pomp [has been] brought down to Sheol, the sound of your stringed instruments [harps]; [maggots are] spread under you, and worms are ... covering you." =

Isaiah's proverb, a taunting song, portrays a figurative scene in "Sheol" which shows contempt for the king of Babylon of the future when he will have met death, the one who will have oppressed the whole world with unrestrained persecution without equal, (Isa 14:4-6). The Hebrew word "Sheol," incorrectly rendered "hell" or "grave," in the NKJV and KJV and other versions actually refers to the place of conscious life after physical death, which location has been stipulated as a place - a pit - in the center of the earth . In this proverb the spirits [Hebrew "rephaim", v. 14:9] of the dead leaders of the earth are depicted in a great throne room in Sheol. This figurative scenario portrays each spirit being aware of and able to communicate with one another at the arrival of the dead spirit of the king of Babylon. In reality, there is no such awareness, communication, thrones, etc. in Sheol. But the point of the proverb is to portray the destiny of the king of Babylon through the taunting of the dead spirits of the evil rulers of the world in Sheol. So the kings whom the king of Babylon of the future will have oppressed and persecuted, will have taunted him about his weakness when his dead spirit arrives in Sheol. The taunt portrays that the king's pomp, power and glory would be reduced to abject, impotent weakness; and his physical body, evidently having been buried ignominiously in a common mass grave instead of a regal tomb above the ground, would be covered with maggots and worms: "Sheol from beneath [has trembled] over you [referring to the dead king of Babylon] to meet [your arrival]; It [has roused for you] the [dead spirits] of the dead leaders of the earth. It [has commanded them] to rise from their thrones, all the kings of the nations. They will all respond, they will say to you, 'You also have become weak, as we are; you have become like us. Your pomp [has been] brought down to Sheol, [as] the sound of your stringed instruments [harps]; [maggots are] spread under you, and worms are ... covering you,' " (Isa 14:9-11).

C) (12-14) THE SUBJECT SWITCHES TO THE FALL OF THE REBELLIOUS ANGELIC BEING FROM HEAVEN TO BE CUT DOWN BY THE LORD TO EARTH. THIS BEING WAS EVIDENTLY INSTRUMENTAL IN THE KING OF BABYLON'S CRUEL OPPRESSION OF THE RULERS AND THE PEOPLES OF THE EARTH. HE IS DESCRIBED AS "THE STAR OF THE MORNING" AND "THE SON OF THE DAWN," AND "THE ONE WHO WEAKENS THE NATIONS," EVIDENTLY THROUGH THE KING OF BABYLON AMONG OTHERS. FOR THIS "STAR OF THE MORNING" HAD SAID IN HIS HEART, "I WILL ASCEND TO HEAVEN; I WILL RAISE MY THRONE ABOVE THE STARS OF GOD, AND I WILL SIT ON THE MOUNT OF ASSEMBLY, IN THE REMOTEST PART OF THE NORTH," REFERRING TO THE THRONE OF THE LORD IN HIS HOLY MOUNTAIN; AND "I WILL ASCEND ABOVE THE HEIGHTS OF THE CLOUDS; I WILL MAKE MYSELF LIKE THE MOST HIGH."

