If a worldwide flood was a reality, (and Scripture & physical evidence testifies that it was), then it supports a recent, designed and orchestrated creation and answers a lot of questions which plague evolutionists.

For example, evidence of a worldwide flood appears throughout the world, even on high mountain tops and mile deep canyons. Often upper ('later') rock strata show supposedly much ('earlier') life forms than lower strata, contradicting evolutionary models, but corroborating the Biblical creation/flood model. For the ebb and flow of distant flood currents often deposited drowned life forms out of the so-called order of the evolutionary model simply because the flood currents came from farther away, often depositing 'earlier' drowned life forms on top of 'later' life forms.

[Henry Morris states, The Genesis Record, op. cit., pp 211-213]:


The world had not been annihilated by the Flood, but it was drastically changed. As the apostle Peter says, 'The world that then was, being overflowed with water, perished' (II Peter 3:6). When they left the Ark that had preserved them through that year of God's awful wrath, Noah and his family truly disembarked on a new world. The Ark had provided the bridge - seemingly fragile and easily demolished - from the old cosmos through the terrible Cataclysm to the present cosmos, 'the heavens and the earth which are now' (II Peter 3:7).

The lands that once had teemed with animals and people and lush vegetation had been replaced by a desolate wilderness. The air which formerly was warm and gentle now moved in stiff and sometimes violent winds, and there was a chill on the mountain slope where the Ark rested. Dark clouds rolling about the sky, which had once been perpetually and pleasantly bright, seemed to threaten more rains and a recurrence of flood conditions. At the same time, however, the earth had been purged of the wicked hordes that had made its physical beauty only a mockery, and God had granted a gracious opportunity for a new beginning for the children of Adam.

Some of the implied physical changes after the Flood are as follows:

(1) The oceans were much more extensive, since they now contained all the waters which once were 'above the firmament' and in the subterranean reservoirs of the 'great deep.'

(2) The land areas were much less extensive than before the Flood, with a much greater portion of its surface uninhabitable for this reason.

(3) The... [canopy top] ....had been dissipated, so that strong temperature differentials were inaugurated, leading to a gradual buildup of snow and ice in the polar latitudes, rendering much of the extreme northern and southern land surfaces also essentially uninhabitable.

(4) Mountain ranges uplifted after the Flood emphasized the more rugged topography of the postdiluvian continents, with many of these regions also becoming unfit for human habitation.

(5) Winds and storms, rains and snows, were possible now, thus rendering the total environment less congenial to man and animals than had once been the case.

(6) The environment was also more hostile because of harmful radiation from space, no longer filtered out by the vapor canopy, resulting (along with other contributing environmental factors) in gradual reduction in human longevity after the Flood.

(7) Tremendous glaciers, rivers, and lakes existed for a time, with the world only gradually approaching its present state of semiaridity.

(8) Because of the tremendous physiographic and isostatic movements generated by the collapse of the subterranean caverns and the post-Flood uplifts, the crust of the earth was in a state of general instability, reflected in recurrent volcanic and seismic activity all over the world for many centuries and continuing in some degree even to the present.

(9) The lands were barren of vegetation, until such time as plant life could be reestablished through the sprouting seeds and cuttings buried beneath the surface.

(10) There is even a possibility that the earth's rotation speeded up by about 1.5 percent if the year was really 360 days long.

Scattered around on the land surfaces were occasional rotting carcasses and skeletons of the animals and people doomed in the waters of the Flood, a vivid reminder of the ungodliness of the antediluvian world and the fate from which God had delivered the survivors. Since the new land surfaces probably had been formed mainly from the prediluvian seas, filled with sediments and then uplifted, more such remains were buried in the sediments beneath the land surfaces.

These sediments were rapidly being lithified, through the eroded and dissolved cementing agents present in the waters that had deposited the sediments, thus becoming the great beds of fossil-bearing sedimentary rocks that are now found everywhere around the world. The fossils so preserved were not heterogeneously dispersed throughout the sediments, but were generally deposited in a certain statistical order, from the more simple marine invertebrate organisms on the bottom to complex land vertebrates near the top.

