The Greek name for an individual "Christos" rendered "Christ" in Scripture comes from the Greek word “chrio” (number 5548) meaning to contact, to smear, to rub. It often means to anoint with oil, or to signify being set apart, i.e., given an officially designated office or function.

[Compare Luke 4:18]:

"The Spirit of the LORD is on Me, [Jesus Christ] because He has anointed Me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent Me to proclaim freedom for the prisoners and recovery of sight for the blind, release the oppressed, to proclaim the year of the LORD's favor."

Note that a number of words in Greek have been given new meanings that are not the original Greek meaning of those words. So when the word "christos" rendered "Christ" appears in Scripture, it refers to the unique individual Jesus Christ, the anointed One of God. This usage is a newly assigned usage or meaning of the word "christos." The Greek word "christos" is the equivalent of the Hebrew word "mashOah" which also means the Messiah or The Anointed One [of God]. Another specially defined word in Scripture, “messias” rendered "Messiah" appears twice in the New Testament, (John 1:41 & 4:25). Interestingly it is in John 4:25 that both messias and christos are used:

[Compare Jn 4:25-26]:

(v. 25) The woman said, 'I know that Messiah [Greek = "Messias"] called Christ [Greek ="Christos"] is coming. When He comes, He will explain everything to us.'

(v. 26) Then Jesus declared, 'I Who speak to you am He.' "

There are several other Greek words translated anoint, anointing, or anointed in the N.T. The references are only a few to illustrate the usage of each word.

“Aleipho” (number 218) meaning to oil. Mt. 6:17; Mk 6:13; 16:1; Luke 7:38.

“Murizo” (number 3462) meaning apply, anoint. Mk 14:8

“Chrio” (number 5548) meaning to contact, to smear, to rub (with oil). Luke 4:18.

“Epichrio” (number 2025) meaning to smear over (with oil). John 9:6. “Epi” (number 1909) meaning over, upon. John 9:6.

“Chrisma” (number 5545 from 5548) meaning smearing, unguent. I John 2:27.

[The Bible Knowledge Commentary, Walvoord & Zuck, Editors, Victor Books, USA, Old Testament, Vol. II, 1987]:

Eugene H. Merrill, author of the section on 1 Samuel, pp. 431-455:

10:1-8. [p. 441] As 'Samuel' prepared to reveal God's purposes to Saul, he first anointed him with 'oil.' In the Old Testament anointing with oil symbolized the setting apart of a person or even an object for divine service (Ex. 30:23-33). It was also accompanied by the presence and power of the Holy Spirit (1 Sam 10:6, 10; 16:13). When Samuel 'poured' oil 'on Saul's head,' that act represented God's approval of Saul as 'leader' of His people. In confirmation to both Saul and the people of his divine call and commission, Saul was told that he would experience three signs:

(a) he would 'meet two men near Rachel's tomb at Zelzah on the border of Benjamin and Ephraim, who would tell him of the whereabouts of the lost 'donkeys;'

(b) he would meet 'three men' at the (oak) 'tree of Tabor,' somewhere between Zelzah and Gibeah, who would give him 'two loaves of bread;' and

(c) he would 'meet a procession of prophets' descending 'from the high place' at 'Gibeah.' Remarkable, he would join in with the prophets in their 'prophesying' as 'the Spirit' of God enabled him and he would 'be changed into a different person.' This is frequently taken to mean that Saul was converted or spiritually regenerated. However, such language for spiritual renewal is foreign to the Old Testament, and Saul's subsequent attitudes and behavior do not bear out that this was his experience (16:14; 18:12; 28:15-16). Actually the Spirit made the inexperienced and unlettered Saul able to assume kingly responsibilities in much the same way as the judges before him were blessed (Jud 6:34; 11:29; 13:25; 14:6, 19; 15:14).

10:9-13. After 'Saul' left 'Samuel,' the promised 'signs' came to pass. So amazed were the witnesses to Saul's dramatic and powerful change of character that they created a proverb which thereafter was quoted to describe a totally unexpected and unexplainable phenomenon: 'Is Saul also among the prophets?' This does not suggest, of course, that Saul became part of the prophetic ministry led by Samuel, but only that he was able to exercise a prophetic gift, at least on this occasion, though never having received prophetic training. This was a remarkable and convincing sign of God's presence and power in Saul's life.