(Isa 14:1 NKJV) "... The LORD will have mercy on Jacob [Israel] and will still [have chosen] Israel, and [He will have settled] them in their own land; The [resident-alien will have joined himself] with them, and [he will have attached himself] to the house of Jacob. (Isa 14:2 YLT) And peoples [will] have taken them, And [will] have brought them [to] their place, And the house of Israel [will have possessed them] for men-servants and maid-servants in the land of the LORD; and they [will] have been captors [of] their captors, and [will] have ruled over their [oppressors] (Isa 14:3 NASB) And it will [have come to pass] on a day of [the] LORD giving you [Israel] rest from your pain and turmoil and from [forced labor] in which you have been enslaved. (Isa 14:4 NASB) [and] you [will have lifted up] this [proverb] against the king of Babylon, [and you will have said] 'How the oppressor has ceased, [how] the [attack] has ceased! (Isa 14:5 NKJV) The LORD has broken the staff of the wicked, The scepter of the rulers; (Isa 14:6 NASB)[the one] which [strikes] people with wrath with unceasing strokes, [the one] which subdued the nations in anger with unrestrained persecution! (Isa 14:7 NASB) "The whole earth [will have been] at rest and ... quiet. They [(the people of all the earth) will have been glad with] shouts of joy. (Isa 14:8 NASB) Even cypress trees [will have rejoiced] over you [singular, referring to Babylon's king - rejoicing over his death], and the cedars of Lebanon: 'Since you have lain down, no tree cutter comes up against us.' (Isa 14:9) Sheol from beneath [has trembled] over you [the dead king of Babylon] to meet [your arrival]; It [has roused for you] the [dead spirits] of the dead leaders of the earth. It [has commanded them] to rise from their thrones, all the kings of the nations. (Isa 14:10 NIV) They will all respond, they will say to you, 'You also have become weak, as we are; you have become like us. (Isa 14:11 NKJV) Your pomp [has been] brought down to Sheol, the sound of your stringed instruments [harps]; [maggots are] spread under you, and worms are ... covering you. (Isa 14:12 NASB) How you have fallen from heaven O star of the morning, son of the dawn! You have been cut down to the earth, [the one who weakens] the nations. (Isa 14:13 NASB) But you [have said] in your heart, 'I will ascend to heaven; I will raise my throne above the stars of God, and I will sit on the mount of assembly, in the [remotest part] of the north. (Isa 14:14 NASB) I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will make myself like the Most High.' " =

At this point in chapter 14, the subject switches from the king of Babylon to the fall of the rebellious angelic being from heaven to earth who was instrumental in the king's cruel oppression of those rulers and peoples of the earth. The angelic being referred to in Isa 14:12 is named "the star of the morning," and the "son of the dawn." He is described as having "fallen from heaven," and as having "been cut down to the earth." This implies a literal descent from heaven to earth, excluding out earth bound human leaders such as Tiglath-Pileser or Sennacherib, one of whom some contend is in view. Since stars don't occupy the heaven where God's throne resides; and since a star would destroy the earth if it fell to it; then we can conclude that verse 12 refers to an angelic being who has fallen from his residence in heaven, evidently having committed some kind of offense toward God and was cast down to earth. This angelic being is further described as "the one who weakens the nations," implying a connection with the human king of Babylon, such that the king was evidently motivated by that angelic being to oppress the nations of the world with unceasing strokes of wrath, and unrestrained persecution resulting in the weakening of the nations of the world, which describes the activity of the angelic being, (Isa 14:6; Isa 14:12).

This fallen angelic being was declared in verses 13-14 to have said in his heart, "I will ascend to heaven; I will raise my throne above the stars of God, and I will sit on the mount of assembly, in the [remotest part] of the north. [referring to the throne of the LORD in His holy mountain on earth, (cf. Ps 48:1-2)] I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will make myself like the Most High."

1) [Compare Ps 48:1-2]:

(Ps 48:1 NKJV) "Great is the LORD, and greatly to be praised.

In the city of our God, In His holy mountain.

(Ps 48:2 NKJV) Beautiful in elevation, The joy of the whole earth,

Is Mount Zion on the sides of the north,

The city of the great King."

So the reason why the angelic being was thrown out of heaven is made clear in verses 13 and 14: He aspired to ascend to heaven to raise his throne above the stars of God, referring to being above the angelic beings of God, a higher authority. Furthermore, the angelic being declared, "I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will make myself like the Most High [God]." This further excludes human rulers, for those suggested to be in view, (Tiglath-Pileser, Sennacherib, et. all), had neither belief in nor an understanding of the Most High God, but Lucifer did.

The Hebrew word "heylel" rendered "Lucifer" in the KJV literally means light bearer, or morning star which the latter most readily fits the context. For a light bearer is portayed as coming from heaven above and is referred to in verse 12 as "son of the dawn" which implies a light bearer above the earth at dawn, i.e., a morning star. The planet Venus is often referred to as the morning star. Furthermore, the term Lucifer in fourth century Latin was a name for Venus, the morning star. The Latin word Lucifer is composed of two words: lux, or in the genitive form used lucis, (meaning "light") and ferre, which means "to bear" or "to bring." So, the word Lucifer means bearer of light as does "heylel" in the Hebrew. Hence the name Lucifer has been adopted over into English to mean "light bearer" and in specific contexts such as Isa 14:12, refers to the fallen angel, later named Satan, as rendered in a number of key versions, (KJV, NKJV, etc.), (Isa 14:13-14).