This is in the order of (1) increasing elevation of natural habitat, with fossil assemblages tending to be buried in association with the same ecological communities in which they had lived; (2) increasing ability to flee from the encroaching Flood waters; (3) increasing resistance to hydrodynamic forces and therefore an increasing tendency to be transported farther and deposited more slowly. Thus, in general, at any one locality, there would be a definite tendency for similar kinds of animals to be buried at about the same levels, and for different kinds to be buried in order of increasing size and complexity.

This order is exactly what is commonly found in the sedimentary rocks (with many statistical exceptions, of course, as is to be expected of such catastrophic phenomena as were occurring during the Flood), and thus clearly confirms the predictions based on the Flood 'model' as outlined in the Biblical record. However, it has been deplorably misinterpreted by modern uniformitarian geologists to teach a gradual evolution of life (from simple marine invertebrate organisms to complex land vertebrates) through long geological ages.

Evolutionists have arranged these supposed 'geological ages' in a supposed chronological order, purportedly extending vertically upward through the 'geological column' of sedimentary rocks deposited above the crystalline rocks on the bottom. the fossils found in theses rocks, proceeding supposedly from simple to complex, comprise their best evidence for the theory of organic evolution. Thus, if the fossiliferous deposits are mainly records of the Flood year, instead of millions of years of upward evolutionary struggle, the entire evolutionary system is scientifically bankrupt. There is little wonder, therefore, that the concept of the geological ages is defended with such fervor, and that 'flood geology' is ridiculed or ignored.

One should recognize, too, that nowhere in the world does the so-called geological column actually occur. It is possible for any vertical sequence of these 'ages.' or any portion of them, to exist in any given locality. Any age may be on the bottom, any on top, and any in between. The contained fossils - rather than vertical superposition or any other physical feature of the formation - constitute the controlling factor in the 'age' assigned it. Thus the theory of evolution is assumed in building up the geological column, and then the latter is taken as the main proof of the theory of evolution!

The fossils in this geological column, however, speak eloquently of death, and therefore they must have been deposited after Adam's fall and God's curse. Thus, both the Biblical and scientific data, rightly understood, show that the earth's great fossil graveyards must for the most part have been buried by the Flood and its after-effects. The record in the rocks is not a testimony to evolution, but rather to God's sovereign power and judgment on sin."

[Henry Morris, op. cit., p. 683-686]:


Central to the question of the historicity of the early chapters of Genesis is the question whether the Noahic Flood was global or only regional. A worldwide Flood would have cataclysmically changed the entire surface of the globe, including any fossil-bearing sedimentary rocks that may have been formed prior to that time. Consequently, the earth's present fossiliferous sediments must date largely from the time of their deposition in the waters of the great Flood.

On the other hand, the modern evolutionary system of earth history denies any such global cataclysm and is based on the assumption of uniformitarianism. The sedimentary rocks and their fossil contents have been interpreted as evidence of a vast series of evolutionary ages extending over billions of years of time, deposited slowly and generally uniformly over the earth as living organisms gradually evolved into higher and higher forms during those ages.

The 'day-age theory' is the attempt by Bible expositors to accommodate these evolutionary ages within the framework of the six days of creation. The 'gap theory' is the attempt by other expositors to accommodate them outside the framework of the six days of creation. Both such theories, if consistent, are associated with the 'local flood theory,' since a universal Flood would have destroyed the sedimentary framework of the geological ages. That is, a universal Flood precludes the historicity of the geological ages, and vice versa.

If the Genesis Flood actually was worldwide, then the strained exegesis associated with the day-age and gap theories becomes unnecessary and harmful. In the tabulation below, therefore, are listed... ...reasons why the Flood should be accepted as a true global cataclysm.



Reference Argument:

1) 1:7 Water above the atmosphere must have been global in extent.

2) 2:5 No rain on the earth must have been worldwide condition.

