TITUS CHAPTER TWO

OBSERVATIONS

The purpose of the observation stage is to maintain focus on the text at hand in accordance with the framework in which it was written: a framework which is defined by the normative rules of language, context and logic - rules which do not impose undue, unintended meanings to the text , and which largely limit the observer to the content offered by Paul's epistle to Titus and his other writings. In order for any passage from elsewhere to be considered, it must have a relationship with the context at hand, such as a Scriptural quotation or a specific cross reference in the passage at hand by the author. This will serve to avoid going on unnecessary tangents elsewhere; and more importantly, it will provide the framework for a proper and objective comparison with passages located elsewhere in Scripture.

Remember that something elsewhere may be true, but in the text at hand it may not be in view.

I) [Titus 2:1-15]:

(Titus 2:1 NASB) "But as for you, speak the things which are fitting for sound doctrine.

[The Greek words "Su de" which begin chapter two rendered "But as for you," are an emphatic expression literally, but as for you" referring first hand to Titus and then to all believers. It commences a change of subject from chapter one's denouncements of false teachers and prophets, rebellious men, empty talkers and deceivers, expecially those of the circumcision to believers in a general command to speak the things which are fitting for sound doctrine]

(Titus 2:2 NASB) Older men are to be temperate, dignified, sensible, sound in faith, in love, in perseverance.

[Paul addressed older men first, admonishing them to be temperate, dignified, sensible, sound in faith, in agape / self-sacrificial love, in perserverance

[Expositor's Bible Commentary]:

['''The term "older men" (not the word rendered, "elder" in 1:5) denotes age, not office. The "senior" male members are named first as natural leaders. The value of their example will depend on their moral character. Four qualifications are insisted on; the elders must be (1) "temperate," an adjective basically meaning "abstaining from wine," but having a wider meaning, "clear-headed," manifesting self-possession under all circumstances; (2) "worthy of respect," revealing a personal dignity and seriousness of purpose that invite honor and respect; (3) "self-controlled," possessing self-mastery in thought and judgment (cf. 1:8); and (4) "sound in faith, in love and in endurance," revealing a Christian healthiness of heart and mind. In v. 1 "sound" is applied to doctrine, here to character. The definite article with each of the three nouns in the Greek makes them definite and distinct, apparently carrying a possessive force, "their faith, their love, their endurance." "Faith" may be objective, as the doctrinal content of the faith professed, but the following two items suggest that here it is subjective - their personal faith in the Lord. They must be mature in their exercise of genuine love, not bitter and vindictive, and they must display active "endurance," that steadfast persistence that bravely bears the trials and afflictions of life. Endurance is a much-needed virtue, especially in old age, as revealing personal maturity and strength of character.''']

(Titus 2:3 NASB) Older women likewise are to be reverent in their behavior, not malicious gossips nor enslaved to much wine, teaching what is good,

[Whereupon, Paul addressed older women - instructing them, like the older men, to be reverent [respectful / humble / submissive] in their behavior toward others. Furthermore, they were not to be malicious gossips nor enslaved to much wine, teaching what is good]

[Expositor's Bible Commentary]:

''' "Likewise" indicates that the same kind of deportment is expected of the "older women," although the demands on them are related to their own station in life. The basic demand is that they "be reverent in the way they live." "The way they live" translates a noun denoting manner of life as expressive of inner character, while the adjective "reverent" basically means "suitable to a sacred person" and conveys the image of a good priestess carrying out the duties of her office. The conduct of the older women must reveal that they regard life as sacred in all of its aspects.

Their reverential behavior requires that they "not be slanderers or addicted to much wine." As mature Christians, they must not be given to gossip, repeating vicious and unfounded charges against others, and must not overindulge in wine. The union of the two negatives suggests the close connection between a loose tongue and intoxicating drink.

The older women must fulfill a positive role; they must "teach what is good." By personal word and example, they must teach what is morally good, noble, and attractive. The reference is not to public instruction, but to their teaching function in the home]

(Titus 2:3 NASB, (cont.)) Older women likewise are to be reverent in their behavior, not malicious gossips nor enslaved to much wine, teaching what is good,

(Titus 2:4 NASB) so that they [might train] the young women to love their husbands, to love their children,

(Titus 2:5 NKJV) to be discreet, chaste, homemakers, good, obedient to their own husbands, that the Word of God [might] not be blasphemed.

[Finally, the older women were to teach others what is good in order to train the young women to agape / love their husbands and to love their children - all this so that the Word of God might not be blasphemed]

[Expositor's Bible Commentary]:

'''4 The training of the younger women is the duty, not of Titus, but the older women, qualified to do so by position and character. "Train" means to school in the lessons of sobriety and self-control (cf. vv. 2, 5). "Younger" is a positive adjective literally meaning "new" or "fresh" and probably suggests a reference to the newly married.

Paul lists seven characteristics that must be commended to such (vv. 4, 5a). "To love their husbands and children" renders two separate adjectives, "devoted to husbands, devoted to children." Such domestic affection stands at the very heart of any Christian home.

5 "To be self-controlled and pure" forms another pair. Self-control is a standing duty for all Christians (cf. 1:8; 2:2, 6). "Pure" denotes not only chastity in their sex life but also purity of heart and mind in all their conduct.

"To be busy at home, to be kind" designates a third pair. The first describes the many domestic activities of the housewife that she must willingly accept as part of her position as queen of the home. The KJV rendering "keepers at home" (oikourous) is based on a slightly different text and has less textual support than the rare term (oikourgous) behind the rendering above. The latter is the more stimulating concept and agrees with Paul's condemnation of idleness in 1 Timothy 5:13, 14. The devoted wife and mother finds her absorbing interest in the innumerable duties of the home. These demand unsparing self-giving and may subject her to the temptation to be irritable and harsh in her demands on members of her household. She must therefore cultivate the virtue of being "kind," i.e., benevolent, heartily doing what is good and beneficial to others, especially those of her household.