D) (15-23) THE CONTEXT OF CHAPTER 14 RETURNS TO THE FIGURATIVE TAUNT IN SHEOL OF THE KING OF BABYLON OF THE FUTURE REDUCED IN DEATH TO ABJECT, IMPOTENT WEAKNESS TO THE REMOTEST PARTS OF THE PIT FOR HIS MONUMENTAL UNSURPASSED EVIL THROUGHOUT THE WORLD. THOSE WHO WILL GAZE UPON HIS DEAD PHYSICAL BODY WILL CONSIDER, "IS THIS THE MAN WHO MADE THE EARTH TREMBLE, WHO SHOOK KINGDOMS MAKING THE WORLD AS A WILDERNESS, WHO HAS DESTROYED ITS CITIES, AND NOT RELEASED PRISONERS FROM CAPTIVITY. ALL THE KINGS WERE LAIN DOWN IN THEIR TOMBS, BUT THE KING OF BABYLON WAS THROWN OUT OF HIS TOMB LIKE AN ABOMINABLE BRANCH, BECAUSE HE WILL HAVE DESTROYED HIS LAND AND SLAIN HIS PEOPLE. THE TAUNT GOES ON TO DECLARE THAT DESCENDANTS OF EVILDOERS SHALL NEVER BE NAMED. PREPARE FOR HIS SONS A PLACE OF SLAUGHTER BECAUSE OF THE INIQUITY OF THEIR DESCENDANTS. AND BABYLON ITSELF WILL BE DESTROYED WITH NO SURVIVORS

(Isa 14:1 NKJV) "...The LORD will have mercy on Jacob [Israel] and will still [have chosen] Israel, and [He will have settled] them in their own land; The [resident-alien will have joined himself] with them, and [he will have attached himself] to the house of Jacob. (Isa 14:2 YLT) And peoples [will] have taken them, And [will] have brought them [to] their place, And the house of Israel [will have possessed them] for men-servants and maid-servants in the land of the LORD; and they [will] have been captors [of] their captors, and [will] have ruled over their [oppressors] (Isa 14:3 NASB) And it will [have come to pass] on a day of [the] LORD giving you [Israel] rest from your pain and turmoil and from [forced labor] in which you have been enslaved. (Isa 14:4 NASB) [and] you [will have lifted up] this [proverb] against the king of Babylon, [and you will have said] 'How the oppressor has ceased, [how] the [attack] has ceased! (Isa 14:5 NKJV) The LORD has broken the staff of the wicked, The scepter of the rulers; (Isa 14:6 NASB) [the one] which [strikes] people with wrath with unceasing strokes, [the one] which subdued the nations in anger with unrestrained persecution! (Isa 14:7 NASB) "The whole earth [will have been] at rest and ... quiet. They [(the people of all the earth) will have been glad with] shouts of joy. (Isa 14:8 NASB) Even cypress trees [will have rejoiced] over you [singular, referring to Babylon's king - rejoicing over his death], and the cedars of Lebanon: 'Since you have lain down, no tree cutter comes up against us.' (Isa 14:9) Sheol from beneath [has trembled] over you [the dead king of Babylon] to meet [your arrival]; It [has roused for you] the [dead spirits] of the dead leaders of the earth. It [has commanded them] to rise from their thrones, all the kings of the nations. (Isa 14:10 NIV) They will all respond, they will say to you, 'You also have become weak, as we are; you have become like us. (Isa 14:11 NKJV) Your pomp [has been] brought down to Sheol, the sound of your stringed instruments [harps]; [maggots are] spread under you, and worms are ... covering you. (Isa 14:12 NASB) How you have fallen from heaven O star of the morning, son of the dawn! You have been cut down to the earth, [the one who weakens] the nations. (Isa 14:13 NASB) But you [have said] in your heart, 'I will ascend to heaven; I will raise my throne above the stars of God, and I will sit on the mount of assembly, in the [remotest part] of the north. (Isa 14:14 NASB) I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will make myself like the Most High.' (Isa 14:15 CBL).Surely to Sheol you will be brought down, To the remotest parts of the pit. (Isa 14:16 NKJV) Those who see you will gaze at you, And consider ..., 'Is this the man who made the earth tremble, Who shook kingdoms, (Isa 14:17 NKJV) [making] the world as a wilderness And [who has] destroyed its cities. Who [has not opened] the house of his prisoners? (Isa 14:18 NKJV) All the kings of the nations, All of them, [have lain down], everyone in his own house; (Isa 14:19 NKJV) But you [have been thrown] [from] your [tomb] Like [an abominable] branch, Like the garment of those who are slain [by being] Thrust through with a sword, Who go down to the stones of the pit, Like a corpse trodden underfoot. (Isa 14:20 NKJV) You will not be joined with them in burial, Because you have destroyed your land And [have] slain your people. The [descendants] of evildoers shall never be named. (Isa 14:21 NASB) Prepare for his sons a place of slaughter because of the iniquity [guilt] of their fathers, they [will not rise nor have taken] possession of the earth And [have filled the surface] of the world with cities. (Isa 14:22 Holman) 'But I will [have risen] against them' - [this] the declaration of the LORD of Hosts - 'and I will cut off from Babylon [her name in the sense of her reputation], and a remnant [in the sense of there will be no survivors], and offspring, and descendants' - [This is] the declaration of the LORD. (Isa 14:23 NKJV) And I will [have made] it for a possession of [the] hedgehog [porcupine] and [pools] of water [in the sense of a muddy marshes], and I will [have swept] it away with [the] broom of destruction - the declaration of the LORD of Hosts. " =

