[Zech 12:1-13:1]:

(v. 12:1) '''This is the word of the LORD concerning Israel. The LORD, who stretches out the heavens, who lays the foundation of the earth, and who forms the spirit of man within him, declares:

(v. 12:2) "I am going to make Jerusalem a cup that sends all the surrounding peoples reeling. Judah will be besieged as well as Jerusalem.

(v. 12:3) On that day, when all the nations of the earth are gathered against her, I will make Jerusalem an immovable rock for all the nations. All who try to move it will injure themselves.

(v. 12:4) On that day I will strike every horse with panic and its rider with madness," declares the LORD. "I will keep a watchful eye over the house of Judah, but I will blind all the horses of the nations.

(v. 12:5) Then the leaders of Judah will say in their hearts, 'The people of Jerusalem are strong, because the LORD Almighty is their God.'

(v. 12:6) "On that day I will make the leaders of Judah like a firepot in a woodpile, like a flaming torch among sheaves. They will consume right and left all the surrounding peoples, but Jerusalem will remain intact in her place.

(v. 12:7) "The LORD will save the dwellings of Judah first, so that the honor of the house of David and of Jerusalem's inhabitants may not be greater than that of Judah.

(v. 12:8) On that day the LORD will shield those who live in Jerusalem, so that the feeblest among them will be like David, and the house of David will be like God, like the Angel of the LORD going before them.

(v. 12:9) On that day I will set out to destroy all the nations that attack Jerusalem.

(v. 12:10) "And I will pour out on the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem a spirit of grace and supplication. They will look on me, the one they have pierced, and they will mourn for him as one mourns for an only child, and grieve bitterly for him as one grieves for a firstborn son.


[Bible Knowledge Commentary, OT, Walvoord & Zuck Eds., Victor Books, USA, 1987, p. 1567-8]:

"Israel's spiritual deliverance at the Second Advent of Christ will be accomplished only by a divinely provided foundatin of cleansing (13:1) and the outpouring of the Holy Spirit to lead individual Israelites to repentant faith in Jesus as their Messiah (12:10-14).

(1) The outpouring of the Holy Spirit.

12:10a. Both leaders (the house of David) and commoners (the inhabitants of Jerusalem) - thus excluding no Israelites (cf. 13:1) - will be the objects of the outpouring of the divine spirit of grace and supplication. This is most probably a reference to the Holy Spirit... so called because He will minister graciously to Israel in her sinful condition and will lead her to supplication and repentance.


(2) The mourning of the nation Israel (12:10b-14). 12:10b. Thus Israelites will receive divine enablement to look on Me, the One they have pierced. The Lord refers to the nation's action of 'piercing to death.' The piercing evidently refers to the rejection of Christ (as God Incarnate) and crucifying Him, though the word does not specifically refer to the Crucifixion. The 'looking' could be either physical vision (sight) or spiritual vision (faith). Probably it refers here to both, for this will occur at the Second Advent of Christ when Israel will recognize her Messiah and turn to Him. The change to the third person (mourn for Him, rather than 'mourn for Me') is common in prophetic literature. The mourning for sin that is prompted by the outpoured Spirit is illustrated by a private act of mourning (v. 10) and a public act of mourning (v. 11). The loss of an only child or of a firstborn son was aggravated by the ffelt curse associated with childlessness and the lack of an heir to continue the family name and property.

(v. 12:11) On that day the weeping in Jerusalem will be great, like the weeping of Hadad Rimmon in the plain of Megiddo.

[BKC, cont.]:

"The future mourning of Israel over her Messiah is likened, in the second place (cf. v. 10), to the weeping on the day when godly King Josiah, the last hope of the fading Judean nation, was slain by Pharaoh Neco II, at Hadad Rimmon, traditionally identified as a village near Jezreel, in the plain of Megiddo (cf. 2 Chron 35:20-27). Thus the greatness of the mourning at this final outpouring of the Holy Spirit can be compared only to the weeping of a most extreme individual (Zech 12:10) and to corporate (v. 11) catastrophes of the nation."

(v. 12:12) The land will mourn, each clan by itself, with their wives by themselves: the clan of the house of David and their wives, the clan of the house of Nathan and their wives,

(v. 12:13) the clan of the house of Levi and their wives, the clan of Shimei and their wives,

(v. 12:14) and all the rest of the clans and their wives.

[BKC, cont.]