The concluding item, "to be subject to their husbands," stresses her acceptance of the established relationship between husband and wife as her Christian duty. "To be subject to" may be in the middle voice, "subjecting themselves to," as expressing their voluntary acceptance of the headship of the husband (cf. Eph 5:22-24). The requirement to love her husband does not eliminate her duty to yield to his headship. In declaring the spiritual equality of the woman before God (Gal 3:28), Christianity immeasurably elevated her status but did not thereby abolish her functional position as the complement and support of her husband as the head of the home.

The concluding purpose clause apparently relates to all seven items. It is the first expression of Paul's strong sense of a religious purpose behind these ethical demands. If Christian wives ignored these demands and flouted the role their culture demanded of good wives, the gospel would be maligned, criticized, and discredited by non-Christians. Christianity would be judged especially by the impact that it had on the women. It therefore was the duty of the women to protect God's revelation from profanation by living discreet and wholesome lives. For Christians, no life style is justified that hinders "the word of God," the message of God's salvation in Christ.''']

(Titus 2:6 NASB) Likewise urge the young men to be sensible [in the sense of ethical];

[Expositor's Bible Commentary]:

[6 The requirement for the young men is brief but comprehensive: "Similarly, encourage the young men to be self-controlled." As a young man, Titus must fittingly convey his instructions for the young women indirectly, but his age was an advantage in dealing directly with the young men. "Encourage" (parakalei) is the first imperative verb in vv. 2-6 and is stronger than "teach" in v. 1. It may be rendered "urge" or "admonish" and is an appeal to their sense of personal moral responsibility. "Similarly" implies the same acceptance of responsibility as in the previous instructions. Since young men are inclined to be somewhat impetuous and unrestrained in conduct, their basic need is to be "self-controlled," cultivating balance and self-restraint in daily practice. It was a quality of which Paul found it necessary to remind the Cretan believers (1:8; 2:2, 4, 5).]

(Titus 2:7 NKJV) in all things showing yourself to be a pattern of good works; in doctrine showing integrity, reverence, incorruptibility,

(Titus 2:8 NKJV) sound speech that cannot be condemned, that one who is an opponent may be ashamed, having nothing evil to say of you.

[Expositor's Bible Commentary]:

['''The personal example of Titus (2:7-8)

7 In concluding instructions to the different age groups, Paul reminded Titus that his own conduct must confirm his teaching. "in all things showing yourself to be a pattern of good works" is literally "holding yourself alongside as an example"- a meaning made clear [i.e., emphasized] through the use of the reflexive pronoun (seauton) with the middle voice of the participle [rendered "yourself"]. There is no word for "them" in the original and the example is not to be restricted to the young men. "In everything" underlines the comprehensiveness of the duty. Some would connect this phrase with the self-control demanded of the young men (v. 6), but a connection with v. 7 gives proper emphasis to "yourself." It is expanded in what follows. "Doing what is good," being an example "of good works," places the initial stress on his conduct, reflecting his noble deeds. Personal example must precede effective teaching, but his "teaching" in its manner and content must be of the highest quality. Two qualities "integrity" and "seriousness," must characterize his work of teaching. The former stresses his purity of motive, revealing that he himself is uninfected by the evil conduct and erroneous views of the false teachers. "Seriousness" points to his outward dignity, reflecting the high moral tone and serious manner appropriate to his sacred task.

8 Titus must also demonstrate "soundness of speech that cannot be condemned." The content of his "speech," his personal word spoken while teaching or in ordinary conversation, must have two characteristics. In the first place, it must be "sound," conforming to healthful doctrine (2:1), a demand made on elders (1:9) as well as members (1:13; 2:2). Such soundness will insure the second characteristic—that is, "cannot be condemned." No critic will be able to point out anything in it justly open to censure or rebuke. The original suggests the picture of a courtroom where the judge can find no basis for the accusation of the plaintiff. Every faithful teacher must at times declare doctrine to which some rebellious hearer may object, but such objection must prove unjustified upon faithful examination.

Paul concluded his personal remarks to Titus with another purpose clause. The expression "those who oppose you" is apparently left intentionally vague to leave room for all types of critics. (The original is singular: "the opponent, one of the opposition.") When the objections are examined, the anticipated result is that the critic "may be ashamed," either feeling personally ashamed of his own conduct or made to look foolish because he is shown to have no case. The latter view seems more probable. He will "have nothing bad to say about us." An accusation of something "bad," morally bad or worthless, "about us," including Paul and Christians generally, will be found to be groundless. If justified, such attacks would bring discredit on Christ's servants and his cause.]

(Titus 2:9 NASB) Urge bondslaves to be subject to their own masters in everything, to be well-pleasing, not argumentative,

(Titus 2:10 NASB) not pilfering, but showing all good faith so that they will adorn the doctrine of God our Savior in every respect.

[Compare Titus 1:3]:

(Titus 1:3 NASB) "but at the proper time manifested, even His word, in the proclamation with which I was entrusted according to the commandment of God our Savior,"

[Expositor's Bible Commentary]:

[4. The instructions to the slaves (2:9-10)

Paul's ethical instructions are now addressed to a distinct social group that overlaps groups divided by age and sex. Slaves formed a significant element in the apostolic churches and the welfare of the faith demanded that they too accept their spiritual responsibility as believers. Paul here makes no distinction between slaves who had Christian masters and those who did not (cf. 1Tim 6:1, 2).

9 The original has no finite verb in v. 9; perhaps it would be better here to use the verb of v. 6 and render "encourage" or "exhort the slaves." Their fundamental duty is "to be subject to their masters in everything," voluntarily accepting subjection to their masters as a matter of principle. "Masters" (our English word despot) denotes that as owners they had complete authority over their slaves. While "in everything" may be taken with what follows, the parallel in Colossians 3:22 favors a connection with the demanded subjection. It stresses the comprehensiveness of this duty. But patristic commentators were careful to point out the necessary limitation on this demand, for a Christian slave could not submit when his pagan master demanded things contrary to Christian conscience.

The character of their subjection is indicated in the appositional infinitive, "to try to please them." Instead of having a sullen disposition, let them aim to be well pleasing (euarestous), giving full satisfaction to their masters. Elsewhere this adjective is always used of men's relation to God. It is the distinctive contribution of Christianity that slaves should govern their relations to their masters by this high principle. Three participial clauses, two negative and one positive, further describe their relationship to their masters.