The context of chapter 14 returns to the figurative taunt in Sheol of the king of Babylon of the future begun in verse 9 . So at a point in future time the king will have been reduced to abject, impotent weakness to the remotest parts of the pit for his monumental unsurpassed evil throughout the world: "Surely to Sheol you will be brought down, To the remotest parts of the pit, [reaffirming the destiny of this evil man to be sent to the greatest depths of Sheol because of his monumental evil]. Those who will gaze upon the king - more specifically - upon his dead physical body - evidently in some kind of open grave site, (not Sheol), will consider, "Is this the man who made the earth tremble, Who shook kingdoms, [making] the world as a wilderness And [who has] destroyed its cities. Who [has not opened] the house of his prisoners?" [in the sense of never letting those he captured and enslaved return to their lands]. Notice the world-wide destruction this king will have caused, ruling out one of the leaders of the past, such as Tiglath-Pileser or Sennacherib, (as some contend). Furthermore, the fact that a man is in view, (v. 16), eliminates the angelic being of vv. 12-14 being the subject, (Isa 14:15-17).

Those gazing upon the king will note, relative to the king's not being buried in his own tomb, "All the kings of the nations, All of them, [have lain down], everyone in his own house [referring to everyone being buried in his own tomb]; But you [have been thrown] [from] your [tomb] Like [an abominable] branch, Like the garment of those who are slain [by being] Thrust through with a sword, Who go down to the stones of the pit [in the sense being thrown down to the stones at the bottom of a cistern], Like a corpse trodden underfoot, You will not be joined with them in burial, [in the sense of not being buried in a tomb like the other rulers would be] Because you have destroyed your land And [have] slain your people." (Isa 14:17-20a).

The taunt goes on to declare, "The [descendants] of evildoers shall never be named. Prepare for his sons a place of slaughter because of the iniquity [guilt] of their fathers [in the sense of descendants: fathers, grandfathers, etc.], they [will not rise nor have taken] possession of the earth And [have filled the surface] of the world with cities, (Isa 14:20b-21).

Furthermore, as an appendix to the taunt song against the king of Babylon of the future, the LORD of Hosts will judge the kingdom of Babylon unto destruction. God’s judgment is not limited to the king of Babylon, but against the people and land of Babylon itself. God will cut off its name, that is, its power and authority, and will not leave them a remnant (as He promised for Israel):

" 'But I will [have risen] against them' - [this] the declaration of the LORD of Hosts - 'and I will cut off from Babylon [her name in the sense of her reputation], and a remnant [in the sense of there will be no survivors], and offspring, and descendants' - [This is] the declaration of the LORD. 'And I will [have made] it for a possession of [the] hedgehog [porcupine] and [pools] of water [in the sense of muddy marshes], and I will [have swept] it away with [the] broom of destruction' - the declaration of the LORD of Hosts." Note that the kingdom of Babylon has been uninhabited for centuries as a desert, but not as a marsh. Only for a few years after Sennacherib razed the city and flooded its site, was it a marsh. But his son, Esarhaddon, his successor rebuilt the city, shortly thereafter. Hence the time of Isa 14:23 is is yet future, (Isa 14:22-23).