[If anointing of the kind indicated here for Jews of Old Testament times is applicable to believers of this Church Age period of time, it is strangely absent from the Epistles of the New Testament which is directly applicable in all respects to Christians of this period of time. Furthermore, only certain individuals were anointed in accordance with Old Testament provisions as compared to millions of Jews who were not. And certainly there were very few Gentiles at all who were anointed of God, (Melchisidek being one perhaps). This has very little direct application to believers of today as there is nothing to be found in the New Testament Epistles regarding Old Testament Mosaic Law type anointing of believers. Perhaps the closest parallel passage relative to God's appointing individual believers to certain tasks is Eph 2:10. Also, the bestowing of spiritual gifts upon the believer by God the Holy Spirit such as the spiritual gift of Apostle might very well be considered as a special and anointed task of an individual]

[TWOT: pp. 530-531]

"The verb mashah with its derivatives occurs about 140 times....

[It] could refer to everyday usage...

Used in connection with religious ritual, mashah involved a ceremonial application of oil to items such as the tabernacle, altar of laver...

More frequently mashah is used for the ceremonial induction into leadership offices, an action which involved the pouring of oil fro a horn upon the head of an individual. Easily the most frequent mention of mashah is with kings such as Saul and David of Israel (II Sam 12:7; but note Hazael, an Aramaean, I Kgs 19:15). The high priest was anointed (Ex 29:7; Num 35:25) and so were other priests (Ex 30:30). Twice there is mention of anointing a prophet (I Kgs 19:16; Isa 61:1).

There is a fourfold theological significance of mashah. First, to anoint an individual or an object indicated an authorized separation for God's service. Moses anointed Aaron 'to sanctify him'... Lev 8:12; cf. Ex 29:36 for the altar). Note the expression 'anointed to the LORD' (I Chr 29:22). Mashah, while representing a position of honor, also represents increased responsibility. Both Saul and David are called to account for their sin with the reminder, 'I (the LORD) anointed (mashah) you king' (I Sam 15:17; II Sam 12:7). Secondly, though the agent might be the priest or prophet, writers speak of anointed ones as those whom the LORD anointed (e.g. I Sam 10:1; II Sam 12:7). Such language underscores that it is God Who is the authorizing agent; that the anointed is inviolable (I Sam 24:8ff); and that the anointed one is to be held in special regard (cf. I Sam 26:9ff). Thirdly, one may infer that divine enablement was understood as accompanying m ashah. Of both Saul and David it is said in connection with their anointing that 'the Spirit of God came mightily upon him' (I Sam 10:6ff; I Sam 16:13ff). Finally, in the form mashOah, mashah was associated with the coming promised deliverer, Jesus.

[mashOah = Messiah = Christos, (Gk) = Christ = The Anointed One]

Though this association with the term mashiah is not as prevalent in the OT as often supposed, the prospect of a righteous, Spirit-filled ruler is increasingly discernible in the OT (cf. Isa 9:1-7; 11:1-5; 61:1).

Mashiah. 'Anointed, anointed one'... This word used as adjective and noun occurs about forty times in the OT, primarily in I-II Sam and Ps. While it may designate an office such as the high priest (Lev 4:3), mashiah is almost exclusively reserved as a synonym for 'king' (melek...) as in poetry were it is in parallel position with king (I Sam 2:10; II Sam 22:51; cf. Ps 2:2; 18:50... but cf. Ps 28:8 where 'people ' is a counter part term). Striking are the phrases 'the LORD's anointed' (mashiah YHWH) or equivalents such as 'His anointed' referring to kings. Certainly a title on honor, the expressions also emphasize the special relationship between God and the anointed.

A much discussed point is the mention of Cyrus, a non-Israelite, as the LORD'S anointed (limsh h", Isa 45:1). If mashOah is envisioned as an ideal king, godly and upright, then the designation of 'anointed' causes difficulty, for Cyrus was a worshiper of Marduk and other pagan deities. Yet Cyrus was the Lord's appointee for a definite task...

[Furthermore, Saul fell away from his anointing and was replaced by David]

...The Isaiah passage suggests that m ashOah be understood as one singled out or 'chosen' (bahar...) for a task, characteristically one of deliverance - a deliverance of Israel from their Babylonian captors returning them to their homeland.

As for the king, that task centered on a righteous rule in the context of grace included in which was deliverance from oppression. Saul, the first king, in his first major encounter exemplified the qualities of amashOah (I Sam 11).

He was Spirit-endowed, brought victory over the enemy Amalekites, and extended life to a group who, because of their action, deserved death (I Sam 11). Because of Saul's sin and general stance before God, it is David who becomes the archetype of the mashOah."

[Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, pp. 1322-

Anointing, the rubbing of the body with grease or oil, is meant to promote physical well-being. Legal anointing by pouring oil over the head supposedly confers strength or majesty...

The most common form of anointing in the OT is that of the king. Anointing is part of the ritual of enthronement and is the most distinctive individual act. Saul, David, and Solomon are all anointed, and among later kings we read of Joash, Jehoahaz, and Jehu (cf. also Hazael and the general reference in Judg. 9:7ff). God does the anointing in Ps. 45:7....

Anointing is solidly attested only for Judah. By means of it the people give the king his authority. It is carried out by pouring oil on the head from a horn (1 Sam 16:13) or other vessel (10:1). God Himself may anoint or command the anointing (9:16; 10:1; 16:3). This fact denotes legitimacy in God's eyes. When the anointing refers to neighboring kings, the point is that God directs the destinies of other nations as well. Anointing by God implies authorization and a specific commission whereby the king now represents the people. Whether anointing is common in Northern Israel may be doubted. Even in Judah it seems to be unusual. Saul and David are the first kings, Absalom sets himself up as a rival king, Solomon has only a tenuous claim, the enthronement of Joash breaks the tyranny of Athaliah, and Jehoahaz becomes king in a threatening international situation. It is possible, then, that anointing takes place only in special circumstances. [underlining mine]

...The idea of dedication and purification lies behind the extension of anointing to all priests...

In spite of 1 Kgs. 19:16 anointing of prophets is never the rule. In Isa 61:1 God Himself anoints for a particular task, probably by conferring the Spirit.

[So in O.T. times, the Spirit was not available to all individuals]

Saul. Even though God's anointing [of Saul and then of David] is by means of Samuel (1 Sam 9:16), it insures validity before God and hence the inviolability of the king's person.

[Hence, David would not kill Saul when he had several chances]

David. Anointing signifies divine election. With it the Spirit comes on David. The title thus denotes a special relationship with God [beyond the normative one for believers in that particular age - as it dies in today's Church Age]

Ps 89:20, 38 brings out the significance of the election of David for his successors....

The Davidic King. The title is used for David's successors as an appeal to God in times of trouble (cf. Ps 89:38; Lam 4:20; ...Hab 3:13).... The anointed enjoys a majesty and supremacy which are not yet a full reality but which God will establish in the near future (cf. 1 Sam 2:10; Pss 84:8; 132:17). The anointed belongs to God and is thus under His protection (Ps 2:2). Yet he also belongs to the people (Ps 28:8). He thus occupies a mediating position like the priest or prophet. Passages that refer to God's anointed are not directly messianic or eschatological, but a messianic or eschatological understanding is implicit in many of them....

Cyrus as the LORD's Anointed. Is 45:1 shows that the title may be used even where there is no rite of anointing and where a ruler of an alien faith and people is intended. The point here is that God gives Cyrus a definite mission that relates to Israel's redemption. In this regard He replaces the impotent Davidic dynasty. As salvation [from temporal matters] is expected from the kingly rule of the anointed, hope focuses on the Persian king who steps into the breach. The expression [stands out as] ...bold

and ...isolated...

Fathers. Ps 105:15 uses 'anointed ones' for the fathers, probably to stress their inviolability under God's protection. The idea, perhaps, is that the fathers are initial kingly or prophetic (cf. Gen 20:7) figures.

The High Priest. Although the term is used attributively in Lev 4:3ff.' 6:15, it has the force of a title and plainly refers to the high priest....

Is. 9:5-6. The point here is the accession of a new Davidic ruler but with the eschatological implication (v. 6) of an indefinite reign of perfect salvation. The final Davidic king will be God's representative on earth. [Jesus Christ Himself, cp Jer 23:5-6; Hag 2:20; Zech 4:1ff; 6:9ff; Is 11:1; Exek 17:22ff; Mic 5:1; Zech 9:9-10; Am 9:11-12; Hos 3:5; Mic 4:8; Is 32:1; Jer 30:9]

[Vines, p. 59

"CHRISMA... signifies an unguent, or an anointing. It was prepared from oil and aromatic herbs.... [It is used metaphorically in the N.T.... of the Holy Spirit, I John 2:20, 27...

That believer have 'an anointing from the Holy One' indicates that this anointing renders them holy, separating them to God...