The first negative requirement is "not to talk back to them," not to dispute their commands and by deliberate resistance seek to thwart their will.

10 The second negative demand is "not to steal from them," not underhandedly to divert to themselves part of anything their masters had not intended for them. Petty theft was common among slaves in Roman households. Employment in various trades and occupations offered slaves ample opportunity to resort to the various tricks of the trade for their own advantage.

Their positive duty is "to show that they can be fully trusted," demonstrating "good faith" in their whole relationship to their masters. They must not only be Christians but actively show this by proving themselves dependable in everything "good" or beneficial to their masters. "Good" naturally excluded any wrongdoing in which their master might order participation.

Such ethical conduct Paul again undergirds with a profound spiritual motive, "so that in every way they will make the teaching about God our Savior attractive." For a Christian there can be no higher motive. A slave's acceptance of the teaching about "God our Savior" must find expression in his transformed conduct. The very difficulty of his position would make such conduct a powerful recommendation of the gospel, proving to the master the power of the gospel. "In every way" (en pasin) in the original stands emphatically at the end. Adornment of faith by conduct must extend to every aspect of their lives. Less probable is the view that the meaning is "among all men" as denoting that the testimony of their conduct will permeate all areas of society.]

(Titus 2:11 NKJV) For the grace of God that brings salvation has appeared to all men,

[Compare 2 Tim 1:10]:

(2 Tim 1:10 NASB) "but now has been revealed by the appearing of our Savior Christ Jesus, who abolished death and brought life and immortality to light through the gospel,"

[Compare Titus 3:4]:

(Titus 3:4 NASB) "But when the kindness of God our Savior and His love for mankind appeared,"

[Expositor's Bible Commentary]:

["11 The entire program of redemption is rooted in "the grace of God," his free favor and spontaneous action toward needy sinners to deliver and transform them. In the Greek, "has appeared" stands emphatically at the beginning, stressing the manifestation of grace as a historical reality. The reference is to Christ's entire earthly life - His birth, life, death, and resurrection. The verb epephane, from which we derive our word "epiphany," means "to become visible, make an appearance," and conveys the image of grace suddenly breaking in on our moral darkness, like the rising sun. (It is used of the sun in Acts 27:20.) Men could never have formed an adequate conception of that grace apart from its personal manifestation in Christ, in his incarnation and atonement.

The effect of the manifestation was redemptive, not destructive. The adjective rendered "that brings salvation" (soterios) asserts its saving efficacy. The dative "to all men" may equally be rendered "for all men," thus stressing the universality of the salvation provided. Salvation is available to all, but its saving effect is dependent on the personal response of faith. Its universal scope justifies the application of its ethical demands to all classes of its professed recipients.
2. The training by God's grace (2:12)"]

(Titus 2:12 NASB) instructing us to deny ungodliness and worldly desires and to live sensibly, righteously and godly in the present age,

[Expositor's Bible Commentary]:

['''12 "It teaches us" declares that grace also operates in the lives of the saved. Grounded in God's nature, grace makes ethical demands of Christians consistent with his nature. "Teaches" pictures grace, practically personified, as instructing the believer in the things "in accord with sound doctrine" (2:1). The verb basically means "to train a child," hence "to instruct, train, educate." It comprehends the entire training process—teaching, encouragement, correction, discipline.
The negative pedagogical purpose of grace is to train us "to say `No' to ungodliness and worldly passions." The aorist participle indicates that grace aims to lead the believer to the place where as a definite act he will voluntarily make a double renunciation of the past. He must repudiate and abandon "ungodliness," the impiety and irreverence that characterized his unsaved life, as well as "worldly passions," those cravings characteristic of the world in its estrangement from God. Such an act of renunciation, standing at the beginning of a life of Christian victory, must be maintained in daily self-denial.

This negative work clears the field for its positive aim for believers: "to live self-controlled, upright and godly lives." "Live" (aorist tense) may mean "come to live" but more probably means that our entire course of life should be consistently characterized by three qualities (state as adverbs). In the original these adverbs stand emphatically before the verb. They look in three directions, though sharp distinctions need not be pressed: (1) inward, "self-controlled" ("soberly"), already stipulated for different groups (1:8; 2:2, 5) and now demanded of every believer; (2) outward, "upright" ("righteously"), faithfully fulfilling all the demands of truth and justice in our relations with others; (3) upward, "godly" ("reverently"), fully devoted to God in reverence and loving obedience.

Such a life is a possibility and duty "in this present age." This present evil age (Gal 1:4) holds dangers for the believer (Rom 12:2; 2Tim 4:10) and stands in contrast to the anticipated future.]

(Titus 2:13 NASB) looking for the blessed hope and the appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior, Christ Jesus

****** EXCERPT FROM DEITY_OF_CHRIST STUDY ******

TITUS 2:13

i) The context of "God," "Savior," and "Christ Jesus" in Titus 2:13 is unique and refers to the same Savior. Hence Christ Jesus is God and Savior]

[Compare Titus 1:1-4]:

(Titus 1:1 NASB) "Paul, a bond-servant of God and an apostle of Jesus Christ, for the faith of those chosen of God and the knowledge of the truth which is according to godliness,

(Titus 1:2 NKJV) in hope of eternal life which God, who cannot lie, promised before time began,

(Titus 1:3 NKJV) but has in due time manifested His word through preaching, which was committed to me according to the commandment of God our Savior;

(Titus 1:4 NASB) To Titus, my true child in a common faith: Grace and peace from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Savior.

[The author of the Epistle to Titus, the Apostle Paul was a Pharisee under the Law of Moses, (ref. Phil 3:5) - a Law which was given exclusively to Israel by the God of the Bible . And in Titus 1:1-4, Paul declares that the God of the Bible of his time - the Hebrew Bible, the Old Testament, was there "before time began," i.e., uncreated, unlike any other god. So Paul's God is the Creator God, the God of Genesis chapter one . And there is no other God besides Him, (Isa 45:5 ). And Paul declares his message which he is preaching was from the Word of God - the Hebrew Bible which he was raised on and by which Bible he became a Pharisee, a teacher of that Bible. And Paul's preaching of the faith was declared to be "for the faith of those chosen of God," i.e., for those of the faith in Christ through faith in Whom God gives the hope of eternal life. And Paul calls that God, "Savior" unto the "[sure ] hope of eternal life."

