LUKE CHAPTER 6

OBSERVATION STAGE

The purpose of the observation stage is to maintain focus on the text at hand within the normative rules of language, context and logic which limits the observer to the content offered by the book of Luke. This will serve to avoid going on unnecessary tangents elsewhere; and more importantly, it will provide the framework for a proper and objective comparison with passages located elsewhere in Scripture.

Note that similar or the same subject matter describing an historic event which matter is essentially the same as the subject matter in another passage in Scripture does not necessarily prove that the passages in view portray the same event. This is so, including those passages in which Jesus Himself is in view. For not everyone who lived or passed through the Palestinian region - which numbered in the millions - were present every time and in every place that Jesus preached and healed people. So it stands to reason that the subject matter that He preached bore frequent repetition in order to reach the greatest numbers.

On the other hand, passages in Scripture which not only have similar or the same subject matter describing an event but which also have different subject matter from one another, may or may not have the same event in view depending upon a full examination of the context of each of the passages. Given the brevity of the bible - the limited time, space and resources such as paper, ink, etc. - not everything was capable of being included in each of the writings or even in all of the writings together. There are going to be similarities and differences. But a careful examination of Scripture   will reveal that there is nevertheless a miraculous harmony and complete absence of contradiction.

Remember that something elsewhere may be true, but in the text at hand it may not be in view.

****** EXCERPT FROM LUKE CHAPTER 5 ******

............................................OR MOVE TO LK 6:1

(Lk 5:36-39) [In Order To Further Emphasize That His Mission And Teachings Are Incompatible With That Of The Scribes And Pharisees, Jesus Told A Number Of Parables To All Of Those Attending Matthew's Banquet. First He Said, "No One Tears A Piece Of Cloth From A New Garment And Puts It On An Old Garment; Otherwise He Will Both Tear The New, And The Piece From The New Will Not Match The Old. Secondly, Jesus Said, "And No One Puts New Wine Into Old Wineskins; Otherwise The New Wine Will Burst The Skins And It Will Be Spilled Out, And The Skins Will Be Ruined. But New Wine Must Be Put Into Fresh Wineskins. And Thirdly He Said, "And No One, After Drinking Old Wine Wishes For New; For He Says, 'The Old Is Good Enough.' " These Three Parables Imply That The Ways And Teachings Of The Scribes And Pharisees Are Not Compatible With The Ways And Teachings Of Jesus Christ]

(Lk 5:36 NASB) And He was also telling them a parable: 'No one tears a piece of cloth from a new garment and puts it on an old garment; otherwise he will both tear the new, and the piece from the new will not match the old. (Lk 5:37 NASB) 'And no one puts new wine into old wineskins; otherwise the new wine will burst the skins and it will be spilled out, and the skins will be ruined. (Lk 5:38 NASB) But new wine must be put into fresh wineskins.  (Lk 5:39 NASB) And no one, after drinking old wine wishes for new; for he says, 'The old is good enough.' " =

[(Lk 5:36-39) Commentary on Lk 5:36-39]:

(Lk 5:36 NASB) "And He was also telling them a parable: 'No one tears a piece of cloth from a new garment and puts it on an old garment; otherwise he will both tear the new, and the piece from the new will not match the old. (Lk 5:37 NASB) 'And no one puts new wine into old wineskins; otherwise the new wine will burst the skins and it will be spilled out, and the skins will be ruined. (Lk 5:38 NASB) But new wine must be put into fresh wineskins.  (Lk 5:39 NASB) And no one, after drinking old wine wishes for new; for he says, 'The old is good enough.' " =

And Jesus was also telling three short one line parables to all of those at Matthew's banquet in order to further emphasize the incompatibility of Jesus' mission and teachings which fulfilled the Law and the Prophets with the actions and teachings of the scribes and Pharisees which violated the Law and Prophets, serving their own ends.

In Lk 5:36, Luke wrote Jesus' first parable, "No one tears a piece of cloth from a new garment and puts it on an old garment; otherwise he will both tear the new, and the piece from the new will not match the old." The new piece of cloth having been torn from its original garment will make that garment incomplete and ineffective because a piece or part taken from the whole is by definition apart from the whole new garment. So the tearing out of that piece causes the garment it is torn from and the piece itself defective and ineffective. For no longer is the garment or the piece of that garment whole and complete and able to perform its function properly. So the parable is implying that a piece of the new garment of Jesus' actions and teachings will inevitably cause a conflict when joined to the old garment of the Jewish leaders' actions and teachings. This is so because Jesus' actions and teachings  as a complete whole without any pieces removed from it perfectly fulfill the Law and the Prophets as stipulated in God's Word, (ref Mt 5:17 ). Furthermore, the old garment which comprise the actions and teachings of the Jewish rulers, the scribes and Pharisees has had the Law and the Prophets distorted to their suit themselves, their own ends, (ref. Lk 11:37-54 ).

There would be inevitable and mutual destruction if a piece of the new garment of Jesus were to be cut out and joined to what the scribes and Pharisess have done to the Law and the Prophets. Taking a piece of Who Jesus is - His mission and teachings would distort and destroy the mission and teachings of Jesus Himself, as many religious organizations have done throughout the ages.

[(Lk 5:36) Expositor's Commentary]:

"The context provides opportunity for Jesus to state a basic principle in a series of parabolic figures. His mission involved a radical break with common religious practices. Jesus neither affirms nor denies the value of fasting, and he does not mention prayer here at all. He teaches rather that he has not come merely to add devotional routines to those already practiced, for what he brings is not a patch but a whole new garment. Merely to "patch things up"—i.e., to have a dinner celebration in place of fasting—would fail for two reasons. First, it would ruin the rest of the new garment from which it is taken. Second, just one new patch will not help preserve the old garment but will in fact be conspicuously incongruous."

[(Lk 5:36-39) Commentary on Lk 5:36-39 (cont.)]:

In Lk 5:37-38, Jesus comments further with a second one line parable reinforcing the previous points made in the previous verse, as follows: 'And no one puts new wine into old wineskins; otherwise the new wine will burst the skins and it will be spilled out, and the skins will be ruined. But new wine must be put into fresh wineskins.' The picture is of the new wine of Jesus' mission and teachings which were designed by God to perfectly fulfill the Law and the Prophets being poured into the old defective wine skins that the Pharisees and scribes fabricated into their flawed version of the Law and the Prophets. The result would be that Jesus' new wine would ferment producing the perfect fulfillment of the Law and the Prophets contained within the old defective wine skins of the flawed version of the Law and the Prophets. Hence the old skins would burst open, spilling out the wine of Jesus' mission and teaching onto the ground destroying everything. For the flawed skin has no elasticity. It is totally rigid, legalistic and unforgiving - impossible for man to maintain. The Jewish rulers' flawed interpretation of the Law and the Prophets restricted the grace of God and limited the Law and Prophets to Jews alone. On the other hand, God's Word which contains the Law and the Prophets has been given to all mankind. Salvation unto eternal life is available to all mankind by grace through faith alone, not by works of the Law or any works. So Jesus implies that His teachings and mission are wholly incompatible with and superior to those of the Jewish rulers who have a flawed interpretation of the Law and the Prophets. Therefore the new wine of Jesus' teachings must be put in fresh wineskins, i.e., they must be taught properly within the context of a fresh, i.e., a proper, interpretation of the Law and the Prophets, and not within the old, flawed interpretation generated by the scribes and Pharisees of Jesus' time.

And finally, the third parable in Lk 5:39, 'And no one, after drinking old Wine wishes for new; for he says 'The old is good enough' " (ref Lk 11:37-54 ). Despite the absolute superiority of the new wine over the old wine - Jesus' fulfillment of the Law and the Prophets vs. the Jewish rulers' flawed Judaism - those who have partaken of the old wine, especially the Jewish rulers whose actions and teachings do not accurately represent the Law and the Prophets and whose teaching did not provide salvation or temporal faithfulness to God for anyone; will deliberately prefer the old wine, holding fast to their temporal power and authority.