[But here there is no particular function for them to perform indicated, just that they are a new kind of creature, neither Jew nor Gentile, set apart as part of the Body of Christ:

[2 Cor 5:17]:

"Therefore if any man is in Christ, he is a new [kind of] creature; the old things passed away; behold [i.e., being a Jew or Gentile for the believer is no longer], new things have come."]

The passage teaches that the gift of the Holy Spirit is the all-efficient means of enabling believers to possess a knowledge of the truth. In the [Septugint] it is used of the oil for anointing the high priest, e.f., Ex. 29:7, lit., 'Thou shalt take of the oil of the anointing.' In Ex 30:25, etc., it is spoken of as 'a holy anointing oil.' In Dan 9:26 chrisma stands for the Anointed One, 'Christ,' the noun standing by metonymy [fig. of speech] for the Person [of Jesus Christ] Himself, as for the Holy Spirit in I John 2.

[Compare I Jn 2:27]:

"And as for you, the anointing which you received from Him abides in you [i.e., God the Holy Spirit, (cp. John 14:26)] and you have no need for any one to teach you; but as His anointing teaches you about all things, and is true and is not a lie, and just as it has taught you, you abide in Him."

[And compare 2 Cor 1:21-22]:

(v. 21) "Now He Who establishes us with you in Christ and anointed us is God.

(v. 22) Who also sealed us and gave us the Spirit in our hearts as a pledge."

BKC, p. 557:

"1:21-22. Those who speak the 'Amen' in response to the gospel message experience firmness and security 'in Christ.' At the moment of belief 'God' anoints each believer with the Holy Spirit so that like Christ (Christos means 'the Anointed One'), he may glorify God by his life (cf. Matt. 5:16). John wrote that believers receive this anointing from God (1 John 2:20, 27). It is a pouring out of the Holy Spirit of the believer, reminiscent of the anointing of priests with oil.

A further consequence of the Spirit's presence is the 'seal of ownership' (cf. Eph 1:13-14) which also is accomplished at the moment of faith. A seal on a document in New Testament times identified it and indicated its owner, who would 'protect' it. So too, in salvation, the Holy Spirit, like a seal, confirms that Christians are identified with Christ and are God's property, protected by Him (cf. 1 Cor 6:19-20)."

Kenneth Wuest states, (Wuest's Word Studies From the Greek New Testament Vol 3, Eerdmans Publishing, Grand Rapids, Mi, 1992, 'UNTRANSLATABLE RICHES FROM THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT, p. 80-83:

"We will look at Peter's words, 'God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Ghost and with power' (Acts 10:38). The words 'Holy ghost' and 'power' are in the instrumental case in Greek, and are in the classification of 'the instrumental of means whereby the action in the verb is performed. When the means is a person, another case is used in connection with a preposition. The only deviation from this latter rule is where the verb is in the passive voice, in which case the instrumental of means is used. An illustration of this is in Romans 8:14, 'For as many as are led by the Spirit of God.' Here the subject of the verb is passive, inactive, and is being acted upon. These are being led by means of the activity of the Holy Spirit. But in Acts 10:38, the verb is in the active voice. The subject, 'God,' does the acting, and the Holy Spirit, designated by the instrumental case, even though Himself a Person, is here looked upon as a means that is impersonal so far as any activity in the premises is concerned. That means that the element which God used in anointing the Man Christ Jesus was the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit did not do the anointing. He is that with which Jesus was anointed. [Underlining mine] We saw that both Greek words meaning 'to anoint,' referred to the application of something to a person. Thus the act of God in anointing Jesus with the Holy Spirit, referred to His act of sending the Holy Spirit to rest upon Him for the ministry which He as the Man Christ Jesus was to accomplish on earth. It is a case of 'position upon.' This is made clearer by our Lord's words from Isaiah 61:1, 'The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor;' (Luke 4:18). Luke quotes from the Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Old Testament. However, the same passage in the Authorized Version of the Old Testament* reads, 'The Spirit of the Lord is upon me; because the Lord hath anointed me to preach good tidings to the poor.' The repetition of the word 'Lord' in Isaiah 61:1 makes it clear that the pronoun 'he' in Luke's quotation refers to the Lord God and not to the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit does not anoint. He is the anointing Himself. [Underlining mine]

Our Lord explains the position of the Holy Spirit upon Him by saying that God placed the Holy Spirit upon Him to equip Him for His ministry in preaching the gospel. Thus, in the case of our Lord, the anointing with the Spirit refers to the Person of the Holy Spirit coming upon Him, this position of the Holy Spirit providing the potential equipment for ministry of which our Lord was to avail Himself. The anointing with the Holy Spirit would only become a factor in our Lord's life resulting in the impartation of power for service as He depended upon the Spirit for His ministry to and through Him.