Note that immediately after this in Titus 1:4, author Paul declares "grace, mercy, and peace from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ our Savior."

So this God which Paul wrote about cannot be mistaken for a Greek god or some other god just because the spelling of the word rendered "God" is the same, or because there are some gods which the Greeks and others call savior but not precisely a salvation of the same description as the salvation unto eternal life by faith alone in the Savior alone in the Hebrew Bible or the letters that Paul was writing or the rest of the New Testament books. This is so because the God in the context of the Epistle of Titus refers to God's Word, the Hebrew Bible. He is uniquely the God of the Old Testament, the letters of the Apostle Paul and the rest of the Greek New Testament. There is no other God in view. Hence there is no mandate to disqualify Titus 2:13 from corroborating Sharp's Rule [#1]. Nor can one legitimately deny that this verse clearly states that Christ Jesus is our sure hope and appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior.

[Compare Titus 2:11]:

(Titus 2:11 NKJV) "For the grace of God that brings salvation has appeared to all men,"

And after the first 4 verses in Titus chapter; the immediate foreground of Titus 2:13, continues with the statement by writer and Apostle Paul in Titus 2:11: "For the grace of God that brings salvation has appeared to all men." It refers to the God of the Bible - the Hebrew and Greek Bible uniquely - and to no other God. And this unique God of the Bible, Paul declares, brings salvation - a unique salvation. And that Salvation, Paul declares, has appeared to all men. So an appearance of this salvation - a manifestation of God's salvation has been brought for all men to see - evidently One that is Personified and unique. Note that Titus 1:1-3 quoted above declared that God is our - the believer's - Savior; and also by virtue of Titus 2:11, the Savior of all men. This is a unique salvation, unlike any other salvation. And this salvation makes the God of Paul and the Bible - the Word of God unique, unlike any other writing - not to be mistaken by any other that is conveyed by the same Greek words for God or Savior or salvation or word, especially as it appears in Titus 2:13.

[Compare 2 Tim 1:10]:

(2 Tim 1:10 NASB) "but now has been revealed by the appearing of our Savior Christ Jesus, Who abolished death and brought life and immortality to light through the gospel,"

[In this passage, author Paul declares that the appearing of our Savior Christ Jesus brought life and immortality to light through the gospel. It is evidently Jesus Christ Who is the Personification of God's salvation to all mankind. So God and Jesus Christ are both Savior. Hence God and Jesus Christ are One and the same Savior. There is no other Savior]

[Compare Titus 3:4-7]:

(Titus 3:4 NASB) "But when the kindness of God our Savior and His love for mankind appeared,

[Titus reconfirms that God is our Savior and that that Salvation appeared evidently in a Personified form, (v. 6), Who would be mankind's Salvation]:

(Titus 3:5 NASB) He saved us, not on the basis of deeds which we have done in righteousness, but according to His mercy, by the washing of regeneration and renewing by the Holy Spirit,

[God our Savior saved us according to His mercy by the washing of regeneration and renewing by the Holy Spirit - a unique salvation in accordance with the unique Word of God: the Hebrew / OT & Greek / NT Bible]

(Titus 3:6 NASB) whom He poured out upon us richly through Jesus Christ our Savior,

(Titus 3:7 NASB) so that being justified by His grace we would be made heirs according to the hope of eternal life."

[and that salvation was through Jesus Christ our Savior. God and Jesus Christ is our Savior, they are One. For there is only one salvation unto eternal life - only one Savior]

[Compare 2 Thes 2:1]:

(2 Thes 2:1) "Now we request you, brethren, with regard to the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ and our gathering together to Him."

[This refers to the appearing / the coming of Jesus Christ our Savior - Who is our salvation unto eternal life]

[Compare Titus 2:11-13]:

(Titus 2:11 NKJV) "For the grace of God that brings salvation has appeared to all men,

(Titus 2:12 NASB) instructing us to deny ungodliness and worldly desires and to live sensibly, righteously and godly in the present age,

(Titus 2:13 NASB) looking for the blessed hope and appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior, Christ Jesus,"

(Titus 2:13 Greek Interlinear)

"προσδεχόμενοι την       μακαρίαν ελπίδα και επιφάνειαν  της    δόξες    
"looking             for the  blessed     hope    and appearing   of the glory
του    μεγάλου θεού και σωτήρος ἡμῶν Ιησού Χριστού"
of the great       God and Savior     our    Jesus  Christ"

i_d_1) [Manuscript Evidence of Titus 2:13]:

[The TR, NU reading (Sinaiticus2, A, C, D, Psi, 0278, 33, Maj, it, syr) which has "Jesus Christ;" and is the best manuscript evidence; and the two variants which have "Christ Jesus" (Sinaiticus*, F, G, it(b) ) and "Jesus" (1739) instead of "Jesus Christ" might all syntactically be rendered "the glory of the great God and our Savior, Jesus Christ" - that is, that the glory belongs both to God and to the Savior Jesus Christ.

Nevertheless the Greek syntax and the context favors the rendering "our great God and Savior, Jesus Christ." In the Greek, there is one article governing the two titles "God" and "Savior Jesus Christ" joined by the conjunction "kai" ("and"). According to the Sharp's Rule [#1] this construction indicates that the two nouns describe one person. In this case, Jesus Christ is both God and Savior. Finally, since manuscript evidence provides only one "our" in Titus 2:13, and since God and Savior and Christ Jesus are all one and "our," then it modifies "God," "Savior," "and Christ Jesus," all together.