The new garment and the new wine represent the true message of salvation by grace through a moment of faith alone in Jesus Christ alone - His substitutionary atonement for all mankind; and not by works of the Law or any works unto residence in the eternal Kingdom of God for all mankind, Jew and Gentile alike. And the old garment and the old wine represent the faulty version of the Law and the Prophets: the distorted version of the Judaism of the scribes and Pharisees which requires obedience to the many statutes that the Law contains in order to receive salvation plus obedience to all those statutes that they have invented - a salvation which excludes non-Jews. If Jesus permitted the message of the true version of the Law and the Prophets to be poured into the contaminated old wine skins of the Jewish rulers, its value would have been destroyed and grace salvation would as well. The message of the Gospel, the Grace of God, the Church, and the Eternal Kingdom of God would be ineffectual - as it has been within many religious organizations throughout the centuries. If this contamination - the mixing of grace and works were permitted by God, His message of the grace salvation of God of all mankind - both Jew and Gentile - through what He inspired to be written beginning with the Law and the Prophets being fulfilled by the works and teachings of Jesus Christ would have gone for naught.

I) [Lk 6:1-49]:

(Lk 6:1 NASB) "Now it happened that He was passing through some grainfields on a Sabbath; and His disciples were picking the heads of grain, rubbing them in their hands, and eating the grain. (ref. Mt 12:1-8; Mk 2:23-28).

(Lk 6:2 NASB) But some of the Pharisees said, 'Why do you do what is not lawful on the Sabbath?'

(Lk 6:3 NASB) And Jesus answering them said, 'Have you not even read what David did when he was hungry, he and those who were with him,

(Lk 6:4 NASB) how he entered the house of God, and took and ate that consecrated bread [lit., showbread] which is not lawful for any to eat except the priests alone, and gave it to his companions?'

(Lk 6:5 NASB) And He was saying to them, 'The Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath.'

(Lk 6:6 NASB) [Mt 12:9-14; Mk 3:1-6] On another Sabbath He entered the synagogue and was teaching; and there was a man there whose right hand was withered.

(Lk 6:7 NKJV) So the scribes and Pharisees watched Him closely, whether He would heal on the Sabbath, that they might find an accusation against Him.

(Lk 6:8 NASB) But He knew what they were thinking, [lit. their thoughts] and He said to the man with  [lit., who had] the withered hand, 'Get up and come forward!' [lit., stand into the middle]. And he got up [lit., stood] and came forward.

(Lk 6:9 NASB) And Jesus said to them, 'I ask you, is it lawful to do good or to do harm on the Sabbath, to save a life or to destroy it?' [M-text reads to kill]

(Lk 6:10 NASB) And when He had looked around at them all, He said to the man, 'Stretch out your hand.' And he did so, and his hand was restored as whole as the other.

(Lk 6:11 NASB) But they themselves were filled with rage, and discussed together what they might do to Jesus.

(Lk 6:12 NASB) It was at this time that He went off to the mountain to pray, and He spent the whole night in prayer to God.

(Lk 6:13 NASB) And when day came, He called His disciples to Him and chose twelve of them, whom He also named as apostles: [ref. Mt 10:2-4; Mk 3:16-19; Acts 1:13]

(Lk 6:14 NASB) Simon, whom He also named Peter, and Andrew his brother; and James and John; and Philip and Bartholomew; 

(Lk 6:15 NASB) and Matthew and Thomas; James the son of Alphaeus, and Simon who was called the Zealot;

(Lk 6:16 NASB) Judas the son of James, and Judas Iscariot, who became a traitor.

(Lk 6:17 NASB) Jesus came down with them and stood on a level place; and there was a large crowd of His disciples, and a great throng of people from all Judea and Jerusalem and the coastal region of Tyre and Sidon,

A) (Lk 6:17) Manuscript Evidence For Lk 6:17]:

Sinaiticus, B, L, Tisc, WH, Weis, Sod, UBS, var have "polus" rendered "many" modifying "His disciples," indicating that Jesus had many disciples who followed Him for a season.

A few manuscripts (Sinaiticus*, W) have the additional words rendered "and to Perea" among the list of localities from which people came to see Jesus. This is the only place in the entire NT where the region Perea is specifically named. Perea was the territory in Palestine on the eastern side of the Jordan River; it is described as "beyond the Jordan" in the synoptic parallel passages (Mt 4:25; Mk 3:8). Thus, the addition in Lk 6:17 was made by scribes who wanted to harmonize Luke with Matthew and Mark and did so by providing the specific place name.

(Lk 6:18 NASB) who had come to hear Him and to be healed of their diseases; and those who were troubled with unclean spirits were being cured.

(Lk 6:19 YLT) and all the multitude were seeking to touch him, because power from him was going forth, and he was healing all.

(Lk 6:20 NASB) And turning [lit., "having lifted up"] His gaze toward His disciples, He began to say, "Blessed are you who are poor, for yours is the kingdom of God.

A) [(Lk 6:20) Manuscript Evidence For Lk 6:20]:

Several copyists (Sinaiticus2, Q, Theta, f1,13) conformed Luke's wording, "blessed are the poor in spirit"). Notice that the message in Mt 5:3 addresses all who are poor in spirit in the sense of spiritual poverty, not material poverty. This is not the same as Lk 6:20 which has in view the material poverty of the disciples. Both kinds of poverty are prerequisites for  partaking of ownership of the kingdom.

B) Note That Lk 6:20 Begins Luke's Beatitudes Which Are Often Compared To Matthews Beatitudes In Mt Chapter 5

C) [Compare Mt 5:3-12]:

(Mt 5:3 NASB) "Blessed are the poor in spirit for theirs is the kingdom of heaven."

Notice that the message in Mt 5:3 addresses all who are poor in spirit in the sense of spiritual poverty, not material poverty. This is not the same as Lk 6:20 which has in view the material poverty of the disciples who gave up all of their material possession as well as the maintaining of their temporal relationships in order to follow Jesus.

(Lk 6:21 NASB) Blessed are you who hunger [lit.,  who are hungering] now, for you shall be satisfied. Blessed are you who weep [lit., who are weeping] now, for you shall laugh.

(Lk 6:22 NASB) Blessed are you when men hate you, and ostracize you, and insult you, and scorn your name as evil, for the sake of the Son of Man.

(Lk 6:23 NASB) Be glad in that day and leap for joy, for behold, your reward is great in heaven. For in the same way their fathers used to treat the prophets.

(Lk 6:24 NASB) But woe to you who are rich, for you are receiving your comfort in full.

(Lk 6:25 NASB) Woe to you who [lit., "having been filled"] are well-fed now, for you shall be hungry. Woe to you who laugh now, for you shall mourn and weep.

(Lk 6:26 NASB) Woe to you when all men speak well of you, for their fathers used to treat the false prophets in the same way.

(Lk 6:27 NASB) But I say to you who hear, love your enemies, do good to those who hate you, [cf. Mt 5:44; Lk 6:35]

(Lk 6:28 NASB) bless those who curse you, pray for those who mistreat you.

(Lk 6:29 NASB) Whoever hits you on the cheek, offer him the other also; and whoever takes away your coat, do not withhold your shirt from him either.[cf Mt 5:39-42]

(Lk 6:30 NASB) Give to everyone who asks of you, and whoever takes away what is yours, do not demand it back.

(Lk 6:31 NASB) Treat others the same way you want them to treat you.

(Lk 6:32 NKJV) But if you love those who love you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners love those who love them.

(Lk 6:33 NASB) If you do good to those who do good to you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners do the same.

(Lk 6:34 NASB) If you lend to those from whom you expect to receive, what credit is that to you? Even sinners lend to sinners in order to receive back the same amount. [cf Mt 5:42]

(Lk 6:35 NASB) But love your enemies, and do good, and lend, expecting nothing in return; and your reward will be great, and you will be sons of the Most High; for He Himself is kind to ungrateful and evil men.

(Lk 6:36 NASB) Be merciful, just as your Father is merciful.

(Lk 6:37 NASB) Do not judge, and you will not be judged; and do not condemn, and you will not be condemned; pardon, and you will be pardoned.

(Lk 6:38 NASB) Give, and it will be given to you. They will pour into your lap a good measure—pressed down, shaken together, and running over. For by your standard of measure it will be measured to you in return.

(Lk 6:39 NASB) And He also spoke a parable to them: 'A blind man cannot guide a blind man, can he? Will they not both fall into a pit?'

(Lk 6:40  NASB) A pupil is not above his teacher; but everyone, after he has been fully trained, will be like his teacher.

(Lk 6:41 NASB) Why do you look at the speck that is in your brother's eye, but do not notice the log that is in your own eye? 

(Lk 6:42 NASB) Or how can you say to your brother, 'Brother, let me take out the speck that is in your eye,' when you yourself do not see the log that is in your own eye? You hypocrite, first take the log out of your own eye, and then you will see clearly to take out the speck that is in your brother's eye.