3) 2:6 Earth mist watered the whole face of the ground.

4) 2:10-14 Edenic geography no longer in existence.

5) 4:22 High civilization at dawn of history not continuous with present world.

6) 5:5, etc. Longevity of antediluvian patriarchs indicates distinctive biosphere.

7) 6:1 Man had multiplied on the face of the earth.

8) 6:2 Demonic-human unions coextensive with mankind.

9) 6:5 Universal evil inexplicable in postdiluvian society.

10) 6:6-7 Repentance of God extended to the whole animal creation.

11) 6:11 Earth was filled with violence and corruption before God.

12) 6:12 All flesh was corrupted (possibly including animals).

13) 6:13 God decided to destroy both man and the earth.

14) 6:15 Ark too large for regional fauna.

15) 6:17 Everything with the breath of life to die.

16) 6:19 Purpose of ark was to keep two of every sort alive.

17) 6:20 Animals of all kinds migrated to the ark.

18) 6:21 All kinds of edible food taken on the ark.

19) 7:4 Every living substance on the ground to be destroyed.

20) 7:10 'The flood' (Hebrew mabbul)) applies solely to Noah's Flood.

21) 7:11 All the fountains of the great deep cleaved open in one day.

22) 7:11 The 'sluiceways from the floodgates' of heaven were opened..

23) 7:12 Rain poured continuously for forty days and forty nights.

24) 7:18 The waters prevailed and increased greatly.

25) 7:19 High hills under the whole heaven were covered.

26) 7:20 Waters fifteen cubits above highest mountains.

27) 7:21 Every man died on the earth.

28) 7:22 All flesh with the breath of life in the dry land died.

29) 7:23 Every living substance destroyed off the face of the ground.

30) 7:24 Waters at maximum height for five months.

31) 8:2 Fountains of deep open for five months.

32) 8:2 Fountains of deep open for five months.

33) 8:4 Ark floated over 17,000-ft. mountains for five months.

34) 8:5 Water receded 2- months before mountain tops seen.

35) 8:9 Dove found no suitable ground even after four months of recession.

36) 8:11 Plants began budding after nine months of the Flood.

37) 8:14 Occupants were in the ark over a year.

38) 8:19 All kinds of present nonmarine animals came from the ark.

39) 8:21 God smote all things living only once.

40) 8:22 Present uniformity of nature dates from the end of the Flood.

41) 9:1 Earth was to be filled with descendants of Noah.

42) 9:2 Changed relation between man and animals followed the Flood.

43) 9:3 Man permitted animal food after Flood.

44) 9:6 Institution of human government dates from Flood.

45) 9:10 God's covenant made with every living creature.

46) 9:11 The Flood promised by God never to come again on the earth.

47) 9:13 Rainbow placed in sky after the Flood.

48) 9:19 Whole earth overspread by the sons of Noah.

49) 11:1 Whole earth of one language after the Flood.

50) 11:9 All men lived in one place after the Flood.


51) Job 12:15 The waters overturned the earth.

52) Psalm 29:10 The Flood testified God as eternal king.

53) Psalm 104:8 Flood terminated by crustal tectonics

54) Isaiah 55:9 Waters of Noah went over the earth.

55) Matthew 24:37 The days of Noah like those when Christ comes.

56) Matthew 24:39 The Flood took them all away.

57) Luke 17:27 The Flood destroyed them all.

58) Hebrews 11:7 Noah warned of things never seen before.

59) Hebrews 11:7 Noah condemned the world by his faith.

60) I Peter 3:20 Only eight souls saved on the ark through the Flood.

61) II Peter 2:5 God spared not the old world (Greek kosmos).

62) II Peter 2:5 God brought the Flood on the world of the ungodly.

63) II Peter 2:5 The 'flood' (Greek kataklusmos) applied solely to Noah's Flood.

64) II Peter 3:6 The world that then was, perished by the watery cataclysm.


65) Worldwide distribution of Flood traditions.