Furthermore, Paul never used the word rendered "appearing" when speaking of God the Father (cf. 1 Tim 6:14; 2 Tim 4:1, 8). Several English versions affirm this interpretation by setting "Jesus Christ" in clear apposition to "our great God and Savior' - for example, see NRSV, NIV, and NLT. Neither of the variant readings alters this ascription of Deity to Jesus. The first variant is a typical transposition ... and the second an atypical shortening of a sacred name]

i_d_2) The message of Titus 2:13 begins at verse 11

(Titus 2:11 NKJV) "For the grace of God that brings salvation has appeared to all men,

(Titus 2:12 NASB) instructing us to deny ungodliness and worldly desires and to live sensibly, righteously and godly in the present age,

(Titus 2:13 NASB) looking for the blessed hope and appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior, Christ Jesus,"

The immediate foreground of the key verse in view in this study, Titus 2:13, begins with the statement by writer and Apostle Paul in verse 11, "For the grace of God that brings salvation has appeared to all men." It refers to the unique grace and Person of the God of the Bible - the unique Hebrew and Greek Bible, and to no other God. And this unique God of the Bible, Paul declares, brings salvation - a unique salvation unto eternal life. And that salvation, Paul declares, has appeared to all men. So an appearance of this salvation - a manifestation of God's salvation has been brought for all men to see - evidently One that is Personified and unique. Note that Titus 1:1-3 quoted above declared that God is our - the believer's Savior - and also by virtue of Titus 2:11, the Savior of all men. This is a unique salvation, unlike any other salvation. And this salvation makes the God of Paul and the Bible - the Word of God unique, unlike any other writing - not to be mistaken by any other that is conveyed by the same Greek words for God or Savior or salvation or word.

i_d_3) Then the message of Titus 2:13 continues into verse 12:

(Titus 2:11 NKJV) "For the grace of God that brings salvation has appeared to all men,

(Titus 2:12 NASB) instructing us to deny ungodliness and worldly desires and to live sensibly, righteously and godly in the present age,

Whereupon the message continues with an appeal to the believer to receive instruction to deny ungodliness and worldly desires and to live righteously and godly in the present age - all the while they are to be:

i_d_4) Then the message of Titus 2:11-13 continues into the key verse Titus 2:13:

(Titus 2:11 NKJV) "For the grace of God that brings salvation has appeared to all men,

(Titus 2:12 NASB) instructing us to deny ungodliness and worldly desires and to live sensibly, righteously and godly in the present age,

(Titus 2:13 NASB) looking for the blessed hope and appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior, Christ Jesus."

Since believers in Christ Jesus "in the present age" are in view in Paul's letter to Titus, (ref. 1:1-2), especially throughout vv. 2:11-13 ;

and since believers in Christ Jesus in this present age, according to vv. 11-12, are instructed that since the grace of God that brings salvation has appeared to all men,

then they are to deny ungodliness and worldly desires and to live sensibly, righteously and godly in the present age,

(v. 13): looking for the blessed hope and appearing of the glory of [their] great God and Savior, Christ Jesus;"

So in Titus 2:13 believers are to look for the blessed hope and appearing of the glory of their God and Savior, Christ Jesus - as He brings their salvation unto eternal life: the appearing of the glory of the great God and Savior Christ Jesus at His Second Coming, (Titus 1:1-2; cf. 2 Thes 2:8; 1 Tim 1:1 ), Who will be bringing salvation unto eternal life to those who are His own - believers. So it is Christ Jesus Who is "the blessed [sure and eternal] hope and appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior." Our great God and Savior is Christ Jesus - God in three Persons, two Personalities of which are in view in Titus 1:1-2:13 .

Note that the first phrase of Titus 2:13 underlined below:

"προσδεχόμενοι την       μακαρίαν ελπίδα και επιφάνειαν  της    δόξες    
"looking             for the  blessed     hope    and appearing   of the glory
του    μεγάλου θεού και σωτήρος ἡμῶν Ιησού Χριστού"
of the great       God and Savior     our    Jesus  Christ"

is a TDAD / TSKS construction, wherein both substantives / descriptions in the construction together describe a unique, impersonal, singular experience: the blessed [sure] hope and appearing of the glory ...

followed by the second TDAD / TSKS construction which completes the message:

... of the [our] great God and Savior, Christ Jesus Who is the unique, identity of the singular Person of Titus 2:13b Who is the unique Personification of the unique, impersonal, singular experience of the blessed hope and appearance of the glory, (v. 213a) of the great God and Savior, Christ Jesus, (v. 2:13b).

There is no other way to interpret this verse without contradicting the context which leads up to and through Titus 2:13, and which is supported by all of Scripture - Old and New Testaments:

Since both God and Jesus Christ are repeatedly called "Savior" and / or referred to as the sole Provider of salvation unto eternal life - a salvation which is unique to the Bible and no where else, (Lk 1:47; 2:11; Phil 3:20; Titus 1:1-3, 4; 2:11-13; 3:4-7 above; 1 Tim 1:1-2 Tim 1:10; 2 Pet 1:1, 11; 2:20; 3:2, 18; and innumerable places in the Hebrew Scriptures: as Provider of / Savior unto eternal life for Israel and all of mankind in the Eternal Kingdom of God which includes His Servant in the prophecies such as in the Book of Isaiah, and relative to the New Covenant in Jeremiah and Ezekiel;

then the word rendered "Savior" in Titus 2:13 refers to both God and Christ Jesus; and a case can be made for them being One and the same: "our great God and Savior, Christ Jesus .

So the phrase "looking for the blessed hope and appearing of the glory of the great God and Savior, Christ Jesus has Christ Jesus" in His glorified resurrection body specifically in view for believers coming back to earth at His Second Coming, (crefs: hope = 1 Tim 1:1; appearance of His coming - 2 Thes 2:8). Albeit the presence of Father and Spirit Who are omnipresent as well.

b cont.) Titus 2:13 (cont.)

ii) Despite its context, Titus 2:13 is contended by some to have at least three possibilities of interpretation at least two of which do not line up with the actual context:

[D. B. Wallace, (cont.)]:

"This verse [Titus 2:13] has one difficulty peculiar to itself. As Berge points out, 'the exegetical problem posed by the entire phrase, has three possibilities:

(1) Jesus Christ is the great God and Savior;

(2) the great God and our Savior Jesus Christ are to be distinguished;

(3) Jesus Christ stands in apposition to the following words of this verse which are underlined below which refer solely to God by virtue of His return in glory...

