JEREMIAH CHAPTER 31
The purpose of the observation stage is to maintain focus on the text at hand in accordance with the framework in which it was written: a framework which is defined by the normative rules of language, context and logic - rules which do not impose undue, unintended meanings to the text , and which largely limit the observer to the content offered by Jeremiah's writings. In order for any passage from elsewhere to be considered, it must have a relationship with the context at hand, such as a Scriptural quotation or a specific cross reference in the passage at hand by the author. This will serve to avoid going on unnecessary tangents elsewhere; and more importantly, it will provide the framework for a proper and objective comparison with passages located elsewhere in Scripture. Remember that something elsewhere may be true, but in the text at hand it may not be in view.
****** EXCERPT FROM JEREMIAH CHAPTER 30 ******
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I) [Jeremiah 30:1-3]:
(Jer 30:1 NASB)
'''The word which came to Jeremiah from the LORD, saying,
(Jer 30:2 NASB) "Thus says the LORD, the God of
Israel, 'Write all the words which I have spoken to you in a book.
(Jer 30:3 NASB) For behold, days are coming,' declares the LORD, 'when I will restore the fortunes of My people Israel and Judah.' The LORD says, 'I will also bring them back to the land that I gave to their forefathers and they shall possess it.' "
(Jer 30:1-3) [THE LORD COMMANDED JEREMIAH TO WRITE THE WORDS WHICH HE
HAD SPOKEN TO JEREMIAH IN A BOOK - THE SUBJECT OF WHICH WAS HIS PROMISE
TO RESTORE HIS PEOPLE ISRAEL AND JUDAH TO THE PROMISED LAND TO POSSESS
(Jer 30:1 NASB) '''The word which came to Jeremiah from the LORD, saying, (Jer 30:2 NASB) "Thus says the LORD, the God of Israel, 'Write all the words which I have spoken to you in a book. (Jer 30:3 NASB) For behold, days are coming,' declares the LORD, 'when I will restore the fortunes of My people Israel and Judah.' The LORD says, 'I will also bring them back to the land that I gave to their forefathers and they shall possess it.' " =
In Jer 30:1-3 the
prophet Jeremiah wrote that the LORD commanded him to write a book - a
book which contains all the words He had spoken to him relative to the
LORD's promise to restore the fortunes of His people Israel and Judah -
them to the land that He gave to their forefathers which they will
possess forever, (cf. 7-11). Since Israel split into two kingdoms,
their joining once more into one nation according to Scripture will not
occur until the endtimes - this time for all time.
Notice that in Jer 30:3, the Lord declared, "Days are coming when I will restore the fortunes of My people Israel and Judah. I will also bring them back to the land that I gave to their forefathers and they shall possess it." In view of the phrases in Jer 30:3 rendered "the days are coming," and "My people Israel and Judah," Jer 30:1-3 is a clear and unequivocal statement of the permanent / forever return to and possession of the promised land by all of the tribes of Israel and Judah. In view is not just Israel during one or more of her periods of being dispersed / under captivity, as some contend. Although the word rendered "days" is plural, it does not indicate periods of restoration followed by periods of dispersion for each of the kingdoms separately until the final and permanent restoration is effected for all of Israel and Judah together once more as one people. For previous and subsequent references have the same plural "days" clearly referring to eschatological / end times when both Israel and Judah together are as one people in an everlasting kingdom, (cf. 3:16-18; 30:4-9; 16:14-21; 23:5-8; 31:23-40). In these passages the word "days" or "day" refers to the days / the day - i.e., timeframe of the Everlasting Kingdom with both Israel and Judah in view. This is the fulfillment of the New Covenant as it is stipulated in Jer 31:31.
Furthermore, since both the
Kingdom, Israel, and the Southern Kingdom, Judah, are in view in Jer
30:1-3, ("My people Israel and Judah"), and since this time is
described in Jer 30:7, "for the day is great, there is none
like it; and it is the time of Jacob's distress" then this time can
refer to the end time when both Kingdoms will be once more joined
together as one
1) [Compare Jer 30:7]:
(Jer 30:7 NASB) "Alas! for that day is great, there is none like it; and it is the time of Jacob's distress, but he will be saved from it."
So it is evident that the LORD commanded Jeremiah to write these hopeful prophecies in a book in order to provide a permanent record. These prophecies were not to be spoken, unlike the rest of the Book of Jeremiah. They were to be written so that they could be read throughout history until those prophecies were fulfilled - to assure God's chosen people that He would be faithful to His promise of their eternal destiny - an assurance of their eternal destiny as one people together forever - an assurance especially during the times when God's people were being disciplined for unfaithfulness and were dispersed from the land under captivity
The Palestinian Covenant which the LORD gave the second generation of Israel in the Palestinian Covenant in the Book of Deuteronomy, has contained within it what is in view in Jeremiah chapter 30 - the LORD's unilateral promise to restore Israel and Judah in the Promised land. For the people of the nation Israel had not and would not in the future under their own auspices be able keep the Mosaic Law - the old covenant, after generations of failure. So the LORD God stipulated that He would accomplish this unilaterally, i.e., by grace in the Palestinian Covenant as well:
B) THE PALESTINIAN COVENANT INCLUDES GOD'S FUTURE PROMISE TO UNILATERALLY CIRCUMCISE THE HEARTS OF HIS PEOPLE ISRAEL SO THAT THEY WILL LOVE HIM WITH ALL THEIR HEART AND SOUL, RESULTING IN COMPLETE OBEDIENCE TO HIM; AND BY THAT THEY WILL LIVE OUT THE YEARS OF THEIR TEMPORAL LIVES AND HAVE ETERNAL LIFE IN THE ETERNAL KINGDOM OF GOD, FULFILLING THE ABRAHAMIC COVENANT FOR THOSE OF THE FAITH OF ABRAHAM IN A COMING MESSIAH SAVIOR THROUGH HIS SEED
1) [Compare Dt 27-28; 29:1;
[Deuteronomy chapters 27-28 speak of blessings and curses for Israel's past history of obedience and disobedience to God - to the Law of Moses]
(Dt 29:1 NASB) These are the words of the covenant which the LORD commanded Moses to make with the sons of Israel in the land of Moab, besides the [Mosaic Law] covenant which He had made with them at Horeb."
[These verses are a review of Israel's past beginning with her exodus from Egypt through disasterous times because of forsaking the covenant of the Law, resulting in 40 years in the wilderness, a number of ensuing battles, adversities, the destruction of nations that arose against the Israelites and now to the point of a renewed covenant which emphasizes blessings to a new generation of Israelites when faithful to the Law and wrath and fury and curses when not]
(Dt 30:1 NASB) So it shall be when all of these things have come upon you, the blessing and the curse which I have set before you, and you call them to mind in all nations where the LORD your God has banished you,
(Dt 30:2 NASB) and you return to the LORD your God and obey Him with all your heart and soul according to all that I command you today, you and your sons,
(Dt 30:3 NASB) then the LORD your God will restore you from captivity, and have compassion on you, and will gather you again from all the peoples where the LORD your God has scattered you.
(Dt 30:4 NASB) If your outcasts are at the ends of the earth, from there the LORD your God will gather you, and from there He will bring you back.
(Dt 30:5 NASB) The LORD your God will bring
you into the land which your fathers possessed, and you shall possess
it; and He will prosper you and multiply you more than your fathers.
(Dt 30:6 NASB) Moreover the LORD your God will circumcise your heart and the heart of your descendants, to love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul, so that you may live.
[Notice that this
the Palestinian Covenant, (v. 6), contains a New Covenant unilaterally
promised by the LORD wherein He Himself without contribution from
anyone will unilaterally circumcise
the hearts of the Israelites in the sense of giving them each a new
will to obey Him in the place of their former unfaithfulness; and they
will love Him
with all their heart and soul implying complete obedience to him; and
by that they will live, i.e., experience the abundant blessings
including eternal life in the Eternal Kingdom of God in
complete fulfillment of the Abrahamic covenant unilaterally through the
LORD - through Abraham's Seed Who is Christ, (Gen 22:18, Gal 3:16).
From the history of mankind from Adam and Eve to Abraham to the Israelites and mankind the world over, it is evident that man has not and will not live godly lives of their own volition unless the LORD circumcises their hearts to enable them to do so. Those that have this done are those who expressed the faith of Abraham in God's unilateral promise of eternal life in the Promised Land.