(Lk 6:43 NASB) For there is no good tree which produces bad fruit, nor, on the other hand, a bad tree which produces good fruit. [Mt 7:16, 18, 20]

(Lk 6:44 NASB) For each tree is known by its own fruit. For men do not gather figs from thorns, nor do they pick grapes from a briar bush.

(Lk 6:45 NASB) The good man out of the good treasure of his heart brings forth what is good; and the evil man out of the evil treasure brings forth what is evil; for his mouth speaks from that which fills his heart. [Mt 12:34-35]

(Lk 6:46 NASB) Why do you call Me, 'Lord, Lord,' and do not do what I say? [Mt 7:21]

(Lk 6:47 NASB) Everyone who comes to Me and hears My words and acts on them, I will show you whom he is like: [Mt 7:24-27]

(Lk 6:48 NASB) he is like a man building a house, who dug deep and laid a foundation on the rock; and when a flood occurred, the torrent burst against that house and could not shake it, because it had been well built.

(Lk 6:49 NASB) But the one who has heard and has not acted accordingly, is like a man who built a house on the ground without any foundation; and the torrent burst against it and immediately it collapsed, and the ruin of that house was great."

A) [(Lk 6:1-5) Now it happened that He [Jesus] was passing through some grainfields on a Sabbath; and His disciples were picking the heads of grain, rubbing them in their hands, and eating the grain. But some of the Pharisees said, 'Why do you do what is not lawful on the Sabbath?' And Jesus answering them said, 'Have you not even read what David did when he was hungry, he and those who were with him, how he entered the house of God, and took and ate that consecrated bread which is not lawful for any to eat except the priests alone, and gave it to his companions?' And He was saying to them, 'The Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath.']:

(Lk 6:1 NASB) "Now it happened that He was passing through some grainfields on a Sabbath; and His disciples were picking the heads of grain, rubbing them in their hands, and eating the grain. (ref. Mt 12:1-8; Mk 2:23-28). (Lk 6:2 NASB) But some of the Pharisees said, 'Why do you do what is not lawful on the Sabbath?' (Lk 6:3 NASB) And Jesus answering them said, 'Have you not even read what David did when he was hungry, he and those who were with him, (Lk 6:4 NASB) how he entered the house of God, and took and ate that consecrated bread [lit., showbread] which is not lawful for any to eat except the priests alone, and gave it to his companions?' (Lk 6:5 NASB) And He was saying to them, 'The Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath.' " =

1) [(Lk 6:1) Manuscript Evidence For Lk 6:1]:

WH, NU, P4, P75vid, Sinaiticus, B, L, W, f1, 33, cop have "on the Sabbath"

TR, A, C, D, Theta, Psi, f13, Maj have "on the second-first Sabbath

f13, 28 have "second Sabbath [of] the [first month]

ite has "early Sabbath"

P75vid is not cited in NA27 or UBS4, but a reconstruction of the text shows that the manuscript did not contain any of the extra words in the variants. The problem with determining the original wording here is that the WH NU reading has the best external testimony, whereas the first variant reading of "on the second-first Sabbath" is clearly more difficult. If the text originally read simply "Sabbath," why would scribes add the difficult modifier "deute roprOtO" [second-first]  which appears nowhere else in the NT? Westcott and Hort (1882, 58) suggest that some copyist added "prOtO" as a correlative to the "other Sabbath" mentioned in 6:5, which was then changed to "deuterO" [first] by another scribe in light of 4:31. Both words were retained and combined in subsequent copies; hence TR contains a pure scribal blunder. It is also likely that some scribe considered that 'the second sabbath of the first month (the time of first ripening barley) was the correct date for this episode", and therefore he made the insertion. This reading is reflected in the second variant: 'The second Sabbath of the first month.' "

2) [(Lk 6:5, 10) Manuscript Evidence For Lk 6:5, 10]:

Marcion and D place Lk 6:5 after 6:10; and instead of 6:5, D reads the following: 'That same day he waw a man working on the Sabbath and said to him, 'Man, if you know what you are doing, you are fortunate; but if you do not, then you are accursed and a violater of the Law' "

This saying, similar to a number of sayings in the Gospel of Thomas, comes from an apocryphal tradition. Westcott and Hort (1882, 59) conjectured that this saying came from the same source as the pericope of the adulteress (John 7:52-8:11), but they do not say why. Metzger explains that the change in D 'Makes Luke enumberate three incidents concerning Jesus and the sabbath, and climazes the series with the pronouncement concerning the sovereignty of the Son of Man over the sabbath.

In 6:5 several manuscripts (A, D, L,, Theta, Psi, f1,13, 33, Maj - so TR) conform Luke's reading "the Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath") to Mark 2:28 by adding "the Son of Man is Lord [kai] even of the Sabbath." The shorter reading is preserved in Sinaiticus, B, W.

In 6:10 several manuscripts (A, D, Q, Delta, Theta, Psi, 565, it) add ("as the other") or "healthy as the other" - f13, Maj - so TR) or simply "healthy" - W). These additions conform Luke to Mt 12:13, a parallel passage. The shorter text is preserved in P4, Sinaiticus, B, L, 33 (so WH NU).

3) [Compare The Parallel Passage In Mt 12:1-8]:

(Mt 12:1 NASB) "At that time Jesus went through the grainfields on the Sabbath, and His disciples became hungry and began to pick the heads of grain and eat.

(Mt 12:2 NASB) But when the Pharisees saw this, they said to Him, 'Look, Your disciples do what is not lawful to do on a Sabbath.'

(Mt 12:3 NASB) But He said to them, "Have you not read what David did when he became hungry, he and his companions,

(Mt 12:4 NASB) how he entered the house of God, and they ate the consecrated bread, which was not lawful for him to eat nor for those with him, but for the priests alone?

(Mt 12:5 NASB) Or have you not read in the Law, that on the Sabbath the priests in the temple break the Sabbath and are innocent?

(Mt 12:6 NASB) But I say to you that something greater than the temple is here.

(Mt 12:7 NASB) But if you had known what this means, 'I desire compassion, and not a sacrifice,' you would not have condemned the innocent.

(Mt 12:8 NASB) For the Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath.' "

Note that there is no contradiction between Matthew's and Luke's account of the grain plucking relative to chronology. For Luke's account is topical and does not need to follow the order of Matthew's account. Nor does Matthew's phraseology and word choices cause a conflict / contradiction when compared with Luke's account.

Furthermore, note that Luke uniquely stipulates that the disciples were rubbing the heads of grain evidently to release the seeds in order to eat them as reported in the other two accounts - an additional detail which does not conflict with the other two accounts. For the other two accounts imply that there was some kind of manipulation of the seeds in order to be able to eat them without having to stipulate precisely what Luke stipulates on this matter.

Finally, Matthew stipulates that priests in the temple break the Sabbath by their dutiful activity in the Temple on every Sabbath; but they are nevertheless indicated as blameless / innocent of violating the Sabbath because of this special duty that must be performed in a timely manner in the Temple every day according to the Law, including every Sabbath; (cf. Num. 28:9-10, 18-19).

Then in Mt 12:8, Matthew writes "For the Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath" -  an issue of infinitely greater importance than the proper use of the Temple  by man, when it is the Lord Who favors compasson over legalistic sacrifice.

4) [Compare The Parallel Passage In Mk 2:23-28]:

(Mk 2:23 NASB) "And it happened that He was passing through the grainfields on the Sabbath, and His disciples began to make their way along while picking the heads of grain.

(Mk 2:24 NASB) The Pharisees were saying to Him, 'Look, why are they doing what is not lawful on the Sabbath?'

(Mk 2:25 NASB) And He said to them, 'Have you never read what David did when he was in need and he and his companions became hungry;

(Mk 2:26 NASB) how he entered the house of God in the time of Abiathar the high priest, and ate the consecrated bread, which is not lawful for anyone to eat except the priests, and he also gave it to those who were with him?'

(Mk 2:27 NASB) Jesus said to them, 'The Sabbath was made for man, and not man for the Sabbath.

(Mk 2:28 NASB) So the Son of Man is Lord even of the Sabbath.' " 

None of the additional bits of information provided in each of the three accounts constitutes contradiction amongst the three parallel accounts.