"προσδεχόμενοι την       μακαρίαν ελπίδα και επιφάνειαν  της    δόξες    
"looking             for the  blessed     hope    and appearing   of the glory

του    μεγάλου θεού και σωτήρος ἡμῶν Ιησού Χριστού"
of the great       God and Savior     our    Jesus  Christ"

...  but He is in opposition to the rest of the words in the verse which are not underlined which words refer solely to God. 199

[BSM.net]:

[There is only one possibility that does not violate the context as previously established above, namely #1: .

Possibility #2 falls short because the context of the Bible, including Titus 1:1-2:13 determines that God and Christ Jesus are Savior, so the great God and Savior and Christ Jesus are One . And the grammar supports this conclusion.

If Titus 2:13 is to be interpreted according to possibility #3 stipulated above, it must be twisted out of its context and counter to it's grammatical form and in violation of the logical point of view that holds the statement together in order to be translated as some contend: "looking for the blessed hope and appearing of Jesus Christ the glory of our great God and Savior" as if "our great God and Savior" is not Christ Jesus; and as if Christ Jesus is simply a demonstration of the blessed hope and appearing of God's glory by our great God and Savior; and as if Christ Jesus not being God and not being Savior, but just a demonstration of the blessed hope and appearing of God's glory.]

[D. B. Wallace, (cont.)]:
"This third possibility, even if valid, would not break Sharp’s principle here - it would only deny that in this text Christ is called God. Few commentators actually hold to this view, 200 for it seems to do such violence to taking ᾿Ιησοῦ Χριστοῦ as in apposition to what immediately precedes [without grammatical or contextual warrant]. Nevertheless, though somewhat ancillary [subordinate] to our overriding concern (viz [=namely] the validity of Sharp’s Rule [#1]), since this view would effectively remove Titus 2:13 from the list of passages which affirm the deity of Christ, it should be addressed briefly." 201

iii) The Basic Argument For This Third View Is Threefold:

[BSM.net]:

[Here's the argument underlined from the text of Titus 2:13 once again:

"προσδεχόμενοι την       μακαρίαν ελπίδα και επιφάνειαν  της    δόξες    
"looking             for the  blessed     hope    and appearing   of the glory

του    μεγάλου θεού και σωτήρος ἡμῶν Ιησού Χριστού
of the great       God and Savior     our    Jesus  Christ]

iii_a) The TSKS construction refers to one person

[D. B. Wallace, (cont.)]:

"This approach sees the TSKS construction as referring to one person. Thus, whatever evidence can be mustered for the validity of Sharp’s Rule [#1] in Titus 2:13 can be said to help this approach."

[BSM.net]:
[Those that do not believe in the Diety of Christ and thus in His all sufficiency in making provision for the sins of all minkind inevitably insist that they themselves are responsible to participate in their own salvation in some manner - if they conclude that they need some kind of salvation in the first place. This is a self-destructive compromise - to deny the Deity of Christ is to deny the efficacy of His provision for the salvation of all men. And to include mankind's efforts in paying for sins cancels out God's grace - the only means by which they can obtain their salvation in the first place . For no mere man can pay for his own sins in order to be rewarded with eternal life, much less for the sins of all mankind]

iii_b) It is falsely maintained that the word rendered "Savior" refers to God alone

[D. B. Wallace, (cont.)]:

"σωτήρ [savior] is often linked to θεός (ἡμῶν) [= God (our)] in the pastorals with reference to the Father. 202 It would thus seem natural to apply it to the Father in this text as well."

[BSM.net]:

[Since both God and Jesus Christ are repeatedly called "Savior" and / or referred to as the sole Provider of salvation unto eternal life - a salvation which is unique to the Bible and no where else, (Lk 1:47; 2:11; Phil 3:20; Titus 1:1-3, 4; 2:11-13; 3:4-7 above; 1 Tim 1:1; 2 Tim 1:10; 2 Pet 1:1, 11; 2:20; 3:2, 18; and innumerable places in the Hebrew Scriptures: as Provider of / Savior unto eternal life for Israel and all of mankind in the Eternal Kingdom of God which includes His Servant in the prophecies such as in the Book of Isaiah, and relative to the New Covenant in Jeremiah and Ezekiel; then the word rendered "Savior" in Titus 2:13 refers to both God and Christ Jesus; and a case can be made for them being One and the same Savior ]

iii_c) It is falsely maintained that the two descriptions "the blessed hope and glory" are terms / titles for Christ, leaving the rest of the verse, "our great God and Savior" to refer to God alone

[D. B. Wallace, (cont.)]:

"The NT uses other similar titles for Christ (e.g., ἀλήθεια, [Truth] ζωή, [Life] φῶς [Light]). To see an abstract term used of Christ here would not be out of step with other early Christologies."

iv) There are three difficulties with the view that the two descriptions "the blessed hope and glory" are terms / titles for Christ alone; leaving the rest of the verse, "our great God and Savior" to refer to God alone

iv_a) The interpretation is forced, awkward and too subtle for the average reader

[D. B. Wallace, (cont.)]:

"As we noted above, this reading is unnatural and overly subtle: one would expect ᾿Ιησοῦ Χριστοῦ to be in apposition with what immediately precedes (viz [=namely]

του    μεγάλου θεού και σωτήρος ἡμῶν Ιησού Χριστού
of the great       God and Savior     our    Jesus  Christ
 203

iv_b) The word rendered Savior is used of both Christ and God

[BSM.net]:

[Throughout Scripture - both OT & NT - both God and Christ Jesus / Jesus Christ have been declared Savior - a unique one of a kind Savior. This occurs in Titus more than several times - indirectly and directly - as if each is the Savior - the same Savior : God in these verses alone - carefully and properly examined   is associated with persons, experiences and writings in such a manner that make Him unique as that one and only Savior. And Christ Jesus / Jesus Christ in these verses alone is associated with persons, experiences and writings that make Him unique as that one and only Savior. And God and Christ Jesus / Jesus Christ in these verses alone are associated with persons, experiences and writings that make each One the same Savior ]