"These verses picture the universality and intensity of the nation's future mourning. David had a son named Nathan (2 Sam 5:14) and Levi had a grandson named Shimei (Num 3:17-18). There was also a Nathan who was a prophet in David's time (cf. 2 Sam 7:1-17). Thus the mention of the house of David... the house of Nathan... the house of Levi, and clan of Shimei may refer to the repentance (and guilt) of kings, prophets, and priests; or if the Nathan referred to is David's son, then just the royal and priestly families are specified. The phrase each clan by itself, with their wives by themselves seems to indicate the individuality and thus the sincerity of the mourning rather than a mere outward conformity."


(v. 13:1) "On that day a fountain will be opened to the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, to cleanse them from sin and impurity.

[BKC, cont.]:

"(3) The cleansing of the nation Israel (13:1-6). This section discusses the provision for Israel's cleansing (v. 1) and the removal idolatry and false prophecy (vv. 2-6).

13:1. That day refers to the future day of the Lord (cf. 14:1). The phrase 'on that day' occurs 16 times in these three closing chapters (12:3-4, 6, 8-9, 11; 13:1-2, 4; 14:4, 6, 8-9, 13, 20-21). On the day of Christ's crucifixion the fountain was opened potentially for all Israel and the whole world. At the Second Advent of Christ, the fountain will be opened experientially for the Jewish nation. This spiritual cleansing of the nation is associated in other passages of Scripture with Israel's spiritual regeneration and the inauguration of the New Covenant (e.g., Jer 31:31-37; Ezek 36:25-32; Rom 11:26-27). The house of David (political leaders) and the inhabitants of Jerusalem include all the people of the land (cf. Zech 12:10) who need cleansing. The terms sin and impurity can refer specifically to idolatry (cf. 'impurity' in 13:2; Ezek 7:19-20 speaks of gold being'unclean' and of idols being 'detestable'), but they probably have a broader reference here to the total sinful condition of the people."

[Compare Jer 31:31-37]:

(v. 31) ''' "The time is coming," declares the LORD, "when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah.

(v. 32) It will not be like the covenant I made with their forefathers when I took them by the hand to lead them out of Egypt, because they broke my covenant, though I was a husband to them, " declares the LORD.

(v. 33) "This is the covenant I will make with the house of Israel after that time," declares the LORD. "I will put my law in their minds and write it on their hearts. I will be their God, and they will be my people.

(v. 34) No longer will a man teach his neighbor, or a man his brother, saying, 'Know the LORD,' because they will all know me, from the least of them to the greatest," declares the LORD. "For I will forgive their wickedness and will remember their sins no more."

(v. 35) This is what the LORD says, he who appoints the sun to shine by day, who decrees the moon and stars to shine by night, who stirs up the sea so that its waves roar-- the LORD Almighty is his name:

(v. 36) "Only if these decrees vanish from my sight," declares the LORD, "will the descendants of Israel ever cease to be a nation before me."

(v. 37) This is what the LORD says: "Only if the heavens above can be measured and the foundations of the earth below be searched out will I reject all the descendants of Israel because of all they have done," declares the LORD.'''

[Compare Ezek 35:25-32]:

(v. 25) I will sprinkle clean water on you, and you will be clean; I will cleanse you from all your impurities and from all your idols.

(v. 26) I will give you a new heart and put a new spirit in you; I will remove from you your heart of stone and give you a heart of flesh.

(v. 27) And I will put my Spirit in you and move you to follow my decrees and be careful to keep my laws.

(v. 28) You will live in the land I gave your forefathers; you will be my people, and I will be your God.

(v. 29) I will save you from all your uncleanness. I will call for the grain and make it plentiful and will not bring famine upon you.

(v. 30) I will increase the fruit of the trees and the crops of the field, so that you will no longer suffer disgrace among the nations because of famine.

(v. 31) Then you will remember your evil ways and wicked deeds, and you will loathe yourselves for your sins and detestable practices.

(v. 32) I want you to know that I am not doing this for your sake, declares the Sovereign LORD. Be ashamed and disgraced for your conduct, O house of Israel!'''

[Compare Ro 11:1-27]:

(v. 1) "I ask then: Did God reject his people? By no means! I am an Israelite myself, a descendant of Abraham, from the tribe of Benjamin.

(v. 2) God did not reject his people [unfaithful Israel], whom he foreknew. Don't you know what the Scripture says in the passage about Elijah--how he appealed to God against Israel."

The context continues on through verse 5 with a major doctrinal point:

(v. 5) "So too, at the present time there is a remnant chosen by grace.

(v. 6) And if by grace, then it is no longer by works; if it were, grace would no longer be grace.

[If anything is by grace then it is no longer by works, i.e., by any human doing, otherwise grace would be no longer grace. This covers salvation which by this cannot be by anything one does. So being faithful is not in view in order to be saved which involves human doing]

(v. 7) What then? What Israel sought so earnestly it did not obtain, but the elect did. The others were hardened……

The context of groups of people continues on through verse 11:

(v. 11) Again I ask: Did they [unfaithful Israel] stumble so as to fall beyond recovery? Not at all! Rather, because of their transgression, salvation has come to the Gentiles to make Israel envious.