"Dt 30:6. The promise that the Lord your God will circumcise your hearts (cf. 10:16) means that God will graciously grant the nation a new will to obey Him in place of their former spiritual insensitivity and stubbornness. After returning to the Promised Land with a new heart they will remain committed to the Lord and therefore will experience abundant blessing (live). Loving Him wholeheartedly (cf. Dt 30:16, 20; see comments on 6:5), they would not fall back into apostasy as they had done before. A new heart is an essential feature of the New Covenant (cf. Ezek. 36:24-32), which will not be fulfilled for Israel as a nation until the return of Jesus Christ (cf. Jer. 31:31-34)."]
(Dt 30:7 NASB) The LORD your God will inflict all these curses on your enemies and on those who hate you, who persecuted you.
(Dt 30:8 NASB) And you shall again obey the LORD, and observe all His commandments which I command you today.
Israel's future disobedience to the LORD's commandments which
necessitated the LORD's unilateral action to circumcise the hearts of
the sons of Israel, (ref. Dt 30:6]
(Dt 30:9 NASB) Then the LORD your God will prosper you abundantly in all the work of your hand, in the offspring of your body and in the offspring of your cattle and in the produce of your ground, for the LORD will again rejoice over you for good, just as He rejoiced over your fathers;
(Dt 30:10 NASB) if you obey the LORD your God to keep His commandments and His statutes which are written in this book of the law, if you turn to the LORD your God with all your heart and soul.
"30:7-10. All the prosperity mentioned here (cf. 28:4) would come on Israel because under the New Covenant the nation will finally be enabled to obey the Lord wholeheartedly (cf. all your heart and all your soul in 30:6; 6:5)."]
(Dt 30:11 NASB) For this commandment which I command you today is not too difficult for you, nor is it out of reach.
(Dt 30:12 NASB) It is not in heaven, that you should say, 'Who will go up to heaven for us to get it for us and make us hear it, that we may observe it?'
(Dt 30:13 NASB) Nor is it beyond the sea, that you should say, 'Who will cross the sea for us to get it for us and make us hear it, that we may observe it?'
(Dt 30:14 NASB) But the word is very near you, in your mouth and in your heart, that you may observe it.
(Dt 30:15 NASB) See, I have set before you today life and prosperity, and death and adversity;
(Dt 30:16 NASB) in that I command you today to love the LORD your God, to walk in His ways and to keep His commandments and His statutes and His judgments, that you may live and multiply, and that the LORD your God may bless you in the land where you are entering to possess it.
(Dt 30:17 NASB) But if your heart turns away and you will not obey, but are drawn away and worship other gods and serve them,
(Dt 30:18 NASB) I declare to you today that you shall surely perish. You will not prolong [your] days in the land where you are crossing the Jordan to enter and possess it.
[Notice that obedience to the LORD results in temporal blessing and disobedience in temporal destruction]
(Dt 30:19 NASB) I call heaven and earth to witness against you today, that I have set before you life and death, the blessing and the curse. So choose life in order that you may live, you and your descendants,
(Dt 30:20 NASB) by loving the LORD your God, by obeying His voice, and by holding fast to Him; for this is your life and the length of your days, that you may live in the land which the LORD swore to your fathers, to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, to give them."
Covenant was made between God and Israel right before Moses died and
Israel entered the Promised Land. Hence it was made after the Mosaic
Covenant and after Israel had wandered in the wilderness for forty
years until the generation that had refused to enter the Promised Land
the first time had passed away. The covenant would serve the new
generation of Israelites as a reminder of their special covenant
relationship with God originally ratified unilaterally with Abraham. It
was the LORD's promise to restore the fortunes of Israel - make them
more prosperous and more numerous than their fathers as they walked in
his ways, and kept His commands, decrees and laws. Then the LORD will
have compassion on the Israelites and gather them from all the nations
where the LORD had scattered them to the land that belonged to their
fathers. And the LORD will put curses on Israel's enemies. The focus of
this covenant is on what God is going to do more than what Israel is
supposed to do. While Israel's prosperity is closely tied to their
obedience to God's command and they will still be punished for their
disobedience to God, there is coming a day when God will return them to
the land and they will possess it and God will bless them forever and
through the New Covenant wherein He will circumcise their hearts and
the hearts of their descendants - those that have been justified by
faith as Abraham was according to the Abrahamic Covenant - so that they
may love Him with all their heart and with all their soul, and live
forever in the Eternal kingdom - in possession of the land that the
LORD promised them]
C) THE COVENANT OF ABRAHAM WAS
UNILATERALLY RATIFIED BY GOD WHEN ABRAHAM BELIEVED IN GOD'S PROMISE OF
INNUMERABLE DESCENDANTS THROUGH HIS SEED TO BE SUPERNATURALLY PROVIDED
FOR BY GOD THROUGH ABRAHAM'S SEED - ALL OF THIS BEING RELATIVE TO
THE LORD'S PROMISE TO ABRAHAM AND HIS DESCENDANTS OF INHERITING THE
PROMISED LAND AT WHICH TIME WHEN ABRAHAM BELIEVED GOD ACCOUNTED IT TO
ABRAM AND TO ALL MEN OF
THE SEED OF ABRAHAM OF THAT SAME FAITH FOR RIGHTEOUSNESS UNTO ETERNAL
LIFE IN THE PROMISED LAND.
(Gen 15:4 NKJV) "And
behold, the word of the LORD came to him, saying, 'This one shall not
be your heir, but one who will come from your own body shall be your
heir.' (Gen 15:5 NKJV) Then He brought him outside and said, 'Look now
toward heaven, and count the stars if you are able to number them.' And
He said to him, 'So shall your descendants [lit. seed] be.' (Gen 15:6
NKJV) And he believed in the LORD, and He accounted it to him for
So when Abram believed in God's promise of innumerable descendants that he would evidently see and experience, God acounted it to Abraham for righteousness unto eternal life, i.e., the perfect righteousness of God. So Abraham was credited with God's perfect righteousness in conjunction with His promise to Abraham and innumerable descendants of receiving the promised land forever which God's righteousness is evidently required in order to have eternal life in order to inherit the promised land forever. Note that it was received by a moment of faith alone in the LORD's promise alone, tantamount to trusting in the Seed / Descendant of Abraham Who would make such provision so that God might be justified in fulfilling His promise - such provision being the payment for the sins of those whom God will justify unto righteousness apart from their own sinfulness because of such provision. In effect, since the offer is legitmately and righteously made to all the families of the world, all mankind have had their sins paid for. So it cannot be misconstrued that Abraham or anyone else besides the Seed of Abraham was expected to do anything in order to be perfectly righteous in his lifestyle in order to receive eternal life from God. There is no stipulation to that effect in the passage or anywhere in Scripture.
Gen 15:5-6 is not just a picture of Abram's countless descendants living long after he died with him having gone into the Lake of Fire. There would be no purpose if Abraham would never see them in person, i.e., have eternal life and instead be eternally confined and condemned to the Lake of Fire? This demonstration by the LORD was a picture of His promise to Abraham of eternal life - eternal life with countless descendants over an eternity of time through an individual seed - descendant supernaturally provided for in order to make all of this possible - for Abram was still childless, impotent and Sarai barren.
(ISA 49:1-26) ISRAEL'S EVERLASTING RESTORATION AND THE ETERNAL
SALVATION FOR ALL MANKIND IN THE EVERLASTING KINGDOM OF GOD WILL BE
PROVIDED BY A SERVANT OF THE LORD, GOD AND MAN, SAVIOR, REDEEMER WHO
WAS GIVEN AS A COVENANT TO THE PEOPLE WHICH THE LORD PROMISED TO ISRAEL
****** EXCERPT FROM STUDY OF ISA 49
(Isa 49:1-3) THE LORD'S SERVANT TO ALL MANKIND DECLARED HIMSELF TO MANKIND THROUGH THE PROPHET ISAIAH. HE WAS BORN OF A WOMAN, CALLED BY THE LORD FROM THE WOMB, EQUIPPED TO PRONOUNCE JUDGMENT UPON ALL MANKIND, PROTECTED AND HIDDEN BY THE LORD UNTIL HIS TIME, NAMED "ISRAEL" - AN INDIVIDUAL NOT A GROUP OF ISRAELITES - IN WHOM THE LORD WILL MANIFEST HIS GLORY
(Isa 49:1 NKJV) '''[Isaiah writes that the LORD's Servant has said] "Listen, O coastlands, to Me, And take heed, you peoples from afar! The LORD has called Me from the womb; From the [womb] of My mother He has made mention of My name. (Isa 49:2 NKJV) And He [makes] My mouth like a sharp sword; In the shadow of His hand He has hidden Me, And [the LORD] [makes] Me a polished shaft; In His quiver He has hidden Me. (Isa 49:3 NKJV) And He [the LORD] [says] to Me, 'You are My servant, O Israel, In Whom I [manifest My glory].' " ''' =
Chapter 49 begins with a command by the LORD's Servant to the peoples of the world - from the "coastlands" referring to the nations of peoples living on coastlands to those "peoples from afar" expressions which overall convey the concept of all the peoples of the world - evidently including Gentiles as well as Jews - to listen to One Who has been called by "Yahweh," the LORD God to be the LORD's Servant. The message of the LORD's Servant is being conveyed through the prophet Isaiah. It is evident from the phrase in the first verse, "The LORD has called Me from the womb; From the [womb] of My mother He has made mention of My name," that this Servant was to be born a Human being in the future because it is implied that the Servant had not yet made His presence in the world known up to that time; and the promises that are made relative to the Servant are indicated as future ones. The Servant is both identified with and yet distinguished from Israel throughout chapter 49 in the first and third person singular; hence neither the nation Israel nor a remnant of Israelites is in view - as some have contended, (Isa 49:1).