E) (24-27) THE LORD ALMIGHTY HAS SWORN TO BREAK ASSYRIA AND TRAMPLE HIM ON HIS MOUNTAINS, HENCE REMOVE ASSYRIA'S YOKE FROM HIS PEOPLE ISRAEL. AND THE LORD ALMIGHTY WILL COME AGAINST ALL WICKEDNESS IN ALL THE NATIONS OF THE WHOLE EARTH. NO ONE CAN COME AGAINST HIM OR TURN HIM BACK!

(Isa 14:24 NKJV) "The LORD of Hosts has sworn, saying, 'Surely as I have thought [planned], so it shall [have] come to pass. And as I have purposed [lit., planned], so it shall stand: (Isa 4:25 NASB) To break Assyria in My land, And I will trample him on My mountains. Then his yoke will be removed from them [in the sense of from His people who occupy His land and mountains] and his burden removed from their shoulder. (Isa 4:26 NKJV) This is the purpose that is purposed against the whole earth, And this is the hand that is stretched out over all the nations. (Isa 4:27 NKJV) For the LORD of Hosts has purposed, And who will annul it? His hand is stretched out, And who will turn it back?"

Isaiah moves once more to a prediction of the destruction of Assyria, (cf. Isa 10:5-19). The text reaffirms that what the LORD of Hosts - the LORD Almighty - has planned and sworn to, will come to pass. In this case, Assyria's forces will be broken in the land of the LORD, they will be trampled in His mountains. So the burden of Assyria upon the people of Judah who occupy the land of the LORD and His mountains will be removed. The prophecy ends with a general statement, that the LORD Almighty will come against all wickedness in all the nations of the whole earth. No one can come against Him or turn Him back!

Note that the details of the breaking and trampling of Assyria have already been dealt with in chapter 10:

****** EXCERPT FROM CHAPTER 10 ******

(ISA 10:5-19) CHAPTER TEN MOVES TO THE ROD OF THE LORD'S ANGER AND WRATH AGAINST HIS UNGODLY PEOPLE FROM THE SOUTHERN KINGDOM OF JUDAH: ASSYRIA, WHOM HE SENT TO TREAD THEM DOWN AND SEIZE THE SPOILS. THE ASSYRIAN KING WAS ARROGANT AND CONSIDERED THAT THE CONQUEST OF MANY NATIONS WAS SOLELY BY HIS OWN WISDOM AND STRENGTH. HE CONSIDERED THAT TO CUT DOWN MANY NATIONS WAS HIS DESTINY AND THAT HE WAS DEPENDENT UPON NO GOD. HE CLAIMED THAT HIS POWER WAS GREATER THAN ANY OF THE IDOLS WHOM THE CONQUERED NATIONS WORSHIPPED; AND THE IDOLS OF THOSE NATIONS HE CONSIDERED EXCELLED THOSE OF JERUSALEM AND SAMARIA (THE NORTHERN KINGDOM) BECAUSE OTHER NATIONS WHICH ASSYRIA HAD CONQUERED DEMONSTRATED SUPERIOR MILITARY POWER AGAINST JUDAH AND ISRAEL! SO WHEN THE WORK OF THE LORD UPON MT. ZION AND JERUSALEM WAS FINISHED, THE LORD WOULD DESTROY ASSYRIA