[Notice the group of people, the Gentiles is in view here, not individuals]

(v. 12) But if their [unfaithful Israel’s] transgression means riches for the world, and their [unfaithful Israel’s] loss means riches for the Gentiles [Notice: a group of people], how much greater riches will their fullness bring!

(v. 13) I am talking to you Gentiles [ a group of people]. Inasmuch as I am the apostle to the Gentiles, I make much of my ministry

[Notice that the focus is on the ministry of Paul to and through a group of people, the Gentiles. Paul goes on to indicate that this ministry to and through a group of people, Gentiles is the ministry of salvation to the whole world, as it was formerly and to be reinstituted through the people Israel, (v. 1, 15, 29-32]

(v. 14) in the hope that I may somehow arouse my own people [unfaithful Israel] to envy and save some of them

[some of the Israelites are saved but not through Israel’s ministry, now through Paul’s ministry to the Gentiles].

(v. 15) For if their [unfaithful Israel’s] rejection [as the ministry of the gospel to the world which leads to the Gentiles now being that ministry instead, v. 13)] is the reconciliation of the world, what will their [unfaithful Israel’s] acceptance [again as the ministry for the gospel to the world] be but life from the dead? [i.e., the ministry of the gospel of eternal life]

(v. 17) If some of the branches have been broken off, and you [Gentiles - again the context is whole groups of people, not individuals], though a wild olive shoot, have been grafted in among the others and now share in the nourishing sap from the olive root,

["If some of the branches have been broken off" = "some" refers to a partial rejection of unfaithful Israel for there is a remnant of Israel still faithful and still under God's blessing, (v. 5). "Some" does not refer to individuals but to the specific group of unfaithful Israel that has turned away from God]

(v. 18) do not boast over those branches . If you do, consider this: You do not support the root, but the root supports you.

(v. 19) You will say then, 'Branches were broken off so that I could be grafted in. [Gentiles - again the context is whole groups of people, not individuals], '

(v. 20) Granted. But they [unfaithful Israel] were broken off because of unbelief, and you [Gentiles]stand by faith. Do not be arrogant, but be afraid.

[Notice that the whole group of Gentiles is in view, not individuals. And they stand by faith as a whole group of people as Israel attempted to do in the past and failed and were cut off as God’s chosen people temporarily to deliver the message of salvation to the world. So whole groups of people are in view and their corporate faithfulness, not individuals. And the result of corporate unfaithfulness is being cut off:]

(v. 21) For if God did not spare the natural branches, he will not spare you [branch of Gentiles] either.

[So "will not spare" does not have individual salvation in view but not being spared from being cut off as a whole group of people from God’s chosen people to proclaim the message of salvation to the world]

(v. 22) "Consider therefore the kindness and sternness of God: sternness to those who fell [unfaithful Israel], but kindness to you [Gentiles], provided that you continue in his kindness. Otherwise, you also will be cut off [as a whole group of people from God’s chosen people to proclaim the message of salvation to the world]"

(v. 23) And if they do not persist in unbelief, they will be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again.

(v. 24) After all, if you were cut out of an olive tree that is wild by nature, and contrary to nature were grafted into a cultivated olive tree, how much more readily will these, the natural branches, be grafted into their own olive tree!

(v. 25) I do not want you to be ignorant of this mystery, brothers, so that you may not be conceited: Israel has experienced a hardening in part until the full number of the Gentiles has come in.

(v. 26) And so all Israel will be saved, as it is written: "The deliverer will come from Zion; he will turn godlessness away from Jacob.

(v. 27) And this is my covenant with them when I take away their sins."

[Bible Knowledge Commentary, NT, Walvoord & Zuck Eds., Victor Books, USA, 1987, p. 486]:

"After 'the fullness of the Gentiles' (11:25) the partial hardening of Israel will be removed and all Israel will be saved, that is, 'delivered' (in the OT 'saved' often means 'delievered') from the terrible Tribulation by the Messiah, the Deliverer. To confirm this, Paul quoted from Isaiah 59:20-21 and 27:9. The statement, 'All Israel will be saved' does not mean that every Jew living at Christ's return will be regenerated. Many of them will not be saved, as seen by the fact that the judgment of Israel, to follow soon after the Lord's return, will include the removal of Jewish rebels (Ezek 20:34-38). Following this judgment God will then remove godlessness and sins from the nation as He establishes His New Covenant with regenerate Israel (cf. Jer 31:33-34).'''