The next verse indicates that the LORD's Servant's mouth was made "like a sharp sword" - a weapon which would bring sharp judgment upon men with the words that He would speak. The phrase, "In the shadow of His hand He has hidden Me," indicates that the LORD God would provide protection and concealment for His Servant until it was time for the Servant to bring that judgment upon all mankind. The next phrase, "And [the LORD] [makes] Me a polished shaft" refers to the Servant as a polished arrow shaft conveying the Servant wielding judgment upon mankind. The word rendered "polished" conveys no defects in order to make the path of the arrow true, in the sense that the Servant is to be without sin - His judgment therefore being True and Righteous. The arrow is stipulated as hidden in the LORD's quiver implying that the Servant will be secure and hidden until judgment time, (Isa 49:2).
The Servant then said that the LORD said to Him, "You are My Servant, O Israel, In Whom I [manifest My glory]." The LORD God named the Servant, "Israel," implying a single individual and indicated that in Him would the LORD God manifest His glory. Although neither the nation Israel nor a remnant of Israelites is in view, as some contend. He is portrayed as the perfect expression as an individual of what God intended all Israel to be like. The Servant is characterized as sinless - unlike the nation Israel or the remnant. In the following chapters, the LORD's Servant is taught, He suffers, He is vindicated, and He imparts God's truth to others, who are judged by their attitude toward Him. There is not, in fact, in these chapters a single expression necessitating or even suggesting that the servant is a group rather than an individual. Moreover, in chapter 53, His work is unique, for none other in the OT, either within or outside Isaiah, dies as an atoning sacrifice for human sins, (Isa 49:3).
(ISA 49:4-5) THE LORD'S SERVANT DECLARED HIS LABOR IN VAIN, HIS STRENGTH SPENT; YET HE DECLARED THAT HIS REWARD WAS WITH THE LORD, HIS WORK WITH "MY GOD." THE SERVANT THEN DECLARED THAT THE LORD WHO FORMED HIM FROM THE WOMB - CONFIRMING HIS HUMANITY - TO BE THE LORD'S SERVANT TO BRING THE TRIBES OF JACOB (ISRAEL) BACK TO HIM. THE SERVANT OF THE LORD - AN INDIVIDUAL PERSON CHOSEN BY THE LORD "SHALL BE GLORIFIED IN THE EYES OF THE LORD, AND MY GOD SHALL HAVE BEEN MY STRENGTH"
(Isa 49:4 NKJV) ''' "Then I said, 'I have labored in vain, I have spent my strength for nothing and in vain; Yet surely My just reward is with the LORD, And My work with My God. (Isa 49:5 NKJV) [Whereupon the Servant declared] And now the LORD ... Who formed Me from the womb to be His Servant, To bring Jacob [Israel] back to Him [has said that], Israel will be gathered to Him [the LORD], and I [the Servant] shall be [glorified] in the eyes of the LORD, And My God [shall have been] My strength' " ''' =
Then the Servant of the LORD declared, "I have labored in vain, I have spent My strength for nothing and in vain," in the sense that His mission to bring Israel to repent and trust in the LORD would at first be in vain. His strength would be spent, implying the physical end of Himself. So the Servant would be rejected at first and then killed. Yet in all of this He declared, "Yet surely My just reward is with the LORD, And My work with My God," implying His trust in the LORD's plan through Him would finally be fulfilled. Note that the Humanity of the LORD's Servant as opposed to His Diety is in view in this chapter. Other chapters in Isaiah reveal that the Servant would be vindicated (50:8) and He would be rewarded after His death (53:8) and be resurrected unto His just reward, (53:10). For the Servant finished with, "Yet surely My just reward is with the LORD, And My work with My God," (Isa 49:4).
Verse 5 has the Servant of the LORD relaying the message that the LORD gave to Him: [The Servant declared] "And now the LORD ... Who formed Me from the womb to be His Servant, To bring Jacob [Israel] back to Him [has said that], Israel will be gathered to Him [the LORD], and I [the Servant] shall be [glorified] in the eyes of the LORD, And My God [shall have been] My strength." Notice that the Servant is once again defined as one single individual formed by the LORD in the womb - an individual Human being but without sin and with a supernatural mission. The success of the Servant's mission which includes bringing Jacob, i.e., the tribes of Jacob - the people of Israel, back to the LORD is further confirmed. Since the mission of "Israel," the Servant of the LORD, was to gather Israel back to the LORD then the Servant could not be the people of Israel, but an individual named "Israel." Since none of this had occurred up to this time, then all of this was to have been accomplished in the future. The Servant therefore declared: "And I shall be glorified in the eyes of the LORD, and My God shall have been My strength," in the sense that the Servant of the LORD in His Humanity would complete His mission via the strength - the power of the LORD, (Isa 49:5).
(Isa 49:6-7) THE LORD DECLARED THAT NOT ONLY WAS HIS SERVANT TO RAISE UP THE TRIBES OF JACOB - TO RESTORE ISRAEL - BUT THE SERVANT WAS TO BE A REVELATION TO ALL MANKIND OF THE LORD AND OF HIS SALVATION. THE LORD, THE REDEEMER, THE HOLY ONE OF ISRAEL, HAD SAID TO HIS SERVANT - TO THE ABHORRED ONE OF THE GENTILES, TO THE SERVANT OF THE RULERS OF THE WORLD: "KINGS WILL SEE, AND PRINCES WILL RISE UP TO BOW DOWN TO THE SERVANT BECAUSE OF THE LORD GOD WHO IS FAITHFUL. ISAIAH WROTE TO THE SERVANT, "THE LORD CHOSE YOU" TO RESTORE ISRAEL AND PROVIDE ETERNAL SALVATION TO ALL MANKIND
(Isa 49:6 NKJV) ''' "Indeed He [the LORD] says, 'It is too small a thing that You should be My Servant To raise up the tribes of Jacob, And to restore the preserved ones of Israel; I will also give You as a Light to the Gentiles, That You should be My salvation to the ends of the earth.' " (Isa 49:7 CBL Interlinear) [Isaiah writes of the LORD]: Thus [has said] Yahweh [the LORD], the Redeemer of Israel, His [Israel's] Holy One; to the despised One [the LORD's chosen Servant]; [the LORD has said] to the abhorred One [the chosen Servant] of the nations [the Gentiles], to the Servant of rulers [of the world], [all speaking of the LORD's chosen Servant - the LORD said to Him]: "Kings, they will see, and princes, they will rise up; and they will bow down because of Yahweh [the LORD] Who is faithful - the Holy One of Israel; And [Isaiah wrote] "He [the LORD] chose You" [to be His Servant - to provide salvation to all mankind unto everlasting life in the Eternal Kingdom of God, ref. vv. 8-13].''' =
And then the LORD declared to His Servant relative to the scope of His mission: "It is too small a thing that You should be My Servant To raise up the tribes of Jacob, And to restore the preserved ones of Israel; I will also give You as a Light to the Gentiles, That You should be My salvation to the ends of the earth." So the Servant shall not only be the Instrument by which the tribes of Jacob, i.e., of Israel - those whose physical lives at the time of the regathering have been preserved - will be gathered back to the LORD God, but also their salvation and the salvation of the Gentiles as well - to all mankind - for the LORD declared that He will give His Servant "As a light to the Gentiles," in the sense of providing revelation of the truth to all mankind about the LORD God, especially His salvation unto everlasting life in the Eternal Kingdom of God through His Servant, (ref. vv. 8-13).
Note that this had been the LORD's message all along - that salvation was to be provided for all mankind through a Descendant of Eve; and that Descendant would descend from Abraham; and that Descendant would be the LORD's chosen Servant as testified to in the words of the LORD given to the Prophet Isaiah, (Isa 49:6).