(Isa 10:5 HOLMAN) '''[The LORD spoke] "Woe to Assyria [lit., ashur] the rod of My anger - the staff in their hands is My wrath. (Isa 10:6 NKJV) I will send him against an ungodly nation, And against the people [destined for] My wrath. I ... give him charge, To seize the spoil, to take the prey, And to tread them down like the mire of the streets. (Isa 10:7 YLT) And he [the Assyrian king] - he thinks not so, [in the sense of this is not what he intends] And his heart reckons not so, [in the sense that this is not what he plans] For - to destroy [is] in his heart, And to cut off nations not a few [i.e., it is his intent to destroy and to cut off many nations]. (Isa 10:8 NKJV) For he [Assyrian king] says, 'Are not my princes kings? (Isa 10:9 NKJV) Is not Calno like Carchemish? Is not Hamath like Arpad? Is not Samaria like Damascus? (Isa 10:10 NKJV) As my [Assyria ruler] hand has [seized] the kingdoms of the idols [in the sense of graven images], Whose carved images excelled those of Jerusalem and Samaria, (Isa 10:11 ASV) Shall I [Assyrian ruler] not, as I have done unto Samaria and her idols, so do to Jerusalem and her idols?' " (Isa 10:12 NKJV) Therefore it shall come to pass when the LORD has performed all His work on Mount Zion and Jerusalem [through Assyrian conquest], that He will say, "I ... punish the fruit of the arrogant heart of the king of Assyria, and the glory of his haughty looks. (Isa 10:13 NKJV) For he [has said] 'By the strength of my hand I have done [it,] And by my wisdom, for I am prudent: Also I have removed the boundaries of the people, And have robbed their treasures; So I have put down the inhabitants like [the mighty ones - in the sense of mighty gods]. (Isa 10:14 NKJV) My hand [finds] like a nest the riches of the people, And as one gathers eggs that are left, I have gathered all the earth; And there was no one who moved his wing, Nor opened his mouth with even a peep.' " (Isa 10:15 NKJV) Shall the ax boast itself against him who chops with it? Or shall the saw exalt itself against him who saws with it? As if a rod could wield itself against those who lift it up, Or as if a staff could lift up, as if it were not wood! (Isa 10:16 NKJV) Therefore the LORD, the LORD of hosts, Will send leanness among his [Assyria's] fat ones; And under his [Assyria's] glory He [the LORD] will kindle a burning Like the burning of a fire. (Isa 10:17 YLT) And the [Light] of Israel [has] been for a fire, And his [Israel's] Holy One for a flame, And it [has] burned, and devoured his thorns [Assyria's] And his [Assyria's] briers in one day. (Isa 10:18 NKJV) And [He, the LORD] will consume the glory of his [Assyria's] forest and of his [Assyria's] fruitful field, Both soul and body; And they will be as when a sick man wastes away. (Isa 10:19 NKJV) Then the rest of the trees of his [Assyria's] forest [in the sense of soldiers] Will be so few in number That a child may write them [down, in the sense of number them]" ''' =

The Hebrew word rendered, "Woe," in 10:5, indicates that the LORD would severely punish Assyria. Hence verse 5 in Isaiah chapter ten moved from the exercise of the LORD's wrath upon His people of the Southern Kingdom of Judah to the rod of His anger and wrath which He used in that exercise: Assyria. He would severely punish Assyria once He had performed all His work on Mount Zion and Jerusalem. Although He would send Assyria as His unwitting agent "against an ungodly nation," referring to Judah - the people who were destined for the wrath of the LORD; and although He gave Assyria "charge to seize the spoil, take the prey, and tread His people down like the mire of the streets;" the Assyrians would nevertheless experience the wrath of the LORD after that. It is implied that in His sovereignty, the LORD has the capacity to and did use, as His agent, nations such as Assyria, a stranger to Him, and an ungodly people, to be His tool to exercise His wrath due upon His people, Judah, (Isa 10:5-6).

The Assyrian king of that time in history did not consider that he was the tool of the LORD. He thought his power was superior to the idols/gods of the nations his nation had conquered including Samaria [the Northern Kingdom, its capitol - indicating that Samaria was worshipping idols instead of the LORD]; and superior to the idols which he considered that Judah was worshipping because that nation was successfully attacked a number of times by some of the nations which his army had conquered, (Aram and Samaria and others). The king's heart (mind) was set upon destroying many nations without any help from the LORD, or from any of the gods whom the conquered nations worshipped. The king had no thoughts of serving anyone but himself. He arrogantly justified his motives in his own mind, 'Are not my princes kings?' [referring to his subordinate leaders and implying that he would conquer nations and give his princes rule over them] - as if it was his right and destiny to rule over the nations of the world through those who were subordinate to him. The Assyrian ruler noted to himself that the following Aramean cities had been conquered by Assyria: Calno and Arpad, (in northern Syria. Calno was conquered by Tiglath-Pileser III in 738 B.C.), Damascus, (in 732), Samaria, (the capital of the Northern Kingdom of Israel was destroyed by Shalmaneser V in 722), Hamath, (on the Orontes in 720), and Carchemish, (a former capital of the Hittite Empire, on the upper Euphrates was conquered by Sargon II in 717). Note that these conquests were accomplished by a series of Assyrian monarchs - not just one king. Evidently all the kings of Assyria were of the same arrogant, ungodly attitude and practice. Each one prided himself on being above the gods of those nations they conquered, declaring himself to be King of the Universe - hence exalting themselves even above their own gods.