[*AV translated from Massoretic text of Hebrew Bible A.D. 500-900AD, Septuigint: other manuscripts 285-150 B.C.]

We come now to the anointing of the believer with the Holy Spirit in this Age of Grace. Paul says in II Corinthians 1:21,22,

'Now he which stablisheth us with you in Christ, and hath anointed us, is God, who hath also sealed us, and given the earnest of the Spirit in our hearts.'

In I John 2:27 we have the words,

'But the anointing which ye have received of him abideth in you, and ye need not that any man teach you: but as his anointing teacheth you of all things, and is truth, and is no lie, and even as it hath taught you, ye shall abide in him,'

and in verse 20,

'But ye have an unction from the Holy One, and ye all know.'

We have here the noun form of chiro, which is chrisma, and is translated 'anointing.' In the case of our Lord, the Holy Spirit rested upon Him, for that was the order in the dispensation of law (Num 11:29). In the case of the believer during this Age of Grace, the Holy Spirit is placed within him (John 14:17). His ministry in the believer today is not only for service as was the case in Old Testament times, but also for sanctification. But His indwelling is only potential so so far as His ministry is concerned. His indwelling does not at all mean that His ministry is performed in its fullest manifestation and in an automatic way. The believer must avail himself of that ministry through the avenue of trust, just as he availed himself of the ministry of the Saviour through trusting Him. Two of the Spirit's ministries are given here, His work of teaching the believer the Word, and His work of giving the believer an innate ability to know in an intuitive way, things spiritual. The Greek word for 'know' in this passage gives us this latter truth. A slight correction is offered in the words 'ye all know,' not 'ye know all things.' Thus the anointing with the Spirit in the case of the believer refers to the act of God the Father sending the Spirit to take up His abode in his heart, and this in answer to the prayer of God the Son (John 14:16).

We look now at James 4:5, which reads, 'Do you think that the scripture saith in vain, The spirit that dwelleth in us lusteth to envy?' The verb 'dwell' is not from the Greek word which means 'to take up one's residence,' but from a closely allied verb meaning 'to cause to take up residence, to send or bring to an abode.'... The Holy Spirit does not of Himself take up His residence in the heart of the believer. He is caused to do so. In the outworking of the plan of salvation, there is subordination among the members of the Godhead. Here the Holy Spirit, Very God Himself, the third Person of the triune God, is sent by God the Father, caused to take up His residence in our hearts.

But that is not all. The simple verb means, 'to cause to take up residence.' A preposition is prefixed to this verb which means literally 'down,' and gives the idea of permanency. Thus the Holy Spirit has been cause to take up His permanent residence in our hearts. This agrees with I John 2:27 where the word translated 'abide' means 'to abide' in the sense of 'to remain.' Thus, the Holy Spirit never leaves the believer. This means that he is saved forever. To pray such a prayer in this Age of Grace as David prayed (Psalm 51:11) is not in order. Inasmuch as in Old Testament times, the Holy Spirit only came upon believers for the time of a specific service, their salvation was not affected....

The anointing with the Spirit refers therefore, to the act of God the father causing the spirit to take up His permanent residence in the believer. It takes place just once, at the time the sinner puts his faith in the Savior, and is never repeated... [Ref. Eph 1:13-14, 1 Cor 12:14]

It is therefore not scriptural to pray for a fresh anointing of the Spirit for a brother who is about to minister in the Word. Let us pray that he might be filled [i.e., controlled, (Eph 5:18)] with the Spirit as he ministers....

The anointing with the Spirit forms the basis of all His ministry to and in behalf of the believer. Let us remember that it is potential in its nature. The mere indwelling of the spirit does not guarantee the full efficacy of His work in us, since that indwelling is not automatic in its nature....

The Spirit was sent to the believer's heart to make His home there. That means that the Christian must make Him feel home there. That means that the Christian must make Him feel at home. He can do that by giving the Holy Spirit absolute liberty of action in his heart, the home in which He lives. This means that the believer is to yield himself, all of himself, to the spirit's control, depend upon the spirit for guidance, teaching, strength. Then will the potential power resident in the presence of the Spirit in the heart of the believer be operative in his life."