Isaiah reports what the LORD (Yahweh) had conveyed to him: that the LORD, the Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel had said to His chosen Servant, His Servant of rulers [of the world] - His Servant Who would become the despised One and the abhorred One of the Gentiles - the LORD said to His Servant: 'Kings, they will see, and princes, they will rise up to acknowledge; and then they all will bow down to the LORD's chosen One because of the LORD - the Holy One of Israel - is faithful - the Holy One of Israel.' And Isaiah wrote about the LORD relative to His Servant, 'He chose You' [to accomplish this mission to fulfill the day of salvation for all mankind which it is implied the Servant of the LORD would successfully fulfill, (cf. v. 9)], (Isa 49:7).
(Isa 49:8) IN THE TIME DECREED BY THE LORD FOR EFFECTING HIS ETERNAL PLAN OF THE REGATHERING OF ISRAEL TO HIMSELF, THE RESTORATION OF THE EARTH AND THE PROVISION OF SALVATION UNTO ETERNAL LIFE FOR ALL MANKIND; THE LORD DECLARED TO HIS CHOSEN SERVANT THAT HE WILL HAVE ANSWERED HIM, HELPED HIM, PRESERVED HIM AND GIVEN HIM AS A COVENANT TO ISRAEL HIS PEOPLE TO RESTORE THE EARTH FOREVER - ESPECIALLY ISRAEL'S PROMISED LAND INHERITANCE
(Isa 49:8 CBL Interlinear) ''' Thus the LORD has said [to His Servant], "In the time of favor [in the sense of in the acceptable time] I will have answered You, and in the day of salvation I will have helped You; I will have preserved You and I will give You as a covenant to the people to raise up [in sense of to restore] the earth, to inherit the desolate inheritances." ''' =
In Isa 49:8, Isaiah reports that the LORD, speaking to His Servant said, "Thus the LORD has said, 'In the time of favor...' - the time decreed by God for effecting His eternal plan of the regathering of Israel to the LORD, the eternal restoration of the earth, and the provision of eternal salvation for all those of mankind who choose to believe in the LORD's Servant for that unto the Eternal Kingdom of God.
'I will have answered You,' - in the sense of the LORD having answered His Servant's concerns which the Servant expressed in verse 4, ('I have labored in vain, I have spent my strength for nothing and in vain'), referring to the Servant's point of view that He had failed in His Human lifetime to restore Israel and the earth, and to gather His people to Himself as well as the world.
And the LORD's answer to His Servant which would be given "In the time of favor' was as follows:
'And in the day of salvation I will have helped You;
'I will have preserved You' - in the sense of preserving His Human life, (via resurrection unto a glorified body).
'and I will give You as a covenant to the people,' to fulfill God's covenant promises to Israel, (cf. Isa 42:6), to raise up [in the sense of restore] the earth, and to inherit the desolate inheritances' - in the sense of the Servant fulfilling the LORD's covenant with His people Israel to restore all things of the earth forever - especially the inheritances promised to them which had become desolate - the Promised Land, (Isa 49:8).
(Isa 49:9-13) THE LORD'S CHOSEN SERVANT WILL COMMAND ALL ISRAELITES TO RETURN FROM CAPTIVITY TO THE PROMISED LAND AS WELL AS ALL MANKIND FROM THROUGHOUT THE WORLD TO GO BEFORE HIM - TO EXPERIENCE UNPRECEDENTED PROSPERITY. NO ONE WILL EVER SUFFER HUNGER, THIRST, SCORCHING WINDS, OR HEAT OF THE SUN - AN ETERNALLY BENEFICENT WORLDWIDE CLIMATE AND TOPOGRAPHY IS IN VIEW. PEOPLE FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD WILL COME TO RECEIVE BLESSINGS FROM AND THE SALVATION OF THE LORD. THE LORD DECLARES FOR THE HEAVENS TO SING, THE EARTH TO BE JOYFUL, THE MOUNTAINS TO SING BECAUSE HE WILL HAVE HAD MERCY ON HIS AFFLICTED - REFERRING TO ISRAEL. THE EVERLASTING KINGDOM OF GOD IS IN VIEW!
(Isa 49:9 NKJV) ''' "That You may say to the prisoners, 'Go forth,' To those who are in darkness, 'Show yourselves.' They shall feed along the roads, And their pastures shall be on all desolate heights. (Isa 49:10 NKJV) They shall neither hunger nor thirst, Neither [scorching wind] nor sun shall strike them [down]; For He Who has mercy on them will lead them, Even by the springs of water He will guide them. (Isa 49:11 NKJV) I will make each of My mountains a road, And My highways shall be elevated. (Isa 49:12 NKJV) Surely these shall come from afar; Look! Those from the north and the west, And these from the land of Sinim. (Isa 49:13 NKJV) Sing, O heavens! Be joyful, O earth! And break out in singing, O mountains! For the LORD has comforted His people, And will have mercy on His afflicted." ''' =
'That You may say to the prisoners,' - those Israelites in captivity...
'Go forth' - in the sense of commanding them, and all mankind, to go forth from all over the world to the land of Israel, evidently to return to the Promised Land to be gathered there before the LORD's chosen Servant.
'To those who are in darkness,' - darkness in the sense of those who are Gentiles who needed the Light of God's revelation about Himself and His salvation - which is in His chosen Servant, (Isa 49:6) ...
'Show yourselves. They shall feed along the roads, And their pastures shall be on all desolate heights' in the sense of the LORD providing food even along the roads, and pastures on high ground, formerly desolate heights which would be restored - all implying unprecedented and eternal prosperity, (Isa 49:8-9).
The LORD continued to expound upon the time of "the salvation to the ends of the earth," (ref. v. 6): "They shall neither hunger nor thirst - [no more hunger or thirst anywhere on the Earth, implying major and eternal changes in the Earth's topography, climate, etc.]. Neither [scorching wind] nor sun shall strike them [down] - implying a worldwide beneficent climate]. For He Who has mercy on them will lead them, Even by the springs of water He will guide them. I will make each of My mountains a road, And My highways shall be elevated - [implying major restoration and beneficent changes to the Earth's topography that are everlasting in nature]. Surely these shall come from afar; Look! Those from the north and the west, And these from the land of Sinim - [implying coming to Israel to receive the blessings and the salvation of the LORD, (ref. Isa 49:5), corroborating that salvation is for all peoples]
Note that the country named Sinim is implied as very remote from Israel, yet known in Israel, suggesting Persia or some other country from afar.
In verse 13, the LORD declares for the heavens to sing, the earth to be joyful, the mountains to sing because He will have comforted His people, and will have had mercy on His afflicted - referring to Israel, (Isa 49:10-13). Note that the Everlasting Kingdom of God is in view!
****** END OF EXCERPT FROM ISA 49
(Isa 49:14 NASB) But Zion said, 'The LORD has forsaken me, And the Lord has forgotten me.'
(Isa 49:15 NASB) 'Can a woman forget her nursing child And have no compassion on the son of her womb? Even these may forget, but I will not forget you.
(Isa 49:16 NASB) Behold, I have inscribed you on the palms of My hands; Your walls are continually before Me.
(Isa 49:17 NASB) Your builders hurry; Your destroyers and devastators will depart from you.
(Isa 49:18 NASB) Lift up your eyes and look around; All of them gather together, they come to you. As I live,' declares the LORD, 'You will surely put on all of them as jewels and bind them on as a bride.
(Isa 49:19 NASB) For your waste and desolate places and your destroyed land - Surely now you will be too cramped for the inhabitants, And those who swallowed you will be far away.
(Isa 49:20 NASB) The children of whom you were bereaved will yet say in your ears, 'The place is too cramped for me; Make room for me that I may live here.'
(Isa 49:21 NASB) Then you will say in your heart, 'Who has begotten these for me, Since I have been bereaved of my children And am barren, an exile and a wanderer? And who has reared these? Behold, I was left alone; From where did these come?'
(Isa 49:22 NASB) Thus says the Lord GOD, 'Behold, I will lift up My hand to the nations And set up My standard to the peoples; And they will bring your sons in their bosom, And your daughters will be carried on their shoulders.
(Isa 49:23 NASB) Kings will be your guardians, And their princesses your nurses. They will bow down to you with their faces to the earth And lick the dust of your feet; And you will know that I am the LORD; Those who hopefully wait for Me will not be put to shame.
(Isa 49:24 NASB) Can the prey be taken from the mighty man, Or the captives of a tyrant be rescued?
(Isa 49:25 NASB) Surely, thus says the LORD, 'Even the captives of the mighty man will be taken away, And the prey of the tyrant will be rescued; For I will contend with the one who contends with you, And I will save your sons.