66) Origin of civilization near Ararat-Babylon region in post-Flood time.

67) Convergence of population growth statistics on date of Flood.

68) Dating of oldest living things at post-Flood time.

69) Worldwide occurrence of water-laid sediments and sedimentary rocks.

70) Recent uplift of major mountain ranges.

71) Marine fossils on crests of mountains.

72) Evidence of former worldwide warm climate.

73) Necessity of catastrophic burial and rapid lithification of fossil deposits.

74) Recent origin of many datable geological processes.

75) Worldwide distribution of all types of fossils.

76) Uniform physical appearance of rocks from different 'ages.'

77) Frequent mixing of fossils from different 'ages.'

78) Near-random deposition of formational sequences.

79) Equivalence of total organic material in present world and fossil world.

80) Wide distribution of recent volcanic rocks.

81) Evidence of recent water bodies in present desert areas.

82) Worldwide occurrence of raised shore lines and river terraces.

83) Evidence of recent drastic rise in sea level.

84) Universal occurrence of rivers in valleys too large for the present stream.

85) Sudden extinction of dinosaurs and other prehistoric animals.

86) Rapid onset of glacial period.

87) Existence of polystrate fossils.

88) Preservation of tracks and other ephemeral markings throughout geologic column.

89) Worldwide occurrence of sedimentary fossil 'graveyards' in rocks of all 'ages.'

90) Absence of any physical evidence of chronologic boundary between rocks of successive 'ages.'

91) Occurrence of all rock types (shale, limestone, granite, etc) in all 'ages.'

92) Parallel of supposed evolutionary sequence through different 'ages' with modern ecological zonation in the one present age.

93) Lack of correlation of most radiometric 'ages' with assumed paleontologic 'ages.'

94) Absence of meteorites in geologic column.

95) Absence of hail imprints in geologic column, despite abundance of fossil ripple-marks and raindrop imprints.

96) Evidence of ;man's existence during earliest of geologic 'ages' (e.g., human footprints in Cambrian, Carboniferous, and Cretaceous formations).

97) Similar structural features (rifts, faults, folds, thrusts, etc.) in rocks of all 'ages.'

98) Absence of evidence of drainage systems in sediments of any 'ages' except the most recent.

99) Hydraulic evidence of rapid deposition of each stratum and of continuous formation of every sequence of strata, with no worldwide time gap between any formation and another above it.

100) Numerous modern sightings of probable remains of Noah's ark at about 15,000 feet elevation in ice cap on Mount Ararat."

[Dr J. Vernon McGee states, ("Thru the Bible with J. Vernon McGee," Volume 1, Thomas Nelson Publishers, Nashville, 1981, p.45)]:

"There have been other discoveries that have revealed something concerning the Flood, and I would like to pass on to you the words of Dr. J. E. Shelley who takes the position that the Flood was universal, that it covered the entire earth: 'The most striking example of this is found in the case of the mammoths. These elephants are found buried in the frozen silt of the Tundra, Siberia, all over the length of the Continent of Asia, and in the North of Alaska and Canada. They are found in herds on the higher ground not bogged in marshes, hundreds of thousands in number.' He goes on to say that these elephants have been examined and found to have drowned. If they had just gotten bogged down, they would have died of starvation. 'The farther north one goes, the more there are, till the soil of the islands of the White Sea inside the Arctic circle consists largely of their bones mingled with those of sabre-tooth tiger, giant elk, cave bear, musk ox, and with trunks of trees and trees rooted in the soil.

There are now no trees in those regions, the nearest being hundreds almost thousands of miles away. The mammoth could not eat the stunted vegetation which now grows in this region for but three months in the year, a hundred square miles of which would not keep one of them alive for a month. the food in their stomachs is pine, hawthorn branches, etc. These mammoths were buried alive in the silt when that silt was soft. They and the silt were then suddenly frozen and have never been unfrozen. For they show no signs of decomposition. Mammoth ivory has been sold on the London docks for more than a thousand years. The Natural History Museum purchased a mammoth's head and tusks from the ivory store of the London Docks. This head was absolutely fresh and was covered with its original fur.' "

[Dr Carl E Baugh, op cit, p75-85]:

"One of the areas of topical consideration in the world today, and found in all primary records of all the cultures of man, is that there was a worldwide flood at some time in the past. Not only are there records of a worldwide flood in the legends of nations and civilizations of history, but over five hundred cultures have left writings or oral records relating how a few people survived a flood....