[D. B. Wallace, (cont.)]:

"σωτήρ (ἡμῶν) Savior (our) is used both of Christ and the Father in the pastorals - on one occasion, the referent changes from one verse to the next. 204 If the author can shift from Father to Son in Titus 1:3 and 1:4, there can be no objection to his doing so in Titus 2:10 and 2:13.

iv_c) There is no evidence in Scripture that "glory of the great God and Savior" or "glory of God" is a title for Christ

[D. B. Wallace, (cont.)]:

"The evidence for δόξα θεοῦ [glory of God] as a primitive christological title is, at best, inconclusive"

[τῆς  δόξης τοῦ     μεγάλου θεοῦ  καὶ  σωτῆρος ἡμῶν  ᾿Ιησοῦ Χριστοῦ
“the  glory  of the  great       God  and Savior     our      Jesus Christ” ]

Although it is possible in several texts (such as Jas 2:1; Eph 1:17; Heb 1:3), it is unlikely in all of them. In other words, we have no clear instances of δόξα [δόξης] used as a christological title in the NT, so much the more the glory of the great God and Savior our Jesus Christ. Without better evidence forthcoming, this view must be regarded with suspicion. It is an intriguing speculation, but little more. Titus 2:13 appears to be secure as a reference to Christ as θεός."

[BSM.net]:

[None of the references provided clear wording, nor is there any place in Scripture clear evidence of "δόξα θεοῦ" [glory of God] as a title for Jesus Christ. But there is evidence for the the words "ὁ λόγος," the Word, "ἡ ζωὴ," the Life, (temporal and eternal), and "τὸ φῶς," the Light and "θεὸς" in Jn 1:1-11 which are the Greek words that author John used to portray a unique, identity of One Person ; or the Lamb of God, (Jn 1:29, 36); or "the Way, the Truth and The Life," (Jn 14:6); or "The Door," (Jn 10:9); as did Paul use the words "ὁ θεὸς," the God in Titus 2:13 and Peter in 2 Pet 1:1.

****** END OF EXCERPT FROM DEITY OF CHRIST STUDY ******

[Manuscript Evidence]:

[The TR, NU reading (Sinaiticus2, A, C, D, Psi, 0278, 33, Maj, it, syr) which has "Jesus Christ;" and is the best manuscript evidence; and the two variants which have "Christ Jesus" (Sinaiticus*, F, G, it(b) ) and "Jesus" (1739) instead of "Jesus Christ" might all syntactically be rendered "the glory of the great God and our Savior, Jesus Christ" - that is, that the glory belongs both to God and to the Savior Jesus Christ. Nevertheless the Greek syntax and the context favors the rendering "our great God and Savior, Jesus Christ." In the Greek, there is one article governing the two titles "God" and "Savior Jesus Christ" joined by the conjunction "kai" ("and"). According to the Sharp's Rule [#] this construction indicates that the two nouns describe one person. In this case, Jesus Christ is both God and Savior. Furthermore, Paul never used the word rendering "appearing" when speaking of God the Father (cf. 1 Tim 6:14; 2 Tim 4:1, 8). Several English versions affirm this interpretation by setting "Jesus Christ" in clear apposition to "our great God and Savior' - for example, see NRSV, NIV, and NLT. Neither of the variant readings alters this ascription of Deity to Jesus. The first variant is a typical transposition ... and the second an atypical shortening of a sacred name]

[Compare 1 Tim 1:1]:

(1 Tim 1:1 NASB) "Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus according to the commandment of God our Savior, and of Christ Jesus, Who is our hope."

[Compare 2 Tim 1:2]:

(2 Tim 1:2 NASB) "To Timothy, my beloved son: Grace, mercy and peace from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Lord."

[Compare Titus 1:4]: 

(Titus 1:4 NASB) "To Titus, my true child in a common faith: Grace and peace from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Savior."

[2 Pet 1:1]:

(2 Pet 1:1 NASB) "Simon Peter, a bond-servant and apostle of Jesus Christ, To those who have received a faith of the same kind as ours, by the righteousness of our God and Savior, Jesus Christ:"

[Expositor's Bible Commentary]:

['''3. The expectation of Christ's return (2:13)
13 Those now being trained by God's grace eagerly anticipate the eschatological future. Having renounced their sinful past, they live disciplined lives in the present and look eagerly to the future (cf. 1 Thess 1:9, 10). "Wait for" depicts their eager expectancy as they look "for the blessed hope," the personal return of Christ who will consummate our bliss in eternal glory. The present tense marks this waiting as the characteristic attitude of believers, ever ready to welcome the returning Lord.

In the Greek "the glorious appearing" has no definite article. The use of the dash in NIV assumes that "the glorious appearing of our great God and Savior" is virtually in apposition with "the blessed hope" as a further definition of that hope. The Greek connects "the blessed hope and glorious appearing" under one article, suggesting that the reference is to one event viewed from two aspects. For believers, it is indeed the blessed hope and the longed-for consummation of that hope. For Christ himself, this awaited "glorious appearing" will vindicate his character as the Lord of glory. "Glorious appearing" is more literally "appearing of the glory" and points to his present glorification in heaven. Now unrecognized and disregarded by the world, his glory at his return will be manifested in all its splendor. Verse 11 spoke of his past epiphany in grace; v. 13, of his future epiphany in glory.

The NIV rendering, "the glorious appearing of our great God and Savior, Jesus Christ" (cf. also RSV; NEB; NASB; BV), relates the glory to be revealed to Christ alone. The KJV rendering, "the glorious appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ" (cf. ASV; Mof), relates it to both the Father and Christ. Either is grammatically possible. In favor of the latter rendering are the facts that in the pastoral Epistles God and Christ are regularly named side by side, that the double glory at the Parousia is mentioned elsewhere (Luke 9:26), and that the term God is rarely applied to Christ in Scripture. It is also the view of most of the ancient versions. But there are stronger arguments for referring the entire expression to Christ alone:

(1) Grammatically this is the most natural view since both nouns are connected by one article as referring to one person.