(Isa 49:26 NASB) I will feed your oppressors with their own flesh, And they will become drunk with their own blood as with sweet wine; And all flesh will know that I, the LORD, am your Savior And your Redeemer, the Mighty One of Jacob.' " '''
II) (Jer 30:4-?) [SUMMARY IN CAPS]:
(Jer 30:4 NASB) Now these are the words which
the LORD spoke concerning Israel and concerning Judah:
(Jer 30:5 NASB) For thus says the LORD, 'I have
heard a sound of terror, Of dread, and there is no peace.
(Jer 30:6 NASB) Ask now, and see If a male can
give birth. Why do I see every man With his hands on his loins, as a
woman in childbirth? And why have all faces turned pale?
(Jer 30:7 NASB) Alas! for that day is great, There is none like it; And it is the time of Jacob's distress, But he will be saved from it.
['''30:4-7. The return of Israel and Judah to the land will be preceded by a time of national distress. Cries of fear and terror will be heard among these captives instead of cries of peace. Jeremiah compared the anguish of men clutching themselves in fear to a woman in labor (cf. 4:31; 6:24; 13:21; 22:23; 49:24; 50:43). The coming calamity will be so awful that none will be like it in comparison. Jeremiah characterized it as a time of trouble. Yet all will not be lost because God guaranteed that the nation will be saved out of it. God will rescue His people in the midst of their distress.
To what "time of trouble" was Jeremiah referring? Some have felt that he was pointing to the coming fall of Judah to Babylon or to the later fall of Babylon to Medo-Persia. However, in both of these periods the Northern Kingdom of Israel was not affected. It had already gone into captivity (in 722 B.C.). A better solution is to see Jeremiah referring to the still-future Tribulation period when the remnant of Israel and Judah will experience a time of unparalleled persecution (Dan. 9:27; 12:1; Matt. 24:15-22). The period will end when Christ appears to rescue His elect (Rom. 11:26) and establish His kingdom (Matt. 24:30-31; 25:31-46; Rev. 19:11-21; 20:4-6).'''
4-6 Here the prophet speaks of the whole nation over which David and Solomon ruled (v. 4). Strangely, some see in these verses only the political upheavals that finally destroyed the Babylonian power and liberated the Jews. Such a view does not do justice to the eschatological direction of the passage. Jeremiah is stating that before the just-mentioned promise of restoration can be fulfilled, the nation must be severely disciplined, but not to the extent of final calamity. The words "fear" and "terror" (v. 5) not only point to war in contrast with peace but, as will presently be seen, have further implications. The awful terror that will come can be compared only with the travail of a mother in childbirth (v. 6), a figure of extreme distress (cf. 4:31; 6:24; 13:21; 22:23; 49:24; 50:43).
7 Interpretations of this verse differ widely. These are that the passage is referring to (1) the immediate situation, (2) the whole period of the Captivity, and (3) the time of tribulation in the end time before Israel's final restoration. Whatever their stance, most expositors favor either (1) or (3). Those who hold the first view understand "that day" (vv. 7-8) to mean the day of the capture of Babylon, with emphasis on the terror caused by the approach of Cyrus. It is not readily clear why such a situation would be so horrendous for God's people. Actually, Cyrus would be considered their liberator from those who took them captive. In the light of the immediate context and what follows, the preferable position is to assume that the reference is to the Day of the Lord. "That day" was not one immediately at hand. It is not the day of the destruction of Jerusalem but the day of God's comprehensive judgment. The present is not to be excluded, but it is swallowed up in the future. That day was to be marked by great calamities. In a sense the fall of Babylon was only the opening scene of the extended drama. Yet it is vitally important to remember that v. 7 speaks of Jacob's trouble, not Babylon's. The prophetic Scriptures are replete with references to this unique time of Jacob's distress; e.g., "There is none like it" (cf. Matt 24:21 with the earlier prediction in Dan 12:1; cf. also 46:10; Isa 2:12-21; 13:6; 34:1-8; Ezek 30:3; Joel 1:15; 2:1-2, 11; Amos 5:18-20; Mic 1:2-5; Zeph 1:2-3:8; Zech 14:1-8, 12-15 among others). Notice that the travail will issue in both physical and spiritual deliverance (cf. Zech 12:10-13:1) and that liberation will be such that never again will Israel be enslaved by any nation. This could never be said of any deliverance to this present hour; it must refer to eschatological times.
7 The phrase היֹּום הַהוּא (hayyom hahu, "that day") is frequently used in the prophetic scriptures to introduce information concerning the Day of the Lord, a significant eschatological theme. This passage is important (I) in linking Israel with that time, (2) in portraying the excruciating agony of the experience, and (3) in stating unequivocally Israel's deliverance from it. The concept of an eschatological time of tribulation for Israel is absent from rabbinical commentaries, understandably so. But it is strangely treated in some Christian works as well (cf. Cunliffe-Jones, p. 190)]
(Jer 30:8 NASB) It shall come about on that
day,' declares the LORD of hosts, 'that I will break his yoke from off
their neck and will tear off their bonds; and strangers will
make them their slaves.
(Jer 30:9 NASB) But they shall
serve the LORD
their God and David their king, whom I will raise up for them.
(Jer 30:10 NASB) Fear not, O Jacob My servant,'
declares the LORD, 'And do not be dismayed, O Israel; For behold, I
will save you from afar And your offspring from the land of their
captivity. And Jacob will return and will be quiet and at ease, And no
one will make him afraid.
(Jer 30:11 NASB) For I am with you,' declares the LORD, 'to save you; For I will destroy completely all the nations where I have scattered you, Only I will not destroy you completely. But I will chasten you justly And will by no means leave you unpunished. "
['''30:8-9. When God comes to rescue the nation, He will break the yoke of bondage He had placed on her neck. This deliverance did not come when the false prophets predicted it would (cf. 28:2, 10-11, 14), but God said it will come eventually (in that day). Instead of serving foreign powers the nation will once again serve the LORD. The people will also submit to the authority of David their king whom God will raise up for them. Many scholars view this as a reference to Christ who is from the line of David. However, there is no compelling reason not to take Jeremiah's reference in a literal sense (cf. comments on Ezek. 34:23-24). David is referred to by name elsewhere in passages that look to the future restoration of a united Israel (cf. Ezek. 34:23-24; 37:24-25; Hosea 3:5).
30:10-11. God's promise of restoration was designed to give Israel hope. She had no need to fear or be dismayed because God promised to save her out of a distant place. No country would be too far away for God to reach and rescue His people. When He brings them back to the land they will have the peace and security that was absent in Jeremiah's day (cf. 8:11). God will completely destroy the nations where Israel and Judah had been scattered. Though He would discipline Israel and Judah, He assured them that He would never completely destroy them. Any judgment would be mingled with justice (cf. 10:24; 46:28) so that the punishment for His Chosen People would not be overly severe.'''
8-9 Only in the most
preliminary way may "the yoke" (v. 8) refer to bondage to
Nebuchadnezzar; what is meant is total liberation from all foreign
oppressors. This can be effected only by the glorious intervention of
Israel's messianic King (cf. Ezek 34:23; Hos 3:5). After the yoke of
foreign rule has been broken, the benevolent yoke of their King will be
gladly assumed by the godly in Israel and Judah (cf. Matt 11:28-30).
Notice the pairing of "the Lord their God" with "David their king"
(v. 9). It is significant that in the prophetic Scriptures a
resurrection of David himself is not predicted as antecedent to the
rule of his Son, the Lord Jesus Christ, on the Davidic throne. The
person indicated here is the future ideal King, the so-called second
David (cf. "last Adam" and "second man" [1 Cor 15:45-47]). The
messianic regent is a scion of the house of David (cf. Ezek 37:24-25).
The Targum, though interpretative, is correct in identifying this ideal
King as "Messiah, the son of David." Among the Jews the name David came
to be used of royalty, much as Pharaoh, Caesar, or Czar, but only in
the highest and final sense.
10-11 This passage closes with promises of return, peace, freedom, and permanence. The nation is referred to as Jacob, God's servant, a title of honor (v. 10; cf. Isa 41:8; 44:1-2). God's people are to be regathered from all the lands of their dispersion. The picture of quiet and ease is that of sheep lying undisturbed in their pastures (so Driver). Now Jeremiah makes a telling distinction between the fate of God's people and that of their oppressors: the oppressors may be removed finally from the scene of history, but God's people never (v. 11; cf. 4:27; 5:10, 18; 46:28). This is not partiality on God's part, for he will not overlook his people's sins. They can no more sin with impunity than any other persons or nation. The Lord must chasten them and he will do so with justice, not capriciously. It is no wonder that Isaiah refers to Israel (i.e., Israel and Judah) as an eternal nation; for whereas Ammon, Assyria, Edom, Moab, and others no longer exist, Israel is present throughout the world, even though in the divine chastening of dispersion.