For example, in the chronicles of Babylon, the gods were said to have told a man to build a boat with nine decks, and to fill it with cattle, wild beasts, and food, because the world was to be destroyed by a flood. After a rain lasting six days, according to the Babylonian record, this Chaldean Noah sent out a dove, a swallow, and a raven. Again, according to the ancient Babylonian account, when the man left his ship, he offered a sacrifice, and the gods were so pleased they made this man and his family gods also.

In an ancient Greek legend, a man made a box in which he put all the things necessary for life. The story continues to relate that the god Zeus sent a great rain, and the man and his wife closed themselves in the box. Everyone else died in the flood, except those who could climb on top of the highest mountains, and after nine days and nights, the rain stopped and the man and his wife closed themselves in the box.

In India, there is a traditional account of a fish named Mannu that warned a man about a flood that would kill everything. The man built a boat and only he was able to escape.

Dr. John Morris in his book Noah's Ark and the Lost World, recounts many of the legends and traditions of past civilizations about a flood that killed all the people in the world with the exception of a few souls.

In all the various accounts by different nations, races, and languages, the essential facts relating to a great deluge correspond with the Biblical record. In legend after legend, in report after report, the collective evidence is that there was a flood that covered the earth and there were only a few survivors.

To continue and mention a few additional traditions relating to the Flood, in America the Lenni Lenape Indians believed that there was a time when a powerful snake made all people wicked. The snake caused water to destroy everything, according to this Indian legend. But on an island, there lived a man named Manabozho, the grandfather of all men, and he was saved from the flood by riding on the back of a turtle.....

In Peru, the natives handed down a story from generation to generation which tells about a shepherd and his family. It was noticed one day, according to the narrative, that their Llamas were sad. Upon investigation concerning the despondent animals, the family learned from the stars that a great flood was coming. The shepherd and his family climbed a high mountain, and as the waters rose, the top of the mountain began to float, so they were saved.

In the South Pacific, natives told how a fish hook got caught in the hair of an ocean god. The god awoke in an angry mood and decided that all people should be killed. The fisherman begged for forgiveness, so the god told him to go to an island where he would be saved when the flood came.

While there can be no credibility linking an isolated myth, legend, or tradition to a literal historical event, in the case of the Flood where such accounts are found in five hundred different sources completely around the earth, the evidence be becomes overwhelming.....

... the Biblical record is the accurate and uncontaminated record of the Flood, because it is the only one that can be entirely substantiated and supported by scientific evidence. Dr. Henry Morris, and others, have compiled evidence which shows that a global flood did occur. Professor M. E. Clark, University of Illinois, and Dr. Henry Voss have formulated a model which shows the global sedimentary context formed by the effect of the moon on the waters during the Flood. The academic impact is that there is evidence of a global flood and there is a global association in the laminated layers of sedimentary rock. The intercontinental linking evidence is that before the continents were separated, there was a great Flood. Raised beaches and terraces, even on mountain tops, and great beds of fossils are found which show that life forms tend to gravitate together in a time of cataclysmic events. In these fossil beds literally millions, and some times even billions, of life forms are preserved in rapidly hardening litifying stone.

Limestone is calcium carbonate, which is of the same chemical composition as concrete, and it must harden rapidly or it does not harden at all. So, the evidence is that there was a Flood; that it was more than a localized flood; and, that it was a flood of global proportions....