5) [(Lk 6:1-5) Commentary On Lk 6:1-5]:

(Lk 6:1) Now it happened that He [Jesus] was passing through some grainfields on a Sabbath; and His disciples were picking the heads of grain, rubbing them in their hands, and eating the grain. (Lk 6:2) But some of the Pharisees said to Jesus, the leader of the offending disciples, 'Why do you do what is not lawful on the Sabbath?' " =

In Lk 6:2, the Pharisees and scribes viewed the disciples' rubbing the heads of grain as unlawful on the Sabbath because to them it constituted the act of threshing of grain. And since the Mishnah forbids threshing on the Sabbath, (Shabbath 7:2), they accused Jesus, their leader, of being responsible for the disciples' alleged violation of the Law.

a) [Compare Dt 23:25]:

(Dt 23:25 NASB) "When you enter your neighbor's standing grain, then you may pluck the heads with your hand, but you shall not wield a sickle in your neighbor's standing grain."

Despite the fact that the context of Dt 23:25 indicates that plucking standing grain is not depicted as threshing, and thus not a work activity, then it is permissible by such as the disciples of Jesus. But the Jewish Rulers nevertheless determined that Jesus' disciples were violating the Sabbath. The Pharisees interpreted and editorialized the Law so strictly - beyond the intent of the Law - that rubbing the heads together in order to eat the grain constituted threshing which was a work activity which would then not be allowed on the Sabbath, despite the fact that Scripture permitted eating a neighbor's standing grain.

(Lk 6:3-4) "So Jesus answering them said, 'Have you not even read what David did when he was hungry, he and those who were with him, how he entered the house of God, and took and ate that consecrated bread [lit., showbread] which is not lawful for any to eat except the priests alone, and gave it to his companions?' " =

Nevertheless, Jesus referred to Scripture which more than adequately countered what the Pharisees and scribes were accusing Him of:

b) [Compare 1 Sam 21:1-6]:

(1 Sam 21:1 NASB) "Then David came to Nob to Ahimelech the priest; and Ahimelech came trembling to meet David and said to him, 'Why are you alone and no one with you?'

(1 Sam 21:2 NASB) David said to Ahimelech the priest, "The king has commissioned me with a matter and has said to me, 'Let no one know anything about the matter on which I am sending you and with which I have commissioned you; and I have directed the young men to a certain place.'

(1 Sam 21:3 NASB) Now therefore, what do you have on hand? Give me five loaves of bread, or whatever can be found.'

(1 Sam 21:4 NASB) The priest answered David and said, 'There is no ordinary bread on hand, but there is consecrated bread; if only the young men have kept themselves from women.'

(1 Sam 21:5 NASB) David answered the priest and said to him, 'Surely women have been kept from us as previously when I set out and the vessels of the young men were holy, though it was an ordinary journey; how much more then today will their vessels be holy?'

(1 Sam 21:6 NASB) So the priest gave him consecrated bread; for there was no bread there but the bread of the Presence which was removed from before the LORD, in order to put hot bread in its place when it was taken away."

(Lk 6:3-4 cont) So Jesus referred to 1 Sam 21:1-6 , quoted above which indicates when David and his men entered the house of God, and took and ate that consecrated breat, [lit., the showbread] which was not lawful for any to eat except the priests alone except under dire circumstances such as then David and his men were desperately hungry.

David had approached the priests at Nob and asked for bread. The only food available at the moment was the consecrated bread that only the priests were allowed to eat according to the Law. But out of the grace of God through the kindness of the priests, David was given the bread, and he and his companions ate it. The parallel in Jesus' teaching was clear. In the interest of survival David and his companions were allowed to be excepted from strict obedience to the Law with the priest's blessing in such dire circumstances by the grace of God. Christ and His companions were also by the grace of God exceptions to a strict obedience of the Law which the Pharisees proclaimed and twisted to include no exceptions except the ones that favored themselves.

Jesus simply calls to mind an instance in which the infringement of a command under the Law in order to meet human need received no condemnation, (Lk 6:4). His illustration is apt because the general principle then and in His time continues to be the same and because a leader (David and David's messianic descendant) is involved along with his companions. The point is that ceremonial rites must give way to a higher moral law when they conflict.

Whereupon in Lk 6:5, Jesus was saying to the Pharisees and scribes, 'The Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath,' a reference to Himself Who is both God and Man , and being God is Lord of the Sabbath.

A) [(Lk 6:6-11) Without Being Chronological, Author Luke Stipulated In Lk 6:6, "On Another Sabbath, Jesus Entered The Synagogue And Was Teaching; And There Was A Man There Whose Right Hand Was Withered. So The Scribes And Pharisees Watched Him Closely, Whether He Would Heal On The Sabbath, That They Might Find An Accusation Against Him. But He Knew What They Were Thinking, And He Said To The Man With The Withered Hand, 'Get Up And Come Forward!' And He Got up And Came Forward. And Jesus Said To Them, 'I Ask You, Is It Lawful To Do Good Or To Do Harm On The Sabbath, To Save A Life Or To Destroy It? And When He Had Looked Around At Them All, He Said To The Man, 'Stretch Out Your Hand.' And He Did So, And His Hand Was Restored As Whole As The Other. But They Themselves Were Filled With Rage, And Discussed Together What They Might Do To Jesus.

(Lk 6:6 NASB) "[Mt 12:9-14; Mk 3:1-6] On another Sabbath He entered the synagogue and was teaching; and there was a man there whose right hand was withered. (Lk 6:7 NKJV) So the scribes and Pharisees watched Him closely, whether He would heal on the Sabbath, that they might find an accusation against Him. (Lk 6:8 NASB) But He knew what they were thinking, [lit. their thoughts] and He said to the man with  [lit., who had] the withered hand, 'Get up and come forward!' [lit., stand into the middle]. And he got up [lit., stood] and came forward. (Lk 6:9 NASB) And Jesus said to them, 'I ask you, is it lawful to do good or to do harm on the Sabbath, to save a life or to destroy it?' [M-text reads to kill] (Lk 6:10 NASB) And when He had looked around at them all, He said to the man, 'Stretch out your hand.' And he did so, and his hand was restored as whole as the other. (Lk 6:11 NASB) But they themselves were filled with rage, and discussed together what they might do to Jesus." =

1) ](Lk 6:10) Manuscript Evidence For Lk 6:10]:

In 6:10 several manuscripts (A, D, Q, Delta, Theta, Psi, 565, it) add ("as the other") or "healthy as the other" - f13, Maj - so TR) or simply "healthy" - W). These additions conform Luke to Mt 12:13, a parallel passage. The shorter text is preserved in P4, Sinaiticus, B, L, 33 (so WH NU).

Note: NU-Text omits "as whole as the other."

2) [Compare The Parallel Passage In Mt 12:9-14]:

(Mt 12:9 NASB) "Departing from there, He went into their synagogue.

(Mt 12:10 NASB) And a man was there whose hand was withered. And they questioned Jesus, asking, 'Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath?' - so that they might accuse Him.

(Mt 12:11 NASB) And He said to them, 'What man is there among you who has a sheep, and if it falls into a pit on the Sabbath, will he not take hold of it and lift it out?

(Mt 12:12 NASB) How much more valuable then is a man than a sheep! So then, it is lawful to do good on the Sabbath.'

(Mt 12:13 NASB) Then He said to the man, 'Stretch out your hand!' He stretched it out, and it was restored to normal, like the other.

(Mt 12:14 NASB) But the Pharisees went out and conspired against Him, as to how they might destroy Him.' "

[Note that Matthew's account includes an account of a sheep which had fallen into a pit which is not in view in Luke's or Mark's account. This detail is additional but the conclusions of the three accounts corroborate one another without contradiction]

3) [(Lk 6:6-11) Compare The Parallel Passage In Mk 3:1-6]:

(Mk 3:1 NASB) "He entered again into a synagogue; and a man was there whose hand was withered.

(Mk 3:2 NASB) They were watching Him to see if He would heal him on the Sabbath, so that they might accuse Him.

(Mk 3:3 NASB) He said to the man with the withered hand, 'Get up and come forward!'

(Mk 3:4 NASB) And He said to them, 'Is it lawful to do good or to do harm on the Sabbath, to save a life or to kill?' But they kept silent.

(Mk 3:5 NASB) After looking around at them with anger, grieved at their hardness of heart, He said to the man, 'Stretch out your hand.' And he stretched it out, and his hand was restored.

(Mk 3:6 NASB) The Pharisees went out and immediately began conspiring with the Herodians against Him, as to how they might destroy Him."