9 The force of the prophecy דָּוִד מַלְכָּם (dawid malkam, "David their king") is best understood as a contrast ("instead") tithe burdensome yoke (in v. 8 the pronominal suffix ֹו [o, "his"] in עֻלֹּו [ullo, "his yoke"] is to be taken as collective for all oppressors). Since the promise in v. 8 is also unlimited as to time וְלֹא... עֹוד (welo... od, "no longer")—the compelling conclusion is that fulfillment must be sought in eschatological times. Notice that (1) service is involved, (2) God and the people's king are to be served equally, and (3) the promised monarch is God's gift to his people. Is the king here literally David or the ideal (messianic) King as in Ezek 37:24? The Targum (Schocken ed.) reads in Jer 30:9 מְשִׁיחָא בַר דּוִד מַלְכֶּהֹון (mesiha bar dawid malkehon, "Messiah, Son of David their king").]
(Jer 30:12 NASB) For thus says the LORD, 'Your
wound is incurable And your injury is serious.
(Jer 30:13 NASB) There is no one to plead your
cause; No healing for your sore, No recovery for you.
(Jer 30:14 NASB) All your lovers have forgotten
you, They do not seek you; For I have wounded you with the wound of an
enemy, With the punishment of a cruel one, Because your iniquity is
great And your sins are numerous.
(Jer 30:15 NASB) Why do you cry out over your
injury? Your pain is incurable. Because your iniquity is great And your
sins are numerous, I have done these things to you.
(Jer 30:16 NASB) Therefore all who devour you
will be devoured; And all your adversaries, every one of them, will go
into captivity; And those who plunder you will be for plunder, And all
who prey upon you I will give for prey.
(Jer 30:17 NASB) For I will restore you to health And I will heal you of your wounds,' declares the LORD, 'Because they have called you an outcast, saying: 'It is Zion; no one cares for her.' '''
[30:12-15. Israel's condition was critical. Her wound appeared incurable (cf. comments on 6:14), and no one was available to provide a remedy for her sore. The allies in whom the nation had placed such great hope had forgotten her. Even God had struck her as an enemy and punished her because of her guilt.
30:16-17. Israel's condition appeared hopeless, but God promised to reverse her misfortunes. Those who were devouring the nation would themselves be devoured by God. He would send her enemies... into exile and plunder those who sought to make spoil of her. At the same time God promised to restore Israel to spiritual health. He would intervene for His outcast people.]
12-15 Jeremiah now
turns to the serious condition of Israel. His purpose is to show that
her punishment was well deserved. The pronouns in v. 12 are in the
feminine, referring to the nation. Her wounds were, apart from God,
incurable—literally, "It is ill with your bruise" (cf. 10:19; 14:17;
15:18). Doubtless, the wounds are those she has received from her
enemies because of her flagrant sins. Because God's people have
transgressed so grievously (v. 14), no one can defend them (v. 13);
moreover, there is no hope of their recovery. Jeremiah mingles his
figures of speech: he sees Israel as a defendant in a lawsuit and as
one suffering from a fatal wound. All her antagonists have the upper
hand as they accuse her before God. The first clause of v. 13 reflects
the legal process. Then Jeremiah shifts to medicine (v. 15). What made
her trial the harder to bear was that Israel's allies had left her in
the lurch. Her punishment clearly stemmed from the Lord because sin was
at the root of all her calamities. Furthermore, she had no right to
complain of her punishment since she amply deserved it.
16-17 The prophet goes on to contrast Israel's mistreatment by her supposed lovers with the Lord's actions on her behalf. Because his people have undergone judgment and have acknowledged their guilt, God pronounces retaliation in kind on their enemies (v. 16). It is the principle of measure for measure, the well-known lex talionis. The future blessings begin with judgments on Israel's oppressors. God will heal her and afflict her enemies. The Babylonians who devoured the nation will in turn be devoured by the Medes and Persians. So it has been throughout redemption history: those who have treated God's people ill have to reckon with God as avenger (cf. Gen 12:1-3). Again, the promise of restored health (v. 17) precedes any action the Lord may take against Israel's foes. In their contempt, the enemies of God's nation called her an outcast, for whom no one cared. The figure is that of a woman put away by her husband (cf. Isa 62:4). Why did the Lord consider this treatment of his nation so great an offense? Because the words and actions of the enemies revealed their disregard of God and his expressed purpose for his people. Ultimately, calling them an outcast impugned God's faithfulness to his elect people]
(Jer 30:18 NASB) Thus says the LORD, 'Behold, I
will restore the fortunes of the tents of Jacob And have compassion on
his dwelling places; And the city will be rebuilt on its ruin, And the
palace will stand on its rightful place.
(Jer 30:19 NASB) From them will proceed
thanksgiving And the voice of those who celebrate; And I will multiply
them and they will not be diminished; I will also honor them and they
will not be insignificant.
(Jer 30:20 NASB) Their children also will be as
formerly, And their congregation shall be established before Me; And I
will punish all their oppressors.
(Jer 30:21 NASB) Their leader shall be one of
them, And their ruler shall come forth from their midst; And I will
bring him near and he shall approach Me; For who would dare to risk his
life to approach Me?' declares the LORD.
(Jer 30:22 NASB) You shall be My people, And I will be your God.'''
restoration will involve a physical rebuilding. (Restore Judah's
fortunes is mentioned also in 32:44; 33:11, 26; cf. Deut. 30:3.) The
city of Jerusalem will be rebuilt on her ruins, including the king's
palace. The festive sound of rejoicing that had been silenced by
Babylon (cf. Jer. 7:34; 16:19; 25:10) will once again be heard in the
city, and God will increase Judah numerically (cf. Deut. 30:5). The
nation will be secured and established before God, and He will punish
anyone who tries to oppress her.
The leader of Israel will again be one of their own instead of some foreign despot (cf. Jer. 30:9). This ruler will come close to God as the LORD brings him into His service. Only at that future date when the city, its inhabitants, and their ruler have been restored to God will someone be able to declare that Israel is God's people and that He is her God. This ideal relationship between Israel and her God was expressed several times in the Old Testament (cf. Lev. 26:12; Deut. 7:6; 26:16-19; Jer. 7:23; 11:4; 24:7; 31:1, 33; Ezek. 11:20; 14:11; 34:30; 36:28; 37:23, 27; Hosea 2:23; Zech. 8:8; 13:9). Israel will finally experience the relationship with God that He had always intended.'''
18-20 Days of rich
blessing are ahead. Here we have details of the nation's restoration.
These verses deal with Jerusalem rebuilt, repopulated, and governed by
a native prince responsive to the Lord. It also shows us the nation
experiencing the blessings of renewed fellowship with the Lord. The
"tents" and "dwellings" (v. 18), now desolate, do not refer to the
people's temporary housing in Babylon (contra JFB) but to the wretched
condition of their houses in their homeland. Jerusalem will be rebuilt
on its original location. The word "ruins" is the well-known term ten
("tell," "mound," "heap"), now used by Arabs for the ruined mounds of
Palestine, the remains of ancient cities. Jerusalem and its buildings
are probably intended. There are those who understand "palace" to refer
to the "temple," but the meaning is that the city will be settled by a
king, with all that pertains to such a residence (so Streane).
Furthermore, along with material prosperity will come joy and honor so
long denied the people (v. 19). Out of the city and palace will flow
praise and merriment. Instead of degradation and insignificance, the
people will grow in numbers and in the esteem of the nations as the
Lord honors them. The children of Jacob (v. 20) will enjoy prosperity
like that in the heyday of the monarchy under David and Solomon. The
congregation—the people as a whole—will be established under God's
21-22 Embedded in this passage so full of promise is one of the most beautiful of the messianic predictions in the OT. First, the nation will be blessed by a native, not a foreign, ruler (v. 21). This was surely a prophecy of strong consolation in view of the nation's imminent subservience to a foreign power. The coming ruler will not be an exotic plant but will come from native soil (cf. Zech 6:12). Second, he will have the privilege of approach to God. Usage in the OT shows that this means priestly position and ministry (cf. Ps 110:4; Zech 6:13). The verbs convey this. The ruler will need no mediator. Thus he will be greater than even David and Solomon. Like Melchizedek he will have a dual role. No man can take to himself the office of priesthood (cf. Heb 5:4). In fact, it was dangerous for even a king to do so (cf. Jeroboam in 1 Kings 12:26-33; 13:1-6; and Uzziah in 2 Chronicles 26:16-20). In order to emphasize the importance of access to God, Jeremiah by a rhetorical question shows that it is no light thing to approach God. This was permitted only to the priests and, on the Day of Atonement, only to the high priest. The question implies a negative answer. Here is a reiteration of the promise to restore the Davidic line (cf. v. 9). Because there is no reference here to a king, some have strangely proposed that v. 21 indicates the abrogation of the Davidic kingship (so Payne Smith). But in the light of both this context and OT prophecy as a whole, this position cannot possibly be maintained. The Targum, though interpretative, is correct in its rendering "Messiah shall be revealed to them out of their own midst." And no one would "devote himself [lit., `has been surety for his heart'] to be so close" to God on his own initiative. Immediately (v. 22) Jeremiah turns to the result of Messiah's ministry—viz., the old covenant is renewed. The nation will be restored to the position of fellowship and worship that God intended for her. The people will be seen to be God's people, not only de jure, but de facto.