...what caused the Flood... while tentative, fits the facts under consideration. To begin, we recap the conditions before the Flood where there was a canopy of thin compressed hydrogen encompassed by layers of water above the earth. The atmospheric pressure was greater, as was the oxygen content, in order to support the huge life forms which then existed. Radio waves bearing music from the stars were received by the crystals in the sand and amplified into musical vibrations. The radio waves from the stars would also have affected the water table. It has been found by scientific research that a crystal, such as silicon sand, does a very special thing in the presence of water when attinuated by radio signals. It begins to vibrate, and adjacent water begins to pump, sometimes on a molecular level, through the layers of the silica sand, thus cleansing the water of molecular impurities.....

The resonating water did something else, as well. In the presence of a crystal, which is being energized by long radio wave signals, water begins to pump, resulting in the rising of the water table as though being orchestrated by the stars. Therefore, at the morning hour before the Flood, there must have been a continuous and gentle flow of water from the subsurface upward, resulting in gentle flowing, resonant streams feeding into larger streams. Such a water system would have also resulted in a mist rising up and dampening all the ground with moisture. The mist would have absorbed from the air the abundant oxygen, making all the water sources laden with this essential lifegiving element for all marine life. When oxygen is depleted from the water, marine life suffers. But before the Flood, oxygen in the water was so abundant that all forms of life which lived in the water grew to enormous size. We again note that the environment and ecology before the Flood would be what we would call a 'paradise.'

Within the earth, as we have already noted, there would have existed thermonuclear mechanics to keep the atmosphere and Earth's surface within an approximate range of seventy-two to seventy-eight degrees Fahrenheit. The earth's crust was of granite composition from six to sixteen miles thick (as it is today) with huge reservoirs of water retained underneath.

As to the specific causes of the flood, we refer to the Genesis record [7:10-12], which gives a clear scientific sequence: 'and it came to pass after seven days, that the waters of the Flood were upon the earth. In the six hundredth year of noah's life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the foundations of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened. And the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty nights'

Here are listed three things that happened in perfect order:

1) The fountains of the great deep were broken up.

2) The windows of heaven were opened.

3) It began to rain, and the rain lasted for forty days and forty nights.

Imagine the world as it was then, with a canopy about eleven miles above the earth; the solid shell of granite; the interior with great reservoirs of water, including huge pools of asphalt and oil in the original hydrocarbon, pristine form; and radioisotopic elements perfectly balanced, with a hard core of iron-based material at the center.....

[Cp Ps 46:6]:

"Nations are in uproar, kingdoms fall;

He lifts His voice, the earth melts."

Psalm 46:6 states that God uttered His voice, and the earth melted....This would have been similar to the atomic melting that occurred at Chernobyl in Russia - meltdown within a thermonuclear context....

..there was a resulting thermonuclear meltdown. God uttered His voice and the earth melted....

With the simple statement, 'I have had enough,' God could have brought.. [judgment] ..of the Flood with his voice. The physical qualities of such voice enhancement probably brought a universal microwave reaction.... That microwave energy traps the water molecules, because the water molecule is approximately the same dimension as the vibration spectrum. The microwave energy traps the water molecules and heats them up.....

...when water encased in the earth is heated to two hundred and fifty degrees, that heat adds to pressure, more pressure adds to heat, more heat adds to pressure, etc., and in a matter of minutes, something has to give. In the computer model, it became evident that where the granite crust of the earth was thinner, eruptions would have begun, probably in the Pacific area.

If you were to photograph, at rapid shutter speed, an egg rupturing under microwave energy, you could see it in the picture being torn apart at the seams. The egg would be blown apart in small pieces and larger pieces, as in the case with the earth continents and islands. Dr. Brown postulated from his computer model that the ripping apart of the earth at the seams before the Flood would have occurred at two and one-half miles per second. He found that it would have taken only eight minutes to rip the earth into continents. they would not have been separated at this time, but simply ripped apart at the seams.

Dr. Brown also found that the computer analysis revealed that when the earth ruptured, water would have been expunged in a narrow band of jet streams with such force it would have erupted seventy miles high....