[Notice that Mark included the statements rendered, "But they [the Jewish rulers] kept silent in Mt 3:4b; and "After looking around at them with anger, grieved at their hardness of heart," in Mk 3:5a of which neither creates a contradiction with the other two parallel passages in Matthew and Luke, just additional information that fits the context of all the parallel passages on this issue]

4) [(Lk 6:6-11) Commentary On Lk 6:6-11]:

(Lk 6:6 NASB) "[Mt 12:9-14; Mk 3:1-6] On another Sabbath He entered the synagogue and was teaching; and there was a man there whose right hand was withered. (Lk 6:7 NKJV) So the scribes and Pharisees watched Him closely, whether He would heal on the Sabbath, that they might find an accusation against Him. (Lk 6:8 NASB) But He knew what they were thinking, [lit. their thoughts] and He said to the man with  [lit., who had] the withered hand, 'Get up and come forward!' [lit., stand into the middle]. And he got up [lit., stood] and came forward. (Lk 6:9 NASB) And Jesus said to them, 'I ask you, is it lawful to do good or to do harm on the Sabbath, to save a life or to destroy it?' [M-text reads to kill] (Lk 6:10 NASB) And when He had looked around at them all, He said to the man, 'Stretch out your hand.' And he did so, and his hand was restored as whole as the other. (Lk 6:11 NASB) But they themselves were filled with rage, and discussed together what they might do to Jesus." =

Lk 6:6-7 presents a scenario which is not necessarily chronological in order to corroborate with the parallel passages in Matthew and Mark, as some contend. For the phrase rendered "on another Sabbath" does not have to be chronological. The time sequence of events is not definitively stipulated. But Lk 6:6-11 is topically consistent with Lk 6:1-5 in the sense that it also speaks of Jesus' view of the Sabbath which is largely opposed to the viewpoint of the Jewish rulers. The common issue in vv. 1-5 and 6-11 is a topical one; namely the priority of human need over strict obedience to the ceremonial law. Jesus presented His point that the Law cannot be used to override human need - a wholly accurate view of the proper interpretation of the Law. But the Jewish rulers who were relentlessly pursuing Jesus in order to accuse Him of violating the Law so that they might be rid of Him because He was obstructing their abusive practices of their rule over the people of Israel through their improper editorializing of the Law. They were thereby obstructing the work of the grace of God in providing for human need and instead promoted their own continuation of their ruling over Israel. Even if Jesus proves Himself out to be the coming Messiah / Savior, they were determined to keep themselves in power no matter what:

******

a) [Compare Jn 11:45-57]:

i) [Introduction]:

John chapter 10 ended with Jesus leaving Jerusalem because the Jews were openly threatening to stone Him. So He traveled toward east of the river Jordan. Hence John chapter 11 has in view the time just before the period of Jesus' final ministry in Jerusalem, traditionally called the Passion, which will began with Jesus' triumphal entry back into Jerusalem.

In Jn 11:1-46 , author John writes of the time when Jesus was told that a friend He loved, Lazarus who resided in Bethany in Judea, was sick. Whereupon He determined to return to Judea to see to him. In Jn 11:7-10, John wrote that the disciples argued with Him about returning to Judea because the Jews were now seeking to stone Him to death. Jesus' answer indicated that it was not His time to be killed yet; that He had an opportunity to demonstrate yet another time Who He was by tending to Lazarus:

i_a) [Ref Jn 11:7-10]:

(Jn 11:7 NASB) "Then after this He said to the disciples, 'Let us go to Judea again.'

(Jn 11:8 NASB) The disciples said to Him, 'Rabbi, the Jews were just now seeking to stone You, and are You going there again?'

(Jn 11:9 NASB) Jesus answered, 'Are there not twelve hours in the day? If anyone walks in the day, he does not stumble, because he sees the light of this world.

(Jn 11:10 NASB) But if anyone walks in the night, he stumbles, because the light is not in him.' "

i_a_i) [(Jn 11:9-10) Expositor's Bible Commentary]:

"9-10 Jesus countered the disciples' objection with the following enigmatic statement: 'Are there not twelve hours of daylight? A man who walks by day will not stumble, for he sees by the world's light. It is when he walks by night that he stumbles, for he has no light.' The expression of Jesus may have been a current proverb like the one underlying the remark in John 9:4: 'As long as it is day, we must do the work of Him who sent Me. Night is coming, when no one can work.' In both instances, Jesus was thinking of His obligation to perform the work the Father had committed to Him. Realizing that He was acting in accord with the purpose of the Father who had sent Him and that He had clear illumination concerning His duty, Jesus resolutely decided to return to Jerusalem in spite of the peril."

And so Jesus returned to Bethany in Judea and raised Lazarus from the dead. As a result of this great miracle on top of the many other miracles He performed; His teaching which corroborated the Law, unlike that of the current Jewish rulers; and His life which fulfilled the Prophets' statements about Himself as the Messiah; large crowds of people repeatedly gathered around Him and followed Him. Many of them believed in Him unto eternal life, (Jn 11:25-27). The ever growing increase in the size of Jesus' following amongst the people caused great consternation amongst the Jewish rulers who owed their positions to the Romans so long as there was peace and no dissension amongst the Jewish people, (ref. Jn 11:48). But it became obvious that there were great differences between the way the rulers of Israel, the Pharisees, Sadducees and scribes, were conducting themselves versus what Jesus was teaching.

ii) [(Compare Jn 11:45-57) Commentary]:

(Jn 11:45 NASB) "Therefore many of the Jews who came to Mary, and saw what He had done, believed in Him."

[The words rendered, "Therefore" and "saw what He had done" in Jn 11:45 refer especially to author Luke's account of Jesus' raising of Mary's brother, Lazarus from the dead, (ref. Jn 11:1-44). Evidently many of the Jews came to Mary when they learned of Lazarus' death in order to console Mary and her sister Martha concerning the passing of their brother. And as a result of seeing Jesus raise Lazarus from the dead, many believed in Jesus for eternal life, (ref Lk 6:25-27]

(Jn 11:46 NASB) But some of them went to the Pharisees and told them the things which Jesus had done.

[John's account in Jn 11:1-46 of Jesus' resurrection of Lazarus from the dead is followed by Jn 11:47-53, the reaction of a special council called by the Jewish rulers in order to determine what to do with Jesus, especially in the light of His many miracles, especially the resurrection of Lazarus and the many who believed in Him who witnessed it]:

(Jn 11:47 NASB) Therefore the chief priests and the Pharisees convened a council, and were saying, 'What are we doing? For this man is performing many signs.

[Notice that the rulers acknowledged that Jesus was indeed performing many miraculous signs which pointed to and fulfilled Scripture with which they should have been familiar being Israel's authority on this, but ironically they never acknowledged this according to the gospel and epistle accounts. And it was Jesus Himself Who testified that He was the fulfillment of Isa 61:1-2a and hence would perform these signs when He read from a scrollet of Isaiah in the Synagogue in Nazareth, (ref. Lk 4:17 ; and Isa 61:1-2 ). Nor did the rulers acknowledge that Jesus was the promised Messiah / Savior of the world - the ONE Who would have mankind's iniquity put upon Himself as Scripture so clearly prophesied - especially in Isaiah chapter 9:; chapter 11:; chapter 49:;  chapter 50:; chapter 52:; and chapter 53:. The rulers evidently did not understand the implications of these signs, their minds set on their own temporal positions and saving the nation Israel single handedly from being destroyed by the Romans by killing one Man. Their minds were not at all set upon what God has said about the Eternal Kingdom of God ]

(Jn 11:48 NASB) If we let Him go on like this, all men will believe in Him, and the Romans will come and take away both our place and our nation.'

[Note the word rendered "place" is most likely geographical in nature, i.e., the Temple. This was what happened in A.D. 70 when the Temple was utterly destroyed by the Romans]

(Jn 11:49 NASB) But one of them, Caiaphas, who was high priest that year, said to them, 'You know nothing at all,

(Jn 11:50 NASB) nor do you take into account that it is expedient for you that one man die for the people, and that the whole nation not perish.'

(Jn 11:51 NASB) Now he did not say this on his own initiative, but being high priest that year, he prophesied that Jesus was going to die for the nation,

(Jn 11:52 NASB) and not for the nation only, but in order that He might also gather together into one the children of God who are scattered abroad.

(Jn 11:53 NASB) So from that day on they planned together to kill Him.