18 The Hebrew תֵּל (tel, "mound" of a ruined city) corresponds to the Arabic tell. New towns in the Near East were frequently built on the ruins of the previous settlements. Notice how tel (tell) formed a part of place names: Tel Aviv (Ezek 3:15), Tell el-Amarna (in Egypt), Tel Assar (2 Kings 19:12), Tel Melah, and Tel Harsha (Ezra 2:59)]
(Jer 30:23 NASB) Behold, the tempest of the
LORD! Wrath has gone forth, A sweeping tempest; It will burst on the
head of the wicked.
(Jer 30:24 NASB) The fierce anger of the LORD will not turn back Until He has performed and until He has accomplished The intent of His heart; In the latter days you will understand this.'''
[30:23-24 Jeremiah repeated, with minor variations, the same words he had written in 23:19-20. Before God's blessing can be experienced He must judge sin. His wrath will burst out against the wicked. Though these words applied to false prophets in 23:19-20, Jeremiah may have been using them here to refer to God's judgment on the wicked nations who opposed Israel (cf. 30:16-20). God's fierce anger that had been poured out on Judah would not turn back till it also extended to the other nations of the earth.'''
31:1. This verse should be linked with the statements in 30:23-24. It explains the results of God's judgment on the earth and also serves to introduce the section on national restoration which follows. God promised that when He will judge the world for its sins He will also restore all Israel to Himself. All the clans, not just the tribe of Judah, will be known as God's people (cf. 30:22)."
23-24 Before there
can be blessing, judgment must be meted out to the guilty. Such a
passage as this is inserted at this point lest the careless be given
false security in their sins. In spite of promises of hope, God's moral
purposes always remain the same. The last two verses of this chapter
repeat 23:19-20. God is behind the judgment to be executed by
Nebuchadnezzar. Jeremiah uses the figure of a sudden storm (v. 23) to
describe it. The Lord does his work of redemption by his power
displayed in judgment. The blessings Jeremiah has been speaking of are
only for the godly. The reference to "the days to come" (v. 24) appears
to point to a time after the judgment has passed.
31:1 In chapter 30 the restoration of Judah is foretold; here that of Israel is predicted. The messages of hope and restoration, it will be recalled, carry through chapter 33. The dominant themes in this chapter are the restoration of God's people and the new covenant. The whole nation is addressed in v. 11, then the Ten Tribes in vv. 2-22, then Judah in vv. 23-26, then both Israel and Judah in vv. 27-40 (so KD).
a. God's mercy for Ephraim (31:1-6)
1-2 Verse 1 of this chapter is v. 25 of chapter 30 in the MT, while v. 2 of this chapter is 31:1 in the MT. The time reference with which the verse begins refers to the "days to come" of 30:24, that is, the Messianic Age. Although vv. 1-6 deal primarily with the northern kingdom, the designation "clans of Israel" must be allowed to comprehend the Twelve Tribes in light of the promise to the whole nation in 30:22 (so KD).
31:1 Jer 31:1 Verse
this chapter is v. 25 of chapter 30 in the MT, while v. 2
of this chapter
is 31:1 in the MT. The time reference with which the verse begins
refers to the "days to come" of 30:24, that is, the Messianic Age.
Although vv. 1-6 deal primarily with the northern kingdom, the
designation "clans of Israel" must be allowed to comprehend the Twelve
Tribes in light of the promise to the whole nation in 30:22]
****** END OF EXCERPT FROM JEREMIAH CHAPTER 30 ******
(Jer 31:1 NASB) "
'At that time,' declares the LORD, 'I will be the God of all the
families of Israel, and they shall be My people.' [Jer 30:22; Gen
17:7-8; Isa 41:10; Ro 11:26-28]
(Jer 31:2 NASB) Thus [has said] the LORD, '[A] people who survived [lit., the survivors of] the sword [Nu 14:20] [will have] found grace in the wilderness, when [I will come to give him (a people) rest] - Israel' [Ex 33:14; Nu 10:33; Dt 1:33; Jos 1:13]
(Jer 31:3 NASB) the LORD appeared to him [lit., "me" in the MT. The LXX* has "him" in the sense of the people of Israel, masc. sing.] from far away. 'I have loved you with an everlasting love [Dt 4:37; 7:8; Mal 1:2]; therefore, I have continued to extend faithful love to you.'
*(Jer 38:3 LXX) "The LORD appeared to him from afar, saying, 'I have loved thee with an everlasting love: therefore have I drawn thee in compassion."
(Jer 31:4 NASB) Again I will build you and you will be rebuilt, O virgin of Israel! [2 Ki 19:21; Jer 30:18] Again you will take up [or be adorned with] your tambourines, and go forth to the dances of the merrymakers. [Jer 24:6; 33:7; 30:19]
(Jer 31:5 NKJV) You shall yet plant vines [Ps 107:37; Isa 65:21; Ezek 28:26; Amos 9:14] on the mountains of Samaria; [Jer 33:13; 50:19] the planters shall plant and eat them as ordinary [i.e., common] food [Isa 37:30; Am 9:14].
(Jer 31:6 NKJV) For
there shall be a day When the
watchmen [Isa 52:8; 56:10] will cry on Mount Ephraim, 'Arise, and let
us go up to Zion, to the LORD
our God.' [Isa 2:3; Jer 31:12; 50:4, 5; Dt 33:19; Mic 4:2]
(Jer 31:7 NASB) For thus says the LORD, 'Sing aloud with gladness for Jacob, [the nation Israel, northern kingdom, (Jer 46:28)] And shout among the chief [lit., head] [Dt 26:19; 28:13; Isa 61:9; Amos 6:1]; proclaim, give praise and say, 'O LORD, save Your people, [Ps 28:9], the remnant of Israel [Ps 14:7; Jer 20:13; Isa 37:31; Jer 23:3].
(Jer 31:8 NASB) Behold, I am bringing them from the north country [Jer 3:18; 23:8], and I will gather them [Dt 30:4; Is 43:6; Ezek 34:13] from the remote parts of the earth, among them the blind [Isa 42:16] and the lame, [Isa 40:11; Ezek 34:16; Mic 4:6] the woman with child and she who is in labor with child, together; a great company [lit., assembly], the will return here.
(Jer 31:9 YLT) [Ps 125:5; Jer 50:4] With weeping they come in, and with supplications I bring them, I cause them to go by streams of waters, [Isa 43:20; 49:10] on a straight path in which] - they stumble not in it, [Isa 63:13] for I have been to Israel for a father, [Isa 64:8; Jer 3:4, 19] and Ephraim [Israel - Northern Kingdom] - My first born is he [Ex 4:22].
(Jer 31:10 NASB) Hear the word of the LORD, O nations, and declare in the coastlands afar off, [Isa 66:19, Jer 25:22], and say 'He who scattered Israel will [Jer 50:19] gather him and keep him as a shepherd keeps his flock [Isa 40:11; Ezek 34:12].
(Jer 31:11 NASB) For the LORD has ransomed Jacob and redeemed him [Isa 44:23; 48:20; Jer 15:21; 50:34] from the hand of him who was stronger than he. [Ps 142:6]
(Jer 31:12 HOLMAN) They will [have] come [in] and [have shouted] for joy [Jer 31:6-7; Ezek 17:23] on the heights of Zion; they will be [have been] radiant with joy [Isa 2:2; Mic 4:1] because of the LORD's goodness, because of the grain, the new wine, the fresh oil, and because of the young of the flocks and herds [Hos 2:22; Joel 3:18; Jer 31:24; 33:12-13]. Their life will [have been] like an irrigated garden, [Isa 58:11] and they will no longer grow weak [from hunger] [Isa 35:10; 60:20; 65:19; Jn 16:22; Rev 21:4].