Hence the king of Assyria at this time would reason, 'Is not Jerusalem attainable.' For in his mind, the gods of Aram, which nation was conquered by Assyria, were greater than "the idols," which he considered Jerusalem, (Judah), worshipped. For Aram had succeeded in battle against Judah a number of times, short of taking the city. By this the king of Assyria was measuring the strength of a kingdom's god(s) with the capacity and accomplishments of its military power egoistically limited to the short period of time in history when the Assyrians were dominant in their part of the world. So the Assyrian ruler arrogantly and boastfully concluded that he could easily conquer Jerusalem, impugning the sovereignty of the LORD - the God of Israel, Whom he did not know, for he indicated that those of Jerusalem worshipped idols, (cf. Is 36:19-20; 37:12). This arrogance corroborated that the current king, typical of the kings of Assyria, was chiefly motivated by aggressive and cruel expansionism - which would bring about his undoing by the LORD. The sad fact is that Samaria and Jerusalem at this time were worshipping idols instead of the LORD, which made them the target of the wrath of the LORD and easy prey for Assyria, (Isa 10:7-11).

Therefore, when the LORD has performed all of His work on Mount Zion and Jerusalem, "Zion" referring to the rulership as opposed to "Jerusalem," the people in general, through the actions of Assyria; then He will say, "I ... punish the fruit of the arrogant heart of the king of Assyria, and the glory of his haughty looks. For he [has said] 'By the strength of my hand I have done [it,] And by my wisdom, for I am prudent... [The first person singular "I" and "my" are repeatedly used by the king to convince himself that he had achieved all of this by his own strength and wisdom - not recognizing God's sovereignty]: "Also I have removed the boundaries of the people, [in the sense of scattering the people or taking them into captivity as slaves and including their territory into the Assyrian Empire] And have robbed their treasures; So I have put down the inhabitants like [the mighty ones - in the sense of mighty gods]. [i.e., he considers himself invincible and godlike]. My hand [finds] like a nest the riches of the people, And as one gathers eggs that are left, I have gathered all the earth; And there was no one who moved his wing, Nor opened his mouth with even a peep,' " ''' In his insufferable arrogance he thought to himself how he had conquered other nations and took their wealth as easily as one takes eggs left in a nest. No one was able to oppose him, (Isa 10:12-14).

But the LORD declared, "Shall the ax [referring to Assyria] boast itself against Him who chops with it? [referring to the LORD and His sovereignty in the working of Assyria to do His bidding - not the other way around]. "Or Shall the saw exalt itself against him who saws with it?" [i.e., the instrument is not above the One who uses it, nor has a choice in what it does outside of the sovereignty of that One - referring to the LORD]. In the same vein, the verse goes on to say, "As if a rod could wield itself against those who lift it up, Or as if a staff could lift itself up, as if it were not wood [but a sentient being]!"

The consequence of the arrogance of Assyria is declared in the next verse with graphic imagery portraying the destruction of the Assyrians through the wasting away of consumptive disease and suddenly as a forest fire quickly burns up everything in its path: "Therefore the LORD, the LORD of hosts, Will send leanness among his [Assyria's] fat ones; [in the sense of causing a wasting away of human flesh, i.e., consumptive disease] And under his [Assyria's] glory He [the LORD] will kindle a burning Like the burning of a fire. And the [Light] of Israel [the phrase the Light of Israel is a title for the God of Israel Who enlightens with absolute truth] [has] been for a fire, And his [Israel's] Holy One for a flame, And it [has] burned, and devoured his thorns [Assyria's] And his [Assyria's] briers in one day. And [He, the LORD] will consume the glory of his [Assyria's] forest and of his [Assyria's] fruitful field. Both soul and body [i.e., utterly]."

[Note that the word rendered "fruitful field," literally, "Carmel," was a rich mountain in Assyria. It was used figuratively for Sennacherib's mighty army. The terms rendered 'Thorns,' 'briers,' 'fruitful field' and 'forest' refer to all the persons and possessions - the wealth of the Assyrian Empire]

"And they will be as when a sick man wastes away. Then the rest of the trees of his [Assyria's] forest [in the sense of soldiers] Will be so few in number That a child may write them [down, in the sense of number them]" '''

So the LORD would destroy Assyria's soldiers through consumptive disease or destroy them as trees are massively and suddenly burned in a forest fire. Note that in 688 B.C. 185,000 Assyrian soldiers surrounding Jerusalem were killed in a single day, (37:36-37). Then in 609 B.C. the Assyrian Empire fell to Babylon. The number of soldiers that survived would be so few that even a child could count them. Notice that not all of the Assyrians would be destroyed. There would be a remnant of them who would be preserved, (Isa 10:15-19).