[The overriding fear of the Jewish rulers was that Jesus' miraculous signs and teaching which had prompted so many to believe in Him and follow Him would disrupt the arrangement that the Jewish rulers had with the Roman authorities to allow them to be in charge of the Israelite population - provided there was order and no disruptions amongst the population. But when Jesus came upon the scene in the first century, His miraculous signs and teaching became a threat to their status quo - drawing so many followers, many of whom sought to make Him King and overthrow the Roman rule . Jesus' growing popularity neither supported the rulers' leadership, nor its theology; which the latter was unbiblical. Furthermore, Jesus' opposition to them, which was biblically sound, was especially alarming to the rulers:

ii_a) [Compare Matthew chapter 23]:

(Mt 23:1 NASB) "Then Jesus spoke to the crowds and to His disciples,

(Mt 23:2 NASB) saying: 'The scribes and the Pharisees have seated themselves in the chair of Moses;

(Mt 23:3  NASB) therefore all that they tell you, do and observe, but do not do according to their deeds; for they say things and do not do them.

(Mt 23:4  NASB) They tie up heavy burdens and lay them on men's shoulders, but they themselves are unwilling to move them with so much as a finger.

(Mt 23:5 NASB) But they do all their deeds to be noticed by men; for they broaden their phylacteries and lengthen the tassels of their garments.

(Mt 23:6 NASB) They love the place of honor at banquets and the chief seats in the synagogues,

(Mt 23:7 NASB) and respectful greetings in the market places, and being called Rabbi by men.

(Mt 23:8 NASB) But do not be called Rabbi; for One is your Teacher, and you are all brothers.

(Mt 23:9 NASB) Do not call anyone on earth your father; for One is your Father, He who is in heaven.

(Mt 23:10 NASB) Do not be called leaders; for One is your Leader, that is, Christ.

(Mt 23:11 NASB) But the greatest among you shall be your servant.

(Mt 23:12 NASB) Whoever exalts himself shall be humbled; and whoever humbles himself shall be exalted.

(Mt 23:13 NASB) But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, because you shut off the kingdom of heaven
from people; for you do not enter in yourselves, nor do you allow those who are entering to go in.

(Mt 23:14 NASB) *Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, because you devour widows' houses, and for a pretense you make long prayers; therefore you will receive greater condemnation. [see Mk 12:40, Lk 20:47]

[*WH, NU Sinaiticus, B, D, L, Z, Theta, f(1), 33, it(a,e), syr(s), cop(sa) omit the verse. In the following it comes before verse 13: W 0102, 0107, Maj, it(f), Syr(h,p). In the following it comes after verse 13: TR, f(13), IT, Syr(c) and so the TR has it as verse 14.So this verse is not present in the earliest manuscripts and several other witnesses. It evidently was taken from Mk 12:40 or Lk 20:47 and inserted in later manuscripts either before or after 23:13. This kind of gospel harmonization became especially prevalent after the fourth century]

(Mt 23:15 NASB) Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, because you travel around on sea and land to make one proselyte; and when he becomes one, you make him twice as much a son of hell as yourselves.

(Mt 23:16 NASB) Woe to you, blind guides, who say, 'Whoever swears by the temple, that is nothing; but whoever swears by the gold of the temple is obligated.'

(Mt 23:17 NASB) You fools and blind men! Which is more important, the gold or the temple that sanctified the gold?

(Mt 23:18 NASB) And, 'Whoever swears by the altar, that is nothing, but whoever swears by the offering on it, he is obligated.

(Mt 23:19 NASB) You blind men, which is more important, the offering, or the altar that sanctifies the offering?

(Mt 23:20 NASB) Therefore, whoever swears by the altar, swears both by the altar and by everything on it.

(Mt 23:21 NASB) And whoever swears by the temple, swears both by the temple and by Him who dwells within it.

(Mt 23:22 NASB) And whoever swears by heaven, swears both by the throne of God and by Him who sits upon it.

(Mt 23:23 NASB) Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you tithe mint and dill and cummin, and have neglected the weightier provisions of the law: justice and mercy and faithfulness; but these are the things you should have done without neglecting the others.

(Mt 23:24 NASB) You blind guides, who strain out a gnat and swallow a camel!

(Mt 23:25 NASB) Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you clean the outside of the cup and of the dish, but inside they are full of robbery and self-indulgence.

(Mt 23:26 NASB) You blind Pharisee, first clean the inside of the cup and of the dish, so that the outside of it may become clean also.

(Mt 23:27 NASB) Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you are like whitewashed tombs which on the outside appear beautiful, but inside they are full of dead men's bones and all uncleanness.

(Mt 23:28 NASB) So you, too, outwardly appear righteous to men, but inwardly you are full of hypocrisy and lawlessness.

(Mt 23:29 NASB) Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you build the tombs of the prophets and adorn the monuments of the righteous,

(Mt 23:30 NASB) and say, 'If we had been living in the days of our fathers, we would not have been partners with them in shedding the blood of the prophets.'

(Mt 23:31 NASB) So you testify against yourselves, that you are sons of those who murdered the prophets.

(Mt 23:32 NASB) Fill up, then, the measure of the guilt of your fathers.

(Mt 23:33 NASB) You serpents, you brood of vipers, how will you escape the sentence of hell?

(Mt 23:34 NASB) Therefore, behold, I am sending you prophets and wise men and scribes; some of them you will kill and crucify, and some of them you will scourge in your synagogues, and persecute from city to city,

(Mt 23:35 NASB) so that upon you may fall the guilt of all the righteous blood shed on earth, from the blood of righteous Abel to the blood of Zechariah, the son of Berechiah, whom you murdered between the temple and the altar.

(Mt 23:36 NASB) Truly I say to you, all these things will come upon this generation.

(Mt 23:37 NASB) Jerusalem, Jerusalem, who kills the prophets and stones those who are sent to her! How often I wanted to gather your children together, the way a hen gathers her chicks under her wings, and you were unwilling.

(Mt 23:38 NASB) Behold, your house is being left to you desolate!

(Mt 23:39 NASB) For I say to you, from now on you will not see Me until you say, 'Blessed Is He Who comes in the name of the LORD!' "

ii cont.) [(Compare Jn 11:45-57) Commentary (cont.)]:

(Jn 11:53 NASB cont.) So from that day on they planned together to kill Him. (cont.)

Furthermore, if Jesus was indeed the promised Messiah / Savior to come as Scripture foretold; and it is evident from the beginning of His ministry that He was ; then it was prophesied that when all Israel turns to faith to in Him, that it would result in the fulfillment of God's New Covenant with the House of Israel and the House of Judah and the commencement of the Eternal Kingdom of God with all Israelites being transformed into righteous priests who will know scripture perfectly. Then they will become the ruling nation - a nation of priests ministering to the whole world . Had this occurred in the first century it would have transformed the corrupt Jewish rulers into perfect priests with a perfect knowledge of Scripture as well; and the Romans would have been out of business. But the first century Jewish rulers did not believe in Jesus.

Instead the high priest, Caiaphas was saying in Jn 11:49-51 that they - the current rulers of Israel under Roman rule - must sacrifice in the sense of execute this one man Jesus so that the Romans would not come and take away their place and the nation Israel; totally ignoring what God promised in Scripture under the New Covenant. The rulers reasoned that by executing Jesus instead of believing in Him, they would not lose their power and privileges under the Roman government. They thought that the turmoil caused by Jesus' teaching and performance of miracles would cause the Romans to step in and throw out the current rulers and decimate Israel. It is ironic that Caiaphas' words were reflective of Scripture which actually predicted that Jesus would be executed by the Jewish rulers but God stipulated in scripture that this was in order to provide salvation for Israel, as well as the whole world. The rulers were thinking solely about their temporal moments in this life and not about Israel and all peoples in the Eternal Kingdom of God]

(Jn 11:54 NASB) Therefore Jesus no longer continued to walk publicly among the Jews, but went away from there to the country near the wilderness, into a city called Ephraim; and there He stayed with the disciples.

(Jn 11:55 NASB) Now the Passover of the Jews was near, and many went up to Jerusalem out of the country before the Passover to purify themselves.

(Jn 11:56 NASB) So they were seeking for Jesus, and were saying to one another as they stood in the temple, 'What do you think; that He will not come to the feast at all?'

(Jn 11:57 NASB) Now the chief priests and the Pharisees had given orders that if anyone knew where He was, he was to report it, so that they might seize Him."

b) [(Compare Jn 11:45-57) Bible Knowledge Commentary]:

"11:45-47a. Jesus' revelation of Himself always produces two responses. For many of the Jews, this miracle was clear proof of Jesus' claim. In response they trusted Him. But others were only hardened in sin or confused. They went to His enemies, the Pharisees, and reported what had happened. This miraculous sign was so significant that the chief priests and the Pharisees decided to call an emergency session of the Sanhedrin (see comments on 3:1 on the Sanhedrin). Doubtless they felt that Jesus was some kind of magician who by secret arts was deceiving the people.