(Jer 31:13 NASB)
Then the virgin will rejoice
in the dance, [Jud 21:21; Ps 30:11; Zech 8:4-5], and the young men and
the old, together, for I will [have turned] their mourning into joy
[Isa 61:3] and will [have comforted] them and [have given] them joy for
their sorrow [Isa 51:11].
(Jer 31:14 NASB) I will fill [lit., saturate] the soul of the priests with abundance [lit., abundance], and My people will be satisfied with My goodness [Jer 50:19],' declares the LORD.
(Jer 31:15 NASB) Thus says the LORD, 'A voice is heard in Ramah, [Mt 2:18; Jos 18:25; Jud 4:5; Isa 10:29; Jer 40:1], lamentation and bitter weeping. Rachel is weeping for her children; She refuses to be comforted for her children, because they are no more [Gen 37:35; Ps 77:2; Gen 5:24; 42:13, 36; Jer 10:20].
(Jer 31:16 NASB) Thus [has declared] the LORD, 'Restrain your voice from weeping and your eyes from tears; [Isa 25:8; 30:19; Ruth 2:12; Heb 6:10] for your work will be rewarded,' declares the LORD, 'And they will return from the land of the enemy.' [Jer 30:3; Ezek 11:17]
(Jer 31:17 NASB) 'There is hope for your future,' declares the LORD, 'And your children will return to their own territory. [Jer 29:11]'
(Jer 31:18 NASB) I have surely heard Ephraim grieving [Jer 3:21], 'You have chastised me [Job 5:17; Ps 94:12], and I was chastised, like an untrained calf [lit., bull calf] [Hos 4:16]; bring me back that I may be restored, [Ps 80:3, 7, 19; Jer 17:14; Lam 5:21; Acts 3:26] for you are the LORD my God.
(Jer 31:19 HOLMAN) [For after my turning back],[Ezek 21:12; Lk 18:13] I [have] repented; after [my knowing], I struck my thigh [in grief]. I [have been] [Jer 3:25] ashamed and also humiliated because I bore the disgrace of my youth.
(Jer 31:20 HOLMAN) Isn't Ephraim a precious son to Me, a delightful child? [Hos 11:8] Whenever I speak against him, I certainly still think about him. Therefore, My inner being yearns for him [Gen 43:30; Jud 10:16; Isa 63:15; Hos 11:8]; I will truly have compassion on him. [This is] the LORD's declaration.
(Jer 31:21 NKJV) Set
up signposts [2 Kgs 23:17; Ezek 39:15], Make landmarks [Jer 50:5]; set
your heart [mind] toward the highway, the way in which you went [Isa 48:20; 52:11].
Turn back, O virgin of Israel, turn back to these your cities.
(Jer 31:22 NASB) How long will you go here and there, O [Jer 3:6; 49:4] faithless daughter? For the LORD has created a new thing in the earth - a woman will encompass a man.
(Jer 31:23 YLT) Thus [has said] the LORD of hosts, God of Israel, '[Again] they will say this word in the land of Judah and in its cities [Jer 30:18; 32:44], in My turning [them] back [from] their captivity, 'The LORD bless you, [Isa 1:26; Jer 50:7] O [abode] of righteousness, and holy mountain [Ps 48:1; 87:1; Zech 8:3]!
(Jer 31:24 NASB) [And] Judah and all its cities will [Jer 31:12; Exek 36:10; Zech 8:4-8] dwell together in it, the farmer and they who go about with flocks [Jer 31:12; Ezek 36:10; Zech 8:4-8].
(Jer 31:25 NASB) For
I [have satisfied] the weary [soul] and everyone who languishes [in
despair] [I have filled]. [Ps 107;9; Jer 31:12, 14; Mt 5:6; Jn 4:14]
(Jer 31:26 NKJV) After this I awoke and looked around, and my sleep was sweet to me [Zech 3:1; Prov 3:24].
(Jer 31:27 NASB) Behold, days are coming,' declares the LORD, 'when I will sow the house of Israel and the house of Judah [in the sense of prosperity] with the seed of man and and with the seed of beast. [Ezek 36:9, 11; Hos 2:23]
(Jer 31:28 NASB) As I have watched over them to pluck up, to break down, to over throw, to destroy and to bring disaster, [Jer 44:27; Dan 9:14; Jer 1:10; 18:7] so I will watch over them to build and to plant, [Jer 24:6],' declares the LORD.
(Jer 31:29 NASB) In those days they will not say again [Lam 5:7; Ezek 18:2] [in the sense of 'it will never again be said']: The fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the children's teeth are set on edge [Ezek 18:2].
(Jer 31:30 NASB) But
everyone will die for his own iniquity; each man who eats the sour
grapes [wild grapes], his teeth will be set on edge [in the sense of
dulled], [Dt 24:16; Isa 3:11; Ezek 18:4, 20]
(Jer 31:31 NASB) [Jer 31:31-34; Jer 32:40; 33:14; Dt 10:1-10; Lk 22:20; 1 Cor 11:25; 2 Cor 3:6; Heb 8:8-12; 10:16, 17; Ezek 36:24-33; 37:24-28] 'Behold, days are coming,' declares the LORD, 'when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah,
(Jer 31:32 NASB) not like the covenant which I made with their fathers in the day [of My taking] them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt, [Ex 19:5; 24:6-8; Dt 5:2, 3; Dt 1:31; Isa 63:12; Jer 11:7, 8] My covenant which they broke, although I was a husband to them,' declares the LORD.
(Jer 31:33 NASB) But this [is] the covenant [Jer 32:40; Heb 10:16] which I will make with the house of Israel after those days,' declares the LORD, [Ps 40:8; 2 Cor 3:3] 'I will put My law within them [in the sense of within their minds] and on their heart I will write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people [Jer 24:7; 30:22; 32:38].
(Jer 31:34 NASB) They will not teach again [1 Thes 4:9; 1 Jn 2:27], each man his neighbor and each man his brother, saying, 'Know the LORD,' for they will all know Me [Isa 11:9; 54:13; Jer 24:7; Hab 2:14; Jn 6:45; 1 Jn 2:20], from the least of them to the greatest of them,' declares the LORD, 'for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin I will remember no more [Jer 33:8; 50:20; Mic 7:17; Ro 11:27; Isa 43:25; Heb 10:17].'
(Jer 31:35 NASB) Thus says the LORD, [Gen 1:14-18; Dt 4:19; Ps 19:1-6; 136:7-9] Who gives the sun for light by day, ... the [statutes / ordinances] of the moon and the stars for light by night, Who [Isa 51:15] stirs up the sea so that its waves roar [Jer 10:16; 32:18; 50:34], the LORD of hosts is His name:
(Jer 31:36 NASB) [Ps 89:36, 37; 148:6; Isa 54:9, 10; Jer 33:20-26] 'If [these statutes / ordinances] depart from before Me,' declares the LORD, 'Then the offspring of Israel also will cease from being a nation before Me forever [lit., all the days]. [Amos 9:8-9]'
(Jer 31:37 NASB) Thus [says] the LORD [Isa 40:12; Jer 33:22]; 'If the heavens above can be measured, and the foundations of the earth searched out below, then I will also cast off all the [descendants] of Israel for all that they have done,' [says] the LORD [Jer 33:24-26; Ro 11:2-5, 26-27].
(Jer 31:38 NASB) 'Behold days are coming,' declares the LORD, 'when the city will be rebuilt for the LORD [Jer 30:18; 31:4] from the Tower of Hanael [Neh 3:1; 12:39; Zech 14:10] to the Corner Gate [2 Kg 14:13; 2 Chr 26:9].
(Jer 31:39 NASB) The measuring line will go out farther straight ahead to the hill Gareb; then it will turn to Goah [Zech 2:1].
(Jer 31:40 NASB) And the whole valley of the dead bodies and of the ashes, and all the fields as far as teh brook Kidron [2 Sam 15:23; 2 Kg 23:6, 12; Jn 18:1], to the corner of the Horse Gate toward the east [2 Kg 11:16; 2 Chr 23:15; Neh 3:28], shall be holy to the LORD; it will not be plucked up or overthrown anymore forever.' "
A) [Jer 31:1]:
(Jer 31:1 NASB) " 'At that time,' declares the LORD, 'I will be the God of all the families of Israel, and they shall be My people.' [Jer 30:22]"
This verse should be linked with the statements in 30:23-24. It
explains the results of God's judgment on the earth and also serves to
introduce the section on national restoration which follows. God
promised that when He will judge the world for its sins He will also
restore all Israel to Himself. All the clans, not just the tribe of
Judah, will be known as God's people (cf. 30:22)."