...when the fountains of the deep were broken up, water streams heated to two hundred and fifty degrees Fahrenheit, or hotter, was thrown up against the canopy ripping holes or windows through it. As the Genesis account describes, the windows of heaven were opened.

[Gen 7:11]:

"In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened."

The voice of God surging through the earth at microspeed energy would have created ultravibrations, inducing thermonuclear reaction inside the earth. As a result of the water that was heated above the boiling point being thrown against the canopy at great pressure, the canopy was broken up. The heated water moderated the temperatures in the upper atmosphere and then the sun's full rays began to filter through the broken seams of the canopy. Thus, for the next forty days and forty nights, the canopy melted and fell upon the earth in the form of rain. Due to the lines of force at the earth's magnetic poles, the canopy would have fallen as ices and encased the great mammoths in their tracks.

Therefore, we have a possible mechanism which caused the continents to be thrust upon themselves, resulting in great mountains, as well as a tentative model for the conditions that brought upon the earth the Flood of Noah's day."

[So in summation] The VOICE OF GOD uttered with extreme intensity disrupts the designed balance within the earth. [Ps 46:6]: "God uttered his voice, and the earth melted" A literal thermonuclear meltdown ensues from the consequential imbalance. ...the violent release of energy causes the waters of the great deep to heat and rupture the granite crust of the earth....The force and velocity of the hot water breaks windows in the firmament.... The firmament collapses into rain..Mountain upthrust is a natural succession of events as the violent natural force of thee waters thrust the continental granite shelves upon themselves."

Dr John D. Morris states, ('Impact' periodical, 1992, article entitled, 'Why don't we find more human fossils?'):

"Over ninety-five percent of all fossils are marine creatures, such as clams, corals, trilobites - mostly invertebrates with a hard outer surface. Of the remaining five percent, most are plants. Much fewer than one percent of all fossils are land animals.

This encompasses reptiles (including dinosaurs) - amphibians, mammals, birds, and humans.

Land creatures have what we call a 'low-fossilization potential.' As land animals die in water, they bloat, float, and come apart. It is very difficult to trap a bloated animal under water, in order for it to be buried. Furthermore, scavengers readily devour both flesh and bone. Sea water and bacterial action destroy everything. The scouring ability of underwater mud flows, common during the Flood, would grind bone to powder.

Conversely, what land fossils are found were mostly laid down during the ice Age - a land-oriented event following the Flood, which had the ability to bury animals in land-derived deposits. (And, by the way, there are human fossils in those sediments.)

But the purpose of Noah's Flood was to destroy the land communities - not preserve them - especially humans. Some creationists even postulate the preFlood continents were subducted down into the mantle, totally annihilating all remnants of the civilizations. In any scenario, what land fossils were preserved would be buried late in the Flood, near the surface, and would have been subject to erosion and destruction once again as the Flood waters rushed off the rising continents.

Furthermore, we musn't over-estimate the pre-Flood population, by considering the patriarchal lives and families as typical, for 'the earth (was) filled with violence' (Genesis 6:13). Bloodshed would no doubt have terminated many family lines in both humans and animals.

For purposes of discussion, let us assume 300,000,000 people died in the Flood, and that each one was preserved as a fossil evenly distributed in the sedimentary record, which consists of about 300,0000,000 cubic miles. The chances of such a fossil intersecting the earth's surface, being found by someone, and then being properly and honestly identified, is vanishingly small.

On the other hand, if evolution is true, and humans have lived on Earth for three million years, many trillions have lived and died. Where are their fossils? This is the more vexing question."

[Dr. J. Vernon McGee states, ("Thru the Bible with J. Vernon McGee" volume 1, Thomas Nelson publishers, 1981, p. 45)]:

"As you know, the earth is not straight on its axis. We are off center, if you please. The magnetic center is different from the center on which we are revolving. Something happened somewhere along the line, and it is the belief of many that this [the time of the Flood] is when it took place. Because the earth revolves like that, that gives us our seasons. [And drastic differences in temperature and weather worldwide].