11:47b-48. The council expressed its inability to solve the problem by continuing to do what they had been doing. Official disapproval, excommunication, and counterteaching were not stopping Jesus' influence. The outcome would be insurrection and the Romans would crush the Jewish revolt; taking away both our place (i.e., the temple) and our nation.

11:49-50. Caiaphas was the high priest that year (cf. 18:13-14, 24, 28). Originally the high priest held his position for a lifetime, but the Romans were afraid of letting a man gain too much power. So the Romans appointed high priests at their convenience. Caiaphas had the office from A.D. 18 to 36. His contempt was expressed in his words, You know nothing at all! His judgment was that this Man must be sacrificed if the nation was to continue in Rome's favor. The alternative was destruction of the Jewish nation in war (11:48). But their rejection of Jesus did not solve the problem. The Jewish people followed false shepherds into a war against Rome (A.D. 66-70), which did in fact destroy their nation.

11:51-53. John by God's Spirit recognized a deep irony in Caiaphas' words. As the high priest, Caiphas pointed to the last sacrificial Lamb in a prophecy he did not even know he made. Caiphas meant Jesus had to be killed, but God intended the priest's words as a reference to His substitutionary atonement. Jesus' death would abolish the old system in God's eyes by fulfilling all its types and shadows. His death was not only for Jews but also for the world, thus making a new body from both (cf. Eph. 2:14-18; 3:6). The Sanhedrin then decided to kill Jesus."

c) [(Compare Jn 11:45-57) Expositor's Bible Commentary]:

"45-46 The response to the sign was twofold. "Many" of the Jews believed on the basis of the evidence they had seen, for the fact of Lazarus's restoration was incontrovertible. In contrast, others went to inform the religious leaders of Jesus' action, apparently as a gesture of disapproval. It seems unlikely that any of the believing Jews made up the delegation that went to the Pharisees. Those who believed would no doubt want to stay with Jesus, whereas the skeptics would be desirous of letting the religious authorities know what had happened so that they could take the necessary action.

47-48 The impact of Jesus' miracle in Bethany resulted in the calling of a meeting of the Sanhedrin. The council expressed not only disapproval but also frustration. They anticipated that the miracles of Jesus would bring such a wave of popular support that the Romans, fearing a revolution, would intervene by seizing complete authority, thus displacing the Jewish government and destroying the national identity. Their fears revealed a complete misunderstanding of the motives of Jesus, who had no political ambitions whatever. He had already indicated by his refusal to be made king that he had no intention of organizing a revolt against Rome. Jesus' reply concerning the lawfulness of paying tribute to Caesar, "Give to Caesar what is Caesar's, and to God what is God's" (Matt 22:21), confirmed that decision.

49-50 Caiaphas, the high priest, was the son-in-law of Annas, who is mentioned later in the account of Jesus' trial. Annas had been high priest from A.D. 7 to 14 and was succeeded by three of his sons and finally by Caiaphas from A.D. 18 to 36. The phrase "that year" may be an indirect allusion to the fact that the Roman government had changed the high priest so often that it became almost an annual appointment. That would not be true of Caiaphas, however, for he held office uninterruptedly for eighteen years; but in the long memory of the writer that year would have been outstanding as the year of Jesus' death. The utterance of Caiaphas reveals his cynicism and duplicity. He was contemptuous of the indecisive attitude of the Pharisees and recommended the elimination of Jesus rather than risking the possibility of a long contest with Rome.

51-52 John takes Caiaphas's statement as a kind of double entendre, an unconscious and involuntary prophecy that Jesus would become the sacrifice for the nation that it might not perish. The prophetic quality is attributed to Caiaphas's high priestly office rather than his personal character. Assuredly Caiaphas would not be reckoned among the prophets. The irony of the statement, which indirectly affirms the sacrificial aspect of Jesus' death, is paralleled by the record of the rulers' mockery of Jesus at the Crucifixion: "He saved others, but he can't save himself" (Mark 15:31). In both instances the sneering remark expressed an unintended truth. The entire statement of Caiaphas is thus interpreted by the author and applied, not only to the nation of Israel, but also to the children of God who had been scattered throughout the world. These words might apply to the Jews of the Dispersion. But in the light of the universalism of this Gospel, they probably refer proleptically to the ingathering of the Gentiles, who become the children of God when they acknowledge the saviorhood of Christ John 1:12; 10:16).

53 The growing hostility of the Pharisaic party and of the Sadducean priesthood had developed into a settled decision to do away with Jesus. Although the hierarchy feared a popular uprising in his support, they were resolute that he should die. John indicates that their opposition had reached the point of no return.

54 For this reason Jesus left Bethany, where danger threatened him, and removed to Ephraim, a village north of Jerusalem. Ephraim has been identified with Et Taiyibeh, a few miles northeast of Bethel. Perhaps it may be the city called Aphairema, mentioned in the account of the Maccabean wars (1Macc 11:34). The town was on the edge of the Judean desert, into which Jesus could flee if necessary.

55-56 Just before the Passover, pilgrims from distant parts of the country began to assemble in Jerusalem. Ceremonial cleansing would take considerable time when a large crowd was involved, and the people wanted to be ready to participate in the sacred feast. Jesus had been present in Jerusalem at the Feasts of Tabernacles and Dedication and had been regularly engaged in teaching. Since the Passover would bring an even larger crowd to Jerusalem, the populace expected that Jesus would be there also. His previous visits had been accompanied by much controversy, and there had been several futile attempts to arrest or stone him (cf. John 5:18; 7:30, 44; 8:20, 59; 10:38).

On each occasion, however, he had eluded his enemies, for "his time had not come." His foes were powerless to take him till he was ready to fulfill the final sacrifice of death (7:8, 30; 8:20, 59),

57 The high council of Judaism had issued a warrant for Jesus' arrest and had ordered that anyone who knew of his whereabouts should declare it. Silence meant complicity and could be punishable. In the light of this situation, it might be concluded that Judas was a messianist loyal to his nation and that his loyalty to the ruling priesthood took precedence over his personal loyalty to Jesus.

Notes
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45 The UBS text has ἃ ἐποίησεν (ha epoiesen, "[things] he did") rather than ὃ ἐποίησεν (ho epoiesen, "[thing] he did"). Although the MSS evidence slightly favors the former, to us the latter seems more logical, since the context is focused on the one great sign of the raising of Lazarus rather than on a summary of miracles in general.

48 Morris suggests that "our place" probably refers to the temple (NIC, p. 566). Τόπος (topos) can be interpreted as "position" or "office" and is so used by Ignatius (Smyrneans 6:1) and Clement of Rome (1 Clement 40:5; 44:5). In every other instance in John the meaning is geographical."

4 cont) [(Lk 6:6-11) Commentary On Lk 6:6-11, (cont.)]:

(Lk 6:6 NASB) "[Mt 12:9-14; Mk 3:1-6] On another Sabbath He entered the synagogue and was teaching; and there was a man there whose right hand was withered. (Lk 6:7 NKJV) So the scribes and Pharisees watched Him closely, whether He would heal on the Sabbath, that they might find an accusation against Him. (Lk 6:8 NASB) But He knew what they were thinking, [lit. their thoughts] and He said to the man with  [lit., who had] the withered hand, 'Get up and come forward!' [lit., stand into the middle]. And he got up [lit., stood] and came forward. (Lk 6:9 NASB) And Jesus said to them, 'I ask you, is it lawful to do good or to do harm on the Sabbath, to save a life or to destroy it?' [M-text reads to kill] (Lk 6:10 NASB) And when He had looked around at them all, He said to the man, 'Stretch out your hand.' And he did so, and his hand was restored as whole as the other. (Lk 6:11 NASB) But they themselves were filled with rage, and discussed together what they might do to Jesus," (cont.) =

 So Lk 6:6 indicates that on another Sabbath, a chronological sequence not necessarily in view, Jesus entered the synagogue and was teaching - an ongoing instruction of others present in the congregation. He was evidently continuing to teach an accurate interpretation of the Law and the Prophets with the Jewish rulers constant presence as He did so in order to find an accusation against Him for violating the Law, (cf. Lk 6:7). And there happened to be a man whose right hand was withered i.e., atrophied and useless. Notice the attention to detail that author Luke paid authenticating his value as an historically accurate and thorough writer. For example, Luke implies here that the man evidently had a hand - his right hand - that was withered since birth - a seemingly impossible condition to fix, especially in Jesus' day. Notice that neither Luke, nor Mark nor Matthew indicate that the man asked Jesus to heal him. Evidently Jesus took the initiative, but He healed him without actions which the rulers in their own minds might observe as violating the Sabbath; and accuse Jesus breaking the Law so they could kill Him - their raison d'Ítre.