****** END OF EXCERPT FROM CHAPTER 10 ******

F) (28-32) IN THE YEAR 715 B.C., WHEN KING AHAZ DIED, AN ORACLE FOR THE BENEFIT OF JUDAH CAME TO ISAIAH CONCERNING PHILISTIA: ISAIAH WARNED PHILISTIA NOT TO REJOICE "BECAUSE THE ROD OF OF THE ONE WHO STRUCK [THEM WAS] BROKEN. FOR A VIPER WILL COME OUT OF THE ROOT OF A SNAKE, AND FROM IT'S OFFSPRING COMES A FLYING SERPENT." BUT PHILISTIA FELT WELL FED AND SAFE. SO SHE REBELLED AGAINST ASSYRIA. BUT THE LORD SPOKE, AND IN 711 B.C. PHILISTIA SUFFERED FAMINE - KILLING THEIR ROOTS. AND THEN ASSYRIA'S FORCES CAME FROM THE NORTH INTO ASHDOD, SLAYING PHILISTIA'S REMNANT. PHILISTIA'S ENTREATY TO JUDAH TO JOIN THEM IN BATTLE AGAINST ASSYRIA WAS ANSWERED: "THAT THE LORD HAS FOUNDED ZION, AND THE AFFLICTED OF HIS PEOPLE WILL SEEK REFUGE IN IT.

(Isa 14:28 NASB) In the year that King Ahaz died this oracle [has come]: (Isa 14:29 Holman) Don't rejoice, all of you [in] Philistia, because the rod of the one who struck you is broken. For a viper will come out of the root of a snake, and from its [offspring] comes a flying serpent. (Isa 14:30 NKJV) The firstborn of the poor will feed, And the needy will lie down in safety; I will kill your roots with famine, And it will slay your remnant. (Isa 14:31 NASB) Wail, O gate! cry, O city! [All of you will have been melted] away, O Philistia, for smoke [will have] come from the North, And there is no straggler in [the] ranks [of the approaching invader's army from the North] (Isa 14:32 NASB) How then will one answer the messengers of the nation [referring to Philistia's entreaty to Judah to join them against Assyria]? That the LORD has founded Zion, And the afflicted of His people will seek refuge in it." =

Isaiah's next oracle goes back to 715 B.C. - the year that King Ahaz died. Isaiah warned Philistia not to rejoice "Because the rod of the one who struck you is broken. For a viper will come out of the root of a snake, and from its [offspring] comes a flying serpent." The broken rod refers to the ruler of Assyria who was perceived as broken because, after the death of Assyrian King Shalmaneser V in 722 B.C., his successor, Sargon II became occupied with revolts at the other end of his empire. He was unsuccessful at driving Merodach-Baladan out of Babylon. Isaiah's warning was not heeded by Philistia. Ashdod, the Philistine city revolted against Assyria. In 711 B.C., only four years after this oracle, Assyria defeated Ashdod and made Philistia an Assyrian province. As the warning stated, "For a viper, (Sargon II), will come out of the root of a snake, (Shalmaneser V), and from its offspring comes a flying serpent [- each ruler more venomous than the one before]. But at first the Philistines felt safe, for even the firstborn of the poor were fed, and the needy lied down in safety. But soon many would succomb to famine; the remainder - the remnant - by the sword of the Assyrians.

So Philistia would wail as the cloud of smoke came from the north signifying the approaching Assyrian army, leaving the smoke of burning cities in their wake. The Philistines would melt with terror. Note that the question in verse 32a is asked, "How then will one answer the messengers of the nation [referring to Philistia's entreaty to Judah to join them against Assyria]. And Judah's response evidently was that she would not join Philistia in the battle against Assyria: "That the LORD has founded Zion, [in the sense of Jerusalem, His city for His people] And the afflicted of His people will seek refuge in it." And Sargon II did not attack Jerusalem. Later, Sennacherib attacked Jerusalem and the LORD slain 185,000 soldiers.

CONTINUE TO ISAIAH CHAPTER 15