(2) The combination "god and savior" was familiar to the Hellenistic religions.

(3) The added clause in v. 14 refers to Christ alone and it is most natural to take the entire preceding expression as its antecedent.

(4) In the Pastorals the coming epiphany is referred to Christ alone.

(5) The adjective "great" of God is rather pointless but highly significant if applied to Christ.

(6) This view is in full harmony with other passages such as John 20:28; Rom 9:5; Heb 1:8; and 2 Peter 1:1.

(7) It is the view of the majority of the church fathers. This view takes the statement as an explicit assertion of the deity of Christ. Under the other view his deity is assumed, for the intimate association of his glory with that of God would be blasphemous for a monotheist like Paul if he did not accept Christ's deity.''']

(Titus 2:14 NASB) Who gave Himself for us to redeem us from every lawless deed, and to purify for Himself a people for His own possession, zealous for good deeds.

[Expositor's Bible Commentary]:

['''4. The purpose of Christ's redemption (2:14)

14 From the eschatological future, Paul reverts to the historical work of Christ as Savior as the foundation for present sanctification. "Who gave himself for us" summarizes that work as voluntary, exhaustive, and substitutionary. His giving of himself was the grandest of all gifts. Because of our sinfulness, his atoning work had a dual aspect.

Its negative aspect was "to redeem us from all wickedness" or "lawlessness," that assertion of self-will in defiance of God's standard that is the essence of sin (1 John 3:4). The expression stresses not our guilt as rebels but rather our deliverance from bondage to lawlessness through Christ's ransom. "From" (apo) indicates effective removal from that sphere and our deliverance from "all" aspects of its domination.

This negative work is the necessary prelude to the positive work of sanctification, "to purify for himself a people that are his very own." "Purify" points to the moral defilement that man's rebellion produced. Sin makes us not only guilty but also unclean before a holy God. The blood-wrought cleansing (1 John 1:7) enables men to be restored to fellowship with God as "a people that are his very own." Since they have been redeemed by his blood (1 Peter 1:18-21), Christ yearns that they voluntarily yield themselves wholly to him. Such a surrender is man's only reasonable response to divine mercy (Rom 12:1, 2).
"Eager to do what is good" delineates what this relationship involves. "Eager" in the Greek is a noun (zelotes) meaning "a zealot, an enthusiast." For those who have been redeemed from the doom of sin and death and brought into a unique relationship with God, the true voluntary response is to be enthusiastic "to do what is good." It is the true badge of his divine ownership. He who eagerly awaits the return of the Savior will be eager also to further his cause by good works until he comes. It is another instance of the union between creed and conduct insisted upon in the pastoral Epistles.''']

[Compare Titus 1:1-3; 3:4-7]:

(Titus 1:1 NASB) "Paul, a bond-servant of God and an apostle of Jesus Christ, for the faith of those chosen of God and the knowledge of the truth which is according to godliness,

(Titus 1:2 NKJV) in hope of eternal life which God, who cannot lie, promised before time began,

(Titus 1:3 NKJV) but has in due time manifested His word through preaching, which was committed to me according to the commandment of God our Savior;

(Titus 3:4 NASB) But when the kindness of God our Savior and His love for mankind appeared,

(Titus 3:5 NASB) He saved us, not on the basis of deeds which we have done in righteousness, but according to His mercy, by the washing of regeneration and renewing by the Holy Spirit,

(Titus 3:6 NASB) whom He poured out upon us richly through Jesus Christ our Savior,

(Titus 3:7 NASB) so that being justified by His grace we would be made heirs according to the hope of eternal life."

The appearance of our God and Savior is the appearance of the Lord (Jesus Christ, 2 Thes 2:1; 2 Thes 2:8)

God and Jesus Christ is Savior of the same salvation: 1 Tim 1:1 (God); Titus 1:4 (Christ Jesus); 2 Pet 1:1 (God, Jesus Christ)

Manuscript evidence only one "our" in Titus 2:13 and it modifies "God," and "Savior," "and Christ Jesus"

Manuscript evidence ? Christ Jesus - ck Titus 2:13 Manuscript Evidence Book by Comfort

TR, NU, Sinaticus2, A, C, D Psi, 0278, 33, Maj, it, syr have "our great God and Savior, Jesus Christ"

WH, Sinaiticus*, F, G, it(b) have "our great God and Savior, Christ Jesus - a typical transposition created by a scribe in order to be consistent with Paul's typical greeting in the name of "Christ Jesus," as in 1 Cor 1:1; 2 Cor 1:1; Eph 1:1; Phil 1:1; Col 1:1; 1 Tim 1:1; 2 Tim 1:1).

1739 has "our great God and Savior, Jesus - an atypical shortening of a sacred name.

The TR, NU reading can also be rendered "the glory of the great God and of our Savior, Jesus Christ" - that is, the glory belongs both to God and to the Savior Jesus Christ. But the Greek syntax favors the rendering "our great God and Savior, Jesus Christ. In the Greek there is one article governing the two titles "God" and "Savior Jesus Christ" joined by the conjunction καί ("and")... where the two nouns / titles describe one person. In this case, Jesus Christ is both God and Savior. Furthermore, Paul never used the word rendered "appearing" when speaking of God the Father, (cf. 1 Tim 6:16). This refers only to Christ, with reference to His first coming (2 Tim 1:10) or His Second Coming, (1 Tim 6:14; 2 Tim 6:14; 2 Tim 4:1, 8).

Both God and Christ Jesus / Jesus Christ have been declared Savior - a unique one of a kind Savior. This occurs in Titus more than several times - indirectly and directly - as if the both are the Savior - both are the same Person: God in these verses alone - carefully and properly examined is associated with persons, experiences and writings in such a manner that make Him unique. And Christ Jesus / Jesus Christ in these verses alone is associated with persons, experiences and writings that make Him unique. And God and Christ Jesus / Jesus Christ in these verses alone are associated with persons, experiences and writings that make them the same Person.

(Titus 2:15 NASB) These things speak and exhort and reprove with all authority. Let no one disregard you."