Lk 6:7 goes on to say that the scribes and Pharisees watched Him [Jesus] closely, evidently listening carefully to every word He spoke and every action He took as He was teaching in the synagogue to the congregation that was there. And they especially watched Jesus closely interacting with the man with the withered hand to see if He would heal him on the Sabbath so that they might find an accusation against Him. Notice that author Luke is implying there that they were well aware of His capacity to heal miraculously, and their silence so far proved that they could find no objections to what He was teaching or doing. Their intent was not to acknowledge that Jesus was acting from God via His teachings and His miraculous healing, but to find a means to kill Him - in this case via a false accusation of violating the Sabbath for performing a miraculous healing on the Sabbath - a warped view of the Law and the Prophets that certainly did not reflect Scripture. But Jesus did no work on this particular Sabbath in the healing of the man. For as it stipulates in verse 10, the man stretched out his hand at Jesus' command, and it was completely restored. Jesus performed no observable actions that the rulers could determine satisfied their warped minds that in their own ideas which manipulated the Law to their own ends that He was performing an outlawed work on the Sabbath. Jesus simply said to the man, "Stretch out your hand," evidently referring to his withered right hand; and when the man did that, his hand was completely restored.

This goes beyond the fact that the healing could have been postponed to a non-Sabbath day. It was not a critical illness that might take a turn for the worse if not treated immediately. Were that the case, rabbinical law would have permitted healing on a Sabbath. But Jesus implies in his double question in Lk 6:9, 'I ask you, is it lawful to do good or to do harm on the Sabbath, to save a life or to destroy it?', that if any illness is left unattended when healing can be provided, evil is done by default. Jesus is not breaking the Sabbath; He was using it to do good to a human being in need which the Law, properly interpreted makes allowance for.

Once again, Jesus humiliated the religious leaders and healed the man wherein they could not find real fault with Him - without actually breaking the Law or the rulers' perverted view of the Law. It is no wonder that the religious establishment was furious and sought a way to get rid of Him. Despite their manipulation of the Law to their own ends, they could not entrap Him and thereby have a means to get rid of Him.

So in Lk 6:8-9, author Luke stipulated, "But He [Jesus] knew what they were thinking, [lit., He knew their - the Jewish rulers' thoughts]" implying a supernatural capacity. Whereupon in the latter part of verse 8, Jesus said to the man with the withered hand, 'Get up and come forward!' [lit., 'stand into the middle']. And the man got up [lit., stood] and came forward, his hand still withered, evidently from birth. And in verse 9, Jesus, evidently turning to them to speak, said to the Jewish rulers before the man's hand became whole, 'I ask you, is it lawful to do good or to do harm on the Sabbath, to save a life or to destroy it?' [Note that the M-text reads 'to kill'].

Then in Lk 6:10 it reads, "And when He had looked around at them all, He said to the man, 'Stretch out your hand.' And he [the man] did so, and his hand  was restored as whole as the other." Jesus' double question posed in the previous verse, (Lk 6:9), evidently went unanswered by the rulers. Hence He turned to the man and told him to stretch out his hand. And when the man did so, his hand was immediately restored as whole as the other. Notice that Jesus actually did not do or saying anything that could be observed or heard as an action which the rulers might then accuse Jesus of healing on the Sabbath. When Jesus commanded of the man with the withered, useless hand to stretch it out evidently beyond its withered limitations. When the man stretched out his hand, it was restored as whole as the other. The man had not expressed faith in Jesus' healing power, nor had the man asked to be healed. Nor had Jesus done anything observable by the Jewish rulers which they might have construed as a healing activity and a violation of the Sabbath, even in their own warped, self-serving minds.

Lk 6:11, the final verse in the account of the miraculous healing of the man's withered right hand in Lk chapter 6, presented an ominous tone, one of rage and evil intention - of conspiring by the Jewish rulers with one another to do harm to Jesus - to be rid of Him - to kill Him. So far they found nothing that they could determine was sufficient to convict Jesus of violating the Sabbath, despite their self-serving perverted view of the Law - all of this at the very start of Jesus' ministry.

B) (Lk 6:12-16) It Was At This Time That He [Jesus] Went Off To The Mountain To Pray, And He Spent The Whole Night In Prayer To God. And When Day Came, He Called His Disciples To Him And Chose Twelve Of Them, Whom He Also Named As Apostles: Simon, Whom He Also Named Peter, And Andrew His Brother; And James And John; And Philip And Bartholomew; And Matthew And Thomas; James The Son Of Alphaeus, And Simon Who Was Called The Zealot; Judas The Son Of James, And Judas Iscariot, Who Became A Traitor

(Lk 6:12 NASB) "It was at this time that He went off to the mountain to pray, and He spent the whole night in prayer to God. (Lk 6:12 NASB) It was at this time that He went off to the mountain to pray, and He spent the whole night in prayer to God. (Lk 6:13 NASB) And when day came, He called His disciples to Him and chose twelve of them, whom He also named as apostles: [ref. Mt 10:2-4; Mk 3:16-19; Acts 1:13] (Lk 6:14 NASB) Simon, whom He also named Peter, and Andrew his brother; and James and John; and Philip and Bartholomew; (Lk 6:15 NASB) and Matthew and Thomas; James the son of Alphaeus, and Simon who was called the Zealot; (Lk 6:16 NASB) Judas the son of James, and Judas Iscariot, who became a traitor."

1) [(Lk 6:14-16) Manuscript Evidence For Lk 6:14-16]:

(Lk 6:14 NASB) Simon, whom He also named Peter, and Andrew his brother; and James and John; and Philip and Bartholomew; (Lk 6:15 NASB) and Matthew and Thomas; James the son of Alphaeus, and Simon who was called the Zealot; (Lk 6:16 NASB) Judas the son of James, and Judas Iscariot, who became a traitor."

The scribe of D adjusted the list of twelve apostles in Luke according to the lists found in Mt 10:2-4 and Mk 3:17-19. Borrowing from Mt 10:2, he added "first" before the naming of Peter; and borrowing from Mk 3:17, he made an addition after "James and John" - ("his brother, whom [plural] he named Boanerges, which is 'sons of thunder' "). The scribe of D also borrowed from Jn 11:16 in identifying Thomas as the one called ("Didymus"). The best-attested spelling for his name in Lk 6:16 is "Ioudan IskariOt, as found in P4, Sinaiticus*, B, L, 33.

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2) [(Lk 6:12-16) Commentary On Lk 6:12-16]:

(Lk 6:12 NASB) "It was at this time that He went off to the mountain to pray, and He spent the whole night in prayer to God. (Lk 6:12 NASB) It was at this time that He went off to the mountain to pray, and He spent the whole night in prayer to God. (Lk 6:13 NASB) And when day came, He called His disciples to Him and chose twelve of them, whom He also named as apostles: [ref. Mt 10:2-4; Mk 3:16-19; Acts 1:13] (Lk 6:14 NASB) Simon, whom He also named Peter, and Andrew his brother; and James and John; and Philip and Bartholomew; (Lk 6:15 NASB) and Matthew and Thomas; James the son of Alphaeus, and Simon who was called the Zealot; (Lk 6:16 NASB) Judas the son of James, and Judas Iscariot, who became a traitor." =

Author Luke makes a chronological statement in verse 12, rendered, "It was at this time that He [Jesus] went off to the mountain to pray." This implies that Jesus' time while in His Humanity was in constant demand for attention by some many people, affording little time for Him to attend to a number of other important matters, not the least of which is praying to His Father in order to proceed obediently to His mission beginning with the selection of twelve apostles, having to resort to going off by Himself to a mountain. For the next thing was for Jesus to appoint twelve of His disciples as apostles.

Then in Lk 6:13, author Luke begins, "And when day came, He [Jesus] called His disciples to Him - of which there were many from which He chose twelve of them, whom He also named as apostles. Disciples were followers, but apostles were those sent out as messengers with delegated authority (cf. "apostles" in 9:10; 17:5; 22:14; 24:10). In Luke's list of the Twelve (as well as Matthew's and Mark's lists) Peter is listed first and Judas Iscariot is last. Bartholomew must be Nathanael (John 1:45), Levi and Matthew are the same man, and Thaddaeus (Mark 3:18) is Judas, son of James. They were now willing to be sent out as apostles, being with Jesus on a full-time basis.

CONTINUE TO LUKE CHAPTER 7